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‫فً يبدح انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬

‫انثبنث انثبَىي األدثً‬


‫‪2014 / 2013‬‬

‫‪Literary Section‬‬
‫‪ ‬رشجًخ كبيهخ وأكبدًٌٍخ نهُظىص األدثٍخ كبفخ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬ششح انًفشداد انشئٍغٍخ ثبنهغزٍٍ انعشثٍخ واالَكهٍضٌخ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬أعئهخ ايزحبٍَه يكثفخ ويزُىعخ وشبيهخ حغت انًُىرج االيزحبًَ رشًم أعئهخ اخزٍبس يٍ يزعذد‬
‫سثط رعبسٌف يع كهًبد يٍ انُض ‪ -‬إكًبل جًم ( يشفمخ ثبنحهىل )‬
‫‪ ‬وضع َظىص انمشاءح فً يمبطع ايزحبٍَه ورشجًزهب‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬كزبثخ جًم هبيخ نهزشجًخ‪.‬‬

‫انًذ ّس ط‬
‫يؤٌذ حًذاٌ‬
‫‪0940227436‬‬
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Introduction: The Origins and Development of Literature ( p 5)
‫ أطىل ورطىس األدة‬:‫انًمذيخ‬
sculpture ‫حنُلض‬ the art of making objects from stone, wood.. ...‫ حنو٘ذ‬،‫خء يٍ حنلـخٍس‬ٛٗٞ‫فٍ عًم ح‬
invent ‫وظَع‬ٚ to make or design something new ً ‫يح‬ٚ‫جخ ً ؿي‬ٛٗ ‫ ًّى‬ٜٚ ٔ‫ُع أ‬ٜٚ
memory ‫ًحكَس‬ the ability to remember things ‫خء‬ٛٗٞ‫حنقيٍس عهٗ طٌكَ ح‬
complex ‫يعقّي‬ difficult to understand ًّٓ‫عذ ف‬ٜ‫يٍ حن‬
epic ‫يهلًش‬ a poem that tells a long story about brave actions ‫هش عٍ أفعخل ٗـخعش‬ٕٚ١ ‫ّش‬ٜ‫يس طَٔ٘ ق‬ٜٛ‫ق‬
People have been singing songs and telling each another stories for many ٢ ٌ‫وٓى يُو‬٠‫ نزع‬ٚ‫و‬ٜ‫لكوٌٕ حنق‬ٚٔ َٙ‫غخ‬ٞ‫ حنُخّ ح‬ُّٙ‫غ‬ٚ
thousands of years. Forms of art such as sculpture are at least 32,000 ‫زهو عًَْووخ‬ٚ ‫وش كخنُّلووض‬ُٛ‫ٗووكخل حني‬ٞ‫ فخ‬.‫وَس يووٍ حنٔوُٕحص‬ٛ‫كؼ‬
years old. .‫ عخو‬00333 ‫قم‬ٞ‫عهٗ ح‬
This shows that even back then, people had the creativity and ability to ‫روويحع‬٠‫ كووخٌ نهُووخّ ح‬،ٍٛ‫ ًن و حنلوو‬ٙ‫هرٓووَ أَووّ كظووٗ فوو‬ٚ ‫ْووٌح‬
invent stories. .ٜٚ‫ٔحنقيٍس عهٗ حهظَحع حنق‬
Spoken literature is therefore very old indeed. For many generations, ‫ كخَوض‬،‫وَس‬ٛ‫وخل كؼ‬ٛ‫ؿ‬ٞ .ً‫ى ؿويح‬ٚ‫ كقوخ ً قوي‬ٙ‫ىد حنًلك‬ٞ‫ٔنٌٓح فخ‬
stories, songs, poems and the history of the tribe were passed on from ‫وم‬ٛ‫هوش يوٍ ؿ‬ٛ‫ن حنقز‬ٍٚ‫خثي ٔطخ‬ٜ‫ ٔحنق‬َٙ‫غخ‬ٞ‫ ٔح‬ٜٚ‫طُظقم حنق‬
one generation to the other through speech. .‫و‬٣‫ل حنك‬٣‫انٗ هَ يٍ ه‬
There is some evidence that at a time when they couldn‘t yet write, ‫كَٕووٕح‬ٚ ‫ حنٕقووض حنووٌ٘ نووى‬ٙ‫ىنووش عهووٗ أَووّ فوو‬ٞ‫ ح‬ٞ‫ُْووخب رعوو‬
people had a much better memory than those who came after and could َ‫و‬ٛ‫م ركؼ‬٠‫ كخٌ نهُخّ ًحكَس أف‬،‫ّ عهٗ حنكظخرش رعْ ي‬ٛ‫ٍ ف‬ٍٚ‫قخى‬
read and write. .‫ٍ ههيْٕى ٔحٓظطخعٕح حنقَحءس ٔحنكظخرش‬ٌٚ‫يٍ حن‬
Back then, storytellers were able to remember and pass on very long and ‫ٍ عهوٗ طوٌكَ َٔقوم‬ٍٚ‫ّوش قوخى‬ٜ‫ كوخٌ ٍٔحس حنق‬،‫ ًن حنٕقض‬ٙ‫ف‬
complex stories to the next generations. .‫خل حنقخىيش‬ٛ‫ؿ‬ٟ‫هش ؿيحً ٔيعقيس ن‬ٕٚ١ ٜٚ‫ق‬
The ancient Greek poet Homer, for example, probably didn‘t know how ٗ‫ عهوو‬،َّٔٛ‫ى ْووٕي‬ٚ‫ حنقووي‬َٙ‫َٕوخ‬ٛ‫يوٍ حنًلظًووم أٌ حن٘ووخعَ حن‬
to read or write. .‫عَ حنقَحءس أٔ حنكظخرش‬ٚ ٍ‫ك‬ٚ ‫ نى‬،‫م حنًؼخل‬ٛ‫ٓز‬
His epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey were passed on through speech ‫ل‬٣‫ٔوخ يوٍ هو‬ٚٔ‫ى‬ٞ‫وخىس ٔح‬ٛ‫ن‬٠‫ّوش ح‬ًٛ‫وخثيِ حنًهل‬ٜ‫فقي حَظقهض ق‬
for several generations before being written down. .‫خل قزم أٌ طهكظذ‬ٛ‫و نع ّيس أؿ‬٣‫حنك‬
When written down as books, they are hundreds of pages long, so ،‫ويلخص‬ٜ‫ٕنٓوخ يجوخص حن‬١ ‫زهو‬ٚ ،‫عُي كظخرظٓخ عهٗ ٗكم كظذ‬
remembering every word would have been a considerable achievement. .٣ٌْ‫ٔنٌن فقي كخٌ طٌكَ ك ّم كهًش اَـخُحً ي‬
.‫ووٕو‬ٛ‫ حنؼقخفووخص كظووٗ ْووٌح حن‬ٞ‫ رعوو‬ٙ‫ فوو‬ٙ‫ووي حنًلكوو‬ٛ‫زقووٗ حنظقه‬ٚ
The spoken tradition survives in some cultures to this day. There are, after
all, some languages in the world that have never been written down. .ً‫ حنعخنى نى طكظذ أريح‬ٙ‫ حنهغخص ف‬ٞ‫ رع‬،‫ فٕق ك ّم ٌْح‬،‫ُْخب‬
And every piece of written literature contains something that was once ً‫جخ ً كوخٌ ًحص يوَّس ؿوِءح‬ٛ‫وش يكظٕروش طلوٕ٘ ٗو‬ٛ‫ٔك ّم قطعوش أىر‬
part of the spoken tradition, such as proverbs, nursery rhymes and ‫وخص‬ٚ‫يوخل ٔحنلكخ‬١ٞ‫ ح‬َٙ‫ ٔأغوخ‬،‫يؼوخل‬ٞ‫ كخ‬،ٙ‫ي حنًلك‬ٛ‫يٍ حنظقه‬
folktales. .‫ّش‬ٛ‫حن٘عز‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c : ‫اخزش اإلجبثخ انظحٍحخ‬
1. Human beings first started telling stories …………………
a. after they learned writing b. hundreds of years ago c. thousands of years ago
2. The spoken literature …………………the written literature.
a. came before b. came after c. started at the same time with
3. Homer's epics were passed on to the next generations ..................
a. through speech b. only through written form c. through proverbs
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
‫اخزش اثُزٍٍ يٍ انكهًبد انزً وضع رحزهب خط فً انُض رُبعت انزعبسٌف اَرٍخ‬
4. difficult to understand 5. the ability to remember things
Complete the following sentences with information from the text: ‫أكًم انجًهخ اَرٍخ ثًعهىيبد يٍ انُض‬
6. Illiterate storytellers had very good memories, so they could .....................................................................................
7. Remembering every word in Homer‘s epics was a considerable achievement because ......................................................
8. Proverbs, nursery rhymes and folktales were one day ........................................................................................................
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. a 3. a 4. complex 5. memory 6. remember and pass on very long and complex stories to the next generations.
7. they are hundreds of pages long. 8. part of the spoken tradition.
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon by Diodorus Siculus (90–30 BCE) (p8)
) ‫ و‬. ‫ ق‬30 – 00 ( ‫حذائك ثبثم انًعهمخ – دٌىدوسط عٍكىنىط‬
please ‫هٔعي‬ٚ – ‫هيَف‬ٚ make somebody happy or excited ً ‫يح أٔ يظلًٔخ‬ٛ‫خ ً ٓع‬ٜ‫ـعم ٗو‬ٚ
homeland ٍ١ٔ one‘s original home ٙ‫ه‬ٛٞ‫ ح‬ٚ‫ٍ حن٘و‬١ٕ‫ي‬
irrigation َّ٘ ‫حن‬ providing water to lands or crops ‫م رخنًخء‬ٛٛ‫ أٔ حنًلخ‬ٝ‫ٍح‬ٞ‫ي ح‬ِٚٔ‫ط‬
ascending ‫خعي‬ٜ‫يظ‬ going up ‫خعي‬ٜ‫يظ‬
finally ً‫َح‬ٛ‫أه‬ at last – lastly ً‫َح‬ٛ‫أه‬
penetrate ‫وظَق‬ٚ to go into something ‫ء يخ‬ٙٗ ‫ل‬٣‫ًَ يٍ ه‬ٚ
heap ّ‫ك ّي‬ٚ put a lot of things on top of each other ‫ٓخ‬٠‫َس فٕق رع‬ٛ‫خء كؼ‬ٛٗ‫ع أ‬٠ٚ
allow ‫ًٔق‬ٚ to let something happen ‫ء رخنلئع‬ٙ٘‫ًٔق ن‬ٚ
conduit ‫قُخس‬ a passage for water to pass through ‫ هًَ يُّ حنًخء‬ٚ ًَ‫ي‬
abundance ‫ٔفَس‬ a large amount – more than enough ‫َس – أكؼَ يٍ كخ‬ٛ‫ّش كز‬ًٛ‫ك‬
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are considered one of the original .‫ش‬ٛ‫وه‬ٛٞ‫خ حنٔوزعش ح‬َٛ‫طهعظزَ كويحث رخروم حنًعهقوش اكويٖ عـخثوذ حنوي‬
Seven Wonders of the World. Nebuchadnezzar II built them in ،ّ‫ٓوعخى ُٔؿظو‬٠ ‫ و‬.‫ ق‬033 ‫ حنعخو‬ٙ‫ كٕحن‬َٙ‫ٍِ حنؼخ‬َٛ‫رُخْخ َزٕٗخَي‬
around 600 BCE to please his wife, Amytis of Media, who longed ٙ‫هش ف‬ًٛ‫ٗـخٍ ٔحنُزخطخص حنـ‬ٟ‫ كخَض طظٕق ن‬ٙ‫ حنظ‬،‫خ‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ‫ْ أ ي‬ٛ‫ظ‬ٛ‫حي‬
for the trees and beautiful plants of her homeland. .‫ُٓخ‬١ٔ
They are a very early and impressive example of irrigation. Irrigation ٍ‫ حنو َّ٘ ؿوِء ْوخو ؿويحً يو‬.َّ٘‫َ ؿويحً عوٍ حنو‬ٛ‫ يؼخل يزكَ ٔيؼ‬ْٙٔ
is a very important part of life today, especially in hot countries. An ‫ ى ّيوَ ُنوِحل حنلويحث‬.‫ حنزهيحٌ حنلوخٍس‬ٙ‫خ ً ف‬ٕٜٛ‫ ٔه‬،‫ٕو‬ٛ‫خس حن‬ٛ‫حنل‬
earthquake destroyed the gardens after the 1st century BCE. .‫ى‬٣ًٛ‫ٔل قزم حن‬ٞ‫رعي حنقٌَ ح‬
Many people wrote about the magnificent gardens, including the ‫ٓى حنكخطووذ‬ٛ‫ رًووٍ فوو‬،‫ووَ يووٍ حنُووخّ عووٍ حنلوويحث حن َّحثعووش‬ٛ‫كظووذ حنكؼ‬
Greek writer Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus wrote a wide collection of ‫وَس‬ٛ‫وٕىٍّٔ يـًٕعوش كز‬ٚ‫ كظذ ى‬. ّٕ‫كٕن‬ٛٓ ٍّٔ‫ٕى‬ٚ‫ ىح‬َٙ‫َٕخ‬ٛ‫حن‬
historical passages. .‫ّش‬ٛ‫و‬ٍٚ‫ع حنظخ‬١‫يٍ حنًقخ‬
However it should be remembered that each one was written not ‫عطوووخء‬٠ ٢‫ْ فقووو‬ٛ‫ـوووذ أٌ َظوووٌكَ أٌ كووو ّم يُٓوووخ هكظوووذ نووو‬ٚ ٍ‫ٔنكووو‬
only to inform, but to entertain as well. He wrote a series of forty ً ‫ٍ كظخر وخ‬ٛ‫ كظووذ ٓهٔووهش يووٍ أٍرعوو‬.ً ‫ وخ‬٠ٚ‫ش أ‬ٛ‫ ٔنكووٍ نهظٔووه‬،‫يعهٕيووخص‬
books divided into three sections. .‫ػش أؿِحء‬٣‫يق ًّٔش انٗ ػ‬
He used the work of many earlier historians to create an informative, ‫ٍ ٓووزقِٕ نوه و قطعووش‬ٌٚ‫ٍ حنوو‬ٛ‫ووَ يووٍ حنًووئٍه‬ٛ‫حٓووظوي و أعًووخل حنكؼ‬
elegant piece of writing for people to refer to and read out loud to ‫ٓوخ‬ٛ‫ًكوُٓى حنعوٕىس ان‬ٚ ٌٍٚ‫ّش رخنًعهٕيخص ٍٔحثعش نهُوخّ حنو‬ُٛ‫ش غ‬ٛ‫كظخر‬
others. .ٍَٚ‫ه‬ٝ‫ٕص عخل ن‬ٜ‫ٔقَحءطٓخ ر‬
The garden was 100 feet long by 100 feet wide and built up in tiers ٗ‫وض عهو‬ُٛ‫ قويو ٔقوي ره‬033 ‫وٓخ‬َٟ‫ قويو ٔع‬033 ‫قوش‬ٚ‫ٕل حنلي‬١ ٌ‫كخ‬
so that it resembled a theatre. .‫ ط٘زّ حنًَٔف‬ٙ‫زقخص نك‬١
Vaults had been constructed under the ascending terraces which ٌُٕ‫ كخَض طلًم حن‬ٙ‫خعيس حنظ‬ٜ‫ذ حنًظ‬١‫خ‬ًٜ‫َ طلض حن‬١‫ض حنقُخ‬ُٛ‫ره‬
carried the entire weight of the planted garden, which, at this point, ْ‫ كخَووض رووُي‬،‫ ْووٌِ حنُقطووش‬ٙ‫ فوو‬،ٙ‫ ٔحنظوو‬،‫قووش حنًٍِٔعووش‬ٚ‫ نهلي‬ٙ‫حنكهوو‬
was on the same level as the city walls. .‫ُش‬ٚ‫ئظٕٖ ؿيٍحٌ حنًي‬
The roofs of the vaults which supported the garden were constructed ‫ووش‬َٚ‫قوش يووٍ قطووع كـ‬ٚ‫ كخَووض طٔووُي حنلي‬ٙ‫َ حنظو‬١‫وض أٓووطق حنقُووخ‬ُٛ‫ره‬
of stone beams some sixteen feet long, and over these were laid first ‫زقوش‬١ ً٢ٔ‫وعض أ‬ٟٔ ٌِ‫ ٔفوٕق ْو‬،ً‫قخٍد ٓوظش ع٘وَ قوييخ‬ٚ ‫ٕنٓخ يخ‬١
a layer of reeds set in thick tar, ،ٍٛ‫ قطَحٌ ػو‬ٙ‫ذ ف‬ٜ‫يٍ حنق‬
then two courses of baked brick bonded by cement, and finally a ً‫ووَح‬ٛ‫ ٔأه‬،‫ٓووًُض‬٢‫ُٓووخ ح‬ٛ‫ ر‬٢‫ووَر‬ٚ ‫ؿووَ حنًلوؤَق‬ٜ‫ٍ يووٍ ح‬ٛ‫زقظوو‬١ ‫ػووى‬
covering of lead to prevent the moisture in the soil penetrating the ‫ حنظَروووش يوووٍ حهظوووَحق‬ٙ‫ٕروووش فووو‬١َ‫ نًُوووع حن‬ٙ‫وووخ‬ٛ َّ ‫غطوووخء يوووٍ حن‬
roof. .‫حنٔطق‬
On top of this roof enough topsoil was heaped to allow the biggest ٍ‫ٗووـخ‬ٟ‫ووش نه ّٔوًخف ن‬ٛ‫ووش كخف‬ٛ‫ْ طَرووش فٕق‬ٚ‫فووٕق ْووٌح حنٔووطق طووى طكووي‬
trees to take root. The earth was levelled off and thickly planted with ‫ ٍُٔحعظٓوخ ركؼخفوش ركوم‬ٍٝٞ‫ش ح‬ٕٚ‫ طًوض طٔو‬.‫كزَ رًو ّي ؿؤٌٍْخ‬ٞ‫ح‬
every kind of tree. .ٍ‫ٗـخ‬ٞ‫إَٔحع ح‬
And since the galleries projected one beyond the other, where they ‫وغ كخَوض‬ٛ‫ ك‬،َٖ‫هو‬ٞ‫ذ كخَض طزَُ ٔحكيس فوٕق ح‬١‫خ‬ًٜ‫ٔرًخ أٌ حن‬
were sunlit, they contained conduits for the water which was raised ّ‫ فقووي كخَووض طلووٕ٘ قُووٕحص نهًووخء حنووٌ٘ طَفعوو‬،ًْ‫ئْخ حن٘وو‬ٛ‫وو‬٠‫ط‬
by pumps in great abundance from the river, though no one outside ّ ‫عهٗ حنَغى يوٍ عويو قويٍس أ‬،َُّٓ‫َس يٍ حن‬ٛ‫خص كز‬ًٛ‫وخص رك‬٠ً‫حن‬
٘
could see it being done. . ‫ظى ًن‬ٚ ‫ف‬ٛ‫ حنوخٍؽ عهٗ ي٘خْيس ك‬ٙ‫ ف‬ٚ‫ٗو‬
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
2010 ‫دوسح عبو‬
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are considered one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. Nebuchadnezzar II
built them in around 600 BCE to please his wife, Amytis of Media, who longed for the trees and beautiful plants of
her homeland. They are a very early and impressive example of irrigation. Irrigation is a very important part of life
today, especially in hot countries. The garden was 100 feet long by 100 feet wide and built up in tiers so that it
resembled a theatre. Vaults had been constructed under the ascending terraces which carried the entire weight of the
planted garden, which, at this point, was on the same level as the city walls. The roofs of the vaults which supported
the garden were constructed of stone beams some sixteen feet long, and over these were laid first a layer of reeds set in
thick tar, then two courses of baked brick bonded by cement, and finally a covering of lead to prevent the moisture in
the soil penetrating the roof. On top of this roof enough topsoil was heaped to allow the biggest trees to take root.
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were founded by ................
a. Amytis of Media b. Nebuchadnezzar II c. both (a) and (b)
2. A covering of lead was made to ................. the moisture in the soil penetrating the roof.
a. allow b. increase c. stop

Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. one‘s original home
4. at last ; lastly
5. make somebody happy and excited

Complete the following sentences with information from the text


6. The gardens are a good example of irrigation, which is .....................................................................................................
7. The entire weight of the planted garden was carried by .....................................................................................................
8. The topsoil was put on the roof to ......................................................................................................................................
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. c 3. homeland 4. finally 5. please
6. a very important part of life today, especially in hot countries. 7. the ascending terraces. 8. allow the biggest trees to take root.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------
Of the Battle of Caen, and How the Englishmen Took the Town (p9)
‫ وكٍف اعزىنى االَكهٍض عهى انجهذح‬، ٍٍ‫يٍ يعشكخ ك‬
Jean Froissart was one of the most important French writers in the ٍٕ‫وو‬ٜ‫ حنع‬ٙ‫ٍ فوو‬ٛٛ‫كووخٌ ؿووخٌ فَٔحٓووخٍص أكووي أْووى حنكظّووخد حنئََوو‬
Middle Ages. He wrote Chronicles – colourful accounts of what he – ِ ٍ ‫وَ نًوخ‬ٛ‫وف يؼ‬ٛٔ ٙ‫وش – ْٔو‬ٛ‫و‬ٍٚ‫ص طخ‬٣‫ كظذ ٓوـ‬.ٗ‫حنٕٓط‬
saw – that have become one of our most important sources of ٌَ‫وخىٍ يعهٕيخطُوخ عوٍ أٍٔٔروخ حنقو‬ٜ‫وزلض اكويٖ أْوى ي‬ٛ‫ أ‬ٙ‫ٔحنظ‬
information for 14th Century Europe. .َ٘‫حنَحرع ع‬
Although his first job was as a merchant, he soon became a clerk ‫ حنلوخل‬ٙ‫وزق فو‬ٛ‫ فقوي أ‬،ً‫ٔل كوخٌ طوخؿَح‬ٞ‫عهٗ حن َّغى يٍ أٌ عًهّ ح‬
and showed ability in writing. .‫ حنكظخرش‬ٙ‫كخطزخ ً ٔأظَٓ قيٍس ف‬
At that time, not many people could read and write. At the age of 24 ‫ٍ عهووٗ حنقووَحءس‬ٍٚ‫وَ يووٍ حنُووخّ قوخى‬ٛ‫كووٍ حنكؼ‬ٚ ‫ نووى‬،‫ ًنو حنٕقوض‬ٙ‫فو‬
he became a court poet and the official historian for Philippa of ًٙ‫ ٔحنًوئٍم حنَٓوو‬١٣‫وولذ ٗوخعَ روو‬ٛ‫ أ‬، 02 َ‫ عًو‬ٙ‫ فوو‬.‫ٔحنكظخروش‬
Hainault, the wife of Edward III of England. .ِ٘ٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ ُٔؿش حىٔحٍى حنؼخنغ ح‬،‫ُٕنض‬ٚ‫زخ أ ْخ‬ٛ‫ه‬ٛ‫ني‬

The following passage describes an event during the Hundred Years ‫ٍ فََٔووخ‬ٛ‫ كوويػخ ً أػُووخء كووَد حنًخثووش عووخو روو‬ٙ‫طوو‬ٜ‫ووف حنًقطووع ح‬ٜٚ
War between France and England. .‫ٔحَكهظَح‬

Although it is reporting an event, it was designed to be read out ‫ووًًخ ً نهقووَحءس‬ٜ‫ أَووّ كووخٌ هي‬٢‫ ا‬،ً ‫ُقووم كوويػخ‬ٚ ّ‫عهووٗ حنووَغى يووٍ أَوو‬
aloud to entertain Queen Philippa and her court. .ٙ‫ حنًهك‬١٣‫زخ ٔحنز‬ٛ‫ه‬ٛ‫ش حنًهكش ف‬ٛ‫ٕص عخل نظٔه‬ٜ‫ر‬

