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Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research

Kirkuk University
Civil Engineering
Stage_ Three

Name of the experiment: Design and Analysis of Corbels

Name of Students in the Grope: ALI NAJAT LATIF

Superintend by D.MUNTHER AL-RAWI


DEFINITION
Corbel or bracket is a reinforced concrete member used to
support the reinforced concrete beam element. It is a short
haunched cantilever that is generally casted monolithically with
the column or wall.
MODES OF FAILURE OF
CORBEL
The most common of which are:
 yielding of the tension tie,
 failure of the end anchorages of the tension tie, either under the load
point or in the column,

failure of the compression strut by crushing or shearing,

and local failures under the bearing plate.


Max. Moment
occurs here
Anchor bar

(𝑨𝒔𝒄 )

(𝑨𝒉 )
Stirrup holder
Column

CROSS SECTION OF A CORBEL

Notations:
𝑎𝑣 =shear span, distance bet concentrated load and face of supports
in mm.
d=distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of
longitudinal tension reinforcement, but need to be less than 0.80h
for prestressed members in mm.
𝑁𝑢𝑐=factored tensile force applied at top bracket of corbel acting
simultaneously with 𝑉𝑢 to be taken as positive for tension.
𝑉𝑢=factored shear force at section
𝐴𝑛=area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting tensile
force 𝑁𝑢𝑐 in 𝑚𝑚2
𝐴𝑓=area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting factored
moment

𝑀𝑢 =𝑉𝑢𝑎𝑣 + 𝑁𝑢𝑐 ℎ−𝑑


𝐴𝑣𝑓= area of shear-friction reinforcement in 𝑚𝑚2
𝐴𝑆𝑐= area of non-pre stressed tension reinforcement
(primary tension reinforcement) in 𝑚𝑚2
𝐴ℎ= area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural tension
reinforcement (closed stirrups) in 𝑚𝑚2.
𝑏𝑤= web width or diameter of circular section in mm.
b= width of compression face of member in mm.
𝑓𝑦= specified yield strength of non-pre stressed reinforcement in
Mpa.
𝑓𝑐′= specified compressive strength of concrete in Mpa.
𝜌= steel ratio of non-pre stressed tension reinforcement

DESIGN OF CORBEL
The corbel must be designed to resist simultaneously 𝑉𝑢, a factored
moment 𝑀𝑢 and a factored horizontal tensile force 𝑁𝑢𝑐.

Shear Design of Corbel


To avoid the crack that occurs in the interface of the corbel and the
column we must provide the shear friction reinforcement perpendicular
with the cracks direction. We use coefficient of friction μ to transform
the horizontal resisting force into vertical resisting force.

Flexural Design of Corbel


The corbel is designed to resist ultimate flexural moment result from
the supported beam reaction, Vu and horizontal force from creep and
shrinkage, 𝑁𝑢𝑐. The minimum value of 𝑁𝑢𝑐 is 0.2𝑉𝑢 and not greater than
𝑉𝑢.
NSCP SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR BRACKETS
AND CORBELS

 Shear span to depth ratio

 Factored horizontal tensile force 𝑁𝑢𝑐 not larger than 𝑉𝑢.


 Depth at outside edge of bearing area:
Shall not be less than 0.5d.
 At face of support shall be designed to resist simultaneously a
shear 𝑉𝑢 , a factored moment 𝑴𝒖 = 𝑽𝒖𝒂𝒗 + 𝑵𝒖𝒄 𝒉 − 𝒅 and a
factored horizontal tensile force 𝑁𝑢𝑐.
 Factored tensile force 𝑁𝑢𝑐 shall not be less than 0.20𝑉𝑢 unless
provisions are made to avoid tensile forces. 𝑵𝒖𝒄= 0.20𝑽𝒖
 Strength reduction factor ∅ shall be taken as 0.75 in all design
calculations.
 Shear friction reinforcement:

; 𝜇= coefficient of friction
Concrete placed monolithically 1.4λ
Concrete Placed Against
1.0λ
Roughened Hardened Concrete Concrete Placed Against
0.6λ
unroughened Hardened Concrete
Concrete Anchored to Structural
0.7λ
Steel

