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CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH

THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN

Center for Project Summary Report 0-4371-S


Transportation Research Project 0-4371: Examination of the AASHTO LRFD Strut-and-Tie Specifications
The University of Texas at Austin Authors: M. D. Brown and O. Bayrak
August 2005

Design for Shear in Reinforced Concrete Using


Strut-and-Tie Models: A Summary

The shear strength of bent cap shown in Figure 1. What We Did…


REPORT

reinforced concrete beams The cracks shown in Figure


The purpose of this
was investigated in this 2 are due to the tension
research was to examine the
project. The research fo- induced from the lateral
AASHTO LRFD
cused on deep beams similar spread of compression under
specifications for strut-
to that shown in Figure 1. service load.
and-tie modeling and
With the introduction of the When the AASHTO
simplify the procedures to
AASHTO LRFD Bridge LRFD specifications are
develop a straightforward
Design Specifications, used for strut-and-tie
design method. In order
structures such as those modeling, the strength of a
to do examine the current
shown in Figure 1 must be strut is calculated based on
SUMMARY

provisions, a series of 26
designed using strut-and-tie the strain of the tie which
isolated strut tests (Figure
models rather than sectional adjoins the strut in question.
3) and 25 deep beam tests
models. The bottle-shaped Design engineers have had
(Figure 4) was undertaken.
struts shown in Figure 2 difficulty applying these
Additionally, a database of
represent a portion of the procedures because of this
approximately 1,200 test
strut-and-tie model for the strain term.

Splitting Cracks Tension Ties


PROJECT

Compression Struts

Figure
Figur 1: Bent
e 1: Cap
Be nt C ap Figure
Figur e 2:2:Bottle-Shape
Bottle-Shaped Struts
d Struts in Bent
in Be Cap
nt C ap

Project Summary Report 0-4371-S ––


Splitting Cracks

Figure 3: Isolated
Figure 3: Isola tedStrut
Strut Test
Test
Specimens

results was compiled. That servative strength estimates strut-and-tie specifications also
database was used to examine for some of the specimens resulted in nominal strength less
the levels of conservatism in in the database. The crack than the measured capacity of
both ACI 318-05 and AASHTO control reinforcement required the test specimens. Levels of
LRFD strut-and-tie provisions. when using AASHTO LRFD conservatism when applying
strut-and-tie provisions is much the ACI 318-05 provisions to
What We Found… greater than that needed for the specimens in the database
The use of AASHTO LRFD strength purposes in a bottle- were less than those when using
Strut-and-Tie provisions shaped strut. A direct strut AASHTO LRFD. The loads at
produced conservative estimates mechanism (as shown in Figure which cracking occurred in the
of strength for the beam tests 2) forms for beams in which the test specimens was unaffected
specimens. However, the use of shear span-to-depth ratio is less by the amount of transverse
AASHTO LRFD strut-and-tie than 2. reinforcement within the test
provisions produced uncon- The use of ACI 318-05 specimen.

Splitting Crack

Figure
Figure4:4: Deep BeamTest
Deep Beam Test
Specimen

Project Summary Report 0-4371-S ––


a

Es
d
Q

AASHTO LRFD Proposed


Strut-and-Tie Provisions Strut-and-Tie Provisions
AStrut f ca
FStrut  b 0.85 AStrut f ca 27 AStrut f ca
0.8 170E s FStrut  b 0.85 AStrut f ca
a f ca
E 1  E s ( 0.002 E s ) cot 2 Q d

Figure 5: AASHTO LRFD and Proposed Strut-and-Tie Provisions

The Researchers shaped struts. Without proper recommended. For beams with
transverse reinforcement, a concentrated loads applied
Recommend… bottle-shaped strut cannot main- between 2d and 6d from the
The research led to new tain equilibrium after significant support, Vc  1 f cabv d v .
design provisions for the use cracking. Reinforcement is
For beams with uniform
of strut-and-tie modeling. The needed to maintain the strength Vc  1 f cabv d v
proposed provisions are com- of a strut as well as reduce crack loads or concentrated f cabvat
Vc  2loads dv
pared with the current LRFD widths under service load. greater than 6d from the sup-
provisions in Figure 5. For For conventionally rein- port, Vc  2 f cabv d v .
serviceability reasons, the strut forced concrete with concen-
reinforcement recommended trated loads located less than 2d
in Appendix A of ACI 318-05 form the support, the proposed
should be used in all bottle- strut-and-tie provisions are

VTest
3
f cabw d

1
STM Sec tiona l Model
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Distance from Support to Concentrated Load [in units of d]

Figure 6: Corroboration with Experimental Data

Project Summary Report 0-4371-S ––


For More Details...
Research Supervisor: Oguzhan Bayrak, Ph.D., P.E., (512) 232-6409
email: bayrak@mail.utexas.edu
TxDOT Project Director: Dean Van Landuyt, Bridge Division, (512) 416-2305
email: DVANLAND@dot.state.tx.us

The research is documented in the following report:

0-4371-2 Design for Shear in Reinforced Concrete Using Strut-and-Tie Models

To obtain copies of a report: CTR Library, Center for Transportation Research,


(512) 232-3126, email: ctrlib@uts.cc.utexas.edu

For more information, please contact Tom Yarbrough, Research and Technology
Implementation Office, (512) 465-7403 or email at tyarbro@dot.state.tx.us.

Your Involvement Is Welcome!

Disclaimer
This research was performed in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation and the
U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. The contents of this report reflect
the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein.
The contents do not necessarily reflect the official view or policies of the FHWA or TxDOT. This report
does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation, nor is it intended for construction, bidding,
or permit purposes. Trade names were used solely for information and not for product endorsement. The
engineer in charge was Oguzhan Bayrak.

The University of Texas at Austin


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