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timber ‫ه٘ذ‬ wood for building ‫ه٘ذ نهزُخء‬
slew ‫قظم‬ killed ‫قظم‬
assuage ‫ٓية‬ٚ - ٍ‫ويف ي‬ٚ to make an unpleasant feeling less painful or severe ‫َ ٓخٍ أقم أنًخ ً أٔ ٗيس‬ٛ‫ـعم ٗعٍٕحً غ‬ٚ
suffice ٙ‫كي‬ٚ to be enough ً ‫خ‬ٛ‫كٌٕ كخف‬ٚ
peradventure ‫يٍ حنًلظًم– ٍرًّخ‬ may be ‫ٍرًّخ‬
adversary ‫ى‬ٜ‫ه‬ opponent – rival ْ‫ى – يُخف‬ٜ‫ه‬
marshal ‫يخٍٗخل – قخثي عخو‬ an officer of the highest rank in an army ٖٛ‫ ؿ‬ٙ‫ نّ أعهٗ ٍطزش ف‬٢‫خر‬ٟ
ordain َ‫ؤي‬ٚ order something officially ًٍٙٓ ‫ء ر٘كم‬ٙ٘‫ؤيَ ر‬ٚ
hardy ّ‫قٕ٘ – قخ‬ strong ٕ٘‫ق‬
They of the town were entered into their houses, and cast down into ‫ حن ّ٘ووخٍع حنلـووخٍس‬ٙ‫ ٍٔٔيووٕح فوو‬،‫ووٕطٓى‬ٛ‫ىهووم ٓووكخٌ حنزهوويس انووٗ ر‬
the street stones, timber and iron, and slew and hurt more than five ‫ووخرٕح أكؼووَ يووٍ هًٔووًخثش ٍؿووم‬ٛ‫ ٔقظهووٕح ٔأ‬،‫ووي‬ٚ‫ٔحنو٘ووذ ٔحنلي‬
hundred Englishmen, wherewith the king was sore displeased. .‫ذ‬٠‫ي حنغ‬ٚ‫ ٔحنٌ٘ رٔززّ كخٌ حنًه ٗي‬،ِ٘ٛ‫حَكه‬
At night when he heard thereof, he commanded that the next day all ‫ٕو‬ٛ‫ حن‬ٙ‫عخ ً ٔكَق حنزهيس ف‬ًٛ‫ أيَ رقظهٓى ؿ‬،‫م عُييخ ًٓع رٌٓح‬ٛ‫ حنه‬ٙ‫ف‬
should be put to the sword and the town brent; ‫؛‬ٙ‫حنظخن‬
but then Sir Godfrey of Harcourt said: ―Dear sir, for God‘s sake assuage ،ِ‫و‬ِٚ‫ّي٘ حنع‬ٛٓ " 4‫َ ؿخىفَ٘ حٔ ْخٍكٍٕص‬ٛٓ ‫ٔنكٍ عُيْخ قخل‬
somewhat your courage, and let it suffice you that ye have done. .ّ‫ رًخ فعهظ‬ٙ‫ ٔطكظي‬،ً٣ٛ‫أَخٗيب رخهلل أٌ طويف يٍ ٗـخعظ قه‬
Ye have yet a great voyage to do or ye come before Calais, whither ٗ‫وم انوو‬ٜ‫ووخو رٓوخ قزووم أٌ ط‬ٛ‫و حنق‬ٛ‫ًووش عه‬ٛ‫يوخ طوِحل ُْووخب ٍكهوش عر‬
ye purpose to go; and, sir, in this town there is much people who will َٛ‫ ٌِْ حنزهيس ُْخب حنكؼ‬ٙ‫ ف‬، ٘‫ّي‬ٛٓ ‫خ‬ٚٔ ‫غ طُٕ٘ حنٌْخد ؛‬ٛ‫ ك‬،ّٛ‫كخن‬
defend their houses, and it will cost many of your men their lives, or َ‫و‬ٛ‫ ٌْٔح ٓوظكٌٕ كهيظوّ حنكؼ‬،‫ٕطٓى‬ٛ‫يحفعٌٕ عٍ ر‬ٛٓ ٌٍٚ‫يٍ حنُخّ حن‬
ye have all at your will; ‫ع؛‬ًٛ‫ع حنـ‬٠‫ قزم أٌ طهو‬، ‫يٍ أٍٔحف ٍؿخن‬
whereby peradventure ye shall not keep your purpose to Calais... Sir, ٌ‫ أَق‬، ٘‫ّي‬ٛٓ ....ّٛ‫ ْيف انٗ كخن‬ٙ‫ طظخرع ف‬٢ ٌ‫ٔرٌن يٍ حنًلظًم أ‬
save your people, for ye have need of them or this month pass; ‫ ٌْح حنَ٘ٓ؛‬ٙ٠‫ُق‬ٚ ٌ‫َ ٓظلظخؿّ قزم أ‬ٞ ، ‫ٗعز‬
for I think verily your adversary king Philip will meet with you to ،‫ نهقظووخل‬ٛ‫ق‬٣ٛ‫ووذ ٓوو‬ٛ‫ه‬ٛ‫ووً حنًهوو ف‬ٜ‫ أعظقووي ؿخُيووخ ً أٌ ه‬ٙ‫َُوو‬ٞ
fight, and ye shall find many straight passages and recounter; ‫هش ٔحنًعخٍب؛‬ٕٚ‫ص حنط‬٣‫َ يٍ حن َّك‬ٛ‫ٕٔٓ طـي حنكؼ‬
wherefore your men, an ye had more, shall stand you in good stead: ‫وخ‬ٚٔ ، ‫وَ عوٌٕ نو‬ٛ‫كَٕٕح ه‬ٛٓٔ ،‫ي‬ًِٚ‫ حن‬ٚ‫ ٔكخٌ ني‬، ‫ٔنًخًح ٍؿخن‬
and, sir, without any further slaying ye shall be lord of this town; ‫ووع‬٠ٛٓ ‫ّي ْووٌِ حنزهوويس؛‬ٛ‫ووي يووٍ حنقظووم ٓووظكٌٕ ٓو‬ًِٚ‫ رووئٌ حن‬،٘‫ي‬ٛ‫ٓوو‬
men and women will put all that they have to your pleasure.‖ ". ‫ هييظ‬ٙ‫ًهكٌٕ ف‬ٚ ‫حن َّؿخل ٔحنُٔخء ك ّم يخ‬
Then the king said: ―Sir Godfrey, you are our marshal, ordain ‫ء‬ٙ‫ أإيوَ كو ّم ٗو‬،‫ أَوض حنقخثوي حنعوخو‬،َ٘‫ي ؿوخىف‬ٛٓ " 4 ‫ػى قخل حنًه‬
everything as ye will.‖ Then Sir Godfrey with his banner rode from ،َ‫ظوّ يوٍ ٗوخٍع انوٗ هو‬ٚ‫َ ؿوخىفَ٘ رَح‬ٛ‫" ػوى ٓوخٍ حنٔو‬.‫كًخ ط٘وخء‬
street to street, and commanded in the king‘s name none to be so ٘‫كَٕووٕح قهٔووخس رلووَق أ‬ٚ ٢ ٌ‫ووع أ‬ًٛ‫أٌ عهووٗ حنـ‬
ّ ‫ٔأيووَ رخٓووى حنًهو‬
hardy to put to fire in any house nor to slay any person. .ٚ‫يُِل أٔ قظم أ٘ ٗو‬
When they of the town heard that cry, they received the Englishmen ‫ يُوخُنٓى‬ٙ‫وِ فو‬ٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ حٓظقزهٕح ح‬،‫عُييخ ًٓع ٓكخٌ حنزهيس ًن حنُّيحء‬
into their houses and made them good cheer… .‫ٍٔ ّكزٕح رٓى‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. More than five hundred Englishmen were killed and hurt by ……………..
a. the king b. Sir Godfrey c. the townspeople
2. When he was angry, the king ordered that the townspeople should ………………
a. stay at home b. be killed c. defend their homes
3. Sir Godfrey persuaded the king …………….
a. to kill the people b. not to kill the people c. to burn the town
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
4. killing 5. order something officially
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
6. The people entered their houses and threw ...........................................................................................................................
7. When the townspeople heard about the king‘s command, they ...........................................................................................
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. b 3. b 4. slaying 5. ordain 6. into the street stones, timber and iron. 7. received the Englishmen into their houses and made them good cheer.
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Satire ‫انهجبء‬ ( p 10)
genre ٙ‫َٕع أىر‬ a particular type of writing, art or music ٗ‫ق‬ًٕٛٓ‫ٍّ يٍ حنكظخرش أٔ حنيٍ أٔ حن‬ٛ‫َٕع يع‬
vice ‫هش‬ًَّٚ ‫حن‬ an illegal or evil behaviour ََّٚٗ ٔ‫ أ‬ََٕٙ‫َ قخ‬ٛ‫ٓهٕب غ‬
mock ٍ‫ٔوَ ي‬ٚ to laugh at or make fun of ٍ‫ٔوَ ي‬ٚ ٔ‫ل عهٗ أ‬٠ٚ
funny ‫ل‬٠‫هي‬ making you laugh ‫ل‬٠‫ـعه ط‬ٚ
criticise ‫ُظقي‬ٚ point out the faults in someone or something ‫ء يخ‬ٙٗ ٔ‫ يخ أ‬ٚ‫ ٗو‬ٙ‫ٕد ف‬ٛ‫َ انٗ حنع‬ٛ٘ٚ
intelligent ٙ‫ًك‬ clever ٙ‫ًك‬
luxury ‫طَ – َعًش‬ something very enjoyable ً‫ء يًظع ؿيح‬ٙٗ
powerful ٕ٘‫ق‬ very strong ً ‫قٕ٘ ؿيح‬
imaginary ٙ‫ه‬ٛ‫طو‬ not real ٙ‫ق‬ٛ‫ْ كق‬ٛ‫ن‬
ancient ‫ى‬ٚ‫قي‬ very old ً‫ى ؿيح‬ٚ‫قي‬
skilled َْ‫يخ‬ having a special talent or ability ‫ش‬ٛ‫نّ يْٕزش أٔ قيٍس هخ‬
relevant ‫م‬ّٜ‫هش – يظ‬ٛ ‫ًحص‬ connected to what is important ‫م رـ) يخ ْٕ يٓى‬ٜ‫ رـ ( يظ‬٢‫يَطز‬
Satire is a genre of literature that makes fun of people. In satire, ‫ حنًَحثم‬ٚ‫ظى فل‬ٚ ،‫ حنٓـخء‬ٙ‫ ف‬.ّ‫ٔوَ يٍ حنُخ‬ٚ ٙ‫حنٓـخء َٕع أىر‬
human or individual vices or weakness are examined and mocked. .‫ش يُٓخ‬َٚ‫ش ٔحنٔو‬ٚ‫ش أٔ حنيَى‬َٚ٘‫عف حنز‬٠‫ حن‬١‫أٔ َقخ‬
Although satire is generally funny, its main purpose is to criticise a ّ‫ انووٗ أٌ ْيفوو‬، ‫وول‬٠‫عهووٗ حن و َّغى يووٍ أٌ حنٓـووخء ر٘ووكم عووخو ي‬
person, a group or an institution in an intelligent manner. .‫ش‬ٛ‫قش ًك‬َٚ‫ أٔ يـًٕعش أٔ يئٓٔش رط‬ٚ‫ حَظقخى ٗو‬ٙٔٛ‫حنَث‬
Not all satirists have the luxury of being able to criticise people or ٔ‫ووُعى كوو ّم كظّووخد حنٓـووخء رظوووَ حنقوويٍس عهووٗ حَظقووخى حنُوووخّ أ‬ٚ ٢
society without fear of the authorities taking action against them. .‫يْى‬ٟ ‫خو ريعم‬ٛ‫حنًـظًع رئٌ هٕ يٍ حنٔهطخص رخنق‬
Because of this, many satirists criticise imaginary individuals, or ٔ‫ أ‬،ٍٛ‫وو‬ٛ‫ه‬ٛ‫وخ ً طو‬ٛ‫وَ يوٍ كظّوخد حنٓـوخء أٗوخ‬ٛ‫ُظقووي حنكؼ‬ٚ ،‫رٔوزذ ْوٌح‬
people and events from many years before. .‫ض‬٠‫َس ي‬ٛ‫أَخٓخ ً ٔأكيحػخ يٍ ُٕٓحص كؼ‬
To the more intelligent readers and audience, the real targets are ،‫لش‬ٟ‫ش ٔح‬ٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫ْيح حنلق‬ٞ‫ ح‬،‫كؼَ ًكخ ًء‬ٞ‫رخنُٔزش نهق َّحء ٔحنـًٍٕٓ ح‬
obvious, not that the authorities and the rich and powerful (who are ‫ٍ غخنزوخ ً يووخ طووظى‬ٌٚ‫ووخء ًٔٔ حنُيووًٕ ( حنوو‬ُٛ‫غ‬ٞ‫ ح‬٢ٔ ‫ حنٔووهطخص‬٢ ‫ووغ‬ٛ‫ك‬
often those being mocked) can prove this or stop people from laughing. . ‫ل‬٠‫قخ حنُخّ عٍ حن‬ٚ‫ًكُٓى اػزخص ٌْح أٔ ا‬ٚ )‫ش يُٓى‬َٚ‫حنٔو‬
There are many different forms of satire, but all of them are ٌ‫وي رٓوخ كهٓوخ أ‬ٜ‫هق‬ٚ ٍ‫ ٔنكو‬،‫وَس يوٍ حنٓـوخء‬ٛ‫ُْخب أٗكخل يوظهيش كؼ‬
intended to criticise or mock, though some have done it less ‫وئ ّى٘ ًنو ر٘وكم أقوم‬ٚ ‫وٓخ‬٠‫ عهٗ حن َّغى يٍ أٌ رع‬،َ‫طُظقي أٔ طٔو‬
obviously than others. .َٖ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٕكخ ً يٍ ح‬ٟٔ
Satire was famously used in ancient Greece, although the name ٌ‫ عهووٗ حنو َّغى يووٍ أ‬،‫ًووش‬ٚ‫َٕووخٌ حنقي‬ٛ‫ حن‬ٙ‫حٗوظَٓ حٓووظويحو حنٓـووخء فوو‬
comes from the ancient Roman language, Latin. Juvenal is one of the ‫ُوخل‬ٛ‫ ؿٕف‬.‫وش‬ُٛٛ‫ط‬٣‫ حن‬ٙ‫ ْٔو‬،‫ًوش‬ٚ‫وش حنقي‬َٛ‫ يوٍ حنهغوش حنَٔيخ‬ٙ‫ؤط‬ٚ ‫ٓى‬٢‫ح‬
most famous and imaginative of the Roman satirists, and was ٍ‫ ٔقوي حٓوظهٓى يو‬،ً٢‫وخ‬ٛ‫ٍ َٗٓس ٔه‬َٛٛ‫أكي أكؼَ كظخد حنٓـخء حنَٔيخ‬
inspired by earlier Greek writers such as Aristophanes. .َْ‫ٔظٕفخ‬ٍٚ‫ٍ ٓزقِٕ يؼم ح‬ٌٚ‫ٌٕ حن‬َٛ‫َٕخ‬ٛ‫حنكظّخد حن‬
Alexander Pope, a leading 18th century poet and a skilled translator ‫ حنقٌَ حنؼخيٍ عَ٘ ٔيظوَؿى‬ٙ‫ ْٕٔ ٗخعَ رخٍُ ف‬،‫كٔخَيٍ رٕد‬ٛ‫حن‬
of Latin, was also influenced by the Greek and Roman authors who ٌٍٚ‫ ٔحنَٔيخٌ حن‬َٚ‫غ‬٠‫ٍ ح‬ٛ‫خ ً رخنًئني‬٠ٚ‫ طؤػَ أ‬،‫ش‬ُٛٛ‫ط‬٣‫يخَْ انٗ حن‬
came before him. .ِٕ‫ٓزق‬
Samuel Beckett‘s work shows how satire is still relevant and ‫وهش‬ٛ ‫وِحل ًحص‬ٚ ‫وف أٌ حنٓـوخء يوخ‬ٛ‫ض ك‬ٛ‫م رخك‬ٕٚٛ‫خي‬ٛ ‫هرَٓ عًم‬ٚ
interesting in the modern day, by using absurdism to satirise life ‫وش يوٍ أؿوم‬ٛ‫ حٓوظويحو حنعزؼ‬َٚ١ ٍ‫ ع‬،‫غ‬ٚ‫َ حنلي‬ٜ‫ حنع‬ٙ‫ٔيًظعخ ف‬
itself. .‫خس رلي ًحطٓخ‬ٛ‫حَظقخى حنل‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. The word satire is originally ...................
a. Latin b. Greek c. Persian
2. In satire human or individual weaknesses are criticised...............
a. in a serious way b. in a funny way c. in a direct way
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. illegal or evil types of behaviour 4. point out the faults in someone or something
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. The main goal of satire is to …………………………………….. 7. Alexander Pope was affected by …………
6. Because of their fear of the authorities, many satirists ………….
‫انحهىل‬
1. a 2. b 3. vices 4. criticise 5. criticise a person, a group or an institution in an intelligent manner.
6. criticise imaginary individuals, or people and events from many years before. 7. the Greek and Roman authors who came before him.
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Juvenal ( p 11 )
Juvenal was a Roman satirist in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. In ‫ رعوي‬َٙ‫ٔل ٔحنؼوخ‬ٞ‫ٍ ح‬ََٛ‫ حنقو‬ٙ‫ فو‬َٙ‫ُخل كخطذ ْـخء ٍٔيخ‬ٛ‫كخٌ ؿٕف‬
order to avoid his work being banned (or himself being punished) by ٙ‫ٗووخ‬ٞ‫ظـُوذ يُوع عًهوّ (أٔ يعخقزظوّ) يوٍ قزوم ح‬ٚ ٙ‫ نكو‬.‫ى‬٣ٛ‫حنًو‬
the important people he was criticising in his satire, he pretended to ّ‫كظذ عٍ أَخ‬ٚ َّّ‫ طرخَْ رؤ‬،ّ‫ ْـخث‬ٙ‫ُظقيْى ف‬ٚ ٌ‫ٍ كخ‬ٌٚ‫ٍ حن‬ًّٛ ًٓ‫حن‬
be writing about people who had lived a century before. .ٗ٠‫عخٕٗح قزم قٌَ ي‬
However, he clearly meant to describe faults from his own time. The ‫ حنًقطع‬.َِٜ‫ٕد يٍ ع‬ٛ‫ف ع‬ٛٔ ‫ق‬ٟ‫ي ر٘كم ٔح‬ٜ‫ق‬ٚ ٌ‫ كخ‬،ٍ‫ٔنك‬
following passage from his Third Satire is an intimate and lively ٙ‫وش فو‬ٛ‫ٕي‬ٛ‫وخس حن‬ٛ‫ نهل‬ٙ
ّ ‫ّوم ٔكو‬ٜ‫وف يي‬ٛٔ ‫ يٍ حنٓـوخء حنؼخنوغ‬ٙ‫ط‬ٜ‫ح‬
description of daily life in Rome. .‫ٍٔيخ‬
In the poem, a friend of Juvenal is moving to the country and it is he ‫وف‬ٜٚ ٕ‫وف ْٔو‬َّٚ ‫ُخل انوٗ حن‬ٛ‫يقخء ؿٕف‬ٛ‫ُظقم أكي أ‬ٚ ،‫يس‬ٜٛ‫ حنق‬ٙ‫ف‬
who describes what he hates about the city. .‫ُش‬ٚ‫ حنًي‬ٙ‫كَّْ ف‬ٚ ‫يخ‬
complain َ‫طظٌ ّي‬ to say you are annoyed or unhappy ‫ي‬ٛ‫َ ٓع‬ٛ‫طقٕل اَ يُِعؾ أٔ غ‬
curse ‫نعُش‬ a word or words you say because you are very angry ً ‫ذ ؿيح‬ٟ‫َ غخ‬ٞ ‫كهًش أٔ كهًخص طقٕنٓخ‬
hurl ‫هطه‬ٚ – ٌ‫ق‬ٚ to throw something with a lot of force ‫َس‬ٛ‫جخ ً رقٕس كز‬ٛٗ ٙ‫َي‬ٚ
wealthy َ٘‫ػ‬ very rich – having a lot of money ‫َ يٍ حنُقٕى‬ٛ‫ًه حنكؼ‬ٚ – ً ‫ ؿيح‬ُٙ‫غ‬
mighty ٍ‫ؿزّخ‬ powerful ( very strong ) ً ‫قٕ٘ ؿيح‬
nap ‫هٕنش‬ٛ‫ق‬ a short sleep َٜٛ‫َٕو ق‬
litter ‫ عَرش‬- ‫يليّش‬ a box or tent carried on the shoulders of slaves ‫ي‬ٛ‫ًش طهلًم عهٗ أكظخ حنعز‬ٛ‫ُئق أٔ ه‬ٛ
The sick die here because they can‘t sleep, ،‫عٌٕ حنُٕو‬ٛ‫ٔظط‬ٚ ٢ ‫َٓى‬ٞ ‫ٗ ُْخ‬ًَٟ‫ًٕص حن‬ٚ
Though most people complain about the food ‫ظٌ ّيَ يعرى حنُخّ يٍ حنطعخو‬ٚ ٍ‫ٔنك‬
Rotting undigested in their burning guts. .ًّ٠ْ ‫ع يعيحطٓى حنًلظَقش‬ٛ‫ طٔظط‬٢ ٌ٘‫حنًظعيٍ ٔحن‬
For when does sleep come in rented rooms? ‫ حنغَ حنًٔظؤؿَس؟‬ٙ‫ حنُٕو ف‬ٙ‫ؤط‬ٚ ٗ‫َّ يظ‬ٞ
It costs a lot merely to sleep in this city! !‫ُش‬ٚ‫ ٌِْ حنًي‬ٙ‫َ يـ َّى حنُٕو ف‬ٛ‫كهف حنكؼ‬ٚ
That‘s why everyone is sick: carts clattering ‫خهذ‬ٜ‫ؾ حنعَرخص حن‬ٛ‫ـ‬ٟ ‫ فُٓخب‬4َٟٗ‫ع ي‬ًٛ‫ٔنٌٓح حنـ‬
Through the winding streets, curses hurled ‫ ططه حنهعُخص‬،‫ل حنٕ٘حٍع حنًهظيش‬٣‫يٍ ه‬
At some herd standing still in the middle of the road, ، َٚ‫ف حنط‬ٜ‫ يُظ‬ٙ‫قف ٓخكُخ ً ف‬ٚ ‫ع‬ٛ‫عهٗ قط‬
Could rob Claudius or a seal of their sleep! !‫خّ أٔ فقًش يٍ َٕيًٓخ‬ٚ‫ًكٍ أٌ طلَو كهٕى‬ٚ
When duty demands it, crowds fall back to allow ‫َ نظًٔق‬ْٛ‫ طزظعي حنـًخ‬،‫ظطهذ حنٕحؿذ‬ٚ ‫عُييخ‬
The wealthy to pass, who sail past the coast ‫ٍ عٍ حن ّٔخكم‬ٚ‫زلٌَٔ يزظعي‬ٚ ‫ ْٔى‬،ًٍَٔ‫خء رخن‬ُٛ‫غ‬ٟ‫ن‬
In a mighty Liburnian ship, while on the way َٚ‫ًُخ عهٗ حنط‬ٛ‫ ر‬،‫ش ؿزّخٍس‬َٛ‫ُش ٍٔيخ‬ٛ‫ ٓي‬ٙ‫ف‬
They read or write or even take a nap, ،‫هٕنش‬ٛ‫ؤهٌٌٔ ق‬ٚ ٗ‫كظزٌٕ أٔ كظ‬ٚ ٔ‫قَإٌٔ أ‬ٚ
For the litter and its shut windows bring on sleep. .ّ‫ٌ حنًليّش َٕٔحفٌْخ حنًغهقش طـهذ حنُعخ‬ٞ
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. ...................people die because they can‘t sleep.
a. Ill b. Healthy c. Wealthy
2. The food most people have is .................
a. healthy b. terrible c. delicious
3. Rich people have problems in ................
a. sleeping b. travelling c. neither (a) nor (b)
4. Most people live …………….
a. a comfortable life b. a happy life c. a hard life
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
5. a short sleep 6. very rich
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
7. Most people complain about the food because it is ……. 9. The curses in the street are so loud that they could……
8. The people are shouting at …………………………….. 10. The poor make way for………………………………..
‫انحهىل‬
1. a 2. b 3. c 4. c 5. nap 6. wealthy 7. rotting undigested in their burning guts. 8. some herd sanding still in the middle of the road.
9. rob Claudius or a seal of their sleep. 10. the wealthy to pass.
Juvenal mentions both the expense and the misery of city life; it is not an ‫ٍٕس‬ٛ ‫ٔض‬ٛ‫ُش؛ ٌِْٔ ن‬ٚ‫خس حنًي‬ٛ‫ُخل كهيش ٔرئّ ك‬ٛ‫ٌكَ ؿٕف‬ٚ
appealing image. Describing the life of the rich–who have neither ٙ‫ٕحؿٌٕٓ ي٘خكم ف‬ٚ ٢ ٌٍٚ‫خء– حن‬ُٛ‫غ‬ٞ‫خس ح‬ٛ‫ف ك‬ٛٔ .‫ؿٌحرش‬
problems travelling or sleeping – emphasises the hard life of most people. .ّ‫ش نًعرى حنُخ‬ٛٓ‫خس حنقخ‬ٛ‫ئكي عهٗ حنل‬ٚ – ‫حنٔيَ أٔ حنُٕو‬
-6-
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The Rape of the Lock ‫اغزظبة انخظهخ‬ ( p 12 )
by Alexander Pope (1668–1744) ‫انكغُذس ثىة‬
In The Rape of the Lock, the lock is a ‗lock‘ or handful of hair; the ‫ووطهق‬ٜ‫ووهش كيُووش يووٍ حن٘ وعَ؛ ي‬ٜ‫ حنو‬،‫ووهش‬ٜ‫ووخد حن هو‬ٜ‫ حغظ‬ٙ‫فوو‬
term ‗rape‘ means theft. So this poem is about stealing a handful of ‫يس عوٍ ٓوَقش‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫ ٔنٌٓح طظلويع ْوٌِ حنق‬.‫ َٓقش‬ُٙ‫ع‬ٚ ’‫خد‬ٜ‫‘حغظ‬
hair. .َ‫كيُش يٍ حن٘ع‬
It describes a strange domestic incident, when one of Pope‘s friends, ،‫ويقخء رووٕد‬ٛ‫ أكووي أ‬ٚ‫قو‬ٚ ‫ عُووييخ‬،‫زوش‬َٚ‫ووش غ‬ٛ‫وف كخىػوش عخثه‬ٜ‫ط‬
Lord Petre, cut off a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor‘s hair (she is given ‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫طه عه‬ٚ( َ‫َي‬ٛ‫ ف‬٣ٛ‫َٔش حٍحر‬ٜ‫هش يٍ ٗعَ ح‬ٜ‫ ه‬،َ‫ظ‬ٛ‫حنهٍٕى ر‬
the name Belinda in the poem), and a great argument started between ‫ٍ ٔكوخَٕح‬ٛ‫ٓوَط‬ٞ‫ٍ ح‬ٛ‫وَ رو‬ٛ‫ ٔريأ َوِحع كز‬، )‫يس‬ٜٛ‫ حنق‬ٙ‫هُيح ف‬ٛ‫حٓى ر‬
the two families that was talked about in coffee shops for weeks. .‫ع‬ٛ‫ٓخر‬ٞ ْٙ‫ حنًقخ‬ٙ‫ظليػٌٕ عُّ ف‬ٚ
Pope wrote The Rape of the Lock to make fun of the incident and to ‫ش يووٍ حنلخىػووش ٔنـعووم‬َٚ‫ووهش نهٔووو‬ٜ‫ووخد حنو‬ٜ‫كظووذ رووٕد حغظ‬
make those involved realise how trivial the incident really was. .ً ‫يٍكٌٕ ٓوخفش ٌِْ حنلخىػش كقخ‬ٚ ‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫ٍ ف‬ٛ‫حنً٘ظَك‬
He used this trivial incident involving two families in order to satirise ‫ُظقوي‬ٛ‫ٓوَطخٌ ن‬ٞ‫ٓخ ح‬ٛ‫ حٗظَكض ف‬ٙ‫يش حنظ‬ٛ‫حٓظويو ٌِْ حنلخىػش حنٔو‬
any society that would see this as important. .‫َٖ ٌْح عهٗ أَّ ْخو‬ٚ ‫٘ يـظًع‬ ّ ‫أ‬
unveiled ‫ غطخء‬٣‫يكٕ٘ – ر‬ without a cover ‫رئٌ غطخء‬
nymph ‫ّش‬ٍٕٚ‫ك‬ a spirit of nature that appears as a beautiful young ‫هش‬ًٛ‫عش طرَٓ كخيَأس ؿ‬ٛ‫ٍٔف يٍ أٍٔحف حنطز‬
woman ‫ٗخرش‬
image ‫ٍٕس‬ٛ a picture ‫ٍٕس‬ٛ
altar ‫يٌرق‬ a special table used for religious ceremonies ‫ش‬ُٛٚ‫ش طٔظويو نهًَحٓى حني‬ٛ‫خٔنش هخ‬١
tremble ‫َطـف‬ٚ to shake slightly – shiver ‫َطـف‬ٚ - ‫ف‬ٛ‫ٓظِ ر٘كم هي‬ٚ
treasure ُِ‫ك‬ something very valuable ً ‫ّى ؿيح‬ٛ‫ء ق‬ٙٗ
casket ‫ُئق‬ٛ‫ه‬ a small box in which people keep jewellery ‫ّ حنُخّ رخنًـَْٕحص‬ٛ‫لظيع ف‬ٚ َٛ‫غ‬ٛ ‫ُئق‬ٛ
unlock َٓ‫هر‬ٚ - ‫يظق‬ٚ open ‫يظق‬ٚ
ritually ّٕ‫ق‬١ ‫ر٘كم‬ done in a fixed or ceremonial way ‫ش‬ٛ‫قش ػخرظش أٔ حكظيخن‬َٚ‫ظى رط‬ٚ
Beauty Puts on all its Arms ‫ٌهجظ انجًبل كم أعهحزه‬
And now, unveiled, the Toilet stands displayed, ،‫ش‬َٟٔ‫ُش يع‬ِٚ‫خٔنش حن‬١ ‫ طقف‬،‫ غطخء‬٣‫ ر‬،ٌٜ‫ٔح‬
Each Silver Vase in mystic Order laid. َٙ‫ذ ٍٔكخ‬ٛ‫ّش يَطزش رظَط‬ٛ٠‫ش ف‬َِْٚ‫ك ّم ي‬
First, rob‘d in White, the Nymph intent adores, ‫ش ٔطعزي‬ٍٕٚ‫ طليق حنل‬، ٞٛ‫ر‬ٞ‫ طهزْ حنهٌٕ ح‬ْٙٔ ،‫ش‬ٚ‫ حنزيح‬ٙ‫ف‬
With Head uncover‘d, the Cosmetic Pow‘rs. . ) ‫ طوه حنـًخل‬ٙ‫ش ( حنظ‬ٛ‫ه‬ًٛ‫ حنقٕٖ حنظـ‬، ٕ٘‫رَأٓٓخ حنًك‬
A heavenly Image in the Glass appears, ،‫ حنًَ س‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ٛ‫ثك‬٣‫ٍٕس ي‬ٛ َٓ‫ٔطر‬
To that she bends, to that her Eyes she rears; ‫ٓخ ؛‬ُٛٛ‫ ٔنٌن طَفع ع‬،ٞ‫نٌٓح طهوي‬
Th‘ inferior Priestess, at her altar‘s side, ،‫ انٗ ؿخَذ يٌرلٓخ‬،‫يش‬ٕٛٛ‫حن‬
Trembling, begins the sacred Rites of Pride. .‫خء حنًقي ّٓش‬َٚ‫قّٕ حنكز‬١ ‫ طزيأ‬،‫طَطـف‬
Unnumber‘d Treasures ope at once, and here ‫ ُْٔخ‬،‫ حنلخل‬ٙ‫َ نٓخ ف‬ٜ‫ ك‬٢ ُُٕ‫طيظق ك‬
The various Off‘rings of the World appear; ‫خ حنًظعيىس يٍ حنعخنى؛‬ٚ‫طرَٓ حنعطخ‬
From each she nicely culls with curious Toil, ٘‫َ عخى‬ٛ‫م رـٓي غ‬ًٛ‫يٍ ك ّم يُٓخ طوظخٍ ر٘كم ؿ‬
And decks the Goddess with the glitt‘ring Spoil. .ٟٞ‫نٓش رؤكـخٍ طظ‬٠‫ٍّ ح‬ِٚ‫ٔط‬
This casket India‘s glowing Gems unlocks, ‫ طظْٕؾ‬ٙ‫ُئق يـَْٕحص حنُٓي حنظ‬ٜ‫رَٓ ٌْح حن‬ٚ
And all Arabia breathes from yonder Box. .‫ُئق‬ٜ‫ش يٍ ًن حن‬ٛ‫ٔطُظَ٘ ٍحثلش ك ّم حنعطٍٕ حنعَر‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Silver vases are arranged in a ……………way. ( a. normal b. bad c. ritual )
2. The image that appears in the mirror is …………… ( a. ugly b. beautiful c. unattractive)
3. The treasures that the lady has are……………. ( a. bought b. given to her as gifts c. stolen)
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
4. things that are very valuable, expensive 5. without a cover
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
6. When the nymph first appeared, she was dressed………….. 7. The boxes contain perfumes and ……………
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. b 3. b 4. treasures 5. unveiled 6. in white with head uncovered. 7. glowing gems.
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Waiting for Godot ‫اَزظبس جىدو‬ ( p 14 )
by Samuel Beckett (1906–1989) ‫طبيٍىٌم ثبكٍذ‬
century ٌ َْ‫ق‬ a period of one hundred years ‫فظَس يٍ يخثش عخو‬
absurd ٙ‫ف – عزؼ‬ٛ‫ٓو‬ unreasonable or illogical ٙ‫َ يُطق‬ٛ‫َ يعقٕل أٔ غ‬ٛ‫غ‬
universe ٌٕ‫حنك‬ all space, including all the stars and planets ‫ ًن ك ّم حنُـٕو ٔحنكٕحكذ‬ٙ‫ رًخ ف‬،ّ‫خء كه‬٠‫حني‬
the aim or function of something – the thing that ٍ‫ء حنٌ٘ ي‬ٙ٘‫ء يخ – حن‬ٙٗ ‫يش‬ٛ‫أٔ ٔظ‬ ‫ْي‬
purpose ‫ْي‬
something is supposed to achieve ‫ء يخ‬ٙٗ ّ‫لقق‬ٚ ٌ‫ أ‬َٝ‫حنًيظ‬
satire ‫حنٓـخء‬ a genre of literature that makes fun of people ّ‫ٔوَ يٍ حنُخ‬ٚ ٙ‫َٕع أىر‬
view ٘‫ٍأ‬ what you think or believe about something- opinion ٘‫ء يخ – ٍأ‬ٙٗ ‫يخ طيكَ أٔ طعظقي كٕل‬
character ‫ّش‬ٜٛ‫ٗو‬ a person in a book, play or film ‫هى‬ٛ‫ش أٔ ف‬ٛ‫ كظخد أٔ ئَك‬ٙ‫ ف‬ٚ‫ٗو‬
behave َّ ٜ‫ظ‬ٚ to do something in a particular way ‫ُش‬ٛ‫قش يع‬َٚ‫ء يخ رط‬ٙ٘‫قٕو ر‬ٚ
) 2013 ‫( دوسح عبو‬
Samuel Beckett was one of the most important writers of the 20th century ٍَٚ‫ حنقوٌَ حنع٘و‬ٙ‫ض أكوي أْوى حنكظّوخد فو‬ٛ‫م رخك‬ٕٚٛ‫خي‬ٛ ٌ‫كخ‬
and was friends with other influential writers, such as James Joyce. .ْٕٚ‫ًْ ؿ‬ٛ‫ٍ يؼم ؿ‬َٚ‫ٍ ه‬َٚ‫قخ ً نكظخد يئػ‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ ٌ‫ٔكخ‬
He wrote novels, plays and poems in both French and English about what ‫ووش‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ش ٔح‬ٛ‫ووخثي رخنئََوو‬ٜ‫خص ٔق‬ٛ‫ووخص ٔئووَك‬ٚ‫كظووذ ٍٔح‬
it is to be human. Since there is no single answer to the question of human ‫ٕؿووي اؿخرووش‬ٚ ٢ ّ‫ ٔرًووخ أَوو‬.ً ‫ أٌ طكووٌٕ أَوخَخ‬ٙ‫عُوو‬ٚ ‫كوٕل يووخًح‬
nature, the ideas in Beckett‘s writing can only be taken as one possible ٍ‫فكخ‬ٞ‫ًكٍ أهٌ ح‬ٚ ،‫ش‬َٚ٘‫عش حنز‬ٛ‫يس عهٗ حنٔئحل كٕل حنطز‬ٛ‫ٔك‬
response. .‫ؿخرخص حنًلظًهش‬٠‫ض عهٗ أَٓخ يـَى اكيٖ ح‬ٛ‫ كظخرخص رخك‬ٙ‫ف‬
In his works, he suggests that the purpose of life is not something that is ّ‫هعطٗ نُوخ؛ اَو‬ٚ ً ‫جخ‬ٛٗ ْٛ‫خس ن‬ٛ‫قظَف أٌ ْي حنل‬ٚ ،ّ‫ أعًخن‬ٙ‫ف‬
given to us; it is something we must make for ourselves. .‫َئُخ‬ٞ ّ‫ُع‬َٜ ٌ‫ـذ أ‬ٚ ‫ء‬ٙٗ
This way of thinking is known as ‗absurdism‘ because its followers ‫عظقوئٌ أَٓوخ‬ٚ ‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫ٌ طخرع‬ٞ ‫ش‬ٛ‫َ ٌِْ رخنعزؼ‬ٛ‫قش حنظيك‬َٚ١ َ‫ط هع‬
ّ ‫ أٌ َعظقووي‬،‫ووَ يلظًهووش‬ٛ‫ أٔ غ‬،‫يش‬ٛ‫فكووَس ٓووو‬
believe that it is an absurd, or very improbable, idea to believe that the ‫ووذ‬ٛ‫أٌ نهكووٌٕ طَط‬
universe has a natural order and purpose. .ٙ‫ع‬ٛ‫ز‬١ ‫ْٔي‬
Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous absurdist plays. The play is .‫كؼووَ ٗوووَٓس‬ٞ‫ووش ح‬ٛ‫خص حنعزؼ‬ٛ‫حَظرووخٍ ؿووٕىٔ اكوويٖ حنًٔووَك‬
also somewhat symbolic. In the play, Beckett uses satire so that we can ‫ٔوظويو‬ٚ ،‫ّش‬ٛ‫ حنًٔوَك‬ٙ‫ فو‬.‫ّوش‬ِٚ‫خ ً َٕعخ يوخ ٍي‬٠ٚ‫ش أ‬ٛ‫ٔحنًَٔك‬
understand his views on human nature. .‫ش‬َٚ٘‫عش حنز‬ٛ‫ َظًكٍ يٍ فٓى ٍحءِ عٍ حنطز‬ٙ‫ض حنٓـخء نك‬ٛ‫رخك‬
Its two main characters – Vladimir and Estragon – are waiting for the ٌ‫ُظرووَح‬ٚ – ٌٕ‫ووَ ٔحٓووظَحؿ‬ًٛٚ‫ى‬٣‫ّش – ف‬ٛ‫ٔ و‬ٛ‫خطٓخ حنَث‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ٗو‬
mysterious Godot, who will probably never arrive. .ً‫م أريح‬ٜٚ ٢ ٌ‫ – حنٌ٘ يٍ حنًلظًم أ‬ٞ‫ؿٕىٔ حنغخي‬
While they are waiting, they cannot find a purpose for their lives. In this ٌِ‫ رٓوو‬.‫خطًٓوخ‬ٛ‫ـوويح ْويفخ ً نل‬ٚ ٌ‫عخٌ أ‬ٛ‫ٔوظط‬ٚ ٢ ،ٌ‫ُظروَح‬ٚ ‫ًُوخ‬ٛ‫ر‬
way, we see their foolishness and begin to understand how silly Beckett ‫ٓوخ‬ٛ‫وَٖ ف‬ٚ ٙ‫ ََٖ كًخقظًٓخ َٔزيأ ريٓوى حن ّيٍؿوش حنظو‬،‫قش‬َٚ‫حنط‬
thinks it is to wait for a purpose, rather than making your own. . ٔ‫ُخعش ْي نُي‬ٛ ْٛ‫ ٔن‬، ‫ض ٓوخفش حَظرخٍ ْي‬ٛ‫رخك‬
His play is both tragic and comedic because he uses satire to make us ‫ل‬٠َ ‫ٔظويو حنٓـخء نـعهُخ‬ٚ َّٞ ‫ش‬ٛ‫ش ِْٔن‬ٚٔ‫ظّ يؤٓخ‬ٛ‫ئَك‬
laugh at his characters‘ silly behaviour at the same time as making us feel ‫ـعهُووخ‬ٚ ‫ ًحص حنٕقووض‬ٙ‫ف ٔفوو‬ٛ‫خطّ حن ّٔ وو‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫عهووٗ ٓووهٕب ٗو‬
pity for them because of how they behave. .‫ َّفٌٕ رٓخ‬ٜ‫ظ‬ٚ ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫ٓى رٔزذ حنط‬ٛ‫َ٘عَ رخن٘يقش عه‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Beckett considers that the aim of life is something we have to ……………for.
a. dream b. work c. wait
2. Vladimir and Estragon were waiting for Godot who was …………….
a. their close friend b. someone they know very well c. someone they didn‘t know before
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. unreasonable or illogical 4. a genre of literature that makes fun of people
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. "Waiting for Godot" is a famous absurdist play and ………………………………………………………………….
6. Beckett's novels, plays and poems were about ..............................................................................................................
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. c 3. absurd 4. satire 5. it is also somewhat symbolic. 6. what it is to be human.
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The Development of English Literature ( p 15 )
‫رط ّىس األدة االَكهٍضي‬
massive ‫ْخثم‬ very large ً‫َ ؿيح‬ٛ‫كز‬
impact َٛ‫طؤػ‬ effect – influence َٛ‫طؤػ‬
author ‫يئنف‬ someone who writes a book – writer ‫كظذ كظخرخ ً – كخطذ‬ٚ ‫ يخ‬ٚ‫ٗو‬
inspire ‫ههٓى‬ٚ to make someone want to do something ‫ء‬ٙ٘‫خو ر‬ٛ‫ي حنق‬َٚٚ ‫خ يخ‬ٜ‫ـعم ٗو‬ٚ
society ‫يـظًع‬ people in general living together ً ‫ٌٕ٘ يعخ‬ٛ‫ع‬ٚ ٌٍٚ‫حنُخّ ر٘كم عخو حن‬
pioneer ‫ٍحثي‬ one of the first people to do something ‫ يخ‬ٙ٘‫قٕيٌٕ ر‬ٚ ٌٍٚ‫ٔحثم حن‬ٞ‫ ح‬ٙ‫ٗوخ‬ٞ‫أكي ح‬
freedom ‫ّش‬َٚ‫حنل‬ the right to do anything you want ِ‫ي‬َٚ‫ء ط‬ٙٗ ٘‫خو رؤ‬ٛ‫ حنق‬ٙ‫حنل ف‬
famous ٍٕٓ٘‫ي‬ known about by many people in many places ‫َس‬ٛ‫ أيخكٍ كؼ‬ٙ‫َ يٍ حنُخّ ف‬ٛ‫عُّ حنكؼ‬ َ‫ع‬ٚ

Ancient Roman and Greek, or ‗classical‘, writers had a massive impact ٗ‫ً عه‬٣‫َحً ْخث‬ٛ‫ٍ’ طؤػ‬ٛٛ‫ك‬ٛٓ٣‫َٕخٌ أٔ ‘حنك‬ٛ‫كخٌ نهكظخد حن َّٔيخٌ ٔحن‬
on literature for centuries. .ٌَٔ‫ىد نق‬ٞ‫ح‬
Their highly structured verse and metre was admired and copied by ‫َ أعـذ رٓخ ٔقهيْخ‬ٛ‫ش حنًُرًش ر٘كم كز‬َٚ‫ف٘عَْى ٔأُٔحَٓى حن٘ع‬
many later poets, such as England‘s Alexander Pope. .ِ٘ٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ يؼم حنكُٔيٍ رٕد ح‬،ٍٛ‫كق‬٣‫َ يٍ حن٘عَحء حن‬ٛ‫حنكؼ‬
Such poets admired the balance, neatness and technical perfection of ٙ‫وذ ٔحنكًوخل حنظقُوو‬ٛ‫يؼوم أٔنجو حن٘وعَحء أعـزوٕح روخنٌُٕ ٔحنظَط‬
classical literature. .ٙ‫ك‬ٛٓ٣‫ىد حنك‬ٟ‫ن‬
Other authors, however, wanted more freedom to choose their own ‫ووَقٓى‬١ ٍ‫ووخ‬ٛ‫ حهظ‬ٙ‫ّووش أكزووَ فوو‬َٚ‫ يئنيووٌٕ هوؤٌَ أٍحىٔح ك‬،ٍ‫ٔنكوو‬
ways of writing. .‫ حنكظخرش‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ٛ‫حنوخ‬
William Shakespeare is one of the world‘s most famous authors and َِٚ‫ حنعوخنى ٔطو ّى طقوي‬ٙ‫كؼَ هٗوَٓس فو‬ٞ‫ٍ ح‬ٛ‫َ أكي حنًئني‬ٛ‫خو ٗكٔز‬ٛ‫ٔن‬
was appreciated even in his own day for using old sources in new and ‫ويس‬ٚ‫ًووش رطووَق ؿي‬ٚ‫ووخىٍ قي‬ًٜ‫خيووّ رٔووزذ حٓووظويحيّ ن‬ٚ‫ أ‬ٙ‫كظووٗ فوو‬
interesting ways. .‫ٔيًظعش‬
Like Pope, Shakespeare was inspired by ancient texts but he changed ‫َّْوخ‬ٛ‫ًوش ٔنكُوّ غ‬ٚ‫ حنقي‬ٕٙ‫و‬ُٜ‫َ يٍ حن‬ٛ‫ حٓظهٓى ٗكٔز‬،‫يؼم رٕد‬
them so that the plots became more closely related to his own society. .ّ‫ رًـظًع‬ٛ‫هش ر٘كم ٔػ‬ّٜ‫زق حنلزكخص يظ‬ٜ‫ ط‬ٙ‫نك‬
He wrote some of the most beautiful verse and metre in the English ‫ حنهغوش‬ٙ‫ً فو‬٢‫كؼوَ ؿًوخ‬ٞ‫خ ً يٍ حن٘عَ ٔحنٌُٕ حن٘وعَ٘ ح‬٠‫كظذ رع‬
language but he was also a pioneer of 'blank verse‘. .’َ‫ ‘حن٘عَ حنل‬ٙ‫خ ٍحثيحً ف‬٠ٚ‫ش ٔنكُّ كخٌ أ‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ح‬
This kind of writing does not need the balance found in classical ‫ حنكظخرووش‬ٙ‫لظووخؽ ْووٌح حنُّووٕع يووٍ حنكظخرووش حنووٌُٕ حنًٕؿووٕى فوو‬ٚ ٢
writing, which allows more freedom for characters to speak like real ‫خص رخنظلووويع‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٜ‫ّوووش أكزوووَ نه٘و‬َٚ‫ٔوووًق رل‬ٚ ‫ ْٔوووٌح‬،‫ش‬ٛ‫ك‬ٛ‫ٓووو‬٣‫حنك‬
people. .ٍٛٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫كؤَخّ كق‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. The classical writers had ………………on literature for centuries.
a. a great influence b. no influence c. a bad influence
2. The classical writers ……………..
a. used metre b. didn‘t use metre c. rejected the use of metre
3. William Shakespeare was ……………..
a. a dramatist, not a poet b. a bad poet c. a good poet
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
4. known about by many people in many places 5. the right to do anything you want
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
6. The things that Pope admired in classical literature are ………………. 8. Blank verse gives characters…………….
7. Shakespeare changed the plots of ancient texts so that they……………
‫انحهىل‬
1. a 2. a 3. c 4. famous 5. freedom 6. balance, neatness and technical perfection.
7. became more closely related to his own society. 8. more freedom to speak like real people.

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play ‫ش‬ٛ‫ئَك‬ a story written to be performed in a theatre ‫ ئَف‬ٙ‫هٓخ ف‬ٛ‫ظى طًؼ‬ٛ‫ّش طكظذ ن‬ٜ‫ق‬
ordinary ٘‫عخى‬ usual – not different or special ً ‫خ‬ٛ‫ْ يوظهيخ ً أٔ هخ‬ٛ‫عخى٘ – ن‬

Shakespeare was particularly interested in ‗the language of the ّ‫ رهغش حنُوخّ ٔطرٓوَ نُوخ أعًخنو‬ٙ‫َ يٓظًخ ً ر٘كم هخ‬ٛ‫كخٌ ٗكٔز‬
people‘ and his works show us some of the ways that English was ٙ‫ووش فوو‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ كخَووض طظطووٍٕ رٓوخ حنهغووش ح‬ٙ‫وخ ً يووٍ حنطووَق حنظو‬٠‫رع‬
developing during his lifetime. .ّ‫خط‬ٛ‫ك‬
Some words, such as 'accommodation‘ and ‗to pander‘, for example, ‫ نوى‬،‫م حنًؼوخل‬ٛ‫عهٗ ٓز‬، ’‫ظـٕل‬ٚ‘ ٔ ’‫قخيش‬٠‫ حنكهًخص يؼم ‘ح‬ٞ‫رع‬
were not recorded in the English language before Shakespeare ٙ‫َ فوو‬ٛ‫٘ووًهٓخ ٗكٔووز‬ٚ ٌ‫ووش قزووم أ‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ حنهغووش ح‬ٙ‫طكووٍ ئووـهش فوو‬
included them in his plays. .ّ‫خط‬ٛ‫ئَك‬
Writers like Shakespeare are so important because they change the ‫ كظوذ‬ٙ‫قوش حنظو‬َٚ‫ؤَح حنط‬ٛ‫َّٓى غ‬ٞ ً‫ٍ ؿيح‬ًّٛ ٓ‫َ ي‬ٛ‫كظّخد يؼم ٗكٔز‬
way literature is written afterwards. . ‫ىد رعي ًن‬ٞ‫رٓخ ح‬
The Romantic poets (writing 100 years later) were influenced by the ) ‫ عوووخو‬033 ‫ٍ كظزوووٕح رعوووي‬ٌٚ‫ٍ ( حنووو‬ٛٛ‫طوووؤػَ حن٘وووعَحء حنَٔيخَٔووو‬
way that Shakespeare was not limited by metre; ‫ٍٕحً رخنٌُٕ حن٘عَ٘ ؛‬ٜ‫َ يل‬ٛ‫ٓخ ٗكٔز‬ٛ‫كٍ ف‬ٚ ‫ نى‬ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫رخنط‬
the Victorians were influenced by the way Shakespeare tried to give ‫ٓووخ‬ٛ‫َ ف‬ٛ‫ كووخٔل ٗكٔووز‬ٙ‫قووش حنظوو‬َٚ‫ووٌٕ رخنط‬ٍٕٚ‫كظ‬ٛ‫طووؤػَ حنكظووخد حني‬
ordinary people a voice; and 20th century writers were inspired by the ٌَ‫ٍ؛ ٔقوووي حٓوووظهٓى ٗوووعَحء حنقووو‬ٛٚ‫وووٕص نهُوووخّ حنعوووخى‬ٛ ‫اعطوووخء‬
way he worked with classical sources. .‫ش‬ٛ‫ك‬ٛٓ٣‫خىٍ حنك‬ًٜ‫ عًم رٓخ رخن‬ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫ٍ يٍ حنط‬َٚ٘‫حنع‬
The development of English literature is about writers reading and ٌٔ‫قووَإ‬ٚ ٌٍٚ‫ووِ٘ ْووٕ كووٕل حنكظ ّووخد حنوو‬ٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ىد ح‬ٞ‫ط طووٕ ٍ ح‬
being influenced by other writers and building on what has already ُِ‫زُوووٌٕ عهوووٗ يوووخ طوووى اَـوووخ‬ٚٔ ٍَٚ‫هووو‬ٜ‫ظوووؤػٌَٔ رخنكظوووخد ح‬ٚٔ
been achieved. . ‫ئزقخ‬
In this way, the history of literature has led to many great pieces of ‫ًش‬ٛ‫َ يٍ حنكظخرخص حنعر‬ٛ‫ىد انٗ حنكؼ‬ٞ‫ن ح‬ٍٚ‫ قخى طخ‬،‫قش‬َٚ‫رٌِٓ حنط‬
writing in English, some now as well-known and admired as the ‫عـخد كًخ‬٠‫َ ح‬ٛ‫ٌ ٔطؼ‬ٜ‫ يُٓخ يعَٔفش ح‬ٞ‫ حنزع‬،‫ش‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫رخنهغش ح‬
classical texts that first inspired its early writers. .‫ٔحثم‬ٞ‫ً حنكظخد ح‬٢ٔ‫ أنًٓض أ‬ٙ‫ش حنظ‬ٛ‫ك‬ٛٓ٣‫ حنك‬ُٕٜٙ‫ حن‬ْٙ
Choose the correct answer a , b or c:
1. Shakespeare was particularly interested in ……………
a. formal language b. academic language c. every day language

2. The Romantic poets were inspired by the way Shakespeare ……………


a. used metre b. was unlimited by metre c. was limited by metre

Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. usual – not different or special
4. stories written to be performed in a theatre
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. Shakespeare introduced new words to the English language; for example, ………………………………………………
6. The Victorians admired Shakespeare because …………………………………………….………………………………
7. In the development of the English literature, writers read other writers and then ………………………………………..
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. b 3. ordinary 4. plays
5. accommodation, to pander 6. he tried to give ordinary people a voice. 7. build on what has already been achieved.