 Shear strength 𝑉𝑛 for normal weight concrete: 𝑉𝑛 shall not


exceed the smallest value of

b)
 Shear strength 𝑉𝑛 for all light weight or sand-light weight
concrete,
𝑉𝑛 shall not be greater than the smallest value of
𝒗
𝒂
a) 𝑽𝒏 =𝟎. 𝟐 − 𝟎. 𝟎𝟕 𝒅 𝒇𝒄′𝒃𝒘𝒅
𝒗
𝒂
b)𝑽𝒏 =𝟓. 𝟓 − 𝟏. 𝟗 𝒅 𝒃𝒘𝒅
 Area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel (𝐴𝑓) resisting the
factored moment 𝑴𝒖 = 𝑽𝒖𝒂𝒗 + 𝑵𝒖𝒄 𝒉 − 𝒅 shall be computed
in accordance with Sections 410.3 an 410.4.

𝑎
𝑑−2
Assume = 0.90d

After getting the approximate 𝐴𝑓, compute for actual value of a:


C=T
0.

Then substitute a to solve for actual 𝐴𝑓


 Reinforcement 𝐴𝑛 to resist tensile force 𝑁𝑢𝑐 ,

where 𝑁𝑢𝑐= 0.20𝑉𝑢


 Area of primary tension reinforcement 𝑨𝒔𝒄, shall be made less
than the larger of the following:
a.) 𝑨𝒔𝒄 = 𝑨𝒇 + 𝑨𝒏

b.)
 Total area of closed stirrups 𝐴ℎ or ties parallel to primary
tension reinforcement shall not less than 0.5 𝐴𝑠𝑐 − 𝐴𝑛 . 𝐴ℎ=
0.5 𝐴𝑠𝑐 − 𝐴𝑛
Distribute 𝐴ℎ uniformly within 2/3 d, adjacent to primary
tenion reinforcement.
 Steel ratio shall not be less than
At front face of bracket or corbel, primary tension reinforcement
𝐴𝑠 shall be anchored by one of the following:
1. By a structural weld to a transverse bar of at least equal
size; weld to be designed to develop specified yield
strength 𝒇𝒚 of primary tension reinforcement.
2. By bending primary tension reinforcement back to form a
horizontal loop; or
3. By some other means of positive anchorage.

 Bearing area on bracket or corbel shall not project beyond


straight portion of primary tension reinforcement, nor project
beyond interior face of transverse anchor bar (if one is
provided).
DESIGN PROCEDURE
Step 1. Find factored shear Vu and tensile force Nuc
Step 2. Compute shear-friction reinforcement
Step 3. Calculate required flexural reinforcement
Step 4. Reinforcement to carry tensile force
Step 5. Required main flexural steel (Asc)
Step 6. Provide closed horizontal stirrups
STEP 1:
FIND FACTORED SHEAR AND
TENSILE FORCE
𝑽𝒖= 1.2DL +1.6LL

