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Difference: Eukaryotes: Prokaryotes:

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Size > 5µm 1-2µm by 1-4µm
Nucleus Nucleus with nuclear No true nucleus; nucleoid
membrane
Complexity Usually multicellular Unicellular
Chromosome Multiple linear; histones Usually single circular;
no histones
Cell Division Mitosis, meiosis Binary fission
Reproduction Involves meiosis No meiosis
Zygote Diploid Merozygotic
Genes Expressed individually Operons
Gas vacuoles No Possible
Mesosome Yes No
Ribosome Found on membranes Distributed in cytoplasm
Mitochondria Usually present No
Chloroplast Possible No
Cell wall Simple if present Freq. present, complex
Endoplasmic Reticulum Possible No
Golgi apparatus Possible No
DNA usage Transcription in nucleus, Transcription at the same
translation in cytoplasm time as translation
Duration of cell cycle Usually long (hours) Usually

2 state the application of mass transfer in bioprocessing

3 explain how non critical and critical parameters are determined during a fermentation process

6 A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a
biologically active environment.[1] In one case, a bioreactor is a vessel in which a chemical
process is carried out which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from
such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic. These bioreactors are
commonly cylindrical, ranging in size from litres to cubic metres, and are often made of stainless
steel.

It may also refer to a device or system designed to grow cells or tissues in the context of cell
culture. These devices are being developed for use in tissue engineering or biochemical
engineering.

3 Definition of Upstream
The upstream stage of the production process involves searching for and extracting raw
materials. The upstream part of the production process does not do anything with the material
itself, such as processing the material. This part of the process simply finds and extracts the raw
material. Thus, any industry that relies on the extraction of raw materials commonly has an
upstream stage in its production process. In a more general sense, "upstream" can also refer to
any part of the production process relating to the extraction stages.

Examples of Upstream Processes


In the petroleum industry, locating underground or underwater oil reserves characterizes the
upstream process. Additionally, the upstream process in this industry involves bringing oil and
gas to the surface. Extraction wells represent an example of a structure operating in this stage in
the process. The upstream stage in the production process may also manifest itself as a supplier
providing raw materials to manufacturers or other businesses that ultimately process the
materials.

Definition of Downstream
The downstream stage in the production process involves processing the materials collected
during the upstream stage into a finished product. The downstream stage further includes the
actual sale of that product to other businesses, governments or private individuals. The type of
end user will vary depending on the finished product. Regardless of the industry involved, the
downstream process has direct contact with customers through the finished product.

Examples of Downstream Processes


In the oil and gas industry, the downstream process consists of converting crude oil into other
products and then selling those products to customers. Thus, oil refineries represent structures
that operate within the downstream process. However, any kind of plant that processes raw
materials may qualify as operating within the downstream stage of production. A company that
combines both upstream and downstream processes is an integrated company

 The upstream industry finds and produced crude oils & natural gas and it consists of three
segments, exploration( getting permission to drill from owner of land throughout to
contain oil), drilling( for drilling wells), production( recovering oil and gas from the
field).
 Upstream segment of business also known as exploration and production (E&P) sector in
which we first searching for oil, drilling wells and getting crude oil from ground.
 Downstream operations include processing(refining of oil), transporting and selling
refined products that is made from crude oil.

 These service converts crude oil into usable product such as gasoline, fuel oils, and
petroleum-based products