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criticism ‫َ ْقي‬ the analysis and judgment of the merits and faults of ٙ‫ٕد عًم أىر‬ٛ‫خ ٔع‬ٚ‫م ٔحنلكى عهٗ يِح‬ٛ‫طله‬
a literary or artistic work ُّٙ‫أٔ ف‬
playwright ٙ‫كخطذ ئَك‬ a person who writes plays – dramatist ٙ‫خص – كخطذ ئَك‬ٛ‫كظذ ئَك‬ٚ ٚ‫ٗو‬
talent ‫يْٕزش‬ the natural ability to do something well ‫ي‬ٛ‫ء ر٘كم ؿ‬ٙ٘‫خو ر‬ٛ‫ش عهٗ حنق‬ٛ‫ع‬ٛ‫حنقيٍس حنطز‬
talented ‫يْٕٕد‬ having the natural ability to do something well ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ر٘كم ؿ‬ٙ٘‫خو ر‬ٛ‫ش عهٗ حنق‬ٛ‫ع‬ٛ‫ًه حنقيٍس حنطز‬ٚ
contemporary َٛ‫هيعخ‬ happening or living during the same time period ‫ش‬ُٛ‫ َيْ حنيظَس حنِي‬ٙ‫ٖ ف‬ٛ‫ع‬ٚ ٔ‫ليع أ‬ٚ
upstart ‫غ حنُعًش‬ٚ‫كي‬ a person who has risen quickly to wealth or prominence ‫م انٗ نهؼَٔس أٔ حنَ٘ٓس رَٔعش‬ٛٔ ٚ‫ٗو‬
critic ‫َخقي‬ someone who judges the merits a literary work ٙ‫خ عًم أىر‬ٚ‫لكى عهٗ يِح‬ٚ ٚ‫ٗو‬
timeless ‫هخني‬ not changed by time passing ٍ‫َ يع ئٍَ حنِي‬ٛ‫ظغ‬ٚ ٢
William Shakespeare (1564–1616) is one of the most popular writers ٙ‫ش فو‬ٛ‫كؼوَ ٗوعز‬ٞ‫) أكي حنكظخد ح‬0000 – 0602( َٛ‫خو ٗكٔز‬ٛ‫ٔن‬
in history. Between the years 1960 and 2000, more books on his life ٍ‫ َه٘وووَص كظوووذ عووو‬، 0333 – 0303 ٍٛ‫ٍ حنعوووخي‬ٛ‫ رووو‬.‫ن‬ٍٚ‫حنظوووخ‬
and work were published than in the previous three hundred and fifty ً ‫ٍ عخيووخ‬ٛ‫ػًخثووش ٔهًٔوو‬٣‫ حنؼ‬ٙ‫خطووّ ٔأعًخنووّ أكؼووَ يًووخ َه٘ووَ فوو‬ٛ‫ك‬
years. .‫حنٔخرقش‬
Shakespearean criticism has changed considerably since the ‫ووَ يُووٌ هيؼهووض أعًووخل حنكخطووذ‬ٛ‫َ ر٘ووكم كز‬ٛ‫ووَ َقووي ٗكٔووز‬ٛ‫نقووي طغ‬
playwright‘s works were first performed. Criticism in this context ‫ يُخق٘وش قطعوش‬ٙ‫عُو‬ٚ ‫خق‬ٛ‫ ٌْح حنٔو‬ٙ‫ ٔحنُقي ف‬.‫ٔل يَّس‬ٞ ٙ‫حنًَٔك‬
means the discussion of a piece of literature, where you think and ‫يس أٔ حنكظوخد‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫ـعوم حنق‬ٚ ٌ٘‫غ طيكَ ٔطظليع عٍ حن‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫ش‬ٛ‫أىر‬
talk about why a poem, book or play is good or bad. .‫جش‬ٛٓ ٔ‫يس أ‬ٛ‫ّش ؿ‬ٛ‫أٔ حنًَٔك‬
Over the centuries, critics have found different things to say about ‫خء يوظهيووش نهظل و ّيع عووٍ أعًووخل‬ٛ‫ ٔؿووي حنُقّووخى أٗوو‬،ٌَٔ‫عزووَ حنقوو‬
Shakespeare‘s work, and readers and audiences across the world have ‫َ عزوَ حنعوخنى يعوخٌ يوظهيوش‬ْٛ‫ ٔحكظ٘ف حنقوَّحء ٔحنـًوخ‬،َٛ‫ٗكٔز‬
discovered different meanings in his drama and poetry. .َِ‫خطّ ٔٗع‬ٛ‫ ئَك‬ٙ‫ف‬
Shakespeare was an original writer in many ways. He was unusual ٍٛ‫وَ عوخى٘ روو‬ٛ‫ كوخٌ غ‬.‫وَس‬ٛ‫ً رطووَق كؼ‬٣ٛ‫و‬ٛ‫َ كخطزوخ ً أ‬ٛ‫كوخٌ ٗكٔوز‬
among the playwrights of his day because he trained as an actor ‫زوويأ‬ٚ ٌ‫َووّ طوويٍّد كًًؼووم قزووم أ‬ٞ ّ‫ ُيخَوو‬ٙ‫ٍ فوو‬ٛٛ‫حنكظووخد حنًٔووَك‬
before he started writing. .‫حنكظخرش‬
Shakespeare was also different from other playwrights because he ّ‫َو‬ٞ ٍَٚ‫هو‬ٜ‫ٍ ح‬ٛٛ‫خ ً عٍ حنكظخد حنًَٔك‬٠ٚ‫َ يوظهيخ أ‬ٛ‫كخٌ ٗكٔز‬
did not go to university. Most playwrights came from wealthy ٍ‫ٍ يوو‬ٛٛ‫ ؿووخء يعرووى حنكظّووخد حنًٔووَك‬.‫ووٌْذ انووٗ حنـخيعووش‬ٚ ‫نووى‬
families and received a very good education. .‫يحً ؿيح‬ٛ‫ًخ ؿ‬ٛ‫ش ٔطهقٕح طعه‬َٚ‫ص ػ‬٣‫عخث‬
Some contemporary writers were envious of Shakespeare‘s talent. In ‫ عوخو‬.َٛ‫لٔوئٌ يْٕزوش ٗكٔوز‬ٚ ٍَٚ‫و‬ٛ‫ حنكظوخد حنًعخ‬ٞ‫كخٌ رع‬
1592, the playwright Robert Greene called Shakespeare an ‗upstart َٛ‫ٍ عهووٗ ٗكٔووز‬َٚ‫ ٍٔرووَص غوو‬ٙ‫هو حنكخطووذ حنًٔووَك‬١‫ أ‬0630
crow, beautified in our feathers.‘ .’‫ُ٘خ‬َٚ‫م ر‬ًٛ‫ ؿ‬، ‫غ حنُّعًش‬ٚ‫حٓى ‘غَحد كي‬
This insult compares Shakespeare to an ugly, common bird that enjoys ‫خء‬ٛٗٞ‫ٔظًظع رخ‬ٚ ‫َ رطخثَ يعَٔ ر٘ع‬ٛ‫ْخَش ٗكٔز‬٠‫طقخٌٍ ٌِْ ح‬
things he does not deserve. Other critics were more generous. Ben Jonson, ،ٌٕ‫ روٍ ؿَٕٔو‬.ً ‫ٔكوخٌ َقوخى هؤٌَ أكؼوَ كَيوخ‬.‫ٔوظلقٓخ‬ٚ ٢ ٙ‫حنظ‬
a rival playwright, recognised that Shakespeare was very talented. .ً‫َ كخٌ يْٕٕرخ ً ؿيح‬ٛ‫ حعظَ أٌ ٗكٔز‬،ْ‫ يُخف‬ٙ‫كخطذ ئَك‬
Jonson said that Shakespeare‘s work was timeless; his use of the ٌ‫َ كخَوووض نكووو ّم ُيوووخٌ؛ كوووخ‬ٛ‫قوووخل ؿَٕٔوووٌٕ اٌ أعًوووخل ٗكٔوووز‬
English language was so original that ‗He was not of an age, but for all ،‫وَ ٔحكوي‬ٜ‫كوٍ نع‬ٚ ‫ً ؿيحً أَّ ‘نى‬٣ٛٛ‫ش أ‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫حٓظويحيّ نهغش ح‬
time!‘ ’!ٍٕٜ‫ٔنكٍ نك ّم حنع‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c:
1. Before becoming a dramatist, Shakespeare trained as ………………
a. a critic b. an actor c. a teacher
2. Unlike other playwrights, Shakespeare …………….
a. received higher education b. received expensive classical education c. didn't receive higher education.
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. people who judge the merits of a literary, artistic or musical work 4. people who write plays
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. Readers and audiences of Shakespeare's work found …………………. 7. Ben Johnson was ………………………...
6. Robert Greene likened Shakespeare to a crow that is …………………. 8. Shakespeare's work made him……………
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. c 3. critics 4. playwrights 5. different meanings in his drama and poetry.
6. an ugly, common bird that enjoys things he does not deserve. 7. a rival dramatist. 8. not of an age, but for all time.
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theatre ‫ئَف‬ a building where you can watch a play ّٛ‫ش ف‬ٛ‫ًكُ ي٘خْيس ئَك‬ٚ ‫رُخء‬
influence َٛ‫طؤػ‬ an effect َٛ‫طؤػ‬
stage ‫ه٘زش حنًَٔف‬ the part of a theatre where actors perform ٌٕ‫ّ حنًًؼه‬ٛ‫ًؼم ف‬ٚ ٌ٘‫حنـِء يٍ حنًَٔف حن‬
learn’d ‫يؼقف‬ educated ‫يؼقف‬
genius ‫ش‬َٚ‫عزق‬ a very high level of intelligence, skill and ability ‫ئظٕٖ عخل ؿيح يٍ حنٌكخء ٔحنًٓخٍس ٔحنقيٍس‬
In 1642, thirty-six years after Shakespeare‘s death, the theatres of ‫ أغهقوض‬،ً‫ػوٌٕ عخيوخ‬٣‫رٔوض ٔػ‬ ّ َٛ‫ رعي يٕص ٗكٔوز‬،0020 ‫عخو‬
London were closed. Theatres were thought to be a bad influence on ٗ‫جخ ً عهووو‬ٛ‫َحً ٓووو‬ٛ‫هعظقوووي أٌ نهًٔوووخٍف طوووؤػ‬ٚ ٌ‫ كوووخ‬.ٌ‫ئوووخٍف نُوووي‬
society, and they did not reopen for eighteen years. .ً ‫ش عَ٘ عخيخ‬َٛ‫ رعي ػًخ‬٢‫هعخى فظلٓخ ا‬ٚ ‫ ٔنى‬،‫حنًـظًع‬
When the theatres reopened in 1660, Shakespeare‘s plays were not ‫خص‬ٛ‫ نى طكٍ طًؼم ئَك‬،0003 ‫ي فظق حنًٔخٍف عخو‬ٛ‫عُييخ أع‬
performed, and it was only a century later that his plays finally returned ‫لووويع ٓوووٕٖ رعوووي يووؤٍَ قوووٌَ أٌ عوووخىص‬ٚ ‫ ٔنوووى‬،َٛ‫ٗكٔوووز‬
to the London stage. .ٌ‫َحً انٗ ه٘زش ئَف نُي‬ٛ‫خطّ أه‬ٛ‫ئَك‬
As a result, many people read the plays of Shakespeare as literature and ‫َ كوؤىد‬ٛ‫خص ٗكٔوز‬ٛ‫َ يٍ حنُخّ ئَك‬ٛ‫ قَأ حنكؼ‬، ‫ـش نٌن‬ٛ‫َٔظ‬
did not see them performed on a stage. It was during this time that ‫وزق‬ٛ‫ ٔأػُوخء طهو حنيظوَس أ‬.‫َْٔخ طًؼم عهٗ ه٘زش ئَف‬ٚ ‫ٔنى‬
Shakespeare became known as a poet rather than a playwright. .ً ‫خ‬ٛ‫ْ كخطزخ ً ئَك‬ٛ‫َ يعَٔفخ ً عهٗ أَّ ٗخعَحً ٔن‬ٛ‫ٗكٔز‬
John Dryden is one of the most famous critics of Shakespeare. In 1668, ،0002 ‫ عوخو‬.‫كؼوَ ٗوَٓس‬ٞ‫َ ح‬ٛ‫ٍ أكوي َقّوخى ٗكٔوز‬ٚ‫وي‬ٚ‫ؿٌٕ ىٍح‬
he said that Shakespeare was ‗naturally learn‘d‘ and that he did not need ‫كٍ رلخؿش‬ٚ ‫’ ٔأَّ نى‬ٙ‫ع‬ٛ‫ز‬١ ‫َ كخٌ ‘يؼقف ر٘كم‬ٛ‫قخل اٌ ٗكٔز‬
a university education to be a great writer. .ً ‫ًخ‬ٛ‫كٌٕ كخطزخ ً عر‬ٛ‫ ن‬ٙ‫ى ؿخيع‬ٛ‫نظعه‬
John Addison, writing in 1712, agreed with Dryden, saying that ،ٌ‫وي‬ٚ‫ حطي يع ىٍح‬، 0100 ‫ حنٌ٘ كظذ عخو‬، ٌٕٔٚ‫ؿٌٕ اى‬
Shakespeare had ‗nothing to support him besides the strength of his ‫ٔووخَيِ ٓووٕٖ قووٕس‬ٚ ً ‫ج خ‬ٛ‫ًه و ٗوو‬ٚ ‫َ ‘ نووى‬ٛ‫ووغ قووخل اٌ ٗكٔووز‬ٛ‫ك‬
own genius.‘ . ’ّ‫ظ‬َٚ‫عزق‬
Samuel Johnson was the first critic to compare Shakespeare to the ‫َ ٔكظّوخد‬ٛ‫ٍ ٗكٔوز‬ٛ‫قوخٌٍ رو‬ٚ ‫م ؿٌَٕٕٔ أٔل َخقي‬ٕٚٛ‫خي‬ٛ ٌ‫كخ‬
writers of ancient Greece and Rome, and suggested that Shakespeare ‫َ كووخٌ أعرووى‬ٛ‫ ٔحقظووَف أٌ ٗكٔووز‬،‫َٕووخٌ ٔحنَٔيووخٌ حنقووييخء‬ٛ‫حن‬
was the greatest poet of all time. .ٌ‫ُيخ‬ٞ‫ ك ّم ح‬ٙ‫ٗخعَ ف‬
He argued that Shakespeare was ‗above all writers..a poet of nature; the ‫عش؛‬ٛ‫ز‬١ َ‫ٗخع‬... ‫َ كخٌ ‘يظيٕقخ ً عهٗ ك ّم حنكظّخد‬ٛ‫َخقٖ أٌ ٗكٔز‬
poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life.‘ .’‫خس‬ٛ‫ش نهٔهٕب ٔحنل‬ٜ‫َفع نقَحثّ يَ س يوه‬ٚ ٌ٘‫حن٘خعَ حن‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c:
1. When the theatres reopened in 1660, people could ………………….
a. read Shakespeare's plays as literature b. see his plays performed in a theatre c. neither a nor b

2. Samuel Johnson said that Shakespeare was ……………..


a. the best poet in England b. the best poet in all ages c. a dramatist, not a poet
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. the part of a theatre where actors stand and perform 4. very old

Complete the following sentences with information from the text:


1. The theatres were closed in 1642 because …………………………………………………..…………..………………
2. During that period when Shakespeare's plays were only read in books, not performed, he ………….……………….
3. Dryden said that Shakespeare did not need a university education because he ……………………….……………….
4. John Addison said that what made Shakespeare great was …………………………………………………………….
‫انحهىل‬
1. a 2. b 3. stage 4. ancient 5. they were thought to be a bad influence on society.
6. became known as a poet rather than a playwright. 7. was 'naturally learn'd. 8. the strength of his genius.
'
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
theme ‫فكَس‬ the main idea in a literary work ٙ‫ عًم أىر‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ٛٔٛ‫حنيكَس حنَث‬
mistake ‫هطؤ‬ an action or opinion that is not true ً ‫لخ‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ ْٛ‫فعم أٔ ٍأ٘ ن‬
enjoy ‫ٔظًظع‬ٚ get pleasure from something ‫ء يخ‬ٙٗ ٍ‫م عهٗ حنّٔعخىس ي‬ٜ‫ل‬ٚ
Alexander Pope recognised the depth and originality of Shakespeare‘s ٌ‫ قووخل ا‬.َٛ‫ووخنش أعًووخل ٗكٔووز‬ٛ‫حعظووَ حنكٔووُيٍ رووٕد رعً و ٔأ‬
work. He said that Shakespeare developed characters himself when ‫خطّ رُئوووّ عُوووييخ كوووخٌ حنكظّوووخد‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٜ‫طووو ٍّٕ ٗو‬ٚ ٌ‫َ كوووخ‬ٛ‫ٗكٔوووز‬
other playwrights reflected the work of others. .ٍَٚ‫ه‬ٜ‫عكٌٕٔ عًم ح‬ٚ ٌَٔ‫ه‬ٜ‫ح‬
Shakespeare was not widely admired in the 18th century; people ‫ حنقووٌَ حنؼوخيٍ ع٘ووَ؛‬ٙ‫َ فو‬ٛ‫ووَ ر٘كٔوز‬ٛ‫كوٍ ُْووخب اعـوخد كز‬ٚ ‫نوى‬
thought he was an uneducated man from a violent period of English ٍ‫يوش يوو‬ُٛ‫ووَ يؼقوف يوٍ فظووَس ع‬ٛ‫عظقووئٌ أَوّ ٍؿوم غ‬ٚ ّ‫كوخٌ حنُوخ‬
history. .ِ٘ٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ن ح‬ٍٚ‫حنظخ‬
In the 19th century, the Romantic poets were inspired by ٍ‫ٌٕ يوو‬ٛ‫ حٓووظهٓى حن٘ووعَحء حنَٔيخَٔوو‬،َ‫ حنقووٌَ حنظخٓووع ع٘وو‬ٙ‫فوو‬
Shakespeare‘s plays and used the same themes in their poems. At this ٙ‫ فو‬.‫وخثيْى‬ٜ‫ ق‬ٙ‫فكوخٍ فو‬ٞ‫َ ٔحٓظوييٕح َيْ ح‬ٛ‫خص ٗكٔز‬ٛ‫ئَك‬
time, Shakespeare was still considered more as a poet than as a َ‫ّ عهٗ حَّ ٗخعَ أكؼ‬ٛ‫هُرَ ان‬ٚ ‫ِحل‬ٚ ‫َ يخ‬ٛ‫ كخٌ ٗكٔز‬،‫ٌْح حنٕقض‬
playwright. .ٙ‫يٍ كَّٕ كخطذ ئَك‬
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, one of the most famous Romantic poets, ،ٍٛٛ‫ أكووي أٗووَٓ حن٘ووعَحء حنَٔيخَٔوو‬،‫ؾ‬َٚٛ‫هووَ كووٕن‬ٛ‫م ط‬ٕٚٛ‫ووخي‬ٛ
noticed that some expressions in Shakespeare‘s work were about ‫َ كخَوض عوٍ حنيهٔويش‬ٛ‫ أعًوخل ٗكٔوز‬ٙ‫َ فو‬ٛ‫ حنظعخر‬ٞ‫كع أٌ رع‬٢
philosophy and psychology. .ْ‫ٔعهى حنُي‬
Before Coleridge, these expressions were sometimes considered ٗ‫ كظوو‬.‫خَووخ أهطووخء‬ٛ‫َ أك‬ٛ‫ كخَووض طعظزووَ ْووٌِ حنظعووخر‬،‫ؾ‬َٚٛ‫قزووم كووٕن‬
mistakes. By the 1920s, Shakespeare was thought of as a playwright ّ‫َ عهووٗ أَوو‬ٛ‫هُرووَ انووٗ ٗكٔووز‬ٚ ٌ‫ كووخ‬،ٍَٚ‫ُخص حنقووٌَ حنع٘وو‬َٚ‫ع٘وو‬
rather than a poet. .ً‫ْ ٗخعَح‬ٛ‫ ٔن‬ٙ‫كخطذ ئَك‬
Harley Granville-Barker argued that the works of Shakespeare were ‫َ كخَض‬ٛ‫م – رخٍكَ أٌ أعًخل ٗكٔز‬ٛ‫ غَحَي‬ٙ‫ٔقي ؿخىل ْخٍن‬
best when they were performed in a theatre, rather than read in a ٙ‫ يووٍ قَحءطٓووخ فوو‬،‫ووم عُووييخ كخَووض ط هًؼووم عهووٗ حنًٔووَف‬٠‫أف‬
book. . ‫كظخد‬
The Globe Theatre in London was the place where Shakespeare‘s ّ‫ووو‬ٛ‫ ف‬َٝ‫ نُووويٌ كوووخٌ حنًكوووخٌ حنوووٌ٘ طهعووو‬ٙ‫حنًٔوووَف حنكووؤَ٘ فووو‬
plays were performed during his lifetime. .ّ‫خط‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫َ ف‬ٛ‫خص ٗكٔز‬ٛ‫ئَك‬
In 1997, the theatre was rebuilt and many new critics were able to ‫وَ يوٍ حنُقوخى حنـويى كوخَٕح‬ٛ‫ي رُوخء حنًٔوَف ٔحنكؼ‬ٛ‫ أع‬، 0331 ‫عخو‬
watch and enjoy the plays. Today, there are many critics who consider ‫ ُْوخب‬،‫وٕو‬ٛ‫ حن‬.‫ٓوظًظخع رٓوخ‬٢‫خص ٔح‬ٛ‫ٍ عهٗ ي٘خْيس حنًَٔك‬ٍٚ‫قخى‬
Shakespeare as both playwright and poet. .ً‫خ ً ٔٗخعَح‬ٛ‫َ كخطزخ ً ئَك‬ٛ‫عظزٌَٔ ٗكٔز‬ٚ ٌٍٚ‫َ يٍ حنُقخى حن‬ٛ‫حنكؼ‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c:
1. Alexander Pope argued that Shakespeare …………..
a. reflected the characters of others b. imitated other writers c. developed his own characters
2. The Romantic poets thought about Shakespeare as ...............
a. a playwright more than a poet b. a poet more than a playwright c. a novelist
3. Harley Granville-Barker thought that it was better for Shakespeare's works to …………..
a. be read in books b. be watched on the stage c. be neglected
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
4. the main ideas in a literary work 5. a building where you can watch a play
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
6. People in the 18th century didn‘t like Shakespeare much because they………………….………………………………...
7. Coleridge said that Shakespeare's expressions that were sometimes seen as mistakes were …………………..…………
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. b 3. b 4. themes 5. theatre
6. thought he was an uneducated man from a violent period of English history. 7. about philosophy and psychology.

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer ‫يغبيشاد رىو عىٌش‬ ( p 18 )
by Mark Twain (1835–1910) ٌٍ‫يبسن رى‬
town ‫رهيس‬ a place that is larger than a village ‫ش‬َٚ‫يكخٌ أكزَ يٍ ق‬
bank ‫يّش‬ٟ the side of a river ََٓ َ١
clever ٙ‫ًك‬ quick at learning and understanding things ‫خء‬ٛٗٞ‫ طعهى ٔفٓى ح‬ٙ‫ع ف‬َٚٓ
nephew )‫حرٍ أم (أهض‬ the son of someone‘s brother or sister ‫ يخ‬ٚ‫حرٍ أم أٔ أهض ٗو‬
wits ‫ فطُش‬- ‫ًكخء‬ intelligence – ability to invent and imagine ‫ّم‬ٛ‫هظَحع ٔحنظو‬٢‫ًكخء – حنقيٍس عهٗ ح‬
avoid ‫ظـُذ‬ٚ to keep oneself away from somebody or something ‫ء يخ‬ٙٗ ٔ‫ يخ أ‬ٚ‫هزعي َئّ عٍ ٗو‬ٚ
privilege ُ‫خ‬ٛ‫حيظ‬ something you are lucky to have the chance to do ّ‫خو ر‬ٛ‫ش نهق‬َٛ‫ٕل عهٗ ف‬ٜ‫جخ ً طكٌٕ يلرٕظخ ً رخنل‬ٛٗ
possessions ‫يًظهكخص‬ things you own ) have ) ‫خء طًهكٓخ‬ٛٗ‫أ‬
worthless ّ‫ًش ن‬ٛ‫ ق‬٢ having no value or importance ‫ش‬ًْٛ‫ًش أٔ أ‬ٛ‫ْ نّ ق‬ٛ‫ن‬
2000 ‫دوسح عبو‬
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is the story of a few months in the life َٛ‫وغ‬ٛ ‫وخس ٔنوي‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫وعش أٗوَٓ فو‬٠‫ّوش نز‬ٜ‫َ ق‬ٕٚ‫يغوخيَحص طوٕو ٓو‬
of a young boy living in a small town in south-western America, on َ‫ويخ َٓو‬ٟ ٗ‫ عهو‬،‫كوخ‬َٚ‫َس ؿُٕد غوَد أي‬ٛ‫غ‬ٛ ‫ رهيس‬ٙ‫ٖ ف‬ٛ‫ع‬ٚ
the banks of the Mississippi River in the 1840s. .َ٘‫ُخص حنقٌَ حنظخٓع ع‬ٛ‫ أٍرع‬ٙ‫ ف‬ٙ‫ز‬ًٛٔٛٔٛ‫حن‬
The boy, Tom Sawyer, is both clever and adventurous, often finding ٙ‫قووش حنظوو‬َٚ‫ـووي حنط‬ٚ ‫ غخنزوخ ً يووخ‬،َ‫ ٔيغووخي‬ٙ‫ ًكوو‬،َٕٚ‫ طووٕو ٓوو‬،‫حنٕنوي‬
that the way in which adults go about things is wrong and, on ٙ‫ٔووخعي فوو‬ٚ ،ً‫خَوخ‬ٛ‫أك‬،ٔ ‫جووش‬١‫خء هخ‬ٛ‫ٗوو‬ٞ‫ظعخيووم رٓووخ حنزووخنغٌٕ يووع ح‬ٚ
occasion, helping to correct their mistaken view of the world. .‫جش نهعخنى‬١‫ق َرَطٓى حنوخ‬ٛ‫ل‬ٜ‫ط‬
Tom lives with his aunt Polly and his half-brother Sid; their aunt has ‫ي ؛ طزُّووض‬ٛ‫ ٓوو‬، ٛ‫ووَ حن٘ووق‬ٛ‫ووّ غ‬ٛ‫ ٔأه‬ٙ‫ٖ طووٕو يووع هخنظووّ رووٕن‬ٛ‫عوو‬ٚ
adopted the two boys on the death of their mother. .‫ٍ عُي يٕص أيًٓخ‬ٚ‫هخنظًٓخ حنٕني‬
Aunt Polly is a very kind, elderly lady, determined to bring up her two ٙ‫ووش حرُوو‬ٛ‫ووَ عهووٗ طَر‬ٜ‫ طه‬،ً‫يووش ؿوويح‬ٛ‫ّيس عـووُٕ نط‬ٛ‫ ٓو‬ٙ‫حنوخنووش رووٕن‬
nephews to be good citizens. .ٍٚ‫ي‬ٛ‫ٍ ؿ‬ُٛ١‫كَٕخ يٕح‬ٛ‫أهظٓخ ن‬
However, Tom, with his love of adventure, finds himself using his wits ‫ٔوظويو فطُظوّ نظـُوذ‬ٚ ّ‫ـوي َئو‬ٚ ،‫ رلزّّ نهًغخيَحص‬،‫ طٕو‬،ٍ‫ٔنك‬
to avoid many of the things which Aunt Polly tries to force on him and ّ‫وو‬ٛ‫وٓخ عه‬َٟ‫ أٌ طي‬ٙ‫ طلوخٔل حنوخنوش روٕن‬ٙ‫خء حنظو‬ٛ‫ٗو‬ٞ‫وَ يوٍ ح‬ٛ‫حنكؼ‬
she, in turn, often finds herself forced to admire the spirit of her ‫عـخد رؤَف‬٠‫ غخنزخ ً يخ طـي َئٓخ يـزَس عهٗ ح‬،‫ رئٍْخ‬،ْٙٔ
‗naughty‘ nephew. .’‫ت حنٔهٕب‬ٛٓ‘ ‫حرٍ أهظٓخ‬
One day, as a punishment, Tom is told to whitewash the garden fence ٌٕ‫قش رخنه‬ٚ‫خؽ حنلي‬ٛٓ ‫ء‬٣١ ‫هطهذ يٍ طٕو‬ٚ ،‫ كعقٕرش‬،‫خو‬ٚٞ‫ أكي ح‬ٙ‫ف‬
(a task that will take a whole day). Tom avoids doing this by telling ٍ‫خو رٌٓح ع‬ٛ‫ظـُذ طٕو حنق‬ٚ .)ً٣‫ٕيخ ً كخي‬ٚ ‫ (يًٓش ٓظٔظغَق‬ٞٛ‫ر‬ٞ‫ح‬
the other children what a fun task it is, and what a privilege it is to ‫ ٔيووخ‬،‫ٍ كووى ْووٌِ حنًٓ ًّووش يًظعووش‬َٚ‫هوو‬ٜ‫يووخل ح‬١ٞ‫ و اهزووخٍ ح‬َٚ١
whitewash the fence. .ٞٛ‫ر‬ٞ‫خؽ رخنهٌٕ ح‬ٛٔ‫ٓخ حنيَى يٍ ىْخٌ حن‬ُٛ‫ـ‬ٚ ٙ‫خُحص حنظ‬ٛ‫يظ‬٢‫ح‬
He soon has several children paying him with toys and interesting ‫وويفعٌٕ نووّ رخن و ّييٗ ٔحنًًظهكووخص‬ٚ ‫يووخل‬١‫ حنلووخل ُْووخب ع و ّيس أ‬ٙ‫ٔفوو‬
possessions in order to be allowed to paint the fence. .‫خؽ‬ّٛٔ‫ًٔق نٓى ريْخٌ حن‬ٚ ٙ‫حنًًظعش نك‬
Many of the possessions would seem worthless to adults, but to ٍ‫ ٔنكوو‬،ٍٛ‫ًوش نٓوخ رخنُٔوزش نهزوخنغ‬ٛ‫ ق‬٢ ‫وَ يوٍ حنًًظهكوخص‬ٛ‫ط زوئ حنكؼ‬
children with their greater imagination, they are of much higher value. .َٛ‫ًش أكزَ ركؼ‬ٛ‫ نٓخ ق‬،ً‫كؼَ حطٔخعخ‬ٞ‫خنٓى ح‬ٛ‫يخل رو‬١ٟ‫رخنُٔزش ن‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Aunt Polly decided to bring up the two boys to be …………..
a. naughty boys b. good people c. adventurous adults
2. The two boys were the sons of Aunt Polly‘s …………..
a. friend b. uncle c. sister
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. a place that is larger than a village 4. to keep oneself away 5. quick at learning and understanding things
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
6. Aunt Polly was forced to ……………………………… 8. One day Tom was asked to …………………………….
7. Tom helped adults by ………………………………….
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. c 3. town 4. avoid 5. clever 6. admire the spirit of her ‗naughty‘ nephew.
7. correcting their mistaken view of the world. 8. whitewash the garden fence.
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outcast ًٕ‫يُز‬ a person who has no place in society ‫ حنًـظًع‬ٙ‫ْ نّ يكخٌ ف‬ٛ‫ ن‬ٚ‫ٗو‬
wart ‫ػخنٕل‬ a small growth on the skin caused by a virus َّٔٛ‫ٔززّ ف‬ٚ ‫َ عهٗ حنـهي‬ٛ‫غ‬ٛ ‫حَظيخم‬
indulge ًْ‫ُغ‬ٚ to allow oneself to enjoy something ‫ء يخ‬ٙ٘‫ٓظًظخع ر‬٢‫ًٔق نُئّ رخ‬ٚ
murder ‫قظم‬ killing ‫قظم‬
innocent ‫رَ٘ء‬ not responsible for a crime ‫ًش‬َٚ‫َ ئئٔل عٍ ؿ‬ٛ‫غ‬
speech – ‫كهًش‬ a talk on a certain subject given to a group of ‫هعطٗ نًـًٕعش‬ٚ ٍٛ‫ٕع يع‬ٟٕ‫ ي‬ٙ‫غ ف‬ٚ‫كي‬
‫هطخد‬ people ّ‫يٍ حنُخ‬
hero ‫رطم‬ someone who has done something brave or good and ّ‫عـذ ر‬ٚٔ ‫ّي‬ٛ‫ قخو ريعم ٗـخع أٔ ؿ‬ٚ‫ٗو‬
is admired by others ٌَٔ‫ه‬ٜ‫ح‬
commit ‫َطكذ‬ٚ to do something illegal or wrong ‫ت‬١‫ أٔ هخ‬ََٕٙ‫َ قخ‬ٛ‫ء غ‬ٙ٘‫قٕو ر‬ٚ
buried ٌٕ‫ييف‬ put under the ground ٍٝٞ‫ٕع طلض ح‬ٟٕ‫ي‬
court ‫يلكًش‬ the place where trials are held ‫ٓخ حنًلخكًخص‬ٛ‫يكخٌ طظى ف‬
2012 ‫دوسح‬
Tom befriends the son of the village outcast, a child of about his own ً ‫زوخ‬َٚ‫يووم رووُيْ عًووَِ طق‬١ ،‫وش‬َٚ‫ حنق‬ٙ‫وخىق طووٕو حرووٍ حنًُزووًٕ فوو‬ٜٚ
age named Huckleberry Finn, or Huck. .‫ أٔ ْخب‬،ٍ‫حًّٓ ْخكهزَ٘ ف‬
Huckleberry is able to live the sort of life which Tom admires very ً‫وَح‬ٛ‫ طعـوذ طوٕو كؼ‬ٙ‫خس حنظو‬ٛ‫ش حنل‬ٛ‫ٖ َٕع‬ٛ‫ْخكهزَ٘ قخىٍ عهٗ حنع‬
much; a life free from Sunday school, baths, stiff collars and all the ‫خقوووخص‬ٛ‫ ٔحنل ًّخيوووخص ٔحن‬،‫كوووي‬ٞ‫وووش يوووٍ ييٍٓوووش ح‬ٛ‫وووخس هخن‬ٛ‫ؿووويحً؛ ك‬
other uncomfortable aspects of civilized life. .‫لش‬َٚ‫َ ي‬ٛ‫هَٖ حنغ‬ٞ‫ّش ح‬َٛ‫خس حنًي‬ٛ‫حنًظو٘زش ٔيرخَْ حنل‬
The two boys meet in the local graveyard one night, intending to bury ‫ووغ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،ٙ‫ووخن‬ٛ‫ اكوويٖ حنه‬ٙ‫ووش فوو‬ٛ‫ حنًقزووَس حنًله‬ٙ‫قووٗ حنٕنوويحٌ فوو‬٣‫ظ‬ٚ
a cat in an attempt to cure warts (they are very superstitious). .)ً‫َح‬ٛ‫ٌّٕ كؼ‬ٛ‫م ( فٓى هَحف‬ٛ‫ يلخٔنش ن٘يخء ػٕحن‬ٙ‫خٌ ىفٍ قطش ف‬ُٕٚٚ
Normally, Tom has to indulge in ‗make-believe' adventures to make ‫ش نـعم‬ٛ‫خن‬ٛ‫ حنًغخيَحص حنو‬ٙ‫َغًخّ ف‬٢‫ عهٗ طٕو ح‬،ٙ‫ع‬ٛ‫ز‬١ ‫ر٘كم‬
his life more interesting. .َ‫خطّ يًظعش أكؼ‬ٛ‫ك‬
But in that dark graveyard, he and Huck witness the murder of the ٙ‫ذ حنًله‬ٛ‫٘ٓي ْٔخب يقظم حنطز‬ٚ ،‫ طه حنًقزَس حنًعظًش‬ٙ‫ٔنكٍ ف‬
local doctor and find themselves in the midst of a real adventure. .‫ش‬ٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫ يغخيَس كق‬٢ٓٔ ‫ًٓخ‬ٛٔ‫ـيحٌ َي‬ٚٔ
They are the only ones who know the true identity of the murderer ‫وش نهقخطوم‬ٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫ّوش حنلق‬ٕٚ‫عَفوخٌ حنٓه‬ٚ ٌ‫يحٌ حنهوٌح‬ٛ‫خٌ حنٕك‬ٜ‫فًٓخ حن٘و‬
and, when an innocent man is arrested, the two frightened boys, with a ‫ ٔيعًٓوخ‬،ٌ‫غوخىٍ حنٕنويحٌ حنوخثيوخ‬ٚ ،‫هعظقم ٍؿم روَ٘ء‬ٚ ‫ عُييخ‬،ٔ
third friend, Joe, leave the village and hide on Jackson‘s Island. .ٌٕٔ‫َس ؿخك‬ِٚ‫ ؿ‬ٙ‫وظزجٌٕ ف‬ٚٔ ‫ش‬َٚ‫ حنق‬،ٕ‫ ؿ‬،‫ ػخنغ‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ
The villagers believe that the boys have been drowned and are very ‫وووَحً عُوووييخ‬ٛ‫ظيوووخؿئٌٔ كؼ‬ٚٔ ‫ى غَقوووٕح‬٢ٔٞ‫وووٌٕ أٌ ح‬َٚٔ‫عظقووي حنق‬ٚ
surprised when the three reappear just in time to hear the funeral ‫ع‬ٛٛ٘‫ حنٕقض حنًُخٓذ نًٔخع كهًش حنظ‬ٙ‫ش طًخيخ ف‬َٛ‫ػش ػخ‬٣‫رَٓ حنؼ‬ٚ
speech for their own deaths. .‫نًٕطٓى‬
The boys immediately become local heroes and, when the innocent ‫كٌٕ حنزَ٘ء يف‬ٚ ‫ عُييخ‬،ٔ ٍٛٛ‫ً يله‬٢‫ى أرطخ‬٢ٔٞ‫زق ح‬ٜٚ ‫ حنلخل‬ٙ‫ٔف‬
Muff Potter is about to be sentenced for a murder he did not commit, ،‫َطكزٓخ‬ٚ ‫ًش قظم نى‬َٚ‫عيحو نـ‬٠‫ّ رخ‬ٛ‫لكى عه‬ٚ ٌ‫رٕطَ عهٗ ٔٗ أ‬
Tom stands up in court and reveals the true identity of the murderer, an ‫ ٍؿوم‬،‫ش نهقخطوم‬ٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫ّش حنلق‬ٕٚٓ‫ك٘ف عٍ حن‬ٚٔ ‫ حنًلكًش‬ٙ‫قف طٕو ف‬ٚ
Indian called Injun Joe. Injun Joe is in court, but he escapes. .‫َٓد‬ٚ ُّ‫ ٔنك‬،‫ حنًلكًش‬ٙ‫ حَـخٌ ؿٕ ف‬.ٕ‫هًٔٗ حَـخٌ ؿ‬ٚ ٘‫ُْي‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Tom and Huck become friends because they ……………..
a. have different opinions b. enjoy the same things c. both like the Sunday school
2. In the court, Tom …………… the murderer.
a. uncovers b. protects c. helps
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. people who have done something brave or good and are admired by others 4. not responsible for a crime
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. One night, Tom and Huck went to the graveyard to ……………………………..………………………………………..
6. The villagers thought that the three boys ………………………………………………………………………………….
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. a 3. heroes 4. innocent 5. bury a cat in an attempt to cure warts. 6. had been drowned.
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adopt ُٗ‫ظز‬ٚ take the child of someone else and legally become its parent ِ‫ ٔحني‬ََٕٙ‫زق ر٘كم قخ‬ٜٚٔ َ‫ ه‬ٚ‫ؤهٌ حرٍ ٗو‬ٚ
persuade ‫هقُع‬ٚ to cause ( make ) someone do something ‫ يخ‬ٙ٘‫قٕو ر‬ٚ ‫خ ً يخ‬ٜ‫ـعم ٗو‬ٚ