𝑵𝒖𝒄= 0.20𝑽𝒖
STEP 2
SHEAR FRICTION REINFORCEMENT

𝑇=𝑁𝑢𝑐

∅𝐴𝑣𝑓𝑓𝑦 =𝑁𝑢𝑐
𝐹=𝜇𝑁
𝐹1 =𝜇𝑇

𝐹1 =𝜇∅𝐴𝑣𝑓𝑓𝑦

𝐹1=𝑉𝑢

𝑉𝑢=𝜇∅𝐴𝑣𝑓𝑓𝑦

STEP 3

STEEL REQUIREMENT FOR MOMENT 𝑴𝒖


𝑉𝑢
STEP 4
REINFORCEMENT TO RESIST TENSILE FORCE

𝑇 = 𝑁𝑢𝑐

∅𝐴𝑛𝑓𝑦 = 𝑁𝑢𝑐

STEP 5
TOTAL AREA OF PRIMARY TENSION
REINFORCEMENT

Note: Use biggest value of 𝑨𝒔𝒄


STEP 6 Spacing of stirrups
Area of closed
stirrups: No. of D mm ∅ stirrups
2
𝜋 2 N = 𝐴ℎ
𝐷
𝑨𝒉 = 𝟎. 𝟓 𝑨𝒔𝒄 − 𝑨𝒏
4
2 𝑑
EXAMPLE
A factored vertical load 𝑉𝑢 = 400𝑘𝑁 is acting at a distance 𝑎𝑣 =
127𝑚𝑚. From the face of the column. The corbel has a width of
250mm, a total thickness of 450mm and an effective depth of
350mm. Assume coefficient of friction of concrete is 1.0.
34.50 𝑀𝑃𝑎, 𝑓𝑦 = 414 𝑀𝑝𝑎. Consider a horizontal reaction due to
creep and shrinkage of a restrained beam.
a. Compute the steel area 𝐴𝑓 to resist moment acting in the
corbel.
b. Compute the number of 22 mm∅ reinforcement required for
the primary reinforcing bars to resist moment and shear.
c. Compute the 10 mm stirrups parallel to the primary
reinforcement and its spacing.
SOLUTION:

a. Steel area to resist moment Max. moment


occurs here
Anchor bars
Primary (Asc) 𝒂𝒗 = 𝟏𝟐𝟕
𝒖𝒄 𝒖
reinforcement
= 0.20 (400)
𝑵𝒖𝒄 = 𝟖𝟎 𝒌𝑵

𝑴𝒖 = 𝑽𝒖 𝒂𝒗 + 𝑵𝒖𝒄 𝒉 − 𝒅 d=350 h=450


𝑴𝒖 = 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟑 𝟏𝟐𝟕 +
Horizontal
bars (Ah)
𝑎 Stirrup holder
𝑀𝑢 = ∅𝐴𝑓 𝑓𝑦 𝑑 −
2
𝑎
assume 𝑑 − 2 = 0.9𝑑
on the corbel 𝑨𝒇

𝑵 = 0.20𝑽
𝟖𝟎𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟑(450-350)
𝑴𝒖 = 𝟓𝟖𝟖𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝑵. 𝒎𝒎

𝑨𝒇 = 𝟔𝟎𝟏. 𝟏𝟖 𝒎𝒎𝟐

𝒂 = 𝟑𝟑. 𝟗𝟓 𝒎𝒎
𝑴𝒖
𝑨𝒇 = 𝒂
∅𝒇𝒚 𝒅 − 𝟐
𝟓𝟖𝟖𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎
𝑨𝒇 = 𝟑𝟑. 𝟗𝟓
𝟎. 𝟕𝟓(𝟒𝟏𝟒) 𝟑𝟓𝟎 − 𝟐

𝑨𝒇 = 𝟓𝟔𝟖. 𝟔𝟒 𝒎𝒎𝟐
b. Reinforcement to resist bending - Reinforcement to resist tensile force, 𝑁𝑢𝑐 and

shear
- Shear friction reinforcement area,
𝑨 𝒗𝒇

𝑨𝒏 = 𝟐𝟓𝟕. 𝟔𝟒 𝒎𝒎𝟐
- Total area of primary tension
reinforcement
𝑨𝒔𝒄 = 𝑨𝒇 + 𝑨𝒏
𝑨𝒗𝒇= 𝟏𝟐𝟖𝟖. 𝟐𝟒 𝒎𝒎𝟐
𝑨𝒔𝒄 = 𝟓𝟔𝟖. 𝟔𝟒 + 𝟐𝟓𝟕. 𝟔𝟒

𝑨𝒔𝒄 = 𝟖𝟐𝟔. 𝟐𝟖
𝑨𝒔𝒄 = 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟔. 𝟒𝟕 𝒎𝒎𝟐
c.
No. of 22 mm ∅ bar:

𝑨𝒔𝒄 = 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟔. 𝟒𝟕 𝒎𝒎𝟐 𝜋

Use bigger value,therefore;


Use 3-22 mm ∅ bars
No. of 10 mm ∅ stirrups

10 mm Ø stirrups = 400kN
10 mm Ø stirrups
22 mm Ø stirrups 𝒂𝒗 = 𝟏𝟐𝟕

d=350 h=450

10 mm Ø stirrups
@ 75mm o.c