Some days later, Tom returns to the caves, this time with Huck, and ،‫ ْوٌِ حنًو َّس يوع ْوخب‬، ٕ‫عوٕى طوٕو انوٗ حنكٓو‬ٚ ،‫وخو‬ٚ‫عش أ‬٠‫رعي ر‬
together they dig up the buried treasure. When the village discovers ‫وش أٌ ْوخب‬َٚ‫ عُوييخ طكظ٘وف حنق‬.ٌٕ‫ٔظوَؿخٌ حنكُِ حنًيف‬ٚ ً ‫ٔيعخ‬
that Huck is rich, the people immediately try to civilise him. .َِٕ‫ً ّي‬ٚ ٌ‫ حنلخل أ‬ٙ‫لخٔل حنُخّ ف‬ٚ ،ُٙ‫غ‬
The widow Douglas adopts him and the novel ends with Tom trying to ‫لوخٔل اقُوخع‬ٚ ٕ‫ش رظوٕو ْٔو‬ٚ‫ حن َّٔح‬ٙٓ‫ّ ٔطُظ‬٣‫ٍيهش ىٔغ‬ٞ‫طظزُخِ ح‬
persuade Huck to suffer the indignities imposed upon him by this well- ‫يس حنلُٔش‬ٛٔ‫ّ يٍ ٌِْ حن‬ٛ‫ش عه‬َٟٔ‫ْخَخص حنًي‬٠‫ ح‬َٙ‫عخ‬ٚ ٌ‫ْخب رؤ‬
meaning lady, just as Tom puts up with the things that Aunt Polly ‫وّ حنوخنوش‬ٛ‫وٓخ عه‬َٟ‫ طي‬ٙ‫خء حنظو‬ٛٗٞ‫ظل ًّم طٕو ح‬ٚ ‫ طًخيخ ً يؼهًخ‬،‫ش‬ُٛ‫حن‬
forces on him. .ٙ‫رٕن‬
Later in the summer, he goes on a picnic with his friend, Becky .َ٘‫ طخط‬ٙ‫ك‬ٛ‫ ر‬، ّ‫ق‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ ‫ َِْش يع‬ٙ‫ٌْذ ف‬ٚ ،‫ف‬ٜٛ‫ حن‬ٙ‫رعي ًن ف‬
Thatcher. The two get lost in a maze of caves. Tom sees Injun Joe, ٌ٘‫ حن‬،ٕ‫َٖ طٕو حَـخٌ ؿ‬ٚ . ٕٓ‫ يظخْش ك‬ٙ‫ػُخٌ ف‬٢‫ع ح‬ٛ٠ٚ ‫غ‬ٛ‫ك‬
who is visiting the site of some buried treasure. Tom eventually finds a ً ‫ـي طٕو يوَؿخ‬ٚ ‫ش‬ٚ‫ حنُٓخ‬ٙ‫ ٔف‬.‫ حنكُُٕ حنًيفَٕش‬ٞ‫ٍِٔ يٕقع رع‬ٚ
way out of the caves and returns with Becky to the village. .‫ش‬َٚ‫ انٗ حنق‬ٙ‫ك‬ٛ‫عٕى يع ر‬ٚٔ ٕٓ‫يٍ حنك‬
There he hears that the main entrance to the cave has been closed off, ْٕٔ ‫هيٍب‬ٚٔ ، ‫ نهكٓف قي أغه‬ٙٔٛ‫ًٔع أٌ حنًيهم حنَث‬ٚ ‫ُْٔخب‬
and he realises to his horror that Injun Joe must be trapped inside. The ّ ‫ رووي‬٢ ّ‫يَطع وذ أَوو‬
‫هٔووَع‬ٚ .‫ حنوويحهم‬ٙ‫أٌ حَـووخٌ ؿووٕ قووي عه و فوو‬
villagers hurry to the caves and find the body of the murderer, who has ٌ‫لوخٔل أ‬ٚ ٌ‫ حنٌ٘ كخ‬،‫ـئح ؿؼش حنقخطم‬ٚٔ ٕٓ‫ٌٕ انٗ حنك‬َٚٔ‫حنق‬
been trying to hack his way out of the death trap. .‫يس حنًٕص‬ٜٛ‫قّ هخٍؽ ي‬َٚ١ ٘ٚ

The writer’s plan ‫خطخ انكبرت‬ ( p 19 )


‫نٓـش – نغش‬ ٙ‫ ف‬٢‫هظليع رّ فق‬ٚ ‫ٗكم يٍ أٗكخل حنهغش‬
dialect a form of language spoken only in one area
‫ش‬ٛ‫يله‬ ‫يُطقش ٔحكيس‬
mimick ‫قهي‬ٚ to copy the way somebody speaks ‫ يخ‬ٚ‫ظكهى رٓخ ٗو‬ٚ ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫قهي حنط‬ٚ
fantasy ‫خ‬ُٚ‫فُظخ‬ a story based on imagination, not facts ‫ْ حنلقخث‬ٛ‫ ٔن‬،‫خل‬ٛ‫ّش طقٕو عهٗ أٓخّ حنو‬ٜ‫ق‬
cling ‫ظًٔ رـ‬ٚ to grab ( hold) firmly ‫ًٔ ربككخو‬ٚ
wilderness ‫ّش‬َٚ‫حنز‬ a region that has not been altered by humanity ‫ش‬َٚ٘‫َْخ حنز‬ٛ‫يُطقش نى طغ‬
event ‫ك يع‬ something that happens, especially something important ‫ء ْخو‬ٙٗ ً ‫خ‬ٕٜٛ‫ ٔه‬،‫ليع‬ٚ ‫ء‬ٙٗ
timescale ٍ‫حنِي‬ the length of time that something takes to happen ‫ء يخ‬ٙٗ ‫ٔظغَقٓخ كئع‬ٚ ٙ‫ش حنظ‬ُٛ‫حنيظَس حنِي‬
thick and fast ٍَ‫ر٘كم يظك‬ quickly and frequently ٍَ‫رَٔعش ٔر٘كم يظك‬
temporarily ‫ر٘كم يئقض‬ only for a limited amount of time ٍ‫ نيظَس يلئىس يٍ حنِي‬٢‫فق‬
widow ‫أٍيهش‬ a woman whose husband has died ‫حيَأس يخص ُٔؿٓخ‬
escape ‫َٓد‬ٚ to get away from a dangerous or bad situation ‫ت‬ٛٓ ٔ‫َ أ‬ٛ‫ع هط‬ٟٔ ٍ‫َٓد ي‬ٚ
colourful َٛ‫يؼ‬ interesting, exciting and full of variety ‫ء رخنظُٕع‬ٙ‫َ ٔيه‬ٛ‫يًظع ٔيؼ‬
subtle ٍ‫يظق‬ so delicate or precise as to be difficult to describe ّ‫ي‬ٛٔ ‫عذ‬ٜٚ ‫ ؿيح‬ٛ‫يظقٍ ٔىق‬
frightened ‫هخثف‬ afraid – scared ‫هخثف‬
Mark Twain was the first major American writer who wasn‘t from ٍ‫كو‬ٚ ‫وي حنوٌ٘ نوى‬ٛ‫ حنٕك‬ٙ‫ٔو‬ٛ‫ حنَث‬ٙ‫كو‬َٚ‫ي‬ٞ‫ٍ حنكخطذ ح‬ٕٚ‫كخٌ يخٍب ط‬
the East Coast. He was also the first American writer to use an ‫ٔوظويو نٓـوش‬ٚ ٙ‫كو‬َٚ‫خ ً أٔل كخطوذ أي‬٠ٚ‫ كخٌ أ‬.ٙ‫يٍ حنٔخكم حنَ٘ق‬
American dialect in his writing; he mimicked the way people really ‫ظليع رٓوخ‬ٚ ٌ‫ كخ‬ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫ حنط‬ٙ‫لخك‬ٚ ٌ‫ كظخرخطّ؛ فقي كخ‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ٛ‫ك‬َٚ‫أي‬
spoke. .‫قش‬ٛ‫ حنلق‬ٙ‫حنُخّ ف‬
However, though his language was realistic, his novels certainly ٍ‫ووي نووى طكوو‬ٛ‫ رخنظؤك‬،‫ووش‬ٛ‫ عهووٗ حن وَّغى يووٍ أٌ نغظووّ كخَووض ٔحقع‬،ٍ‫ٔنكوو‬
weren‘t; The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is a fantasy. .‫خ‬ُٚ‫َ فُظخ‬ٕٚٓ ‫؛ يغخيَحص طٕو‬. ‫خطّ كٌن‬ٚ‫ٍٔح‬
It is also slightly satirical, as it mocks the concept of people ٌ٘‫َٓووخ طٔوووَ يووٍ ييٓووٕو حنُووخّ حنوو‬ٞ ،ً٣ٛ‫ووخ ٓووخهَس قهوو‬٠ٚ‫ أ‬ٙ‫ْٔوو‬
clinging determinedly to all the outward features of civilisation, ٍ‫ عهوٗ حنوَغى يو‬،‫خٍس‬٠‫ش نهل‬ٛ‫ظعهقٌٕ رعُخى رك ّم حنًرخَْ حنوخٍؿ‬ٚ
despite living out in the wilderness. .‫ّش‬َٚ‫ حنز‬ٙ‫ٖ ف‬ٛ‫حنع‬
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
The basic plan of the novel is very simple. It follows the events in ٙ‫كويحع فو‬ٞ‫ طظزوع ح‬ٙ‫ فٓو‬.ً‫طش ؿويح‬ٛ‫ش رٔو‬ٚ‫ش نهَٔح‬ٛٓ‫ٓخ‬ٞ‫حنوطش ح‬
Tom‘s life. .‫خس طٕو‬ٛ‫ك‬
Sometimes, the timescale is condensed so that the time passes quickly ‫ً َّ حنٕقض رٔوَعش رخنُٔوزش‬ٚ ‫كٌٕ حنِيٍ يكؼيخ ً ٔنٌن‬ٚ ،‫خَخ‬ٛ‫ٔأك‬
for the reader and for Tom; on other occasions, when Tom is going ‫ًووَ طووٕو رظـَرووش‬ٚ ‫ عُووييخ‬،َٖ‫ أٔقووخص أهوو‬ٙ‫نهقووخٍة ٔطووٕو؛ ٔفوو‬
through a particularly painful experience (as in the caves), time is drawn ٌٕ‫كوو‬ٚ ،) ٕ‫ حنكٓوو‬ٙ‫ ( كًووخ ْووٕ حنلووخل فوو‬ٙ‫يئنًووش ر٘ووكم هووخ‬
out. .ً٢ٕ‫حنٕقض يط‬
Towards the end of the novel, when things are happening thick and fast, ‫ظوَب‬ٚ ،ٍَ‫خء ر٘كم يظكو‬ٛٗٞ‫ عُييخ طليع ح‬،‫ش‬ٚ‫ش حنَٔح‬ٚ‫عُي َٓخ‬
Twain temporarily abandons the simple time scheme: 4‫طش‬ٛٔ‫ش حنز‬ُٛ‫ٍ ر٘كم يئقض حنوطش حنِي‬ٕٚ‫ط‬
Tom is left in the caves and the reader follows Huck through his ٙ‫ يغخيَحطوّ فو‬ٙ‫ظزوع حنقوخٍة ْوخب فو‬ٚٔ ٕ‫ حنكٓو‬ٙ‫هظَب طٕو فو‬ٚ
adventures at the widow‘s house; ‫ٍيهش؛‬ٞ‫ض ح‬ٛ‫ر‬
then, two chapters later, we are returned to the caves after Tom has .‫رعوي أٌ ْوَد طوٕو يُٓوخ‬ ٕ‫ َعوٕى انوٗ حنكٓو‬،ٍٛ‫وه‬ٜ‫ رعي ف‬،‫ػى‬
escaped from them. (He then explains how he escaped during this time.) .) ‫ف َـخ ٌِْ حنًَّس‬ٛ‫َ٘ف ك‬ٚ ‫( ػى‬
The timescale, and the sequence of fascinating, colourful episodes are ‫ووَس ر٘ووكم‬ٛ‫ ٔطٔهٔووم ي٘ووخْي يٌْهووش ٔيؼ‬،ٙ‫حنـووئل حنِيُوو‬
clearly not realistic; and nor are the many amazing coincidences (being ‫ووَس‬ٛ‫ووخىفخص حنًٌْهووش حنكؼ‬ًٜ‫ حن‬٢ٔ ‫ووش؛‬ٛ‫ٔووض ٔحقع‬ٛ‫ووق ن‬ٟ‫ٔح‬
in the graveyard the night of the murder; walking in on their own funeral ‫ حنوويهٕل أػُووخء‬،‫هووش حنقظووم‬ٛ‫ َيووْ ن‬ٙ‫ حنًقزووَس فوو‬ٙ‫( حنظٕحؿووي فوو‬
service). .)‫يَحٓى ؿُخُطٓى‬
The book copies other adventure stories for boys in this sense. However, .ٗ‫ ْوٌِ حنًعُو‬ٙ‫ى ف‬٢ٟٔ‫ يغخيَحص أهَٖ ن‬ٜٚ‫قهّي حنكظخد ق‬ٚ
Twain appeals to all readers, adults too, with his clever characterisation, ّ‫وو‬ٜٛ‫ رظ٘و‬،ً‫وخ‬٠ٚ‫ٍ أ‬ٛ‫ ٔحنزووخنغ‬،‫ٍ كو ّم حنقوَّحء‬ٕٚ‫ـووٌد طوو‬ٚ ،ٍ‫ٔنكو‬
original language and subtle satire: 4ٍ‫ش ْٔـخثّ حنًظق‬ٛ‫ه‬ٛٞ‫ ٔنغظّ ح‬،ٙ‫حنٌك‬
Tom is very frightened in case Injun Joe comes after him but, as time ٍَٔ‫ يوع يو‬،ٍ‫كٌٕ طٕو هخثيخ ً ؿيحً اًح يخ نلقّ حَـوخٌ ؿوٕ ٔنكو‬ٚ
passes, his fear lessens. .ّ‫قم هٕف‬ٚ ،‫حنٕقض‬

Choose the correct answer a , b or c :


1. In his writings, Mark Twain uses ……………..
a. formal language b. every day British dialect c. an everyday American dialect
2. Twain ………………. the way people really spoke.
a. copied b. ignored c. hated
3. When Tom goes through a painful experience, time passes ……………..
a. quickly b. slowly c. neither (a) nor (b)
4. The many coincidences in the novel are ………….
a. realistic b. unrealistic c. uninteresting
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
5. ran away from a dangerous or bad situation
6. important things that happen
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
7. Twain's language was realistic because he………………………………………………………………………………..
8. In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Twain makes fun of…………………………………………………………………..
9. Instead of following Tom in the caves, the reader ………………………………..………………………………………
10. The novel is interesting to all readers because of Twain‘s ……………………………………………………………..
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. escaped 6. events 7. mimicked the way people really spoke.
8. the concept of people clinging determinedly to all the outward features of civilisation, despite living out in the wilderness.
9. follows Huck through his adventures at the widow‘s house. 10. clever characterisation, original language and subtle satire.

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
fagged out ً ‫يُٓكخ‬ very tired – exhausted َْ‫يظعذ ؿيح– ي‬
play out ٙٓ‫ُظ‬ٚ Finish ٙٓ‫ُظ‬ٚ
bought in ‫ىفع‬ paid to take part ( participate ) ‫٘خٍب‬ٛ‫ىفع ن‬
covet ‫َغذ‬ٚ desire ‫َغذ‬ٚ
comprehend ‫يٓى‬ٚ understand ‫يٓى‬ٚ
obliged َ‫هيـز‬ having to do something ‫ء يخ‬ٙ٘‫خو ر‬ٛ‫ّ حنق‬ٛ‫ـذ عه‬ٚ
artificial ٙ‫طُخع‬ٛ‫ح‬ not natural ٙ‫ع‬ٛ‫ز‬١ ْٛ‫ن‬
treadmill ّٔ‫خكَٕش حني‬١ a large wheel used in the past for driving machinery ‫ص‬٢ٜ‫م ح‬ٛ‫ نظ٘غ‬ٟٙ‫ حنًخ‬ٙ‫َس حٓظوييض ف‬ٛ‫عـهش كز‬
tenpins َٙ‫نعزش حنقُخ‬ skittles – a game in which a player tries to knock down ‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫لخٔل ف‬ٚ ‫ش – نعزش‬ٛ‫ حنو٘ز‬َٙ‫نعزش حنقُخ‬
‫ش‬ٛ‫حنو٘ز‬ objects shaped like bottles. َٙ‫خء ط٘زّ حنقُخ‬ٛٗ‫ أ‬٢‫ٔق‬ٚ ٌ‫عذ أ‬٣‫حن‬
colloquial ‫ّش‬ٛ‫حنعخي‬ language or words used in informal conversations ‫ش‬ًٍٛٓ َٛ‫ حنًلخىػخص حنغ‬ٙ‫نغش أٔ كهًخص طٔظويو ف‬

The following extract comes from the beginning of the book. Tom has ‫يوخل‬١ٞ‫ نقوي أقُوع طوٕو ح‬.‫ش حنكظوخد‬ٚ‫ يؤهًٕ يٍ ريح‬ٙ‫ط‬ٜ‫حنًقطع ح‬
convinced the other children that whitewashing his aunt‘s garden fence ٕ‫ ْوو‬ٞٛ‫روو‬ٞ‫قووش هخنظووّ رووخنهٌٕ ح‬ٚ‫خؽ كي‬ٛ‫ٍ أٌ ىْووخٌ ٓوو‬َٚ‫هوو‬ٜ‫ح‬
is a privilege. .ُ‫خ‬ٛ‫حيظ‬
By the time Ben was fagged out Tom had traded the next chance to Billy ‫وش‬َٛ‫وّ رو ٍْ يُٓكوخً كوخٌ طوٕو قوي أعطوٗ حني‬ٛ‫ حنٕقض حنٌ٘ كوخٌ ف‬ٙ‫ف‬
Fisher for a kite, in good repair; and when he played out, Johnny Miller ‫ ٔعُووييخ‬،‫ّ ويس‬ٛ‫ كخنظٓووخ ؿ‬،‫ووش‬ٛ‫ووخثَس ٍٔق‬١ ‫٘ووَ يقخرووم‬ٛ‫ ف‬ٙ‫هوو‬ٛ‫ووش نز‬َٛ‫حنؼخ‬
bought in for a dead rat and a string to swing it with – and so on, hour after ،‫ نٓوِِ روّ ْٔكوٌح‬٢ٛ‫وض ٔهو‬ٛ‫هَ نـًَ ي‬ٛ‫ ي‬َٕٙ‫ ىفع ؿ‬،‫حَظٓٗ يُٓخ‬
hour… .‫ٓخعش رعي ٓخعش‬
He had a nice, good, idle time all the while – plenty of company – and the ٍ‫وَ يو‬ٛ‫ٕحل ٌِْ حنيظَس – حنكؼ‬١ ً٢ٕٔ‫يحً ٔك‬ٛ‫ً ٔؿ‬٣ًٛ‫ٗ ٔقظخً ؿ‬٠‫أي‬
fence had three coats of whitewash on it! If he hadn‘t run out of whitewash, ٕ‫ ! نو‬ٞٛ‫رو‬ٞ‫زقخص يٍ حن ّيْخٌ ح‬١ ‫ع‬٣‫زق رؼ‬ٛ‫خؽ أ‬ٛٔ‫حنَفخق – ٔحن‬
he would have bankrupted every boy in the village. .‫ش‬َٚ‫ حنق‬ٙ‫فهْ كمّ ٔني ف‬ٞ ،ٞٛ‫ر‬ٞ‫ُيٌ حنيْخٌ ح‬ٚ ‫نى‬
Tom said to himself that it was not such a hollow world, after all. He had ‫ حكظ٘ووف‬.‫ رعوي كوومّ ْوٌح‬،ً‫كوٍ عخنًوخً فخٍغ وخ‬ٚ ‫قوخل طوٕو نُئووّ اَوّ نووى‬
discovered a great law of human action, without knowing it – namely, that ،ٕ‫عوَ ْوٌح – ْٔو‬ٚ ٌ‫ ىٌٔ أ‬، َّ٘‫ًخً يٍ حن ّٔهٕب حنز٘و‬ٛ‫قخََٕخً عر‬
in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing, it is only necessary to make ٌ‫ أ‬٢‫ؤٍَ٘ فقو‬٠‫ يٍ حن‬،‫جخ يخ‬ٛٗ ‫َغذ‬ٚ ‫ أٔ ٔني ًح‬٣ ً ‫ طـعم ٍؿ‬ٙ‫نك‬
the thing feel difficult to attain. .ّٛ‫ٕل عه‬ٜ‫عذ حنل‬ٜ‫ء يٍ حن‬ٙ٘‫ حن٘عٍٕ أٌ ٌْح حن‬ٙ‫طعط‬
If he had been a great and wise philosopher, like the writer of this book, he ‫ نكخٌ قي فٓى‬،‫ يؼم كخطذ ٌْح حنكظخد‬،ً‫ًخ‬ٛ‫ًخً ٔكك‬ٛ‫هٕٔفخً عر‬ٛ‫نٕ كخٌ ف‬
would now have comprehended that Work consists of whatever a body is ٌ‫ ٔأ‬،ّ‫خو ر‬ٛ‫هـزَ حنـٔ هى عهٗ حنق‬ٚ ‫ء‬ٙٗ ٘‫ظؤنف يٍ أ‬ٚ ‫ٌ أٌ حنعًم‬ٜ‫ح‬
obliged to do, and that Play consists of what a body is not obliged to do. .‫خو رٓخ‬ٛ‫هـزَ حنـٔى عهٗ حنق‬ٚ ٢ ٙ‫خء حنظ‬ٛٗٞ‫ظؤنف يٍ ح‬ٚ ‫حنهعذ‬
And this would help him to understand why constructing artificial flowers ٔ‫ش أ‬ٛ‫ووطُخع‬ٛ٢‫ُْووخٍ ح‬ٞ‫ٔووخعيِ عهووٗ فٓووى نًووخًح عًووم ح‬ٛٓ ‫ْٔووٌح‬
or performing on a treadmill is work, while rolling tenpins or climbing ٔ‫ش أ‬ٛ‫ ه٘وز‬َٙ‫ًُخ ىكَؿش قُخ‬ٛ‫ ر‬،‫خكَٕش حنئّ عًم‬١ ٗ‫حنعًم عه‬
Mont Blanc is only amusement. .‫ش‬ٛ‫َ يـَّ ى طٔه‬٣‫طٔه ؿزم يَٕض ر‬
Notice that in this section there is no direct speech. It is clear, however, ٗ‫ عه‬،‫ق‬ٟ‫ يٍ حنٕح‬.َٗ‫و يزخ‬٣‫ٕؿي ك‬ٚ ٢ ‫ ٌْح حنًقطع‬ٙ‫كع أَّ ف‬٢
thanks to the author's choice of language, that what is passing through ّ ،‫خٍ حنًئنوف نهغوش‬ٛ‫م حهظ‬٠‫ أَّ ري‬،‫ش كخل‬ٚ‫أ‬
‫وطوَ عهوٗ روخل‬ٚ ‫أٌ يوخ‬
Tom‘s head is being reported exactly; as in the first three lines. .ٗ‫ٔن‬ٞ‫ػش ح‬٣‫ٓطَ حنؼ‬ٞ‫ ح‬ٙ‫ظى َقهّ طًخيخً؛ كًخ ْٕ حنلخل ف‬ٚ ‫طٕو‬
As this particular excerpt goes on, the writer does not report Tom‘s ،‫ُقم حنكخطوذ أفكوخٍ طوٕو‬ٚ ٢ ،ٙ‫ ٌْح حنًقطع حنوخ‬ٙ٠ًٚ ‫ًُخ‬ٛ‫ر‬
thoughts, but merely describes them. .‫يٓخ‬ٜٚ ٢‫ٔنكُّ فق‬
In the second half of this extract, the writer uses more conventional (and ‫ش‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ‫ٔظويو حنكخطذ نغش طقه‬ٚ ،‫ يٍ ٌْح حنًقطع‬َٙ‫ف حنؼخ‬ُٜ‫ حن‬ٙ‫ف‬
more adult) language for this reason. .‫ٍ ر٘كم أكزَ) نٌٓح حنٔزذ‬ٛ‫أكؼَ (ٔنغش رخنغ‬
This extract shows how Tom thinks, gives the opinion of the narrator ٘ٔ‫قووو ّيو ٍأ٘ حنوووَح‬ٚٔ ،‫يكوووَ طوووٕو‬ٚ ‫وووف‬ٛ‫هرٓوووَ ْوووٌح حنًقطوووع ك‬ٚ
and demonstrates the colloquial language that Tom and his friends use, 4 ‫وويقخإِ يؼووم‬ٛ‫ٔووظوييٓخ طووٕو ٔأ‬ٚ ٙ‫ّوش حنظوو‬ٛ‫رٓووَ حنهغووش حنعخي‬ٚٔ
‗played out‘, ‗bought in‘, etc. . ‫ حنن‬،’‫‘حَظٓٗ’–‘ىفع‬

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Dubliners: Clay ٍٍ‫ انط‬: ٍ‫عكبٌ دثه‬ ( p 21)
by James Joyce (1882–1941)‫جًٍظ جىٌظ‬
hometown ّ‫ ٍأ‬٢‫ئق‬ the place where one was born ‫ يخ‬ٚ‫ّ ٗو‬ٛ‫حنًكخٌ حنٌ٘ هٔني ف‬
charity ‫ش‬َٚٛ‫يئ ّٓٔش ه‬ an organisation that helps people ّ‫يئٓٔش طٔخعي حنُخ‬
deaden ‫وًي‬ٚ - ‫قظم‬ٚ make feelings weaker ً ‫عيخ‬ٟ َ‫ـعم حنً٘خعَ أكؼ‬ٚ
pliability ‫خى‬ٛ‫َق‬٢‫ٕٓٓنش ح‬ being easily influenced or controlled by other people ٍَٚ‫ه‬ٜ‫ّ أٔ حنظلكى رّ يٍ ح‬ٛ‫َ عه‬ٛ‫يٍ حن ّٔٓم حنظؤػ‬
blindfolded ٍُٛٛ‫ٕد حنع‬ٜ‫يع‬ with his eyes covered by a piece of cloth ٕ‫ّ قطعش يٍ حنقًخ‬ُٛٛ‫ ع‬ٙ‫طغط‬
James Joyce was an Irish poet and writer, who frequently wrote ‫كظووذ ر٘ووكم‬ٚ ٌ‫ كووخ‬،ً‫خ‬ٚ‫َنُووي‬ٚ‫ْ ٗووخعَحً ٔكخطزوخ ً ح‬ٕٚ‫ًْ ؿوو‬ٛ‫كووخٌ ؿوو‬
about his hometown: Dublin. Dubliners is a collection of 15 short 06 ٍ‫ ٓووكخٌ ىرهوٍ يـًٕعووش يوو‬.ٍ‫ ىرهوو‬4ّ‫ ٍأٓو‬٢‫يظكوٍَ عووٍ ئووق‬
stories by Joyce describing the ordinary lives of people in Dublin at ٙ‫وش نهُوخّ فو‬ٚ‫وخس حنعخى‬ٛ‫ٓخ حنل‬ٛ‫ف ف‬ٜٚ ْٕٚ‫َس كظزٓخ ؿ‬ٜٛ‫ّش ق‬ٜ‫ق‬
the beginning of the 20th century. .ٍَٚ٘‫ش حنقٌَ حنع‬ٚ‫ ريح‬ٙ‫ىرهٍ ف‬
Although the actual events of the stories appear insignificant, Joyce ،‫وَ ْخ ّيوش‬ٛ‫ طرٓوَ غ‬ٜٚ‫ش نهق‬ٛ‫كيحع حنيعه‬ٞ‫عهٗ حنَّغى يٍ أٌ ح‬
intended readers to explore elements of their own natures in the ‫عوظٓى‬ٛ‫ز‬١ َ‫و‬ٛ‫ٔظك٘وف حنقوَّحء عُخ‬ٚ ٌ‫وي أ‬ٜ‫ق‬ٚ ٌ‫ْ كخ‬ٕٚ‫ أٌ ؿ‬٢‫ا‬
characters‘ simple lives. .‫طش‬ٛٔ‫خص حنز‬ٜٛ‫خس حن٘و‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫ف‬
Clay is one of the short stories in Dubliners, featuring the character ‫ووف‬ٜ‫ ط‬،ٍ‫ ٓووكخٌ ىرهوو‬ٙ‫َس فوو‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ حنق‬ٚ‫وو‬ٜ‫ اكوويٖ حنق‬ٙ‫ٍ ْوو‬ٛ‫حنطوو‬
Maria, an old woman. .ُٕ‫ حيَأس عـ‬ْٙٔ ،‫خ‬ٍٚ‫ش يخ‬ٜٛ‫ٗو‬
There are three stages to the story: she is responsible for a Halloween ‫ ئوئٔنش عوٍ كيهوش رًُخٓوزش‬ٙ‫ فٓو‬4‫ّش‬ٜ‫ حنق‬ٙ‫ػش يَحكم ف‬٣‫ُْخب ػ‬
party at the charity she works for; she travels through the streets of ٙ‫ٓوخ؛ طظُقووم فوو‬ٛ‫ طعًووم ف‬ٙ‫ووش حنظو‬َٚٛ‫ حنًئٓٔووش حنو‬ٙ‫وي حنَّعووذ فو‬ٛ‫ع‬
Dublin; and she visits the Donnelly family. .ٙ‫ٕٗحٍع ىرهٍ؛ ٔطٍِٔ عخثهش ىَٔه‬
The story focuses on minor details of these stages because Maria‘s ّ ‫ ْوٌِ حنًَحكوم‬ٙ‫ش ف‬َٕٚ‫م حنؼخ‬ٛٛ‫ش عهٗ حنظيخ‬ٜ‫طَ ّكِ حنق‬
‫وخس‬ٛ‫ٌ ك‬ٞ
life is not very eventful or interesting. In some ways, Maria‘s life has ‫وخس‬ٛ‫وزلض ك‬ٛ‫ أ‬،‫ُوش‬ٛ‫ رطوَق يع‬.ً‫ٔض كخفهش أٔ يًظعش ؿويح‬ٛ‫خ ن‬ٍٚ‫يخ‬
become deadened by routine. .ٍٛ‫قظهٓخ حنَٔط‬ٚ ‫خ‬ٍٚ‫يخ‬
Maria is a hard-working, kind and tolerant old woman, but her ٙ‫ ٔنكوووٍ طعُووو‬،‫يوووش ٔيظٔوووخيلش‬ٛ‫وووخ حيوووَأس عـوووُٕ يـووو ّيس ٔنط‬ٍٚ‫يخ‬
personality means that nothing very exciting happens in her life. .‫خطٓخ‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫ليع ف‬ٚ ً‫َ ؿيح‬ٛ‫ء يؼ‬ٙٗ ٢ ٌ‫ظٓخ أ‬ٜٛ‫ٗو‬
She is a passive character who allows other people to shape who she َٛ‫ظٓخ ٔحنظوؤػ‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫ٍ ٗو‬ٕٚ‫ٍ رظك‬َٚ‫ه‬ٝ‫ّش طًٔق ن‬ٛ‫ّش ٓهز‬ٜٛ‫ ٗو‬ْٙٔ
is and influence what she does. Few things happen in her life that she ‫خطٓوخ طـعهٓوخ طلويع‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫هوش فو‬ٛ‫خء قه‬ٛ‫ طلويع أٗو‬.ّ‫عهٗ يوخ طقوٕو رو‬
makes happen so there is little activity throughout the story, even ‫وش‬ٛ‫ كظٗ عُييخ َقخٍَٓوخ يوع رق‬،‫ش‬ٜ ّ ‫ حنق‬ٙ‫م ف‬ٛ‫ قه‬١‫ٔنٌن ُْخب َ٘خ‬
compared to the rest of Dubliners. .ٍ‫ٓكخٌ ىره‬
Maria is playing a Halloween game with the Donnellys where, ‫وغ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،ٙ‫وي حنَّعوذ يوع أٓوَس ىَٔهو‬ٛ‫خ اكويٖ أنعوخد ع‬ٍٚ‫طهعذ يخ‬
blindfolded, she has to pick from a collection of saucers on a ٍ‫ٓووخ أٌ طوظووخٍ يوووٍ يـًٕعووش يووو‬ٛ‫ عه‬،ٍٛ‫ُووو‬ٛ‫ووٕرش حنع‬ٜ‫طكووٌٕ يع‬
table. .‫خٔنش‬١ ٗ‫زخق عه‬١ٞ‫ح‬
The result of her choice in the game is supposed to tell her future. .‫ حنهعزوش عوٍ ئوظقزهٓخ‬ٙ‫خٍْوخ فو‬ٛ‫ـوش ه‬ٛ‫ أٌ طوزوَ َظ‬َٝ‫يٍ حنًيظ‬
She feels some clay, a material symbolic of several things including ‫ٓوخ‬ٛ‫خء رًوخ ف‬ٛ‫ يوخ ّىس طَيوِ انوٗ عو ّيس أٗو‬ْٙٔ ،ٍٛ‫ حنط‬ٞ‫ط٘عَ رزع‬
softness, pliability and death. .‫خى ٔحنًٕص‬ٛ‫َق‬٢‫حنُعٕيش ٕٔٓٓنش ح‬
But Maria is so used to her present situation with its daily routines and ‫ يوووع أعًخنٓوووخ‬ٙ‫وووعٓخ حنلوووخن‬ٟٔ ٗ‫ّوووخ يعظوووخىس ؿووويحً عهوو‬ٍٚ‫ٔنكووٍ يخ‬
lack of new experiences that she is startled and reacts with great ‫زٓخ‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜٚ ‫وويس كظووٗ أَٓووخ‬ٚ‫ووش ٔقهووش حنظـووخٍد حنـي‬ٛ‫ٕي‬ٛ‫ووش حن‬ُٛٛ‫حنَٔط‬
surprise. .‫َس‬ٛ‫حنٌْٕل ٔطَطي رًيخؿؤس كز‬ ّ
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Clay is ………….. ( a. a novel b. a short story c. a play )
2. Maria‘s life is …………….. ( a. interesting b. eventful c. neither a nor b)
3. Maria works for …………….. ( a. the Donnelly family b. a hospital c. a charity )
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
4. the place where one was born 5. an organisation that helps people
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
6. James Joyce usually wrote about………………….. 9. Maria is a passive character because she…………..
7. Joyce wrote Dubliners, which is ………………….. 10. Maria feels some clay, which is …………………
8. In the drawing of his characters, Joyce wants readers to……..
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. c 3. c 4. hometown 5. charity 6. his hometown 7. a collection of 15 short stories describing the ordinary lives of people in Dublin at the
beginning of the 20th century. 8. explore elements of their own natures in the characters' simple live s. 9. allows other people to shape who she is
and influence what she does. 10. a material symbolic of several things including softness, pliability and death.
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
They led her up to the table amid laughing and joking and she put her ٙ‫وويْخ فوو‬ٚ ‫وول ٔحنًووِحف ٔي و ّي ص‬٠‫ حن‬٢‫قخىْٔووخ انووٗ حنطخٔنووش ٔٓوو‬
hand out in the air as she was told to do. She moved her hand about here ٙ‫ويْخ ُْوخ ُْٔوخب فو‬ٚ ‫ ك َّ كوض‬.‫هزوٕح يُٓوخ أٌ طيعوم‬١ ‫حنٕٓحء كًوخ‬
and there in the air and descended on one of the saucers. .‫زخق‬١ٞ‫حنٕٓحء ٔأٓقطظٓخ عهٗ حكي ح‬
She felt a soft wet substance with her fingers and was surprised that ‫ظليع أكوي‬ٚ ‫َّ نى‬ٞ ‫خرعٓخ ٔطيخؿؤص‬ٛ‫زش رؤ‬١ٍٔ ‫ّش‬َٚ١ ‫ٗعَص رًخ ّىس‬
nobody spoke or took off her bandage. .‫ٓخ‬١‫ُِع ٍرخ‬ٚ ٔ‫أ‬
There was a pause for a few seconds; and then a great deal of scuffling ٍ‫وَ يوٍ حن ّ٘وـخ‬ٛ‫وع ػوٕحٌ؛ ٔػوى كوخٌ ُْوخب حنكؼ‬٠‫كخٌ ُْخب ٓكٌٕ نز‬
and whispering. Somebody said something about the garden, and at last ٙ‫ّيس ىَٔهو‬ٛ‫وَحً قخنوض حنٔو‬ٛ‫ ٔأه‬،‫قش‬ٚ‫جخً عٍ حنلي‬ٛٗ ‫ قخل أكيْى‬.ًْٓ‫ٔحن‬
Mrs. Donnelly said something very cross to one of the next-door girls and ٙ‫ٓخ هخٍؿوخً فو‬ٛ‫َحٌ ٔأهزَطٓخ أٌ طَي‬ٛ‫كيٖ رُخص حنـ‬٠ ‫ذ‬٠‫جخً رغ‬ٛٗ
told her to throw it out at once: that was no play. .‫ نى طكٍ طه نعزش‬4‫حنلخل‬
Maria understood that it was wrong that time and so she had to do it over ‫وخو‬ٛ‫ٓوخ حنق‬ٛ‫جخً طهو حنًوَّ س ْٔكوٌح كوخٌ عه‬١‫خ أٌ ٌْح كخٌ هخ‬ٍٚ‫فًٓض يخ‬
again: and this time she got the prayer-book. .‫هٕحص‬ٜ‫ ٌِْٔ حنًَّ س أئكض ركظخد حن‬4‫ش‬َٛ‫رٌن يَّ س ػخ‬
The Old Man and the Sea ‫انعجىص وانجحش‬ ( p 22)
by Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961) ‫اٌشَغذ هًٍٍُغىي‬
compact ١ٕ‫غ‬٠‫ي‬ neatly and closely packed ٛ‫ ٔٔػ‬َٛ‫ ر٘كم أ‬١ٕ‫غ‬٠‫ي‬
journalist ٙ‫لي‬ٛ someone who writes news reports for newspapers ‫ّلف‬ٜ‫ش نه‬ٍٚ‫َ اهزخ‬ٍٚ‫كظذ طقخ‬ٚ ٚ‫ٗو‬
distinctive ًِٛ‫ي‬ easy to recognize, very different ً ‫َح‬ٛ‫ يوظهف كؼ‬،ّٛ‫ٔٓم حنظعَ عه‬ٚ
imitate ‫قهي‬ٚ to copy the way somebody behaves, speaks or writes ٚ‫كظذ رٓخ ٗو‬ٚ ٔ‫ظكهى أ‬ٚ ٔ‫َ أ‬ٜ‫ظ‬ٚ ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫قهي حنط‬ٚ
macho ٍٕ٘‫ًك‬ acting in a male way; being strong and brave ‫كٌٕ قٕ٘ ٔٗـخع‬ٚ ‫ش ؛‬ٍٕٚ‫قش ًك‬َٚ‫َ رط‬ٜ‫ظ‬ٚ
Ernest Hemingway is frequently described as using ‗economy of ‫ٔوووظويو‬ٚ ّ‫ًُغوووٕ٘ ر٘وووكم يظكوووٍَ عهوووٗ أَووو‬ْٛ ‫وووف حٍَٔوووض‬ٕٛ‫ه‬ٚ
language‘ in his writing, which is a reference to his compact and ١ٕ‫وغ‬٠ً‫ ْٔوٌح اٗوخٍس انوٗ أٓوهٕرّ حن‬،ّ‫ كظخرخط‬ٙ‫خى حنهغش’ ف‬ٜ‫‘حقظ‬
powerful style. .ٕ٘‫ٔحنق‬
Hemingway was an American novelist and journalist who developed ٙ‫وِ فو‬ًًٛ‫ٍّٕ أٓوهٕرّ حن‬١ ً ‫خ‬ٛ‫ك‬َٚ‫خ ً أي‬ٛ‫لي‬ٛٔ ً ‫خ‬ٛ‫ًُغٕ٘ ٍٔحث‬ْٛ ٌ‫كخ‬
his distinctive style of writing as a young man, while writing for the ٙ‫ظ‬ٛٓ ّ‫يش كخَٔخ‬ٛ‫ل‬ٜ‫كظذ ن‬ٚ ٌ‫ًُخ كخ‬ٛ‫ ر‬،ً‫حنكظخرش عُييخ كخٌ ٗخرخ‬
Kansas City Star newspaper. .ٍ‫ٓظخ‬
Many writers have attempted to imitate his way of writing, because his ّ‫ٌ أعًخنو‬ٞ ،‫ حنكظخروش‬ٙ‫قظوّ فو‬َٚ١ ‫وي‬ٛ‫وَ يوٍ حنكظوخد طقه‬ٛ‫كخٔل حنكؼ‬
works are considered to be some of the most important pieces of ‫ ْٔوٌح‬،ٙ‫ك‬َٚ‫ي‬ٞ‫ىد ح‬ٞ‫ ح‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ًّٛ ْ‫كؼَ أ‬ٞ‫خ ً يٍ حنقطع ح‬٠‫طعظزَ رع‬
American literature, as demonstrated by the fact that he won both the ٍِ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ىد ٔؿووخثِس رووٕن‬ٟ‫قووش أَوّ فووخُ رـوخثِس َٕرووم نوو‬ٛ‫ كق‬ٙ‫ظٓوَ فوو‬
Nobel Prize in Literature and the Pulitzer Prize for Literature. .‫ىد‬ٟ‫ن‬
Hemingway travelled a great deal during his life; his daring lifestyle is ً ‫زوخ‬َٚ‫خطوّ حنـوَ٘ء طق‬ٛ‫خطوّ؛ أٓوهٕد ك‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫َحً فو‬ٛ‫ًُغٕ٘ كؼ‬ْٛ َ‫ٓخف‬
almost as well-known as his writing. .ّ‫ كظخرخط‬ْٙ ‫يعَٔ كًخ‬
He was injured in Italy during World War I, and spent a long time ً ‫وٗ ٔقظوخ‬٠‫ ٔق‬،ٗ‫ٔنو‬ٞ‫وش ح‬ًٛ‫وخ أػُوخء حنلوَد حنعخن‬ٛ‫طخن‬ٚ‫ ا‬ٙ‫ذ فو‬ٛٛ‫أ‬
during the 1920s in Paris with other great authors such as James Joyce, ‫ٍ عرخو‬ٛ‫ْ يع يئني‬ٍٚ‫ رخ‬ٙ‫ٍ ف‬َٚ٘‫ُخص حنقٌَ حنع‬َٚ٘‫ ع‬ٙ‫ً ف‬٣ٕٚ١
Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein. .ٍٚ‫َطَٔى ٓظخ‬ٛ‫ْ ٔحٍُح رخَٔي ٔؿ‬ٕٚ‫ًْ ؿ‬ٛ‫ٍ أيؼخل ؿ‬َٚ‫ه‬
He reported on World War II in France and was there for some of the ‫ فََٔوخ ٔقوي طٕحؿوي‬ٙ‫وش فو‬َٛ‫وش حنؼخ‬ًٛ‫َحً عٍ حنلوَد حنعخن‬ٍٚ‫كظذ طقخ‬
war‘s major events. .‫ش‬ٛٔٛ‫ أكيحع حنلَد حنَث‬ٞ‫ رع‬ٙ‫ُْخب ف‬
He also frequently travelled to Cuba, even living there for many years ‫ ٔكظووٗ أَووّ عووخٕ ُْووخب‬،‫وخ ً ر٘ووكم يظكووٍَ انووٗ كٕرووخ‬٠ٚ‫ٔٓووخفَ أ‬
during the 1940s and 50s. .ٍَٚ٘‫خص حنقٌَ حنع‬ًُٛٛٔ‫خص ٔه‬ُٛٛ‫ أٍرع‬ٙ‫َس ف‬ٛ‫نُٕٔحص كؼ‬
Hemingway loved fishing, boxing, bullfighting and hunting: these 4‫ي‬ّٜٛ‫َحٌ ٔحن‬ٛ‫خٍعش حنؼ‬ٜ‫كًش ٔي‬٣ً‫ي حنًٔ ٔحن‬ٛٛ ٕ٘‫ًُغ‬ْٛ ‫أكذ‬
hobbies and his adventurous history gave him a macho image that was ‫وش‬ٍٕٚ‫وٍٕس ًك‬ٛ ‫ووّ حنلخفوم رخنًغوخيَحص‬ٍٚ‫أعطظّ ٌِْ حنًٕحْوذ ٔطخ‬
reflected in his literature by strong, masculine characters. While in ٙ‫ًُخ كخٌ فو‬ٛ‫ ر‬.‫ش‬ٍٕٚ‫ش ًٔك‬ٕٚ‫خص ق‬ٜٛ‫ل ٗو‬٣‫ أىرّ يٍ ه‬ٙ‫حَعكٔض ف‬
Cuba, he spent many hours fishing in the Gulf Stream. .‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ؿئل حنوه‬ٙ‫ًٓخب ف‬ٞ‫ي ح‬ٛٛ ٙ‫َس ف‬ٛ‫ٗ ٓخعخص كؼ‬٠‫ أي‬،‫كٕرخ‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Ernest Hemingway was a ……………..
a. dramatist b. musician c. novel writer and journalist
2. Hemingway wrote reports about the World War II while he was in …………….
a. Italy b. France c. Cuba
3. Many writers tried to …………… Hemingway's distinctive way of writing. ( ‫ش‬َٛ‫ – حنئٍس حنؼخ‬0300 ‫) ىٍٔس عخو‬
a. criticise b. enrich c. copy
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
4. someone who writes news reports for newspapers 5. easy to recognize, very different
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Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
6. The ‗economy of language‘ refers to Hemingway‘s ………………………………………………………………………
7. Hemingway got two important prizes, which shows that his works………………………………………………………
8. The hobbies that Hemingway had helped him get …………………………………….………………………………….
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. b 3. c 4. journalist 5. distinctive 6. compact and powerful style. 7. are considered to be some of the most important pieces of
American literature. 8. a macho image that was reflected in his literature by strong, masculine characters.
novella ‫َس‬ٜٛ‫ش ق‬ٚ‫ٍٔح‬ a piece of fiction shorter than a novel ‫ش‬ٚ‫َ يٍ ٍٔح‬ٜ‫خل أق‬ٛ‫قطعش يٍ حنو‬
hook ‫طخى‬ٜٚ to catch fish ( using a hook ) ) ‫طخى حنًٔ ( ئظوييخ هطخ‬ٜٚ
blood ‫ىو‬ the red liquid that moves around the body ‫ حنـٔى‬ٙ‫ُظقم ف‬ٚ ٌ٘‫كًَ حن‬ٞ‫حنٔخثم ح‬
Hemingway had good knowledge of a fisherman‘s way of life, and ‫ ٔهزوَس‬،‫ّخى‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫وخس حن‬ٛ‫يس رؤٓهٕد ك‬ٛ‫ًُغٕ٘ يعَفش ؿ‬ْٛ ٖ‫كخَض ني‬
experience of writing about powerful male figures. This gave him the ٗ‫ ٌْٔح أعطخِ حنقيٍس عه‬.‫ش‬ٕٚ‫ّش ق‬ٍٕٚ‫خص ًك‬ٜٛ‫ حنكظخرش عٍ ٗو‬ٙ‫ف‬
ability to write a realistic account of an old but skilled fisherman ‫ي‬ٛ‫و‬ٛ َ‫طخٍى أكزو‬ٚ َْ‫ّخى عـُٕ ٔنكُّ يخ‬ٜٛ‫خ ً ن‬ٛ‫يخ ً ٔحقع‬ٛٔ ‫كظخرش‬
chasing his greatest catch in The Old Man and the Sea. .َ‫ حنعـُٕ ٔحنزل‬ٙ‫نّ ف‬
The Old Man and the Sea was Hemingway‘s last major work of ،ٕ٘‫ًُغوو‬ٛٓ‫ ن‬ٙ‫ٔو‬ٛ‫ ٍث‬ٙ‫كوخٌ حنعـووُٕ ٔحنزلوَ أهووَ عًوم ٍٔحثوو‬
fiction, and it was the work that he won the Pulitzer Prize for. . ٍِ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ْٕٔ حنعًم حنٌ٘ فخُ رٔززّ رـخثِس رٕن‬
The novella tells the story of Santiago, a Cuban fisherman who is ٙ‫ ّخى كوٕر‬ٛ‫و‬ٛ ٕ‫ ْٔو‬،ٕ‫خغ‬ٛ‫وش ٓوخَظ‬ٜ‫َس ق‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫ش حنق‬ٚ‫ حن َّ ٔح‬ٙ‫طلك‬
struggling with a period of bad luck, having been fishing for eighty- ‫وووطخى يُووٌ أٍرعوووش‬ٜٚ ‫ووغ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،َ‫كووخفق فظووَس يوووٍ حنلووع حنعوووخػ‬ٚ
four days without catching anything. .ً ‫ج خ‬ٛٗ ًٔٚ ٌ‫ٕي خ ً ىٌٔ أ‬ٚ ٍَٛ‫ٔػًخ‬
Even his young friend Manolin has been forced to stop fishing with ‫ي‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫قّ حن٘وخد يوخَٕنٍ أؿزوَ عهوٗ حنظٕقوف عوٍ حن‬ٚ‫وي‬ٛ ٗ‫كظ‬
him by his parents. . ّٚ‫يعّ يٍ قزم ٔحني‬
He decides to go farther out into the Gulf Stream, as he hopes he will ً‫كٌٕ قخىٍح‬ٚ ٌ‫ؤيم رؤ‬ٚ ‫غ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫ؾ‬ٛ‫ ؿئل حنوه‬ٙ‫زظعي أكؼَ ف‬ٚ ٌ‫ق ٍَّ أ‬ٚ
be able to find fish there. He succeeds, hooking a great marlin, but the ٍٛ‫ووطخى ٓووًكش يووخٍن‬ٛ‫ووغ ح‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫ووُـق‬ٚ .‫ـووخى حنٔووً ُْووخب‬ٚ‫عهوٗ ا‬
fish is too strong and is able to pull the boat. .‫ش ؿيحً ٔطكٌٕ قخىٍس عهٗ ٓلذ حنقخٍد‬ٕٚ‫ ٔنكٍ حنًٔكش ق‬،‫وًش‬ٟ
The fish and Santiago are joined together by the fishing line for three ‫خو قزوم‬ٚ‫ػش أ‬٣‫ي نؼ‬ٜٛ‫ُخٍس حن‬ٜ‫خغٕ يع خ ً ر‬ٛ‫ حنًٔكش ٔٓخَظ‬٢‫طَطز‬
days before the fish becomes tired and Santiago is able to kill it. . ‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫خء عه‬٠‫خغٕ يٍ حنق‬ٛ‫ظًكٍ ٓخَظ‬ٚٔ ‫أٌ طظعذ حنًٔكش‬
As he is returning home, sharks smell the marlin's blood and eat it, ‫ ط٘وووى أٓوووًخب حنقوووَٕ ىو ٓوووًكش‬، ‫وووض‬ٛ‫عوووٕى انوووٗ حنز‬ٚ ‫ًُوووخ‬ٛ‫ٔر‬
meaning Santiago is left with nothing but a skeleton for his great ٘‫خغٕ رووئٌ أ‬ٛ‫زقووٗ ٓووخَظ‬ٚ ٌ‫ أ‬ٙ‫عُوو‬ٚ ‫ ْٔووٌح‬،‫ٍ ٔطؤكهٓووخ‬ٛ‫حنًووخٍن‬
effort. . ‫ يقخرم ؿٕٓىِ حنـزخٍس‬ًٙ‫كم حنعر‬ٛٓ‫ء ٕٖٓ حن‬ٙٗ
However, when he returns, he has regained the respect of his fellow ،ٍٚ‫خى‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٜ‫ءِ حن‬٣‫ٔوووظَى حكظوووَحو ُيووو‬ٚ ،‫عوووٕى‬ٚ ‫ عُوووييخ‬،ٍ‫ٔنكووو‬
fishermen, and Manolin agrees to return to his side. . ّ‫ٍ عهٗ حنعٕىس انٗ ؿخَز‬ٛ‫ٕحف يخَٕن‬ٚٔ
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Santiago was ……………
a. a very bad fisherman b. a very lucky fisherman c. a very good fisherman
2. Hemingway was ………….. for his work " The Old Man and the Sea". ) ‫ش‬َٛ‫ – حنئٍس حنؼخ‬0300 ‫( ىٍٔس عخو‬
a. rewarded b. punished c. not appreciated
3. Manolin‘s parents told him …………….
a. to fish with Santiago b. not to fish with Santiago c. to help Santiago catch the marlin
4. The great marlin was eaten by ……………..
a. sharks b. Santiago‘s fellow fishermen c. Santiago
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
5. a piece of fiction shorter than a novel and longer than a short story 6. the red liquid that moves around the body
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
7. Hemingway's knowledge of fisherman's way of life and 9. Santiago goes further into the Gulf Stream, hoping
his experience enabled him to…………………………. that he ……………………………………………
)‫ش‬َٛ‫ – حنئٍس حنؼخ‬0300 ‫ ( ىٍٔس عخو‬10. Santiago is able to kill the marlin when it ………
8. Santiago is suffering from bad luck as he……………..
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. a 3. b 4. a 5. novella 6. blood 7. write a realistic account of an old but skilled fisherman chasing his greatest catch in The Old Man
and the Sea. 8. has been fishing for eighty-four days without catching anything. 9. will be able to find fish there. 10. becomes tired after three days.

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
The novella focuses on Santiago‘s relationship with the fish he is ٙ‫خغٕ رخنّٔووًكش حنظوو‬ٛ‫قووش ٓووخَظ‬٣‫َس عهووٗ ع‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ووش حنق‬ٚ‫طَكووِ حنَّٔح‬
battling. He greatly respects the fish‘s strength, determination and ‫ًٓخ ٔقوويٍطٓخ‬ًٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ووَ قووٕس حنٔووًكش ٔط‬ٛ‫لظووَو ر٘ووكم كز‬ٚ .‫لخٍرٓووخ‬ٚ
ability to resist suffering – characteristics we see in the author as well ‫وخفش‬ٟ٠‫ حنًئنوف رخ‬ٙ‫يخص ََحْخ ف‬ٛ ْٙٔ -‫عهٗ يقخٔيش حنًعخَخس‬
as Santiago. .ٕ‫خغ‬ٛ‫انٗ ٓخَظ‬
Santiago is sad to eventually kill the mighty fish, as he feels any ‫ووغ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫ووش‬ٚ‫ حنُٓخ‬ٙ‫قظووم حنٔووًكش حنـزّ وخٍس فوو‬ٚ ّ‫َوو‬ٞ ٕ‫خغ‬ٛ‫لووٌِ ٓووخَظ‬ٚ
person who would eat it would not be worthy. Because of this, he is a ،‫ رٔوزذ ْوٌح‬. ‫َحً روٌن‬ٚ‫كوٌٕ ؿوي‬ٚ ٍ‫ؤكهٓخ نو‬ٚ ٚ‫٘عَ أٌ أ٘ ٗو‬ٚ
character that the reader respects emotionally as well as physically. .٘‫ كًخ ْٕ ؿٔي‬ٙ‫ي‬١‫لظَيٓخ حنقخٍة ر٘كم عخ‬ٚ ‫ش‬ٜٛ‫ْٕ ٗو‬
Hemingway is an example of how an author's background can be ‫وووش‬ٛ‫ًكوووٍ أٌ طكوووٌٕ ههي‬ٚ ٙ‫ًُغوووٕ٘ يؼوووخل عوووٍ حنلخنوووش حنظووو‬ْٛ
extremely important to their literary work. . ‫ ّش‬ٛ‫ىر‬ٞ‫ أعًخنّ ح‬ٙ‫حنًئنف ْخ ّي ش ؿيح ف‬
The 1954 Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to Hemingway ٍ‫طقخَووّ نيوو‬٠‘ ٘‫ نًُٓغوٕح‬0362 ‫ىد عووخو‬ٟ‫هيُلوض ؿووخثِس َٕروم نوو‬
―for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently ٌ٘‫َ حنوو‬ٛ‫ ٔنهظووؤػ‬،َ‫ ٔحنووٌ٘ ظٓووَ يووئهَحً رووخنعـُٕ ٔحنزلوو‬،‫حنٔ وَى‬
demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the
influence that he has exerted on contemporary style‖. .’َٛ‫ٓهٕد حنًعخ‬ٞ‫ّ عهٗ ح‬َٟ‫ف‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Santiago is sad because ……………
a. he ate the marlin b. he killed the marlin c. he couldn‘t eat the marlin
2. Santiago feels that ……………… worthy to eat the mighty fish.
a. he and Manolin are b. his fellow fishermen are c. no one is
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. very strong 4. a person in a book, play or film
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. The characteristics of the fish in " The old Man and the Sea" are 6. Hemingway got the Nobel Prize as a result
……………………..………………….. )‫ش‬َٛ‫ – حنئٍس حنؼخ‬0300 ‫( ىٍٔس عخو‬ of his …………………………………….
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. c 3. mighty 4. character 5. strength, determination and ability to resist suffering.
6. mastery of the art of narrative and the influence he exerted on contemporary style.
bait ‫عى‬١ a piece of food put onto a hook to attract fish ًٔ‫نـٌد حن‬ ‫ هطخ‬ٙ‫ع ف‬ٟٕ‫قطعش يٍ حنطعخو ط‬
taut ‫ي٘ئى ربككخو‬ stretched tight ‫ي٘ئى ربككخو‬
loop ‫عقيس‬ a shape like a circle made by something bending ُٙ‫ء يُل‬ٙٗ ٍ‫ُع ي‬ٜ‫ه‬ٚ ‫ٗكم يؼم ىحثَس‬
thump out ‫َد رعُف‬٠ٚ to hit something hard and repeatedly ٍَ‫جخ ً ر٘ ّيس ٔر٘كم يظك‬ٛٗ ‫َد‬٠ٚ
stern ‫يئهَس حنقخٍد‬ back of a boat ‫يئهَس قخٍد‬
How his ‗mastery of narrative‘ and the ‗economy of language' ٙ‫خى حنهغش’ فو‬ٜ‫ف حؿظًع اطقخَّ نهَّٔى ٔ‘ حقظ‬ٛ‫ًكٍ أٌ ََٖ ك‬ٚ
in his style came together can be seen in the following excerpt. . ٙ‫ط‬ٜ‫ حنًقطع ح‬ٙ‫أٓهٕرّ يع خ ً ف‬
It describes Santiago catching a tuna, which he will go on to use as ‫ٔوظوييٓخ‬ٛٓ ٙ‫ ٔحنظو‬،‫ًٔ ٓوًكش طَٕوخ‬ٚ ْٕٔ ٕ‫خغ‬ٛ‫ف ٓخَظ‬ٜٚ
bait. The reader is given brief descriptions that only need one or two ٔ‫ كهًووش أ‬٢‫لظووخؽ فقوو‬ٚ ً ‫ووي خ ً يووٕؿِ ح‬ٛٔ ‫ هعطووٗ حنقووخٍة‬ٚ . ‫كطعووى‬
words, and the reader learns a lot about Santiago‘s character from the ٍ‫خغٕ يوو‬ٛ‫ ّش ٓووخَظ‬ٛ‫ و‬ٜ‫ووَ عووٍ ٗو‬ٛ‫ووظعهى حنقووخٍة حنكؼ‬ٚٔ ،ٍٛ‫كهًظوو‬
way he treats the fish he has caught. . ‫ أئكٓخ‬ٙ‫ٓخ يع حنًّٔكش حنظ‬ٛ‫ظعخيم ف‬ٚ ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫حنط‬
Just then the stern line came taut under his foot, where he had kept the ‫وغ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،ّ‫ويس ي٘وئىس طلوض قييو‬ُٛ‫وُخٍس حنع‬ٜ‫ٍ ؿوخءص حن‬ٛ‫ ًن حنلو‬ٙ‫ف‬
loop of the line, and he dropped his oars and felt the weight of the small ‫ف ٔٗعَ رٌُٕ ٓولذ ٓوًكش‬ٚ‫ حنًـخى‬٢‫ ٔأٓق‬،‫ُخٍس‬ٜ‫ع عقيس حن‬ٟٔ
tuna‘s shivering pull as he held the line firm and commenced to haul it in. .‫ُخٍس ربككخو ٔريأ رٔلزٓخ‬ٜ‫ًُخ أئ حن‬ٛ‫َس حنًَطـيش ر‬ٛ‫غ‬ٜ‫حنظَٕخ حن‬
The shivering increased as he pulled in and he could see the blue back of ‫ٍُق‬ٞ‫َٖ حنرَٓ ح‬ٚ ٌ‫ٔلذ ٔحٓظطخع أ‬ٚ ٌ‫ًُخ كخ‬ٛ‫حُىحىص حنَّ ؿيش ر‬
the fish in the water and the gold of his sides before he swung him over َ‫و‬١ ‫ٓوخ فوٕق‬ٛ‫َي‬ٚ ٌ‫ قزم أ‬ٙ‫َحفٓخ حنٌْز‬١‫ حنًخء ٔنٌٕ أ‬ٙ‫نه ًّٔكش ف‬
the side and into the boat. .ّ‫حنقخٍد ٔىحهه‬
He lay in the stern in the sun, compact and bullet shaped, his big, ّ‫ش ٔط٘وووز‬١ٕ‫وووغ‬٠‫ ي‬،ًْ‫ يوووئهَس حنقوووخٍد طلوووض حن٘ووو‬ٙ‫ٍقووويص فووو‬
unintelligent eyes staring as he thumped his life out against the ‫ًُخ كخَض‬ٛ‫ٍ ر‬ٛ‫ظ‬ٛ‫َ ًك‬ٛ‫ٍ ٔحنغ‬ٛ‫َط‬ٛ‫ٓخ حنكز‬ُٛٛ‫غ طليق ع‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫ش‬ٛ‫خ‬ٛ َّ‫حن‬
planking of the boat with the quick shivering strokes of his neat, fast- ‫ووَرخص‬٠‫ش نهقووخٍد ر‬ٛ‫نووٕحف حنو٘ووز‬ٞ‫خطٓووخ عهووٗ ح‬ٛ‫ؿووم ك‬ٞ ‫ووخٍع‬ٜ‫ط‬
moving tail. .‫ع حنلَكش‬َٚٔ‫ حن‬َٛٞ‫هٓخ ح‬ًٚ ٍ‫عش ي‬َٚٓٔ ‫يَطـيش‬
The old man hit him on the head for kindness and kicked him, his body ٌ‫ووغ كووخ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫ؿووم حنهطووف ٍٔكهٓووخ‬ٞ ‫ووَرٓخ حنعـووُٕ عهووٗ ٍأٓووٓخ‬ٟ
still shuddering, under the shade of the stern. .‫ طلض ظم يئهَس حنقخٍد‬،‫َطـف‬ٚ ‫ِحل‬ٚ ‫ؿًٔٓخ يخ‬
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
The Prophet ً‫انُج‬ ( p 24 )
by Gibran Khalil Gibran (1883–1931)
impress ٙ‫ئػَ ف‬ٚ to make someone feel admiration and respect ‫كظَحو‬٢‫عـخد ٔح‬٠‫٘عَ رخ‬ٚ ‫خ ً يخ‬ٜ‫ـعم ٗو‬ٚ
foreign ٙ‫أؿُز‬ in or from a country other than one‘s own ٚ‫ٔض ىٔنش حن٘و‬ٛ‫ أٔ يٍ ىٔنش ن‬ٙ‫ف‬
issue ‫ش‬ٛ٠‫ق‬ a subject to consider ( discuss), especially a problem ‫خ ً ي٘كهش‬ٕٜٛ‫ ٔه‬،ّ‫ٕع طظى يُخق٘ظ‬ٟٕ‫ي‬
2011 ‫انذوسح اإلضبفٍخ‬
The Prophet is a book of 26 poems written in English by the Lebanese ‫ووش كظزٓووخ حنكخطووذ‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫يس رخنهغووش ح‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ ق‬00 ٍ‫ كظووخد يوو‬ٙ‫حنُزوو‬
writer and painter Gibran Khalil Gibran. .ٌ‫م ؿزَح‬ٛ‫ ؿزَحٌ هه‬َٙ‫ٔحنَ ّٓخو حنهزُخ‬
In the book, the prophet Almustafa is leaving the foreign city of ‫وش رعووي‬ٛ‫ؿُز‬ٞ‫ْ ح‬ٛ‫ُوش حٍٔفوخن‬ٚ‫ووطيٗ يي‬ًٜ‫غوخىٍ حن‬ٚ ،‫ حنكظوخد‬ٙ‫فو‬
Orphalese after twelve years. .ً ‫ٍ عخيخ‬َٚ٘‫ع‬
As he is about to board the ship that will take him home, he is stopped ّ ‫ْٕٔ عهٗ ٔٗ حن‬
،ُّ١ٕ‫ُقهّ انٗ ي‬ٛٓ ٌ٘‫عٕى انٗ حنقخٍد حن‬ٜ
by a group of people who he discusses many important issues with. ٍ‫ووَ يوو‬ٛ‫ُووخقٖ يعٓووى حنكؼ‬ٚ ٌٍٚ‫ط ٕقيووّ يـًٕعووش يووٍ حنُووخّ حنوو‬
They talk about life and the human condition. .َ٘‫خس ٔظَٔ حنز‬ٛ‫ظليػٌٕ عٍ حنل‬ٚ ‫غ‬ٛ‫ ك‬.‫خ حنٓخ ّيش‬ٚ‫خ‬٠‫حنق‬
The book is divided into chapters dealing with themes ranging from ‫ٍ حنوؤِحؽ‬ٛ‫ووٕل طعووخنؾ أفكووخٍحً طظووَحٔف روو‬ٜ‫حنكظوخد يق ّٔو ى انووٗ ف‬
marriage and children, eating and giving, to pain, self-knowledge, ‫نى ٔيعَفوش حنوٌحص ٔحنظلو ّيع‬ٞ‫كم ٔحنعطخء انٗ ح‬ٞ‫يخل ٔح‬١ٞ‫ٔح‬
talking and death. .‫ٔحنًٕص‬
Gibran wrote The Prophet in English and used the tone and rhythm of ‫ووش ٔحٓووظويو َغًووش ٔطُووخغى‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ رخنهغووش ح‬ٙ‫كظووذ ؿزووَحٌ حنُزوو‬
17th century English text. .َ٘‫ حنقٌَ حنٔخرع ع‬ٙ‫ِ٘ ف‬ٛ‫ حَكه‬َٚ
He joins many different philosophies and ideals in a rich mixture of ‫ؾ‬ِٚ‫ يو‬ٙ‫وَس ٔيظُ ّٕعوش فو‬ٛ‫وخص كؼ‬ٛ‫ٍ فهٔويخص ٔيؼخن‬ٛ‫ رو‬٢‫َر‬ٚ ‫غ‬ٛ‫ك‬
wisdom. .‫ يٍ حنلكًش‬ُٙ‫غ‬
The character Almustafa insists upon the bonds between all men, the ّ‫ٍ كووو ّم حنُوووخ‬ٛ‫ رووو‬٢‫وووطيٗ عهوووٗ حنووؤَحر‬ًٜ‫ّش حن‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٜ‫وووَ ٗو‬ٜ‫ط‬
links between all forms of life, and the importance of continuity. .ٍ‫ٓظًَح‬٢‫ش ح‬ًْٛ‫خس ٔأ‬ٛ‫ٍ ك ّم أٗكخل حنل‬ٛ‫ ر‬٢‫ٔحنَٔحر‬
Gibran was deeply affected by a number of British poets. The .ٍَٛٛ‫طووخ‬َٚ‫وو رعوويى يووٍ حن٘ووعَحء حنز‬ًٛ‫طووؤػَ ؿزووَحٌ ر٘ووكم ع‬
Romantic poets, such as Coleridge, Shelley and Burns, heavily ‫ أػوؤَح‬،ِ‫ََوو‬ٛ‫ ٔر‬ٙ‫ه‬ٛ‫َؽ ٔٗو‬ٛ‫ يؼوم كووٕن‬،ٌٕٛ‫حن٘وعَحء حنَٔيخَٔوو‬
influenced him; ‫َ؛‬ٛ‫ّ ر٘كم كز‬ٛ‫ف‬
though he was most impressed by William Blake, whose work helped ‫ حنوٌ٘ ٓوخعيص‬، ‫و‬ٛ‫وخو ره‬ٛ‫رخنَّغى يٍ أَوّ طوؤػَ ر٘وكم أكزوَ رٕن‬
to shape both Gibran‘s writing and painting. .ٌ‫ٍ كظخرخص ٍٕٔٓيخص ؿزَح‬ٕٚ‫أعًخنّ عهٗ طك‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Gibran Khalil Gibran was a…………
a. doctor b. writer and painter c. sailor

2. In ― The Prophet‖ Gibran discusses …………..


a. marriage and children and other things b. death only c. romantic poets.

Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. subjects to consider, especially problems 4. from a country other than one‘s own 5. made ( someone ) feel admiration
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
6. "The Prophet" was written in……………………………………………..……………………………….………..
7. Gibran Khalil Gibran was affected by…………………………………….……………………………..……….
8. The character ― Almustafa‖ demands………………………………………..……………………….…………..
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. a 3 . issues 4. foreign 5. impressed 6. English by the Lebanese writer and painter Gibran Khalil Gibran.
7. a number of British poets. 8. the bonds between all men, the links between all forms of life, and the importance of continuity.

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
unacclaimed ٍ‫َ هيعه‬ٛ‫غ‬ not announced ٍ‫َ يعه‬ٛ‫غ‬
grieve ٌِ‫ل‬ٚ to feel extremely sad ‫ي‬ٚ‫٘عَ رلٌِ ٗي‬ٚ
aught ‫ء‬ٙٗ ٢ nothing ‫ء‬ٙٗ ٢
ebb ٍِ‫ؿ‬ the flow of the sea away from the shore ‫ت‬١‫يح ً عٍ حن٘خ‬ٛ‫طيف حنزلَ رع‬
And a youth said, ‗Speak to us of Friendship.‘ ’.‫يحقش‬ٜ‫ ‘ْخص ك ّيػُخ عٍ حن‬4‫ٔقخل ٗخد‬
And he answered, saying: :ً ٣‫فؤؿخد قخث‬
Your friend is your needs answered. . ‫ش كخؿخط‬ٚ‫ق ْٕ كيخ‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ ٌ‫ا‬
He is your field which you sow with love and reap with thanksgiving. .َ‫يِ رخن٘ك‬ٜ‫ْٕ كقه حنٌ٘ طٍِعّ رخنًلزش ٔ طل‬
And he is your board and your fireside. .‫ْٕ يخثيط ٔ يٕقيب‬
For you come to him with your hunger, and you seek him for peace. .‫ُش‬ٛ‫ ٔطٔعٗ ٍٔحءِ رلؼخ ً عٍ حن ّٔك‬,‫ّ ؿخثعخ‬ٛ‫ ان‬ٙ‫َ طؤط‬ٞ
When your friend speaks his mind you fear not the ‗nay‘ in your own ‫ فكَب‬ٙ‫َف رًخ ف‬ٜ‫ طوٖ أٌ ط‬٣‫ق فكَِ ف‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ ‫ق ن‬ٟٔ‫فبًح أ‬
mind, nor do you withhold the ‗ay‘. .‫ـخد‬ٚ٠‫ ًُْ يٍ ح‬ٙ‫ أٔ أٌ طلظيع رًخ ف‬,ٙ‫يٍ حنُي‬
And when he is silent your heart ceases not to listen to his heart; ;ّ‫ٕص قهز‬ٛ ٗ‫غخء ان‬ٛ٠‫ُقطع قهز عٍ ح‬ٚ ٣‫ ف‬, ‫ق‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ ‫ًض‬ٛ ‫ٔاًح‬
For without words, in friendship, all thoughts, all desires, ‫فكخٍ ٔحنَغزخص‬ٞ‫ٓخ ك ّم ح‬ٛ‫نيخظ في‬ٞ‫ طلظخؽ انٗ ح‬٢ ‫يحقش‬ٜ‫ٌ حن‬ٞ
all expectations are born and shared, with joy that is unacclaimed. .ٍ‫َ يعه‬ٛ‫ ريَف غ‬،‫يقخء‬ٛٞ‫٘ظَب رٓخ ح‬ٚٔ ‫خص طٕني‬ًُٛ‫ٔحنظ‬
When you part from your friend, you grieve not; ;ّ‫ طلٌِ عهٗ فَحق‬٣‫ق ف‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ ‫ٔاٌ فخٍقض‬
For that which you love in him may be clearer in his absence, ‫ق‬ٟٔ‫خرّ أ‬ٛ‫ٍ غ‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫كٌٕ ف‬ٚ ‫ قي‬,ّٛ‫ٌ يخ طع٘قّ ف‬ٞ
as the mountain to the climber is clearer from the plain. .ّ‫ظٔهق‬ٚ ًٍ‫رَٓ ن‬ٚ ‫ق يًخ‬ٟٔ‫ّ يٍ حنٔٓم أ‬ٛ‫ُرَ ان‬ٚ ًٍ‫زئ ن‬ٚ ‫كخنـزم‬
And let there be no purpose in friendship save the deepening of the ‫ و‬ًٛ‫ووَ طع‬ٛ‫ووش طَؿَٕٓووخ غ‬ٚ‫وويحقش يووٍ غخ‬ٜ‫ حن‬ٙ‫كووٍ نكووى فوو‬ٚ ٢ٔ
spirit. . ‫حنَٔف‬
For love that seeks aught but the disclosure of its own mystery ‫ ٍؿخء نٓخ ٕٖٓ ك٘ف حنغطخء عٍ أَٓحٍْخ‬٢ ٙ‫ حنظ‬,‫ٌ حنًلزش‬ٞ
is not love but a net cast forth: and only the unprofitable is caught. .‫َ َخفع‬ٛ‫ يخ ْٕ غ‬٢‫ طًٔ ا‬٢ٔ ٗ‫ ٗزكش طهق‬ْٙ ‫ٔض يلزش رم‬ٛ‫ن‬
And let your best be for your friend. . ‫ق‬ٚ‫ي‬ٜ‫م يخ عُيب ن‬٠‫كٍ أف‬ٛ‫ٔن‬
If he must know the ebb of your tide, let him know its flood also. .ً ‫خ‬٠ٚ‫ي ّيْخ أ‬ َ‫ع‬ٛ‫خط فه‬ٛ‫ؿٍِ ك‬ َ‫ع‬ٚ ٌ‫ـيٍ رّ أ‬ٚ ٌ‫فبٌ كخ‬
For what is your friend that you should seek him with hours to kill? ‫ي قظهّ يٍ ٔقظ ؟‬َٚ‫ يعّ يخ ط‬ٙ٠‫ نظق‬٢‫ ططهزّ ا‬٢ ٌ٘‫ق حن‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ ‫ًش‬ٛ‫يخ ق‬
Seek him always with hours to live. . ‫ ٓخعخط‬ٙٛ‫هل‬ٚ ٌ٘‫ حن‬ٚ‫ي‬ٜ‫كَٖ انٗ حن‬ٞ‫فخٓع رخ‬
For it is his to fill your need, but not your emptiness. . ‫ فَحغ‬ًٟٚ ٌ‫ أ‬٢ , ‫كًم كخؿخط‬ٚ ٌ‫ٌ نّ ٔكيِ أ‬ٞ
And in the sweetness of friendship let there be laughter and sharing of ّ ‫ٔس حن‬٣‫ ك‬ٙ‫ٔنظكٍ ف‬
.‫فَحف ٔحنهٌحص حنًظزخىنش‬ٞ‫يحقش ح‬ٜ
pleasures.
For in the dew of little things the heart finds its morning and is ,‫َس‬ٛ‫ووغ‬ٜ‫خء حن‬ٛ‫ٗوو‬ٞ‫ حنُوويٖ حنعووخن رخ‬ٙ‫ووزخكّ فوو‬ٛ ‫ـووي‬ٚ ‫ٌ حنقهووذ‬ٞ
refreshed. .ٖ‫ُظع‬ٚٔ
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. A real friend is someone …………..
a. who lives with you b. who fulfuills your needs c. with whom you spend your free time
2. When your friend is away, you should ………..
a. be happy b. look for him c. not be unhappy
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. the flow of the sea away from the shore 4. not announced
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. Your friend is your board and fire because ……………. 7. The heart can find refreshment in ………..……………..
6. The purpose of friendship should be ………………….. 8. You should seek your friend with hours to live, not ……
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. c 3. ebb 4. unacclaimed 5. you come to him with your hunger, and you seek him for peace.
6. the deepening of the spirit. 7. the dew of little things 8. with hours to kill.
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
To the Lighthouse ‫إنى انًُبسح‬ ( p 26 )
by Virginia Woolf (1882–1941) ‫فشجٍٍُب وونف‬
ambitious ‫ًٕف‬١ determined to be successful, rich ..... ...ً ‫خ‬ُٛ‫ غ‬،‫كٌٕ َخؿلخ‬ٚ ٌ‫ ًِّى عهٗ أ‬ٜ‫ي‬
manage ‫ُـق‬ٚ to succeed in doing something difficult ‫عذ‬ٛ ‫ء‬ٙ٘‫خو ر‬ٛ‫ حنق‬ٙ‫ُـق ف‬ٚ
subtlety ٌ‫ىقّش – اطقخ‬ being delicate or precise as to be difficult to describe ّ‫ي‬ٛٔ ‫عذ‬ٜٚ ‫غ‬ٛ‫قخ ً رل‬ٛ‫كٌٕ يظقُخ ً ٔىق‬ٚ
revolutionise ‫هليع ػٍٕس‬ٚ to completely change how something is done ‫ء‬ٙ٘‫خو ر‬ٛ‫ٓخ حنق‬ٛ‫ظى ف‬ٚ ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫َ رخنكخيم حنط‬ٛ‫غ‬ٚ
novel ‫ش‬ٚ‫ٍٔح‬ a long written story whose characters are imaginary ّ ‫ق‬
‫ش‬ٛ‫ه‬ٛ‫خطٓخ طو‬ٜٛ‫هش ٗو‬ٕٚ١ ‫ش يكظٕرش‬ٜ
lighthouse ‫يُخٍس‬ a tower with a light that guides ships ٍ‫َٗي حنٔي‬ٚ ‫ٕء‬ٟ ّٛ‫رهَؽ ف‬
Virginia Woolf was one of the most ambitious and important writers of ‫ش‬ًّٛ ْ‫ًٕكخ ً ٔأ‬١ َ‫كؼ‬ٞ‫خ ٔٔنف ٔحكيس يٍ حنكظخد ح‬ُٛٛ‫كخَض فَؿ‬
the 20th century. Few other writers have managed to enter the inner ٙ‫ٍ َـلووٕح فوو‬َٚ‫هوو‬ٜ‫ووم يووٍ حنكظووخد ح‬ٛ‫ حنقه‬.ٍَٚ‫ حنقووٌَ حنع٘وو‬ٙ‫فوو‬
depths of their characters with such subtlety and care. .ٌٍ‫خطٓى رٌِٓ حنيقش ٔحنل‬ٜٛ‫ش ن٘و‬ٛ‫عًخق حنيحهه‬ٞ‫حنيهٕل انٗ ح‬
She follows the stream of consciousness, or thought patterns, of her َ‫٘ع‬ٚ ‫خطٓخ ٔرٌٓح‬ٜٛ‫ ن٘و‬،ٍ‫فكخ‬ٞ‫ ح‬١‫ أٔ أًَخ‬،َ‫ حنل‬ٙ‫طظزع حنظيحع‬
characters so that the reader feels he or she can see inside their minds. .‫ُرَ ىحهم عقٕنٓى‬ٚ ٌ‫ع أ‬ٛ‫ٔظط‬ٚ َّ‫حنقخٍة أ‬
This detailed approach to writing, which was also used by James Joyce, ًْٛ‫وخ ً ؿوو‬٠ٚ‫ ٔحنووٌ٘ حٓووظوييّ أ‬،‫ووم نهكظخرووش‬ٜ
ّ ‫ْووٌح حنظٕ ّؿووّ حنًي‬
revolutionised novel writing. To the Lighthouse is not an easy book to ً ‫ْ كظخرخ‬ٛ‫ انٗ حنًُخٍس ن‬.‫ش‬ٚ‫ كظخرش حنَٔح‬ٙ‫ أكيع ػٍٕس ف‬،ْٕٚ‫ؿ‬
summarise. It is more interesting because of how it is written than ‫ كظوذ‬ٙ‫قوش حنظو‬َٚ‫ اَّ أكؼَ اػخٍس رٔوزذ حنط‬.ّٜٛ‫يٍ حنٔٓم طهو‬
because of what it is about. .ُّ‫ظل ّيع ع‬ٚ ‫رٓخ أكؼَ يُّ رٔزذ يخ‬
The broad outline suggests that little happens, but Virginia Woolf's ‫وخ‬ُٛٛ‫ ٔنكوٍ حَظزوخِ فَؿ‬،‫لويع‬ٚ ‫وم‬ٛ‫ حنٕحٓوع أٌ حنقه‬٢‫ حنًوط‬ُٙ‫ع‬ٚ
attention to detail and to the way we see things and think about them ‫ٓوخ‬ٛ‫خء َٔيكوَ ف‬ٛٗٞ‫ٓخ ح‬ٛ‫ ََٖ ف‬ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫م ٔنهط‬ٛٛ‫ٔٔنف نهظيخ‬
means that small events occur on every page and each of them is ‫ويلش ٔكو ّم يُٓوخ‬ٛ ‫ كو ّم‬ٙ‫َس طلويع فو‬ٛ‫غ‬ٜ‫كيحع حن‬ٞ‫ أٌ ح‬ُٙ‫ع‬ٚ
important. .‫ْخو‬
The novel is divided into three parts. The first part, ‗The Window’, ،’‫ ‘حنُخفوٌس‬،‫ٔل‬ٞ‫ حنـوِء ح‬ٙ‫هغطو‬ٚ .‫ػش أؿوِحء‬٣‫ش يقًّٔش انٗ ػ‬ٚ‫حنَّٔح‬
covers only one day; we are introduced to the Ramsay family and the ٌٍٚ‫ٕ حنوو‬ٛ‫وو‬٠‫ ٔحن‬ٙ‫ٕيوخ ً ٔحكوويحً؛ َظعووَ عهووٗ عخثهووش ٍحئوو‬ٚ ٢‫فقو‬
guests who join them on holiday on a Scottish Island called Skye. .٘‫ش طهٔ ًّٗ ٓكخ‬ٚ‫َس حٓكظهُي‬ِٚ‫ ؿ‬ٙ‫ اؿخُس ف‬ٙ‫ٓى ف‬ٛ‫ًٌٕ ان‬٠ُٚ
James Ramsay, who is six years old, longs to visit a nearby lighthouse, ‫ووخٍس‬ِٚ‫ظوٕق ن‬ٚ ،‫وض أعوٕحو‬ّ ‫ حنزووخن يوٍ حنعًوَ ٓو‬،ٙ‫ًْ ٍحئو‬ٛ‫ؿو‬
and his mother assures him they will go the next day. .ٙ‫ٕو حنظخن‬ٛ‫ حن‬ٙ‫ٌْزٌٕ ف‬ٛٓ ‫ ٔطئكي نّ ٔحنيطّ أَٓى‬،‫زش‬َٚ‫يُخٍس ق‬
The children‘s desire to visit the lighthouse brings the first part together. .ً ‫ٔل يظًخٓوكخ‬ٞ‫خٍس حنًُخٍس حنـِء ح‬ُٚ ٙ‫يخل ف‬١ٞ‫طـعم ٍغزش ح‬
However, Mr Ramsay says that they won‘t go because the weather will ٍ‫ٌ حنطقووْ نوو‬ٞ ‫ووٌْزٕح‬ٚ ٍ‫ آَووى نوو‬ٙ‫ي ٍحئوو‬ٛ‫قووٕل حنٔوو‬ٚ ،ٍ‫ٔنكوو‬
not be suitable. .ً ‫ثًخ‬٣‫كٌٕ ي‬ٚ
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. To the Lighthouse was written by …………….
a. Virginia Woolf b. James Joyce c. Ramsay
2. In her description of her characters, the writer focuses on ……………
a. what they look like b. their economic problems c. what happens in their minds
3. ‗The Window’ covers ……………
a. twenty-four hours b. sixty hours c. forty-eight hours.
4. Skye is an island located in…………..
a. England b. Scotland c. Italy
5. Mr. Ramsay …………….. Mrs. Ramsay about the visit to the lighthouse.
a. agrees with b. disagrees with c. tells
6. They can‘t go to the lighthouse because ………………
a. Mrs. Ramsay refuses b. James longs to go there c. of the weather
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
7. a long written story whose characters are imaginary 8. completely changed how something is done
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
9. James Joyce was similar to Virginia Woolf in that he…….. 10. Virginia Woolf paid much attention to…………..
‫انحهىل‬
1. a 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. b 6. c 7. novel 8. revolutionised
9. used the stream of consciousness technique. 10. detail and to the way we see things and think about them.
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
optimistic ‫يظيخثم‬ believing that good things will happen in the future ‫ حنًٔظقزم‬ٙ‫يس ٓظليع ف‬ٛ‫خء ؿ‬ٛٗ‫عظقي أٌ أ‬ٚ
pessimistic ‫يظ٘خثى‬ believing that bad things will happen in the future ‫ حنًٔظقزم‬ٙ‫جش ٓظليع ف‬ٛٓ ‫خء‬ٛٗ‫عظقي أٌ أ‬ٚ
inconsistent ٢‫َ يظَحر‬ٛ‫غ‬ not the same, acting differently in similar situations ‫ص يظ٘خرٓش‬٢‫ كخ‬ٙ‫ر٘كم يوظهف ف‬ َٜ‫ظ‬ٚ ،ّٔ‫ْ َي‬ٛ‫ن‬
clear-cut )‫ق ( حنًعخنى‬ٟ‫ٔح‬ easy to understand or be certain about ُّ‫يٍ حنٔٓم فًّٓ أٔ حنظؤكي ي‬
compensate ّٕٝ‫هع‬ٚ to replace or balance the effect of something bad .‫ت‬ٛٓ ‫ء‬ٙٗ َٛ‫ٕحٌُ طؤػ‬ٚ ٔ‫ٔظزيل أ‬ٚ
decay ٍ‫ُٓخ‬ٚ to be slowly damaged over time ٍ‫ء يع ئٍَ حنِي‬ٙ‫ظي ّيَ ر٘كم رط‬ٚ
island ‫َس‬ِٚ‫ؿ‬ a piece of land completely surrounded by water ‫ رٓخ حنًخء ر٘كم كخيم‬٢ٛ‫ل‬ٚ ٍٝٞ‫قطعش يٍ ح‬
Mrs Ramsay appears to be an optimistic character, yet later in the book, ، ‫ ٔيوع ًنو‬،‫ش يظيخثهوش‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫ عهوٗ أَٓوخ ٗو‬ٙ‫يس ٍحئو‬ٛٔ‫طرَٓ حن‬
her husband mentions that she is often pessimistic. This is not the writer ٢ ‫ ْوٌح‬.‫ٌكَ ُٔؿٓخ أَٓخ غخنزوخ ً يظ٘وخثًش‬ٚ ،‫ حنكظخد‬ٙ‫رعي ًن ف‬
being inconsistent. .٢‫َ يظَحر‬ٛ‫ أٌ حنكخطذ غ‬ُٙ‫ع‬ٚ
Terms such as optimism and pessimism are useful to us because they are ،ٍ‫ ٔنك‬.‫لش‬ٟ‫َٓخ ٔح‬ٞ ‫يس نُخ‬ٛ‫طهلخص يؼم طيخإل ٔط٘خإو يي‬ٜ‫ي‬
clear-cut. Human feelings, however, are rarely so clear, and are often ً ‫ غخنزوخ‬،‫وٕف‬ٟٕ‫ َخىٍحً يخ طكٌٕ رٌٓح حن‬ٙ‫ ٔحنظ‬،‫ش‬َٚ٘‫حنً٘خعَ حنز‬
too complex for such obvious labels. .‫لش‬ٟ‫خص حنٕح‬ًٛٔ‫يخ طكٌٕ يعقّيس ؿيحً نًؼم ٌِْ حنظ‬
Mrs Ramsay‘s optimism about the visit to the lighthouse is actually ‫ ر٘كم‬ٙ‫َ ٔحقع‬ٛ‫خٍس حنًُخٍس غ‬ِٚ‫ رخنُٔزش ن‬ٙٔ‫يس ٍحي‬ٛٔ‫طيخإل حن‬
unrealistic (because of the weather). Her positive attitude is an effort to ٕٞٚ‫ يلخٔنوش نهظعو‬ٙ‫ـوخر‬ٚ٠‫ فًٕقيٓوخ ح‬.) ْ‫ ( رٔزذ حنطق‬ٙ‫فعه‬
compensate for the world‘s disappointments, which she knows a lot about. .‫َ عُٓخ‬ٛ‫ طعَ حنكؼ‬ٙ‫ ٔحنظ‬،‫ حنعخنى‬ٙ‫يم ف‬ٞ‫زخص ح‬ٛ‫عٍ ه‬
Pessimism is the reason for her show of optimism, though even ٗ‫ عهٗ حنو َّغى يوٍ أَوّ كظو‬،‫حنظ٘خإو ْٕ ٓزذ اظٓخٍْخ نهظيخإل‬
pretending to be optimistic can have a positive effect on the world. .‫خ ً عهٗ حنعخنى‬ٛ‫ـخر‬ٚ‫َحً ا‬ٛ‫كٌٕ نّ طؤػ‬ٚ ٌ‫ًكٍ أ‬ٚ ‫حنظرخَْ رخنظيخإل‬
The writer also notes that James had looked forward to the visit ‗for ‫وخٍس ‘نٔوُٕحص‬ِٚ‫ظوٕق نه‬ٚ ٌ‫ًْ كوخ‬ٛ‫وخ ً أٌ ؿو‬٠ٚ‫كع حنكخطوذ أ‬٣ٚ
years and years it seemed‘. .’ٔ‫زي‬ٚ ‫ُٕٔٓحص عهٗ يخ‬
A major part of the novel is that time, as it is experienced, often seems ،ّ‫ً َّ عهٗ حنُخ‬ٚ ‫ كًخ‬، ‫ش ْٕ أٌ حنٕقض‬ٚ‫ يٍ حنَٔح‬ٙٔٛ‫ؿِء ٍث‬
different from the length of time shown on the clock. Time, in the book, ٙ‫ ف‬،‫ حنٕقض‬.‫ٕل حنٕقض عهٗ حنٔخعش‬١ ٍ‫زئ يوظهيخ ً ع‬ٚ ‫غخنزخ ً يخ‬
is elastic, a sensation that everyone knows. .‫ع‬ًٛ‫عَفّ حنـ‬ٚ ّ‫ يٌَ ْٕٔ اكٔخ‬،‫حنكظخد‬
For example, an enjoyable experience may seem to pass in seconds, ،ٌ‫ ػٕح‬ٙ‫ قي طزئ حنظـَرش حنًًظعش أَٓخ طًَ ف‬،‫م حنًؼخل‬ٛ‫عهٗ ٓز‬
when the clock shows that it actually lasted several minutes. . ‫ ع ّيس ىقخث‬ٙ‫عُييخ طرَٓ حن ّٔخعش أَٓخ حٓظًَص ر٘كم فعه‬
The opposite is also something most people know. The strength of ًْٛ‫ قوٕس ٍغزوش ؿو‬.ّ‫عَفّ يعروى حنُوخ‬ٚ ً ‫جخ‬ٛٗ ً ‫خ‬٠ٚ‫حنعكْ ْٕ أ‬
James's desire for adventure makes the period seem much longer than is ‫ يًكُش ر٘كم‬ْٙ ‫َ يًخ‬ٛ‫ٕل ركؼ‬١‫رخنًغخيَس طـعم حنيظَس طزئ أ‬
actually logically possible. .ً ‫خ‬ٛ‫ فعه‬ٙ‫يُطق‬
This is not the only way in which time is used, as in the second half of ٙ‫ كًوخ فو‬،‫ٓخ حنٕقض‬ٛ‫هٔظويو ف‬ٚ ٙ‫يس حنظ‬ٛ‫قش حنٕك‬َٚ‫ٔض حنط‬ٛ‫ٌِْ ن‬
the book, ‘Time Passes’, ten years have passed. .‫ ي َّص عَ٘ ُٕٓحص‬،’‫ًَ حنٕقض‬ٚ ‘ ،.‫ يٍ حنكظخد‬َٙ‫ف حنؼخ‬ُٜ‫حن‬
We learn of the death of Mrs Ramsay, and of her children Andrew and ‫زيأ حنًُِل‬ٚ ‫ ٔأرُخإْخ حَئٍ ٔرَٔ؛‬،ٙٔ‫يس ٍحي‬ٛٔ‫َعهى رًٕص حن‬
Prue; the house is also starting to decay. .ٍ‫خ‬َٛٓ٢‫خ ً رخ‬٠ٚ‫أ‬
The First World War has come and gone. Despite its horrific results, life ‫ عهوٗ حنوَغى يوٍ َظخثـٓوخ‬.‫وض‬٠‫ٔنٗ ٔي‬ٞ‫ش ح‬ًٛ‫ؿخءص حنلَد حنعخن‬
goes on, and the family and friends are back on the island. .‫َس‬ِٚ‫يقخء انٗ حنـ‬ٛٞ‫َٓس ٔح‬ٞ‫ ٔطعٕى ح‬،‫خس‬ٛ‫ طٔظًَ حنل‬،‫حنًَ ّٔعش‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Time in the book ……………
a. passes quickly b. passes slowly c. sometimes passes quickly and sometimes slowly
2. It is ……………… to give human feelings clear labels.
a. very difficult b. very easy c. easy
Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. believing that bad things will happen in the future 4. a tower with a light that guides ships
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. Mrs. Ramsay tries to show that she is optimistic in order to ………………..……………………………………….
6. The period seems longer for James because of ………………………………………………………………………
7. Although the war has had terrible effects, ……………………………………………………………………….
‫انحهىل‬
1. c 2. a 3. pessimistic 4. lighthouse 5. compensate for the world's disappointments. 6. the strength of his desire. 7. life goes on.
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
intervene ‫ظوهم‬ٚ come in between ٍٛ‫ ر‬ٙ‫ؤط‬ٚ
trauma ‫ييش‬ٛ a deeply distressing or disturbing experience ًٛ‫طـَرش يلَِش أٔ يِعـش ر٘كم ع‬
In the final part of the book, ‘To The Lighthouse’, Mr Ramsay takes his ‫ي‬ٛ‫ؤهووٌ حنٔوو‬ٚ ، ’‫ ‘انووٗ حنًُوخٍس‬،‫ووَ يوٍ حنكظووخد‬ٛ‫ه‬ٞ‫ حنـووِء ح‬ٙ‫فو‬
youngest children, James and Cam, to the lighthouse. .‫ انٗ حنًُخٍس‬،‫ًْ ٔكخو‬ٛ‫ ؿ‬،َ‫غ‬ٛٞ‫ أرُخءِ ح‬ٙٔ‫ٍحي‬
Lily Briscoe, the artist, finds peace in the pleasure of being in this place, ‫ ٌْح‬ٙ‫ ٓعخىطٓخ رٕؿٕىْخ ف‬ٙ‫ُش ف‬ٛ‫ حنٔك‬،‫ حنيُخَش‬،ٕ‫ٔك‬َٚ‫ ر‬ٙ‫ه‬ٛ‫طـي ن‬
and a visitor, Mr Carmichael, recognises that much has stayed the same ٗ‫ عه‬ٙ‫َ رق‬ٛ‫ أٌ حنكؼ‬،‫كم‬ٚ‫ي كخٍيخ‬ٛٔ‫ ْٕٔ حن‬،َ‫يٍب ُحث‬ٚٔ ٌ‫حنًكخ‬
despite the time that has passed and the intervening trauma of the war. .ّ‫ طوههظ‬ٙ‫ييش حنلَد حنظ‬ٛٔ ٗ٠‫كخنّ ٍغى حنٕقض حنٌ٘ ي‬
Lily finishes the painting she began ten years earlier and thinks of her َ‫ رووويأطٓخ قزوووم ع٘وووَ ٓوووُٕحص ٔطيكووو‬ٙ‫ حنهٕكوووش حنظووو‬ٙ‫هووو‬ٛ‫ ن‬ٙ‫طُٓووو‬
dead friend, Mrs Ramsay. .ٙٔ‫يس ٍحي‬ٛٔ‫ حن‬،‫قظٓخ حنَّحكهش‬ٚ‫ي‬ٜ‫ر‬
gifted ‫يْٕٕد‬ talented ‫يْٕٕد‬
scamper ٞ‫َك‬ٚ to run playfully ٕٓ‫ ره‬ٞ‫َك‬ٚ
charades َُٚ‫نعزش حنلِح‬ a game a family plays together ً ‫َٓس يعخ‬ٞ‫نعزش طهعزٓخ ح‬
tyrannical ‫ئظزّي‬ exercising power in a cruel or arbitrary way ‫ش‬ٛ١‫ش أٔ حعظزخ‬ٛٓ‫قش قخ‬َٚ‫ًخٍّ حنٔهطش رط‬ٚ
domineering ًٍٛٓ‫ي‬ someone who likes to control others ٍَٚ‫ه‬ٜ‫طَس عهٗ ح‬ٛٔ‫لذ حن‬ٚ ٚ‫ٗو‬
gloomy ‫ذ‬ٛ‫كج‬ pessimistic, miserable ْ‫ رخث‬، ‫يظ٘خثى‬
odd ‫ذ‬َٚ‫غ‬ Strange ‫ذ‬َٚ‫غ‬
The following extract is from the first part of the book, 'The Window'. .‫ ‘حنُخفوٌس‬،‫ٔل يوٍ حنكظوخد‬ٞ‫ يوؤهًٕ يوٍ حنـوِء ح‬ٙ‫ط‬ٜ‫حنًقطع ح‬
Mrs Ramsay is with one of her children, James, and is thinking about ٌ٘‫ ٔطيكوَ روخنلٌِ حنو‬،ًْٛ‫ ؿو‬،‫ يع أكوي أرُخثٓوخ‬ٙٔ‫يس ٍحي‬ٛٔ‫حن‬
how sad it will be when all her children have grown up. .‫كزَ ك ّم أرُخثٓخ‬ٚ ‫كٌٕ عُييخ‬ٛٓ
Nothing made up for the loss. When she read just now to James, ‗and there ٌ‫ًْ‘ٔكوخ‬ٛ‫ٌ نـو‬ٜ‫ عُوييخ قوَأص ح‬.‫ء عوٍ حنؤوخٍس‬ٙٗ ٝ ّٕ‫هع‬ٚ ‫نى‬
were numbers of soldiers with kettle-drums and trumpets,‘ and his eyes ،ِ‫ُووخ‬ٛ‫زووٕل ٔأرووٕحق’ ًٔرهووض ع‬١ ‫ُْووخب أع ويحى يووٍ حنـُووٕى ٔيعٓووى‬
darkened, she thought, why should they grow up and lose all that? ‫يقئح كم ًن ؟‬ٚٔ ‫كزَٔح‬ٚ ٌ‫ٓى أ‬ٛ‫ نًخًح عه‬،‫فكَص‬
He was the most gifted, the most sensitive of all her children. But all, she ،‫ ٔنكوٍ كهٓوى‬.‫ّش يٍ كوم أرُخثٓوخ‬ٛٓ‫كؼَ كٔخ‬ٞ‫كؼَ يْٕزش ٔح‬ٞ‫كخٌ ح‬
thought, were full of promise. .‫ًهئْى حنٕعي‬ٚ ٌ‫ كخ‬،‫فكَص‬
ً
Prue, a perfect angel with the others, and sometimes now, at night ‫وم ر٘وكم‬ٛ‫ حنه‬ٙ‫ فو‬،ٌٜ‫خَوخ ح‬ٛ‫ ٔأك‬،ٍَٚ‫هو‬ٜ‫ يوع ح‬ٙ‫ب يؼوخن‬٣‫ ي‬،َٔ‫ر‬
especially, she took one‘s breath away with her beauty. Andrew – even her ‫ حَوئٍ – كظوٗ ُٔؿٓوخ‬.‫وخٍ رـًخنٓوخ‬ٜ‫ر‬ٞ‫ كخَوض طوطوف ح‬،ٙ‫هخ‬
husband admitted that his gift for mathematics was extraordinary. .‫ش‬ٚ‫َ عخى‬ٛ‫خص كخَض غ‬ٟٛ‫خ‬َٚ‫ حن‬ٙ‫حعظَ أٌ يْٕزظّ ف‬
And Nancy and Roger, they were both wild creatures now, scampering ٌ‫وخ‬٠‫َك‬ٚ ،ٌٜ‫ٍ ح‬ٛٛ‫ٍ ٔك٘و‬ٛ‫ًٓخ يوهوٕق‬ٛ‫ كخٌ كه‬،َ‫ ٍٔٔؿ‬َٙٔ‫َٔخ‬
about over the country all day long. As for Rose, her mouth was too big, ً‫وَح‬ٛ‫ كخٌ فًٓوخ كز‬،َُٔ‫ رخنُٔزش ن‬.ٍ‫ٕحل حنُٓخ‬١ ‫ى‬٣‫ كمّ أَلخء حنز‬ٙ‫ف‬
but she had a wonderful gift with her hands. If they had charades, Rose ،َُٚ‫ اًح نعزٕح نعزش حنلِح‬.‫ٓخ‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ٔنكٍ كخَض نٓخ يْٕزش ٍحثعش ر‬،ً‫ؿيح‬
made the dresses; made everything; liked best arranging tables, flowers, ّ‫ كووخٌ أكؼووَ يووخ طلزوو‬،‫ء‬ٙ‫ووُع كوومّ ٗوو‬ٜ‫ػووٕحد ٔط‬ٞ‫ووُع ح‬ٜ‫كخَووض ٍُٔ ط‬
anything. .‫ء‬ٙٗ ٘‫ أ‬،ٍِْٕ‫ص ٔحن‬٢ٔ‫ذ حنطخ‬ٛ‫طَط‬
She did not like it that Jasper should shoot birds; but it was only a stage; ‫ووٍٕ؛ ٔنكُٓووخ كخَووض يـووَّ ى‬ٛ‫ووطخى ؿخٓووزَ حنط‬ٜٚ ٌ‫نووى طكووٍ طلووذ أ‬
they all went through stages. Why she asked, pressing her chin on James‘s ّ‫ طيَب ًقُٓخ رَأ‬ْٙٔ ،‫ نًخًح ٓؤنض‬.‫يَكهش؛ كهٓى ئَح رًَحكم‬
head, should they grow up so fast? Why should they go to school? She ٗ‫ٓى حنوٌْخد انوو‬ٛ‫كزؤَح رٓوٌِ حنٔووَعش؟ نوى عهو‬ٚ ٌ‫ٓى أ‬ٛ‫ عهو‬،ًْٛ‫ؿو‬
would have liked always to have had a baby. She was happiest carrying one ‫ كخَووض أٓووعي‬.‫يووم‬١ ‫كووٌٕ نٓووخ‬ٚ ٌ‫حنًيٍٓووش؟ كخَووض طلووذ ىحثًووخً أ‬
in her arms. .‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫ٍ ًٍحع‬ٛ‫يم ر‬١ ‫نلرخطٓخ كًم‬
Then people might say she was tyrannical, domineering, masterful, if they ‫ اًح‬،‫طَس‬ٛ‫ ٔئوو‬،‫ًُووش‬ٛٓ‫ ي‬،‫قووٕل حنُووخّ آَووخ كخَووض ئووظزيس‬ٚ ‫ػووى قووي‬
chose: she did not mind. And, touching his hair with her lips, she thought, ،‫ طهًووْ ٗووعَِ ر٘وويخْٓخ‬ٙ‫ْوو‬،ٔ .‫ نووى طكووٍ طكظووَع‬4 ‫حهظووخٍٔح ًن و‬
he will never be so happy again, but stopped herself, remembering how it ،‫ ٔنكُٓوخ أٔقيوض َئوٓخ‬،‫وش‬َٛ‫كٌٕ رٌِٓ حنّٔوعخىس يوَّ س ػخ‬ٚ ٍ‫ ن‬،‫فكَّ ص‬
angered her husband that she should say that. .‫ذ ُٔؿٓخ قٕنٓخ ٌْح‬٠‫هغ‬ٚ ‫ف‬ٛ‫غ طٌكَص ك‬ٛ‫ك‬
Still it was true. They were happier now than they would ever be again. A ‫وّ يوَّ س‬ٛ‫كٌَٕٕ عه‬ٛ‫ٌ يًوخ ٓو‬ٜ‫ ْى أكؼوَ ٓوعخىس ح‬.‫ق‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ ‫ٔيع ًن ٌْح‬
tenpenny tea set made Cam happy for days. .‫خو‬ٚٞ ً‫يح‬ٛ‫ش ؿعهض كخو ٓع‬ٜٛ‫ يـًٕعش أىٔحص ٗخ٘ ٍه‬.‫ش‬َٛ‫ػخ‬
She heard them stamping and crowing on the floor above her head the ٙ‫ فووٕق ٍأٓووٓخ فووو‬ٍٝٞ‫ووَهٌٕ عهووٗ ح‬ٜٚٔ ٌٕ‫ئٓوو‬ٚ ‫ٓووًعظٓى‬
moment they woke […] and so she went down and said to her husband, ،‫ ٔنوٌن َِنوض ٔقخنوض نِٔؿٓوخ‬. .... ‫ٓوخ‬ٛ‫قرٕح ف‬ٛ‫ حٓوظ‬ٙ‫حنهلرش حنظو‬
Why must they grow up and lose it all? ‫يقئح كم ٌْح؟‬ٚٔ ‫كزَٔح‬ٚ ٌ‫ـذ أ‬ٚ ‫نًخًح‬
Never will they be so happy again. And he was angry. Why take such a ‫ نووى ْووٌِ حنُرووَس‬.‫ووزخ‬ٟ‫ ٔكووخٌ غخ‬.ً‫كَٕووٕح ٓووعيحء كٓووٌح أروويح‬ٚ ٍ‫نوو‬
ً
gloomy view of life? he said. It is not sensible. For it was odd; and she ‫زوخً؛ ٔكخَوض‬َٚ‫َّ كخٌ غ‬ٞ .ً‫خ‬ٛ‫ْ يُطق‬ٛ‫ ٌْح ن‬.‫خس؟ قخل‬ٛ‫حنًظ٘خثًش نهل‬
believed it to be true; that with all his gloom and desperation he was ‫وي‬ٛ‫ يي‬،‫ق ؛ أَّ ركم كآرظّ ٔطعخٓظّ كخٌ أكؼَ ٓوعخىس‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ َّ‫طعظقي أ‬
happier, more helpful on the whole, than she was. .‫ يُٓخ‬،‫أكؼَ ر٘كم عخو‬
Less exposed to human worries – perhaps that was it. He always had his ّ‫ كوخٌ نو‬.ً‫لخ‬ٛ‫ول‬ٛ ‫ش – ٍرًخ كخٌ ٌْح‬َٚ٘‫ش نهًوخٔ حنز‬َٟ‫أقم ع‬
work to fall back on. Not that she herself was ‗pessimistic‘, as he accused ‫ كًووخ‬،’‫ رُئووٓخ ‘يظ٘ووخثًش‬ٙ‫ْ أَٓووخ ْوو‬ٛ‫ ٔنوو‬.ّ‫وو‬ٛ‫هـووؤ ان‬ٚ ‫ىحثً وخً عًووم‬
her of being. Only she thought life – and a little strip of time presented itself ٌ٘‫َ يٍ حنٕقض حنو‬ٛ‫غ‬ٛ ‫خس– ٔؿِء‬ٛ‫ كخَض طعظقي أٌ حنل‬٢‫فق‬.‫حطًٓٓخ‬
to her eyes – her fifty years. There it was before her – life. .‫خس‬ٛ‫ ُْخب كخَض أيخيٓخ – حنل‬.ًٍٛٔ‫ٓخ – ُٕٓحطٓخ حنو‬ُٛٛ‫ظَٓ أيخو ع‬
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
‘Song’ and ‘A Song’ ‫أغٍُخ وأغٍُخ‬ ( p 28 )
by Rupert Brooke (1887–1915) ‫سوثشد ثشون‬
academic ًٙٚ‫أكخى‬ relating to education, especially at a higher level ٗ‫ ئظٕٖ أعه‬ٙ‫خ ف‬ٕٜٛ‫ى ٔه‬ٛ‫هش رخنظعه‬ٛ ‫ًحص‬
express َّ‫هعز‬ٚ to show or tell thoughts or emotions ‫ف‬١‫وزَ عٍ أفكخٍ أٔعٕح‬ٚ ٔ‫هرَٓ أ‬ٚ
season ‫ْ م‬ٜ‫ف‬ one of the main periods into which a year is divided ‫ٓخ حن ُّٔش‬ٛ‫ طُقٔى ان‬ٙ‫ش حنظ‬ٛٔٛ‫اكيٖ حنيظَحص حنَث‬
idealistic ٙ‫يؼخن‬ in support of certain ideals, or high standards ‫ش‬ٛ‫خص عخن‬ٕٚ‫ أٔ ئظ‬،‫ُش‬ٛ‫خص يع‬ٛ‫٘ـع يؼخن‬ٚ
hawthorn ٍَٔ‫حنِع‬ a type of small tree with white flowers ‫خء‬٠ٛ‫َس نٓخ ٍٔٔى ر‬ٛ‫غ‬ٜ‫ٗـخٍ حن‬ٞ‫َٕع يٍ إَٔحع ح‬
quicken ‫هَٔع‬ٚ to become more active ً ‫خ‬١‫زق أكؼَ َ٘خ‬ٜٚ
bud ‫رهَعى‬ a flower or leaf before it opens ‫َُْس أٔ ٍٔقش قزم أٌ طظيظق‬
Rupert Brooke was born in England in 1887 to an academic family. He .‫وش‬ًٛٚ‫ أٓوَس أكخى‬ٙ‫ ف‬0221 ‫ حَكهظَح عخو‬ٙ‫ٔني ٍٔرَص رَٔب ف‬
was a good student, well-known for his intelligence, sporting talents and ‫ش‬ٛ‫ووو‬ٟ‫خ‬َٚ‫ ٔيٕحْزوووّ حن‬،ّ‫ ٔقوووي هعوووَ رٌكخثووو‬،ً‫ووويح‬ٛ‫خنزوووخ ً ؿ‬١ ٌ‫كووخ‬
popularity. .ّ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ٔٗعز‬
He won a scholarship to study at the University of Cambridge, where he ّ
‫وغ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫ ؿخيعش كخيزَىؽ‬ٙ‫ش نهيٍحٓش ف‬ٛٓ‫م عهٗ يُلش ىٍح‬ٜ‫ك‬
studied alongside Virginia Woolf. .‫خ ٔٔنف‬ُٛٛ‫ىٍّ يع فَؿ‬
He later became friends with writers such as E.M. Forster, and ٍٛٛ‫خٓوو‬ٛٓٔ َ‫ فٍٕٓووظ‬، ‫ او‬، ٘‫ووخىق كظّ وخد أيؼووخل ا‬ٛ ‫رعووي ًن و‬
politicians such as Winston Churchill. When Brooke wrote 'Song‘ in ‫ووش’ عووخو‬ُٛ‫ عُووييخ كظووذ روؤَب ‘أغ‬.‫َٗووم‬ٛ٘‫ُٔووظٌٕ ط‬ٚٔ ‫أيؼووخل‬
1912, he was troubled by the end of a long relationship with Katherine ٍَٚ‫هوش يوع كوخػ‬ٕٚ١ ‫قوش‬٣‫ش ع‬ٚ‫طَرخ ً رٔزذ َٓخ‬٠‫ كخٌ ي‬،0300
Laird Cox. .ْ‫َى كٕك‬ٛ‫ن‬
He expressed his pain in relation to the changing seasons in the English ّ
.ِ٘‫و‬ٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ف ح‬َٚ‫ حن‬ٙ‫َس ف‬ٛ‫ٕل حنًظغ‬ٜ‫عزَّ عٍ أنًّ رخنُٔزش نهي‬
countryside. When World War 1 started in 1914, Brooke began writing ‫ رويأ رؤَب‬،0302 ‫ٔنوٗ عوخو‬ٞ‫وش ح‬ًٛ‫عُييخ رويأص حنلوَد حنعخن‬
poetry in praise of England and in support of its soldiers. .‫ي ؿُٕىْخ‬ٚ‫ئ‬ٚٔ ‫ًـي حَكهظَح‬ٚ ٌ٘‫ركظخرش حن٘عَ حن‬
This poetry was idealistic, as if he were defending his way of life ٍ‫خطّ يو‬ٛ‫يحفع عٍ أٓهٕد ك‬ٚ ٌ‫ ٔكؤَّّ كخ‬،ً‫خ‬ٛ‫كخٌ ٌْح حن٘عَ يؼخن‬
through his writing. .ّ‫ل كظخرخط‬٣‫ه‬
His war poetry (written from 1914 onwards) is more upbeat than that of ً
ً٣‫خعيح ) يظيخث‬ٛٔ 0302 ‫ ( حنٌ٘ كظزّ يٍ حنعخو‬ٙ‫ٗعَِ حنلَر‬
other poets writing at the same time, such as Siegfried Sassoon and ‫ أيؼووخل‬،‫ َيووْ حنٕقووض‬ٙ‫ٍ فوو‬َٚ‫هوو‬ٜ‫أكؼووَ يووٍ كظخرووخص حن٘ووعَحء ح‬
Wilfred Owen. .ٍٚٔ‫ي ح‬َٚ‫هي‬ٚٔٔ ٌٕٓ‫ي ٓخ‬ٚ‫غيَح‬ٛٓ
Brooke died in 1915, while other poets lived on to write about the war ‫كظزوٕح‬ٛ‫ًُوخ عوخٕ ٗوعَحء هؤٌَ ن‬ٛ‫ ر‬، 0306 ‫يخص رؤَب عوخو‬
until its end in 1918. .0302 ‫ظٓخ عخو‬ٚ‫عٍ حنلَد كظٗ َٓخ‬
Some critics and historians think Brooke would not have published his َ‫ُ٘وو‬ٛٓ ٍ‫كوو‬ٚ ‫ حنُقووخى ٔحنًئٍهووٌٕ أٌ روؤَب نووى‬ٞ‫عظقووي رعوو‬ٚ
earliest war poetry if he had fully experienced the bad things that ٙ‫جش حنظ‬ٛٔ‫يٍٕ حن‬ٞ‫ٔنٗ نٕ ي َّ ر٘كم كخيم رخ‬ٞ‫ش ح‬ٛ‫أٗعخٍِ حنلَر‬
happened in Europe between 1915 and 1918. .0302 ٔ 0306 ٍٛ‫ٍ حنعخي‬ٛ‫ أٍٔٔرخ ر‬ٙ‫كيػض ف‬
Song ‫أغٍُخ‬ A Song ‫أغٍُخ‬
All suddenly the wind comes soft, ،‫هش‬ٛ‫ق عه‬ٚ َّ‫ حن‬ٙ‫ ٔفـؤس طؤط‬As the Wind, and as the Wind, ،‫ق‬َٚ‫ًُخ حن‬ٛ‫ ٔر‬،‫ق‬َٚ‫ًُخ حن‬ٛ‫ر‬
And Spring is here again; ‫ش ؛‬َٛ‫ع ُْخ ػخ‬ٛ‫ ٔحنَّ ر‬In a corner of the way, َٚ‫خ حنط‬ٚ‫ش يٍ ُٔح‬ٚٔ‫ ُح‬ٙ‫ف‬
And the hawthorn quickens with ٘ َّ‫َٔع حنِعٍَٔ حنز‬ٚٔ Goes stepping, stands ، ‫َس‬ٛ‫وووو‬ٜ‫ روطووووٕحص ق‬ٙ‫وووو‬٠ً‫ط‬
twirling, ،ٍٔ‫ طي‬ْٙٔ ‫ٔطقف‬
buds of green, ، ‫َحء‬٠‫رزَحعًّ حنو‬
Invisibly, comes whirling, ٙ‫ ْٔوو‬ٙ‫ طووؤط‬،ٙ‫ووَ يَثوو‬ٛ‫ر٘ووكم غ‬
And my heart with buds of pain. . ‫نى‬ٞ‫ رزَحعى ح‬ٙ‫ٔقهز‬
،‫طئٍ رَٔعش‬
My heart all Winter lay so numb ً‫ٕحل حن٘ظخء ٍحكيح‬١ ّ‫ ظم‬ٙ‫فقهز‬
Bows before, and skips ‫ ٔطعوووئ رٔوووَعش‬،‫ أيوووخو‬ٙ‫طُلُووو‬
The earth so dead and frore, ‫ظش ؿي ًح ٔيظـًيس‬ٛ‫ ي‬ٍٝٞ‫ح‬ behind, ،‫ٍٔحء‬
That I never thought the Spring ‫ووع‬ٛ‫ نووى أعظقووي أروويحً أٌ حنَر‬ٙ‫كظووٗ أَُوو‬ In a grave, an endless play ٙٓ‫ُظ‬ٚ ٢ ٍٍُٚ ٕٓ‫ره‬
would come, ،ٙ‫ؤط‬ٛٓ So my Heart, and so my Heart, ،ٙ‫ ٔنٌٓح قهز‬ٙ‫ٔنٌٓح قهز‬
Or my heart wake any more. .‫ش‬َٛ‫ ػخ‬ٙ‫قع قهز‬ٛ‫ٔظ‬ٚ ٌ‫قزم أ‬ Following where your feet ،‫غ طٌْذ قييخب‬ٛ‫ظزع ك‬ٚ
But Winter‘s broken and earth has ‫قرض‬ٛ‫ٔنكوووووٍ طلطووووووى حن٘ووووووظخء ٔحٓووووووظ‬ have gone,
woken, ،ٍٝٞ‫ح‬ Stirs dust of old dreams ‫ًوووش‬ٚ‫و حنقي‬٣‫كووو‬ٞ‫لوووَّ ب غزوووخٍ ح‬ٚ
there; ‫ُْخب؛‬
And the small birds cry again; ‫ش ؛‬َٛ‫َس طغَى ػخ‬ٛ‫غ‬ٜ‫ٍٕ حن‬ٛ‫ٔحنط‬
He turns a toe; he gleams ‫زووووَق‬ٚ ‫ووووزع قوووويو ؛‬ٛ‫لووووَّ ب ا‬ٚ
And the hawthorn hedge puts forth ًّ‫َُ٘ رَحع‬ٚ َ٘‫خؽ حنِعٍَٔ حنز‬ٛٓٔ
there, ،‫ُْخب‬
its buds,
Treading you a dance apart. .‫ش نٕكيب‬ٜ‫ ٍق‬ٙ‫َ ر ف‬ٛٔٚ
And my heart puts forth its pain. . ًّ‫ أن‬ٙ‫َُ٘ قهز‬ٚٔ But you see not. You pass on. .ٙ٠ً‫ ٔط‬.َٖ‫ ط‬٢ ُ‫ٔنك‬

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Focus on Literary Forms ً‫انزشكٍض عهى األشكبل األدث‬ ( p 29 )
fiction ‫ش‬ٚ‫خل – ٍٔح‬ٛ‫ه‬ books or stories about imaginary people or events ٍٛٛ‫ه‬ٛ‫ عٍ أَخّ أٔ أكيحع طو‬ٜٚ‫كظذ أٔ ق‬
prose َ‫حنُؼ‬ normal written language, not poetry ً ‫ٔض ٗعَح‬ٛ‫ ن‬،‫ش‬ٚ‫نغش يكظٕرش عخى‬
popular ٙ‫ٗعز‬ liked by a lot of people ّ‫َ يٍ حنُخ‬ٛ‫لزّ حنكؼ‬ٚ
merchant َ‫طخؿ‬ someone whose job is to buy and sell things ‫خء‬ٛٗٞ‫ع ٔ َٗحء ح‬ٛ‫ عًهّ ر‬ٚ‫ٗو‬
reveal َٓ‫هر‬ٚ to make something known ً ‫جخ ً يعَٔفخ‬ٛٗ ‫ـعم‬ٚ
folly ‫كًخقش‬ a silly or stupid thing ٙ‫ف أٔ غز‬ٛ‫ء ٓو‬ٙٗ
huge ‫وى‬ٟ very large ً‫َ ؿيح‬ٛ‫كز‬

An essay is a short work of non-fiction that explores a specific topic. ‫ عووخو‬.ً ‫ُ وخ‬ٛ‫ووٕعخ ً يع‬ٟٕ‫وويٍّ ي‬ٚ ٙ‫ووَ ٍٔحثوو‬ٛ‫َ غ‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫حنًقخنووش عًووم ق‬
In 1580,the French philosopher Michel Montaigne published a new ٍ‫ويحً يو‬ٚ‫ً ؿي‬٣‫ ٗوك‬َٙ‫م يَٕظوخ‬ٛ٘ٛ‫ ي‬ََٙٔ‫هٕٔ حني‬ٛ‫ ََ٘ حني‬،0623
form of short prose discussions called Essais, which means ٔ‫ ‘طـووخٍد’ أ‬ٙ‫ طعُو‬ٙ‫ص ٔحنظو‬٢‫َس ٓو ًّخْخ يقوخ‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫وش ق‬َٚ‫يُخق٘وخص َؼ‬
‗experiments‘ or ‗attempts’. .’‫ص‬٢ٔ‫‘يلخ‬
Four hundred years later, Montaigne is still credited with creating the .‫ؼوش‬ٚ‫ روهقوّ نهًقخنوش حنلي‬َٙ‫ٍ نًَٕظخ‬ٚ‫ يخ َِحل َي‬،‫رعي أٍرع يخثش عخو‬
modern essay. It went on to become an incredibly important genre of ٌ٘‫ حنعوخنى حنو‬ٙ‫قوش يٌْهوش فو‬َٚ‫وخ ً ْخيوخ ً رط‬ٛ‫وزق َٕعوخ أىر‬ٜ‫ططٍٕص نظ‬
literature in the English-speaking world. .‫ش‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ظليع ح‬ٚ
The essay first became popular during a time of social change in ٙ‫ فو‬ٙ‫وَ حؿظًوخع‬ٛ‫ ُيوٍ طغ‬ٙ‫ٔل فو‬ٞ‫ش نهًوَّس ح‬ٛ‫زلض حنًقخنش ٗوعز‬ٛ‫أ‬
Britain, when Samuel Johnson, Joseph Addison and Richard Steele ٌٕ‫ٔوو‬ٚ‫ووف اى‬ُٕٚ‫م ؿَٕٔووٌٕ ٔؿ‬ٕٚٛ‫ووخي‬ٛ ‫ عُووييخ كظووذ‬،‫ووخ‬َٛ‫طخ‬َٚ‫ر‬
wrote essays that helped their readers ask and answer questions about ٗ‫ؿخرش عه‬٠‫َف ٔح‬١ ٗ‫ص ٓخعيص قَّحءْى عه‬٢‫م يقخ‬ٛ‫ظ٘خٍى ٓظ‬ٍٚٔ
themselves – Who am I? What should I do? ‫ أٌ أفعم؟‬ٙ‫أٓجهش كٕل أَئٓى – يٍ أَخ ؟ يخًح عه‬
In the 18th century, Britain‘s middle class – lawyers, shopkeepers ٌٕ‫وخ– حنًلوخي‬َٛ‫طخ‬َٚ‫ ر‬ٙ‫ حنطزقش حنٕٓطٗ فو‬،َ٘‫ حنقٌَ حنؼخيٍ ع‬ٙ‫ف‬
and merchants– was growing. This new class read the new form of ‫ كخَووض ْووٌِ حنطزقووش‬.ٍٕ‫وولخد حنًظووخؿَ ٔحنظ ّـووخٍ – كخَووض طظطوو‬ٛ‫ٔأ‬
writing and the essay became very popular. .‫َس‬ٛ‫ش حنًقخنش كز‬ٛ‫زلض ٗعز‬ٛ‫ي يٍ حنكظخرش ٔأ‬ٚ‫يس طقَأ حن٘كم حنـي‬ٚ‫حنـي‬
From Johnson‘s moral instruction to Addison‘s amusing comments, ،‫ش‬ٛ‫ٔوٌٕ حنًٔوه‬ٚ‫قوخص أى‬ٛ‫وش انوٗ طعه‬ٛ‫ق‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫يٍ اٍٗوخىحص ؿَٕٔوٌٕ ح‬
the essay set new standards for – or revealed new follies in – the –ٙ‫يس ف‬ٚ‫يس – أٔ أظَٓص كًخقخص ؿي‬ٚ‫خص ؿي‬ٕٚ‫عض حنًقخنش ئظ‬ٟٔ
rising middle class. .‫خعيس‬ٜ‫حنطزقش حنًظٕٓطش حن‬
With the huge amount of magazines, newspapers and journals today ‫ٕو‬ٛ‫ش حن‬ٜٜ‫لف حنًظو‬ٜ‫ص ٔحنـَحثي ٔحن‬٣‫َ نهًـ‬ٛ‫ٔيع حنلـى حنكز‬
(both paper and online) this type of writing is now a big part of our ‫ٌ ؿوِء‬ٜ‫َظََوض ) ْوٌ ح حنُوٕع يوٍ حنكظخروش ْوٕ ح‬٢‫( عهٗ حنوٍٕق ٔح‬
daily lives. .‫ش‬ٛ‫ٕي‬ٛ‫خطُخ حن‬ٛ‫َ يٍ ك‬ٛ‫كز‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. In Britain, the essay developed at a time of …………..
a. civil wars b. social change c. political problems
2. In the 18 century, the English Middle class was ……………
th

a. becoming more important b. breaking up c. unimportant


Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. people whose job is to buy and sell things 4. silly or stupid things
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. Montaigne is recognised for …………………. 6. The essay not only set ideals for the middle class, but also ……..
‫انحهىل‬
1. b 2. a 3. merchants 4. follies 5. creating the modern essay. 6. revealed new follies in the rising middle class.

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
An Apology for Plainspeaking by Leslie Stephen (1832–1914) ( p 31)
ٍ‫ نٍغهً عزٍف‬- ‫اعززاس ثغجت انظشاحخ‬
essay ‫يقخنش‬ a short piece or writing about a particular subject ٍٛ‫ٕع يع‬ٟٕ‫َس عٍ ي‬ٜٛ‫ش ق‬ٛ‫قطعش كظخر‬
advocate ٍ‫يحفع ع‬ٚ to support something publicly ُٙ‫جخ ً يخ ر٘كم عه‬ٛٗ ‫يعى‬ٚ
elaborate ‫يعقي‬ detailed and complicated ‫م ٔ يعقي‬ٜ‫يي‬
intellectual َ٘‫فك‬ relating to intelligence and serious thought ‫هش رخنٌكخء ٔحنيكَ حنـخى‬ٛ ‫ًحص‬
faculty of speech ‫غ‬ٚ‫حنقيٍس عهٗ حنلي‬ the natural ability to speak ‫و‬٣‫ش عهٗ حنك‬ٛ‫ع‬ٛ‫حنقيٍس حنطز‬
imply ًٍ٠‫ظ‬ٚ strongly suggest something that is not clear ً ‫لخ‬ٟ‫ْ ٔح‬ٛ‫جخ ً ن‬ٛٗ ٕ٘‫قظَف ر٘كم ق‬ٚ
cowardice ٍ‫ؿهز‬ lack of bravery ‫عيو ٔؿٕى حن٘ـخعش‬
erroneous ‫ت‬١‫هخ‬ wrong , incorrect ‫ق‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ َٛ‫ت – غ‬١‫هخ‬
condemnation ‫اىحَش‬ the expression of complete disapproval ‫ حنظخو‬ٞ‫َ عٍ حنَف‬ٛ‫حنظعز‬
scaffolding ٍ‫خ‬١‫ا‬ a temporary framework ‫خٍ يئقض‬١‫ا‬
the expression of feeling or opinions that are not
insincerity ‫َيخق – كٌد‬ ‫ش‬ٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫َ كق‬ٛ‫ٍحء حنغ‬ٜ‫َ عٍ حنً٘خعَ أٔ ح‬ٛ‫حنظعز‬
genuine
This essay was published in 1890 by Leslie Stephen, the father of ‫خ‬ُٛٛ‫ ٔحني فَؿ‬،ٍ‫ي‬ٛ‫ ٓظ‬ٙ‫ٔه‬ٛ‫ يٍ قزم ن‬0233 ‫َهَ٘ص ٌِْ حنًقخنش عخو‬
Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. .‫ٔخ رم‬َٛ‫ٔٔنف ٔفخ‬
Here, he advocates plain speech; that is, speaking honestly and ً‫يق ىٌٔ أٌ طكٌٕ يعقيح‬ٜ‫َحكش؛ أ٘ حنظل ّيع ر‬ٜ
ّ ‫يحفع عٍ حن‬ٚ ،‫ُْخ‬
without being elaborate or insincere. The word ‗apology‘ does not ٙ‫ ٔنكُٓوخ طعُو‬،‫ٓف ُْخ‬ٞ‫ ح‬ُٙ‫ طع‬٢ ’ٍ‫ كهًش ‘حعظٌح‬.ٚ‫َ يوه‬ٛ‫أٔ غ‬
mean to be sorry here, but to be in support of an idea. .‫أٌ طيعى فكَس‬
In this extract from the essay‘s introduction, he argues that people ٌٕ‫ظلويػ‬ٚ ٌٍٚ‫ُخقٖ أٌ حنُخّ حن‬ٚ ،‫ ٌْح حنًقطع يٍ يق ّييش حنًقخنش‬ٙ‫ف‬
who speak honestly and communicate sincerely are often mocked for ‫هٔووظِٓة رٓووى رٔووزذ‬ٚ ‫ غخنزووخ ً يووخ‬ٙ٣‫ووهٌٕ رووبه‬ٛ‫ظٕح‬ٚٔ ‫ووَحكش‬ٜ‫ر‬
their openness. .‫َحكظٓى‬ٛ
He criticises the pressure society puts on people to behave in a ‫قوش‬َٚ‫َفٕح رط‬ٜ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ّ حنًـظًع عهٗ حنُخّ ن‬َٟ‫ي‬ٚ ٌ٘‫ حن‬٢‫غ‬٠‫ُظقي حن‬ٚ
certain way. This ‗reserve‘, as he calls it, when speaking of your ٔ‫ عُي حنظليع عوٍ يعظقويحط أ‬، ًّّٛ ٔٚ ‫ كًخ‬، ’‫ ٌْح ‘حنظليع‬.‫ُش‬ٛ‫يع‬
beliefs or communicating with others, is false and dishonest. .‫خىق‬ٛ َٛ‫ت ٔغ‬١‫ هخ‬،ٍَٚ‫ه‬ٜ‫م يع ح‬ٛ‫حنظٕح‬
All who would govern their intellectual course by no other aim than the ‫لووويى طٕؿٓوووّ حنيكوووَ٘ ىٌٔ أ٘ ْوووي ٓوووٕٖ ك٘وووف‬ٚ ٍ‫كووومّ يووو‬
discovery of truth, and who would use their faculty of speech for no other ٖٕ‫ نٓوي ٓوو‬٢ ‫غ‬ٚ‫ٔوظويو قيٍطووّ عهوٗ حنلووي‬ٚ ٍ‫ ٔكومّ يوو‬،‫قوش‬ٛ‫حنلق‬
purpose than open communications of their real opinions to others, are met ٍ‫قخرووم رخكظـووخؽ يوو‬ٚ ،ٍَٚ‫هوو‬ٝ‫ووش ن‬ٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫ٍحثووّ حنلق‬ٜ ‫ق‬َٚ‫ّ و‬ٜ‫حنُقووم حن‬
by protests from various quarters. .‫َح يظعيىس‬١‫أ‬
Such protests, so far as they imply cowardice or dishonesty, must of course ٌ‫ـوذ أ‬ٚ ،ٖ‫ًٍ حن هـزٍ أٔ حنغ‬٠‫ رقيٍ يخ طظ‬،‫كظـخؿخص‬٢‫يؼم ٌِْ ح‬
be disregarded, but it would be most erroneous to confound all protests in ّ‫ يٕحؿٓوش كوم‬ٙ‫كزوَ فو‬ٞ‫كٌٕ حنوطؤ ح‬ٛٓ ٍ‫ ٔنك‬،‫ظى طـخْهٓخ رخنطزع‬ٚ
the same summary condemnation. .‫ش‬ٍٕٚ‫ىحَش حني‬٠‫كظـخؿخص رُيْ ح‬٢‫ح‬
Reverent and kindly minds shrink from giving an unnecessary shock to the ‫ش‬ٍَٚٔ‫و‬ٟ َ‫و‬ٛ‫وييش غ‬ٛ ّٛ‫ُش ٔحنًظقّيس عٍ طٕؿ‬َُٚ‫طزظعي حنعقٕل حن‬
faith which comforts many sorely tried souls; ‫يس حنظعذ؛‬ٚ‫ٍٔحف حن٘ي‬ٞ‫َ يٍ ح‬ٛ‫ق حنكؼ‬َٚ‫ه‬ٚ ٌ٘‫ًخٌ حن‬ٚ١‫ن‬
and even the most genuine lovers of truth may doubt whether the time has ‫ًوخ اًح كوخٌ حنٕقوض‬ٛ‫َحٔىْى حن٘ ف‬ٚ ‫قش قي‬ٛ‫ حنلق‬ٙ‫ٔكظٗ أكؼَ يلز‬
come at which the decayed scaffolding can be swept away without injuring ْ‫وٍَ رؤٓو‬٠‫وش ىٌٔ انلوخق حن‬ٛ‫وَ حنزخن‬١ٞ‫ى ح‬ٛ‫ّ طلطو‬ٛ‫ًكٍ ف‬ٚ ٌ٘‫حن‬
the foundations of the edifice. .‫ّ َف‬ٜ‫حن‬
Some reserve, they think, is necessary, though reserve, as they must admit, ‫ كًووخ‬،‫ ٍغوى أٌ حنوظليع‬،ٍَ٘ٔ‫و‬ٟ ،ٌٔ‫عظقووي‬ٚ ‫ كًوخ‬،‫ حنوظليع‬ٞ‫رعو‬
passes but too easily into insincerity. .‫َس انٗ َيخق‬ٛ‫ظلّٕ ل ٔنكٍ رٕٔٓنش كز‬ٚ ،ٍ‫قَح‬٠‫ٓى ح‬ٛ‫ـذ عه‬ٚ
A paraphrase: ‫الشرح‬
People who use their intellects to search for the truth, and who use ٌٍٚ‫ ٔحنوو‬،‫قووش‬ٛ‫ٔووظوييٌٕ فكووَْى نهزلووغ عووٍ حنلق‬ٚ ٌٍٚ‫حنُووخّ حنوو‬
their words to express sincere and honest opinions are often looked ‫خىقش غخنز خ ً يخ‬ٛٔ ‫ش‬ٜ‫َ عٍ ٍحء يوه‬ٛ‫ٔظوييٌٕ كهًخطٓى نهظعز‬ٚ
down upon by others. . ٍَٚ‫ه‬ٜ‫ٓى رخُىٍحء يٍ قزم ح‬ٛ‫ هُرَ ان‬ٚ
This cowardly behaviour towards good and honest people should, of ،‫ـووذ‬ٚ ٍٛ‫ووخىق‬ٜ‫ٍ ٔحن‬ٚ‫ ّ وي‬ٛ‫ْووٌح حنٔووهٕب حنـزووخٌ َلووٕ حنُووخّ حنـ‬
course, be ignored. It would be wrong, however, to dismiss this ‫ ْووٌح‬ٞ‫ أٌ َووَف‬،‫ووش كووخل‬ٚ‫ عهووٗ أ‬،‫ يووٍ حنوطووؤ‬. ّ‫ طـخْهوو‬،‫رووخنطزع‬
attitude completely. . ‫ح نًٕقف ر٘كم كخيم‬

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫انًهحك األدث‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Even generous personalities find it difficult to contradict those who ٍ‫وش يو‬٠‫وعٕرش يُخق‬ٜ‫ًوش طـوي أٌ يوٍ حن‬َٚ‫خص حنك‬ٛ‫و‬ٜ‫كظٗ حن٘و‬
criticise their lack of ‗reserve‘. . ’‫ُظقي حفظقخٍْى ‘ نهظليع‬ٚ
The most honest people may also feel uneasy about dismantling ً
‫و‬ٛ‫و خ روخنقه يوٍ طيك‬٠ٚ‫َحكش أ‬ٛ َ‫كؼ‬ٞ‫٘عَ حنُخّ ح‬ٚ ٌ‫ًكٍ أ‬ٚ
this framework of reserve that holds society together, because they ،ً ‫لوخفع عهوٗ حنًـظًوع يظًخٓوك خ‬ٚ ٌ٘‫خٍ يوٍ حنوظليع حنو‬١٠‫ٌْح ح‬
think it will damage the very foundations of society. . ‫ي ّي َ أْٓ حنًـظًع رل ّي ًحطٓخ‬ٛٓ ‫عظقئٌ أٌ ٌْح‬ٚ ‫َٓى‬ٞ
They believe that some ‗reserve‘ is necessary. But they must admit ‫ٓى‬ٛ‫ـووذ عهوو‬ٚ ٍ‫ ٔنكوو‬. ٍَ٘ٔ‫وو‬ٟ ’‫ ‘ حنووظليع‬ٞ‫عظقووئٌ أٌ رعوو‬ٚ
that 'reserve‘ too often slips into insincerity and dishonesty. . ٖ‫ ٔغ‬ٙ٣‫ظلٕل انٗ عيو اه‬ٚ ‫قَحٍ أٌ ‘ حنظليع’ غخنز خ ً يخ‬٠‫ح‬
How the Essay evolved ‫كيف تطورت المقالة‬ ( p 32)
develop ٍّٕ ‫ظط‬ٚ to grow or change into something better ‫م‬٠‫ء أف‬ٙٗ ٗ‫َ ان‬ٛ‫ظغ‬ٚ ٔ‫ًُٕ أ‬ٚ
efficient ‫فعّخل‬ working well without waste of time or energy ‫ي رئٌ ْيٍ نهٕقض أٔ حنطخقش‬ٛ‫عًم ر٘كم ؿ‬ٚ
widespread ٍ‫َظ٘خ‬٢‫ٔحٓع ح‬ existing or happening in many places ٍ‫يخك‬ٞ‫َ يٍ ح‬ٛ‫ حنكؼ‬ٙ‫ليع ف‬ٚ ٔ‫يٕؿٕى أ‬
a raw material or primary agricultural product that
commodities ‫حن ّٔهع‬ ّ‫ع‬ٛ‫ًكٍ َٗحإِ ٔر‬ٚ ٙ‫ أّٔن‬ٙ‫يخىس هخو أٔ يُظؾ ٍُحع‬
can be bought and sold
conservative ‫يلخفع‬ not liking new ideas or change َٛٛ‫يس أٔ حنظغ‬ٚ‫فكخٍ حنـي‬ٞ‫لذ ح‬ٚ ٢
It was in England, with its lively social change caused by economic ‫ بتغٌرها االجتماعً المفعم بالحٌاة الذي سببه‬،‫إنه فً انكلترا‬
success, where essay writing developed the most. .‫ حٌث تطورت كتابة المقالة بشكل أكبر‬،‫النجاح االقتصادي‬
The success of this type of writing (short pieces of prose that could ‫نجاح هذا النوع من الكتابة ( قطع نثرٌة قصٌرة ٌمكن قراءتها‬
be read in a single sitting), in England in particular, occurred for ‫ حييدث لعييدة‬، ‫ فييً انكلتييرا بشييكل ييا‬، )‫فييً جلسيية واحييدة‬
several reasons: .‫أسباب‬
• The development of printing technology, which made publishing ‫ والتً جعليت النشير أكثير فاعلٌية‬،‫تطور تكنولوجٌا الطباعة‬ 
more efficient, cheaper and more widespread. .‫وأكثر انتشارا‬ ‫وأر‬
• The development of the education system and the following ‫تطور نظام التعلٌم واالزدٌاد الذي تبعه فً عدد الناس اليذي‬ 
increase in the number of people who could read and write. .‫كان ٌمكنهم القراءة والكتابة‬
• The increase in numbers of middle–class readers, who were better ‫ اليذٌن كانيت ثقيافتهم‬،‫االزدٌاد فً عدد قراء الطبقة الوسطى‬ 
educated than before and wanted to find out about the world. .‫أفضل مما كانت علٌه من قبل وأرادوا أن ٌستكشفوا العالم‬
• The increase in women readers. Many men considered women ‫ كان الكثٌر من الرجيال ٌعتبيرون‬.‫االزدٌاد فً القراء اإلناث‬ 
their equals in marriage and business, etc. and encouraged them to ‫ وشييجعوهن‬،‫النسيياء متسيياوٌن لهييم فييً الييزواج والعمييل الييش‬
read. .‫على القراءة‬
Also, many commodities could be bought from shops (such as ‫ كان ٌمكن شراء الكثٌر من السلع من المتياجر (كالشيموع‬،‫أٌضا‬ 
candles, soap, bread and clothes) so women didn‘t have to make ‫والصابون وال بز والمالبس) ولهذا لم ٌكن ٌتوجب على النسياء‬
them at home any more and had more time to read. .‫صناعتها فً البٌت وبهذا كان لدٌهن المزٌد من الوقت للقراءة‬
These new middle–class readers had very conservative values and ‫أولئك القراء الجدد من الطبقة الوسطى كان لهم قٌم محافظة جيدا‬
preferred factual writing to fiction, which they regarded almost as ‫ والتيً اعتبروهيا مسيياوٌة‬،‫وفضيلوا الكتابية الواقعٌية علييى ال ٌيال‬
equivalent to lying. .‫تقرٌبا للكذب‬
This meant that journalists became very popular, and two early ‫ وهنياك‬،‫كان هذا ٌعنً أن شعبٌة الصيحفٌٌن أصيبحت كبٌيرة جيدا‬
journalists, Joseph Addison and Richard Steele (followed shortly by ‫ جوزٌف إدٌسون ورٌتشارد ستٌل ( تبعهم بوقت‬، ‫صحفٌان أوائل‬
Samuel Johnson), led the way. .‫قصٌر صامٌوٌل جونسون ) هم من قادوا المسٌرة‬
Early Journalists ‫انظحفٍىٌ األوائم‬ ( p 33)
editor ٍ َّ‫يل‬ a person in charge of a newspaper or magazine ‫يش أٔ يـهش‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ ٍ‫ ئئٔل ع‬ٚ‫ٗو‬
a piece of writing about a particular subject in a ٔ‫يش أ‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ ٙ‫ٍ ف‬ٛ‫ٕع يع‬ٟٕ‫ش عٍ ي‬ٛ‫قطعش كظخر‬
article ‫يقخنش‬
newspaper or magazine ‫يـهش‬
clear ‫ق‬ٟ‫ٔح‬ expressed in a simple and direct way ‫طش ٔيزخَٗس‬ٛٔ‫قش ر‬َٚ‫َ عُّ رط‬ٛ‫ظى حنظعز‬ٚ
biography ‫َس‬ٛٓ a book that tells what happens in someone‘s life ‫ يخ‬ٚ‫خس ٗو‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫ليع ف‬ٚ ‫ عًخ‬ٙ‫لك‬ٚ ‫كظخد‬
volume ‫يـهي‬ a book into which a very long book is divided ً ‫م ؿيح‬ٕٚ١ ‫ّ كظخد‬ٛ‫ُقٔى ان‬ٚ ‫كظخد‬

receive ٗ‫ظهق‬ٚ to get – to be given something ‫جخ ً يخ‬ٛٗ ٗ‫هعط‬ٚ – ٗ‫م عه‬ٜ‫ل‬ٚ

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Joseph Addison (1672–1719) ) 0103 – 0010 ( ٌ‫جىصٌف ادٌغى‬

Joseph Addison was educated at Charterhouse School in London, where ٙ‫ ييٍٓش ط٘خٍطَ ْخّٔ فو‬ٙ‫ًّ ف‬ٛ‫ٌٕٔ طعه‬ٚ‫ف حى‬ُٕٚ‫طهقٗ ؿ‬
he became friends with Richard Steele. Both young men went to Oxford ‫ ًْذ حن٘خرخٌ انٗ ؿخيعش‬.‫م‬ٛ‫ظ٘خٍى ٓظ‬ٍٚ ‫خىق‬ٛ ‫غ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،ٌ‫نُي‬
University together, but after university they took different paths. .‫َقخ ً يوظهيش‬١ ‫ ٔنكٍ رعي حنـخيعش ٓهكخ‬،ً‫حكٔيٍٕ يعخ‬

Steele moved to the City of London and became editor of an early ٗ‫يش أٔنو‬ٛ‫ول‬ٜ‫وزق يلوٍَحً ن‬ٛ‫ُوش نُويٌ ٔأ‬ٚ‫م انٗ يي‬ٛ‫حَظقم ٓظ‬
newspaper and the manager of a theatre; Addison found a job in politics. .‫ش‬ٛٓ‫خ‬ٛٔ‫ حن‬ٙ‫ً ف‬٣ً‫ٌٕٔ ع‬ٚ‫َحً نًَٔف ؛ ٔؿي حى‬ٚ‫ٔيي‬

Scholar, Poet and Bureaucrat ً‫عبنى وشبعش وثٍشولشاط‬

In 1709, Addison read an article in The Tatler, a new magazine about ‫ويس‬ٚ‫ يـهش ؿي‬ْٙٔ’َ‫ ‘ًطخطه‬ٙ‫ٌٕٔ يقخنش ف‬ٚ‫ قَأ حى‬0133 ‫عخو‬
literature that had become very popular in London. .ٌ‫ نُي‬ٙ‫َس ؿيحً ف‬ٛ‫ظٓخ كز‬ٛ‫زلض ٗعز‬ٛ‫ىد أ‬ٞ‫عٍ ح‬

The article was signed ‗Isaac Bickerstaff‘, but Addison realised that ‫ ٔنكووٍ أىٍب‬،’ ‫كَٓووظخ‬ٛ‫ووِحب ر‬ٚ‫ووع ‘ح‬ٛ‫كخَووض حنًقخنووش يووٍ طٕق‬
Richard Steele – his old friend – had written it. Soon Addison starting ٙ‫ ٔفوو‬.‫ى – كظزٓوخ‬ٚ‫قّ حنقوي‬ٚ‫وي‬ٛ – ‫م‬ٛ‫ظ٘وخٍى ٓووظ‬ٍٚ ٌ‫ٔوٌٕ أ‬ٚ‫حى‬
writing articles for The Tatler. The two men then started another journal, ْ‫ ػوى أّٓو‬.َ‫ص نًـهوش ًطوخطه‬٢‫ٌٕٔ ركظخروش حنًقوخ‬ٚ‫حنلخل ريأ حى‬
The Spectator. .َ‫ظ‬ٛ‫كظ‬ٛ‫ ًٓز‬، ‫يس‬ٚ‫يش ؿي‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ ٌ٣‫حنَؿ‬

The Spectator was also aimed at educated members of the public. It ٍ‫ٍ يو‬ٛ‫فوَحى حنًؼقيو‬ٟ‫وخ ً ن‬٠ٚ‫ظَ هيٕ ّؿٓوش أ‬ٛ‫كظ‬ٛ‫يش ًٓز‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ ٌ‫كخ‬
contained essays on literary and moral issues, and was less concerned ‫وووش‬ٛ‫خ أىر‬ٚ‫وووخ‬٠‫ ق‬ٙ‫ص فووو‬٢‫ كخَوووض طلظوووٕ٘ عهوووٗ يقوووخ‬.‫حنعخيوووش‬
with politics than The Tatler. .َ‫خٓش يٍ ًطخطه‬ٛٔ‫ ٔكخَض أقم حْظًخيخ ً رخن‬،‫ش‬ٛ‫ق‬٣‫ٔأه‬

It was written in clear and simple language that could be understood by ‫زخ ً يٍ قزم‬َٚ‫ًكٍ فًٓٓخ طق‬ٚ ٌ‫طش كخ‬ٛٔ‫لش ٔر‬ٟ‫كظزض رهغش ٔح‬
almost everyone who could read. .‫ًكُّ حنقَحءس‬ٚ ٚ‫أ٘ ٗو‬

It was printed daily and was very popular. People talked about the articles ٌٕ‫ظلويػ‬ٚ ّ‫ كوخٌ حنُوخ‬.ً‫ش ؿويح‬ٛ‫خ ً ٔكخَوض ٗوعز‬ٛ‫ٕي‬ٚ ‫كخَض ططزع‬
in the fashionable coffeehouses, which were the centre of London social ‫خس‬ٛ‫ كخَض يَكِحً نل‬ٙ‫ ٔحنظ‬،‫ حنيخهَس‬ْٙ‫ حنًقخ‬ٙ‫ص ف‬٢‫عٍ حنًقخ‬
and business life. .‫ش ٔحنعًم‬ٛ‫ؿظًخع‬٢‫نُيٌ ح‬

Samuel Johnson (1709–1784) ) 1074 – 1000 ( ٌ‫طبيٍىٌم جىَغى‬

Samuel Johnson wanted to become a writer. When Johnson arrived in ‫وووم‬ٛٔ ‫ عُوووييخ‬.ً ‫وووزق كخطزوووخ‬ٜٚ ٌ‫م ؿَٕٔوووٌٕ أ‬ٕٚ‫وووخي‬ٛ ‫أٍحى‬
London, he wrote to The Gentleman’s Magazine, the most successful ‫ حنًـهوش‬،ٍُٚ‫ ًؿُظهًوخَِ يخؿوخ‬ٙ‫ كظوذ فو‬،ٌ‫ؿٌَٕٕٔ انوٗ نُوي‬
magazine of the time. .َِٜ‫ ع‬ٙ‫كؼَ َـخكخ ً ف‬ٞ‫ح‬

As a result of his many letters and ideas, he was soon writing for the ‫ حنلووخل‬ٙ‫كظووذ فوو‬ٚ ‫ووزق‬ٛ‫ أ‬،‫ووَس‬ٛ‫ـووش نَٓووخثهّ ٔأفكووخٍِ حنكؼ‬ٛ‫َٔظ‬
magazine. From 1750 to 1752, Johnson published his own magazine, The ّ‫ َ٘وووَ ؿَٕٔوووٌٕ يـهظووو‬،0160 ٗ‫ انووو‬0163 ٍ‫ يووو‬.‫نهًـهوووش‬
Rambler, which became very popular. .‫َس‬ٛ‫ظٓخ كز‬ٛ‫زلض ٗعز‬ٛ‫ أ‬ٙ‫ ٔحنظ‬،َ‫ش ًٍحيزه‬ٛ
ّ ‫حنوخ‬

Between 1779 and 1781 he wrote The Lives of the Poets, which is a ‫ يوظوخٍحص‬ٙ‫ ْٔو‬،‫وخس حن٘وعَحء‬ٛ‫ كظذ ك‬0120 ٔ 0113 ٍٛ‫ر‬
selection of biographies of famous English poets. The work covers two ٙ‫ حنعًوم يوخثظ‬ٙ‫غطو‬ٚ .ًٍٍٕٚٓ٘‫ِ حن‬ٛ‫َكه‬٢‫َ حن٘عَحء ح‬ٛٓ ٍ‫ي‬
hundred years and is divided into ten volumes. .‫ُقٔى انٗ عَ٘ يـهيحص‬ٚٔ ‫عخو‬

Success in the City: Johnson often wrote to meet the needs of the time. ٙ‫هزّ و‬ٛ‫كظووذ ن‬ٚ ٌٕ‫ غخنز وخ ً يووخ كووخٌ ؿَٕٔوو‬4‫انُجاابح فااً انًذٌُااخ‬
Even The Lives of the Poets, his last important work, happened after a ،ّ‫ هووَ عًووم ْووخو نوو‬،‫ووخس حن٘ووعَحء‬ٛ‫ كظووٗ ك‬.َ‫وو‬ٜ‫كخؿووخص حنع‬
publisher asked him to write it because of public interest in poetry during ‫ْظًوووخو‬٢‫هوووذ يُوووّ َخٗوووَ كظخرظوووّ رٔوووزذ ح‬١ ٌ‫كووويع رعوووي أ‬
the 18th century. .َ٘‫ل حنقٌَ حنؼخيٍ ع‬٣‫َ٘ رخن٘عَ ه‬ْٛ‫حنـًخ‬

When he was an old man, Johnson received honorary degrees from ٍ‫ش يو‬ٛ‫ طهقٗ ؿَٕٔوٌٕ ٗوٓخىحص ٗوَف‬،ً‫ً ئُخ‬٣‫عُييخ كخٌ ٍؿ‬
Oxford University and from Trinity College, Dublin. He is buried in the ٙ‫ ْٕٔ يويفٌٕ فو‬.ٍ‫ ىره‬، ٙ‫ظ‬َُٛٚ‫ش ط‬ٛ‫ؿخيعش أكٔيٍٕى ٔيٍ كه‬
famous Poets‘ Corner in Westminster Abbey in London. .ٌ‫ نُي‬ٙ‫ٔظَ ف‬ًُٛٛ‫ٔظ‬ٚٔ َٚ‫ ى‬ٙ‫ش حن٘عَحء حنًٍٕ٘ٓس ف‬ٚٔ‫ُح‬

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The Bigger Picture ‫انظىسح األكجش‬ ( p 34)
evolution ٍّٕ ‫طط‬ development and change over a long period of time ٍ‫هش يٍ حنِي‬ٕٚ١ ‫ فظَس‬ٙ‫َ ف‬ٛ‫حنظطٍٕ ٔحنظغ‬
an old well-known story about brave people, ٔ‫ًش ٔيعَٔفش عٍ أَخّ ٗـعخٌ أ‬ٚ‫ش قي‬ٜ ّ ‫ق‬
legend ‫أٓطٍٕس‬
adventures or magical events ‫ش‬َٚ‫يغخيَحص أٔ أكيحع ٓل‬
the period of time in your life that you spend doing ‫خو‬ٛ‫ٓخ رخنق‬ٛ٠‫ طق‬ٙ‫خط حنظ‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ُٛ‫حنيظَس حنِي‬
career ‫َس‬ٛٔ‫ي‬
a particular activity ٍٛ‫ يع‬١‫رُ٘خ‬
shipwrecked ّ‫ُظ‬ٛ‫طلطًض ٓي‬ left on an island after a ship has crashed ّ‫ُظ‬ٛ‫َس رعي أٌ طلطًض ٓي‬ِٚ‫ ؿ‬ٙ‫طَب ف‬
protagonist ‫حنزطم‬ the main character in a story, play or film ‫هى‬ٛ‫ش أٔ ف‬ٛ‫ش أٔ ئَك‬ٜ ّ ‫ ق‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ٛٔٛ‫ش حنَث‬ٜٛ‫حن٘و‬
18th and 19th century novels such as Wuthering Heights were, in ، ٌٍَٚٔ ‫ٍ حنؼخيٍ ٔحنظخٓع عَ٘ يؼم يَطيعخص‬ََٛ‫خص حنق‬ٚ‫كخَض ٍٔح‬
many ways, an evolution of the non-fiction prose writing of this time. .َٜ‫ش نٌٓح حنع‬ٛ‫َ ٍٔحث‬ٛ‫ش حنغ‬َٚ‫ ططٍٕحً نهكظخرش حنُؼ‬،‫َس‬ٛ‫رطَق كؼ‬
Prose fiction from earlier centuries was based on old legends, battles َٛ١‫ٓوخ‬ٞ‫ش يٍ قٌَٔ ٓخرقش كخَض طقٕو عهوٗ أٓوخّ ح‬َٚ‫ش حنُؼ‬ٚ‫حنَٔح‬
and medieval adventures. This had little appeal for the middle class, ‫وش‬ٛ‫ كخٌ نٌٓح ؿخًر‬.ٗ‫ٍٕ حنٕٓط‬ٜ‫ًش ٔحنًعخٍب ٔيغخيَحص حنع‬ٚ‫حنقي‬
who wanted to read about people like themselves and the world they ‫ٍ أٍحىٔح حنقَحءس عٍ أَخّ يؼهٓى ٔحنعخنى‬ٌٚ‫ حن‬،ٗ‫هش نهطزقش حنٕٓط‬ٛ‫قه‬
lived in. .ّٛ‫ٌٕ٘ ف‬ٛ‫ع‬ٚ ‫حنٌ٘ كخَٕح‬
Five important literary men – Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, ٌٕ‫ظ٘خٍىٓو‬ٍٚ ‫م‬ٕٚٛ‫خي‬ٛ ، ٕ‫ي‬ٚ‫خل ى‬َٛ‫ٍ – ىح‬ٛ‫هًٔش ٍؿخل أىد ْخ ّي‬
Henry Fielding, Jonathan Swift and Lawrence Sterne – made ‫ٌَ – ؿعهووٕح‬ٛ‫يض ٔ نووٍَْٕ ٓووظ‬ٕٚ‫ ؿَٕخػووخٌ ٓوو‬، ُٚ‫هووي‬ٛ‫ ُْووَ٘ ف‬،
fictional prose a form that appealed to the 18th century reader. .َ٘‫ حنقٌَ حنؼخيٍ ع‬ٙ‫ً ؿٌد حنقخٍة ف‬٣‫ ٗك‬ٙ‫حنُؼَ حن َّٔحث‬
You will not be surprised to learn that many of the early novelists ‫ٔحثوم رويإٔح‬ٞ‫وش ح‬ٚ‫وَ يوٍ كظّوخد حن َّٔح‬ٛ‫نٍ طيخؿوؤ عُوييخ طعهوى أٌ حنكؼ‬
started their careers in journalism. .‫لخفش‬ٜ‫ حن‬ٙ‫َطٓى ف‬ٛٔ‫ي‬
Daniel Defoe for instance wrote for several journals and started his ّ‫يظ‬ٛ‫ل‬ٛ ّْٓ ‫لف ٔأ‬ٛ ‫ نع ّيس ه‬، ‫م حنًؼخل‬ٛ‫ عهٗ ٓز‬،ٕ‫ي‬ٚ‫خل ى‬َٛ‫كظذ ىح‬
own newspaper, before taking up novel writing at the age of sixty. .ٍٛ‫ عًَ حنٔظ‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ٚ‫زيأ ركظخرش حن َّٔح‬ٚ ٌ‫ قزم أ‬،‫ش‬ٛ
ّ ‫حنوخ‬
His first novel, Robinson Crusoe (1719), was loosely based on the ‫ طقوٕو ر٘وكم‬، ) 0103 ( َُٔٔ‫ ٍٔرٌُٕٔ كو‬، ّ‫ش ن‬ٚ‫كخَض أٔل ٍٔح‬
‫ ه‬.ّ‫ُظ‬ٛ‫ووش نز ّل وخٍ طلطً وض ٓووي‬ٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫يووٌَ عهووٗ أٓووخّ طـَرووش كق‬
real-life experience of a shipwrecked sailor. The book was designed ‫ و ًّى‬ٛ
as a true story, written by the hero himself. .ّٔ‫ كظزٓخ حنزطم َي‬،‫ش‬ٛ‫ق‬ٛ‫ش كق‬ٜ ّ ‫حنكظخد كق‬
This was part of the appeal to the conservative readers of the time. ،ً‫وخ‬٠ٚ‫ أ‬.ٍٛ‫وَ حنًلوخفر‬ٜ‫كخٌ ٌْح ؿِءحً يٍ حنـٌد نقو َّ حء ًنو حنع‬
Also, the story was about an ordinary man who overcomes problems ّ‫ل عًه‬٣‫ظغهذ عهٗ حنً٘خكم يٍ ه‬ٚ ٘‫ش عٍ ٍؿم عخى‬ٜ ّ ‫كخَض حنق‬
through hard work and faith. .َّ‫ًخ‬ٚ‫حنـخى ٔا‬
Robinson Crusoe is generally regarded as the first novel in the ‫ حنهغوووش‬ٙ‫وووش فووو‬ٚ‫ط هعظزوووَ ٍٔرُٔوووٌٕ كووؤَُٔ ر٘وووكم عوووخو أ ّٔ ل ٍٔح‬
English language. While Defoe showed little interest in the thoughts َ‫ْظًوخو رؤفكوخٍ ٔي٘وخع‬٢‫وم يوٍ ح‬ٛ‫يوٕ حنقه‬ٚ‫ًُخ أظَٓ ى‬ٛ‫ ر‬. ‫ش‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ح‬
and feelings of his characters, writers like Samuel Richardson, on the ، َٖ‫ه‬ٞ‫ش ح‬ٛ‫ يٍ حنُخك‬،ٍٓ‫ظ٘خٍى‬ٍٚ ‫ٕل‬ٛ‫خي‬ٛ ‫ كظّخد يؼم‬، ّ‫خط‬ٜٛ‫ٗو‬
other hand, did. . ‫قخيٕح رٌن‬
Richardson‘s novel, Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) paid close ) 0123 ( ‫ كٕفجوض‬ٙ‫هش حنظو‬ٛ‫و‬٠‫ أٔ حني‬، ٣‫ روخي‬، ٍ‫ظ٘خٍىٓو‬ٍٚ ‫ش‬ٚ‫ٍٔح‬
attention to the thoughts of the protagonist, Pamela, who was a ‫ّش نٓخ‬ٜٛ‫ كخَض ٗو‬ٙ‫ حنظ‬، ٣‫ رخي‬، ‫َح رؤفكخٍ حنزطهش‬ٛ‫أريص حْظًخيخ كز‬
character of real psychological depth. .ٙ‫ق‬ٛ‫ كق‬ٙٔ‫عً َي‬
Later, the novels of Charles Dickens and the Brontës had two 4ٍٛ‫ٍ ْوخ ّي‬َُٜٚ‫ِ ع‬ٛ‫كُِ ٔرََٔظ‬ٚ‫خص ط٘خٍنِ ى‬ٚ‫ كخٌ نَٔح‬، ‫رعي ًن‬
important elements: they dealt with people of the time, and they ‫ ٔكخَوض طعوخنؾ ي٘وخكم‬،ٌ‫فقي كخَض طظعخيم يع أَخّ يٍ ًن حنِيخ‬
handled complex emotional and psychological problems. .‫ش يعقيس‬ٛٔ‫ش َٔي‬ٛ‫ي‬١‫عخ‬
Choose the correct answer a , b or c :
1. Daniel Dafoe was a …………… before becoming a novelist.
a. journalist b. dramatist c. sailor
2. Before the 18 century, prose fiction was about …..…………
th

a. real-life experiences b. ordinary people c. legends, battles and adventures


Match two of the underlined words from the text to the definitions below:
3. the main character in a story, play or film 4. someone who works on a ship
Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
5. Middle class readers wanted to read about…………………………… 7. In Pamela, Richardson showed much
6. Robinson Crusoe tells the story of a shipwrecked sailor that ………. interest in ……………………………
‫انحهىل‬
1. a 2. c 3. protagonist 4. sailor 5. people like themselves and the world they lived in.
6. overcomes problems through hard work and faith. 7. the thoughts of the protagonist, Pamela.
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
‫انمشاءح‬
( 1) Under the Tree ( By anonymous )
) ‫رحذ انشجشح ( انكبرت يجهىل‬
‫رشد انمظض فً االيزحبٌ عهى شكم فشاغبد يٍ لبئًخ ( انغؤال انشاثع فً االيزحبٌ ) وٌعزًذ انحم عهى انزشجًخ وفهى انًمطع‬
‫وعٍكىٌ هُب يجًىعخ كجٍشح يٍ انًمبطع يع رشجًزهب‬
There were three young men who, more than anything else, liked to ّ‫َغًخ‬٢‫ ح‬،َ‫ء ه‬ٙٗ ٘‫ أكؼَ يٍ أ‬،ٌٕ‫لز‬ٚ ٌ‫ػش ٗزخ‬٣‫كخٌ ُْخب ػ‬
indulge in having lots of fun and eating even more food. One day they ‫ أكووي‬ٙ‫ ٔفو‬.‫وي يوٍ حنطعوخو‬ًِٚ‫وَ يوٍ حنهٓوٕ ٔكظوٗ أكوم حن‬ٛ‫ حنكؼ‬ٙ‫فو‬
were eating a lot and having fun by the side of a road when they saw ‫و عُوييخ‬َٚ١ ‫ًَكٌٕ عهوٗ قخٍعوش‬ٚٔ َٛ‫ؤكهٌٕ حنكؼ‬ٚ ‫خو كخَٕح‬ٚٞ‫ح‬
some men staggering by. They were holding the body of a dead man. .‫ض‬ٛ‫لًهٌٕ ؿٔي ٍؿم ي‬ٚ ‫ كخَٕح‬.ٌٕ‫ظََل‬ٚ ‫ حنَؿخل‬ٞ‫ٍأٔح رع‬
) 2013 ‫( دوسح عبو‬
The traveler did not want to argue with any of the young men. Instead, he ، ‫ً يوٍ ًنو‬٢‫ رووي‬.ٌ‫ظـوخىل يووع أ٘ يوٍ حن٘وزخ‬ٚ ٌ‫وَى حنًٔووخفَ أ‬ٚ ‫نوى‬
calmly told them to be ready for Death whenever he came. The three .ّٛ‫ ف‬ٙ‫ؤط‬ٚ ‫ أ٘ ٔقض‬ٙ‫ٍ نهًٕص ف‬ِْٚ‫كَٕٕح ؿخ‬ٚ ٌ‫أهزَْى رٓئء أ‬
young men walked up the road and saw an old man approaching. .‫قظَد‬ٚ ً‫ً عـُٕح‬٣‫ ٍٔأٔح ٍؿ‬َٚ‫ػش أعهٗ حنط‬٣‫ي٘ٗ حن٘زخٌ حنؼ‬
The three young men walked up the mountain until they came to the tree. ‫ كخَض‬.‫هٕح انٗ حن٘ـَس‬ٛٔ ٗ‫ػش أعهٗ حنـزم كظ‬٣‫ٓخٍ حن٘زخٌ حنؼ‬
The tree was unremarkable, but underneath it lay a pot filled with money. ٖ‫ ىْو‬.‫ء روخنُقٕى‬ٙ‫ ٔنكٍ طلظٓخ كخٌ ُْوخب اَوخء يهو‬،‫ش‬ٚ‫ٗـَس عخى‬
The three young men were surprised and paused for a while, each of them ٍ‫ أفكوخٍِ عو‬ٙ‫ ٔغوَق كو ّم يوُٓى فو‬،‫ػش ٔطٕقيٕح رَْوش‬٣‫حن٘زخٌ حنؼ‬
lost in their own thoughts of food and fun and a great fortune. .‫َس‬ٛ‫عخو ٔيظعش ٔػَٔس كز‬١
The young man bought some poison and went away with it onto the ‫غ‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫ حنّٔى ًْٔذ رّ انٗ حنًظـَ حنظخن‬ٞ‫حٗظَٖ حن٘خد رع‬
next shop where he bought three bottles of juice. He put poison in two ٍٛ‫ حػُظو‬ٙ‫وع حنّٔو ى فو‬ٟٔ . َٛ‫و‬ٜ‫ػش ُؿخؿخص يوٍ حنع‬٣‫حٗظَٖ ػ‬
of the bottles, and then he went back to his friends. When he returned ‫وع‬ٟٔ ،‫ عُوييخ عوخى‬. ّ‫ويقخث‬ٛ‫ ٔػوى عوخى ا نوٗ أ‬، ‫يٍ حنِؿخؿخص‬
his two young friends put their arms round him, as if to welcome him . ّ‫َكزوخٌ رعٕىطو‬ٚ ‫ ٔكؤًَٓو خ‬،ّ‫ًٓوخ كٕنو‬ٛ‫قخ ِ حن٘خرخٌ ًٍحع‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ
back. Before he knew what was happening, the second young man was ‫ يوٍ قزوم‬َٙ‫ ق ظوم حن٘وخد حنؼوخ‬،َ٘‫ـو‬ٚ ٌ٘‫عوَ يوخ حنو‬ٚ ٌ‫قزوم أ‬
killed by his friends and their knives. . ‫ُٓى‬ٛ‫يقخثّ رٔكخك‬ٛ‫أ‬
They opened all the bottles and drank from them. Before night, they all ً ‫ع وخ‬ًٛ‫ ٍقووئح ؿ‬،‫ووم‬ٛ‫ قزووم حنه‬.‫فظلووٕح كووم حنِؿخؿووخص ٔٗووَرٕح يُٓووخ‬
lay underneath the tree, dead. And so, in this way, the old man had ُٕ‫ كووخٌ حنعـوو‬،‫قووش‬َٚ‫ رٓووٌِ حنط‬،‫ ْٔكووٌح‬.‫ أيووٕحص‬،‫طلووض حن٘ووـَس‬
been right all along: Death lay under the tree. .‫َقي طلض حن٘ـَس‬ٚ ‫ كخٌ حنًٕص‬4ً ‫عهٗ ك طًخيخ‬

( 2 ) The Pearl ‫انهؤنؤح‬ ( (John Steinbeck )


Kino woke up in the near dark. He looked first at the lightening square ‫خءس‬٠ً‫ انٗ حنٔخكش حن‬٢ٔ‫ َرَ أ‬.‫و‬٣‫ حنر‬ٙ‫زخ ً ف‬َٚ‫ُٕ طق‬ٛ‫قع ك‬ٛ‫حٓظ‬
that was the door of his brush house, and then he looked at the hanging ٗ‫ ٔػوى َروَ انو‬،‫َحص‬ٛ‫ُٕع يوٍ حن٘وـ‬ًٜ‫ظّ حن‬ٛ‫ كخَض رخد ر‬ٙ‫حنظ‬
box where Coyotito slept. And finally, he turned his head to his wife ّٓ‫ حٓظيحٍ رَأ‬،ً‫َح‬ٛ‫ ٔأه‬.ٕ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫ُخو ك‬ٚ ٌ‫غ كخ‬ٛ‫ُئق حنًعه ك‬ٜ‫حن‬
who lay next to him on the mat. .‫َس‬ٜٛ‫ كخَض طَقي رخنقَد يُّ عهٗ حنل‬ٙ‫َلٕ ُٔؿظّ حنظ‬
He heard the splash of morning waves on the beach. He closed his eyes to ‫ٔظًظع‬ٛ‫ّ ن‬ُٛٛ‫ أغه ع‬.‫ت‬١‫زخف عهٗ حن٘خ‬ٜ‫ٕص أيٕحؽ حن‬ٛ ‫ًٓع‬
listen to his music. In his head he heard the songs of his people. And the ‫ ٓوًعٓخ‬ٙ‫ش حنظ‬ُٛ‫غ‬ٞ‫ ٔح‬.ّ‫ ٗعز‬َٙ‫ ٍأّٓ ًٓع أغخ‬ٙ‫ ف‬.‫قخْخ‬ًٕٛٓ‫ن‬
song he heard now, if it had a name, was the Song of the Family. .‫َٓس‬ٞ‫ش ح‬ُٛ‫ كخَض أغ‬،‫ نٕ كخٌ نٓخ حٓى‬،ٌٜ‫ح‬
A tiny movement drew their eyes to the hanging box. They froze. A .‫ طـًويح‬. ‫وُئق حنًعهو‬ٜ‫طش ؿٌرض حَظزخًْٓخ انوٗ حن‬ٛٔ‫كَكش ر‬
scorpion was moving slowly down the rope. His stinging tail was ‫ٓوع‬٣‫هّ حن‬ًٚ ٌ‫ كخ‬.‫ظلَب رزطت أٓيم حنلزم‬ٚ ‫كخٌ ُْخب عقَد‬
straight behind him, but he could whip it up in a flash. .‫يش‬١‫ ٔنكُّ حٓظطخع ارعخىِ رلَكش هخ‬،ّ‫يزخَٗس ههي‬
Kino heard the Song of Evil, the music of the enemy, and ‫وش‬ُٛ‫ أغ‬،‫ٓويم‬ٞ‫ ح‬ٙ‫قٗ حنعوئ ٔفو‬ٛ‫ ٔيٕٓو‬،َ‫وش حن٘و‬ُٛ‫ُٕ أغ‬ٛ‫ًٓع ك‬
underneath, the Song of the Family was crying. The scorpion climbed ٕ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٚ‫ل كخ‬ٟٔ ،‫ طٔه حنعقَد رزطت‬.‫يف‬ٜ‫َٓس كخَض ط‬ٞ‫ح‬
down slowly, and Coyotito laughed and reached up his hands towards it. .ّٛ‫ّ ان‬ٚ‫ي‬ٚ ‫ٔحيظيص‬
The scorpion sensed the danger and stopped and brought its tail up. ُٕٛ‫ ي ّي ك‬.ٗ‫عه‬ٞ‫هّ انٗ ح‬ًٚ ‫أكّْ حنعقَد رخنوطَ ٔطٕقف ٍٔفع‬
Kino slowly moved his hand towards it. At that moment, the laughing ٕ‫ظووٕ ْٔوو‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫ ك وَّب ك‬،‫ طه و حنهلرووش‬ٙ‫ فوو‬.‫وويِ رخطـخْووّ رزطووت‬ٚ
Coyotito shook the rope and the scorpion fell. .‫ حنعقَد‬٢‫ل حنلزم ٔٓق‬٠ٚ
Kino grabbed to catch it, but he missed. It landed on the baby's ‫ َوِل عهوٗ كظوف‬.ِ‫ ٔنكُوّ أهطوؤ‬،ّ‫ئوخب رو‬٣‫ويِ ن‬ٚ ُٕٛ‫هطف ك‬
shoulder and struck. Kino crushed it into paste in his hands, and the ‫ووش‬ُٛ‫ ْٔوويٍص أغ‬،ّ‫و‬ٚ‫ي‬ٚ ٙ‫ُوٕ طًخيوخ ً فوو‬ٛ‫ووَِ ك‬ٜ‫ ع‬.‫حنطيوم ْٔووخؿى‬
Song of the Enemy roared in his ears. Juana picked up the baby. She َ‫كًو‬ٞ‫ ٔؿويص حنؼقوذ ح‬.‫ ٍفعض ؿٕٔحَوخ حنطيوم‬.ًَّٛ‫ أ‬ٙ‫حنعئ ف‬
found the red puncture and sucked hard and spat repeatedly while ّ ‫ٔي‬
ٕ‫ظووو‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫ًُوووخ كوووخٌ ك‬ٛ‫وووقض ر٘وووكم يظكوووٍَ ر‬ٜ‫وووض ر٘ووويس ٔر‬ٜ
Coyotito screamed. Kino was helpless. ً.‫ُٕ عخؿِح‬ٛ‫ كخٌ ك‬.‫َم‬ٜٚ
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The entire neighbourhood followed the young family through the town. ‫ كهٓى عَفٕح‬.‫ل حنزهيس‬٣‫َٓس حن٘خرش يٍ ه‬ٞ‫َحٌ رخ‬ٛ‫نل ك ّم حنـ‬
They all knew the doctor. They knew his ignorance, his cruelty and his ‫٘وًٕح‬ٚ ٌ‫ ٔحٓوظطخعٕح أ‬.ّ‫ عَفٕح ؿٓهّ ٔقٔخٔطّ ٔ ػخيو‬.‫ذ‬ٛ‫حنطز‬
sins. And they could smell the delicious food in his house. Kino ‫ذ كوخَٕح‬ٛ‫ حنعخيهٌٕ عُي حنطز‬.ُٕٛ‫ طَ ّىى ك‬.ّ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ ر‬ٙ‫ٌ ف‬ٌٚ‫حنطعخو حنه‬
hesitated. The doctor's people were the enemy but he knocked. .)‫َق (عهٗ حنزخد‬١ ُّ‫حنعئ ٔنك‬
The servant went to the door and asked for money. Kino brought out ‫وش قطوع‬َٛ‫ُوٕ ػًخ‬ٛ‫ أهوَؽ ك‬.‫هذ َقوٕى‬١ٔ ‫ًْذ حنوخىو انٗ حنزخد‬
eight tiny, ugly pearls. It was all he had to offer. The servant took them ‫ أهوٌْخ‬.ّ‫قييو‬ٛ‫وّ ن‬ٚ‫ كخَوض كو ّم يوخ ني‬.‫َ ٔحنز٘ع‬ٛ‫غ‬ٜ‫يٍ حنهئنئ حن‬
and closed the door. Shortly after, he returned the pearls. .‫ أعخى حنهئنئ‬،َٜٛ‫ رعي ًن رٕقض ق‬.‫حنوخىو ٔأغه حنزخد‬
Kino stayed for a long time as the crowd disappeared, not wanting to ‫َغزٕح‬ٚ ‫ٍ نى‬ٌٚ‫ حن‬،‫ًُخ حهظيٗ حنل٘ي‬ٛ‫هش ر‬ٕٚ١ ‫ُٕ نيظَس‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫رق‬
see his shame. Kino and Juana returned to their house on the beach, ٗ‫ُوووٕ ٔؿٕٔحَوووخ انوووٗ يُِنًٓوووخ عهووو‬ٛ‫ عوووخى ك‬. ّ‫وووش هـهووو‬ٚ‫رَإ‬
and to Kino's livelihood: his canoe, which had been passed down from ٍ‫ ٔحنٌ٘ ٍٔػّ ع‬،ّ‫ قخٍر‬4 ُٕٛ‫يٍ ٍُق ك‬ٜ‫ ٔانٗ ي‬،‫ت‬١‫حن٘خ‬
his grandfather. . ِ ‫ؿ ّي‬
Hungry animals ran up and down the beach looking for scraps of fish as ٍ‫ت طزلغ عو‬١‫ أعهٗ ٔأٓيم حن٘خ‬ٞ‫ٕحَخص حنـخثعش طَك‬ٛ‫كخَض حنل‬
Kino rested his blanket on the boat, and as Juana placed Coyotito onto ‫ًُووخ‬ٛ‫ ٔر‬،‫ظووّ عهووٗ حنقووخٍد‬َٛ‫ُووٕ رطخ‬ٛ‫ووع ك‬ٟٔ ‫ًُووخ‬ٛ‫فظووخص حنٔووً ر‬
the blanket and protected him from the sun with her scarf. .‫ش ٔكًظّ يٍ حنًْ٘ رٕٗخكٓخ‬َٛ‫ حنزطخ‬ٙ‫ظٕ ف‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫عض ؿٕٔحَخ ك‬ٟٔ
Juana went to the water and gathered seaweed to treat her baby's ‫ش نًعخنـوش كظوف‬َٚ‫ًْزض ؿٕٔحَخ انٗ حنًخء ٔؿًعض أع٘خرخ ً رل‬
shoulder. It was probably better than anything the doctor could have ٍ‫ًكوو‬ٚ ٌ‫ء كوخ‬ٙ‫وم يووٍ أ٘ ٗو‬٠‫ يوٍ حنًلظًووم أٌ ْوٌح أف‬.‫يهٓوخ‬١
done. But because it was simple and free, it lacked his authority. They ٗ‫يظقوَ انو‬ٚ ٌ‫ كوخ‬،َٙ‫ ٔيـوخ‬٢ٛ‫َوّ رٔو‬ٞ ٍ‫ ٔنكو‬.ّ‫خو رو‬ٛ‫ذ حنق‬ٛ‫نهطز‬
pushed the canoe into the water, and rowed over the broken, opened َ‫ ٔؿو ّيفخ فوٕق حنًلوخٍ حنًظكٔو‬،‫ ىفعخ حنقخٍد انٗ حنًوخء‬.ّ‫هزَط‬
oysters under the water. .‫ٔحنًيظٕف طلض حنًخء‬
An accident could happen to these oysters to make pearls. A grain of ٍ‫ًك‬ٚ .‫ُع حنهئنئ‬ٜ‫خىفش ٔقعض نٌٓح حنًلخٍ ن‬ٜ‫يٍ حنًًكٍ أٌ ي‬
sand could irritate the flesh until it coated the grain with layers of ٍ‫وش حنووٌٍس رطزقوخص يوو‬ٛ‫ووظى طغط‬ٚ ٗ‫وَ حنهووذ كظو‬ٛ‫نوٌٍس ٍيووم أٌ طؼ‬
smooth cement to protect itself. Men had grown rich on them. But ‫ح ٔنكُٓوخ‬.ّ‫خء يُو‬ُٛ‫زلٕح أغ‬ٛ‫ ٍؿخل أ‬.‫ظٓخ‬ٚ‫ًُٓض حنُخعى نلًخ‬٢‫ح‬
they were accidents; finding one was luck, a little pat on the back by َ‫يش عهٗ حنرٓو‬ٛ‫ نًٔش هي‬،‫ـخى ٔحكيس كخٌ كع‬ٚ‫ ا‬4 ‫هي‬ٛ ‫كخَض‬
God. .‫يٍ قزم حنَّد‬
They came near the other canoes on the water, and Kino tied himself to ّ‫ُوٕ َئو‬ٛ‫ ك‬٢‫ ٍٔرو‬،‫هَٖ عهٗ حنًخء‬ٞ‫حقظَرخ يٍ حنقٕحٍد ح‬
a rock and a basket and jumped into the water. The rock took him to the ،‫وَس انوٗ حنقوخع‬ٜ‫ أهٌطّ حن‬. ‫وَس ٔٓهش ٔقيِ انٗ حنًخء‬ٜ‫ر‬
bottom, and he moved carefully so the water stayed clear. He threw ٙ‫ ٍيووٗ يلووخٍ فوو‬.ً ‫ خ‬ٛ‫ووخف‬ٛ ‫زقووٗ حنًووخء‬ٚ ٙ‫ٔطلووَب رل و ٌٍ نكوو‬
oysters into his basket. . ّ‫ٓهظ‬
His people had songs for everything - to the fish, to the sea, to the moon. ‫ًُوخ‬ٛ‫ ٔر‬.َ‫ء – نهًٔ ٔحنزلوَ ٔحنقًو‬ٙٗ ‫ نك ّم‬َٙ‫كخٌ ن٘عزّ أغخ‬
And as he filled his basket, there was a gentle song in his heart, almost ،ٙ‫زوخ ً طوظيو‬َٚ‫ طق‬،ّ‫ قهزو‬ٙ‫يوش فو‬ٛ‫وش نط‬ُٛ‫ كخَوض ُْوخب أغ‬،ّ‫ ٓوهظ‬ٟ‫ي‬
hiding, and this was the Song of the Pearl That Might Be, for every shell ‫ٌ ك و ّم‬ٞ ،’ٌٕ‫ًكووٍ أٌ طكوو‬ٚ ٙ‫ووش حنهئنووئس حنظوو‬ُٛ‫ٔكخَووض ْ وٌِ ‘ أغ‬
thrown in the basket might contain a pearl. Chance was against it, but ‫وش‬َٛ‫ كخَوض حني‬.‫ حنٔهش قي طلظوٕ٘ عهوٗ نئنوئس‬ٙ‫يفش طَيٗ ف‬ٛ
luck might be for it. . ‫كٌٕ حنلع يع ًن‬ٚ ‫ ٔنكٍ قي‬، ‫ي ًن‬ٟ
Kino could stay underwater for two minutes, so he could be careful. He ٌ‫ ٔنٌن كخٌ ربيكخَّ أ‬،ٍٛ‫قظ‬ٛ‫ُٕ حنزقخء طلض حنًخء نيق‬ٛ‫حٓظطخع ك‬
saw a rock near him covered by a group of oysters. As he went to it, he ٍ‫ٓوووخ يـًٕعوووش يووو‬ٛ‫ووووَس قَروووّ طغط‬ٛ ٖ‫ ٍأ‬.ً ‫وووخ‬َٜٚ‫كوووٌٕ ك‬ٚ
saw a very large oyster by itself, hidden by the rock, and he saw a ،‫وَس ؿويح نٕكويْخ‬ٛ‫ ٍأٖ يلوخٍس كز‬،‫ٓوخ‬ٛ‫ عُوييخ ًْوذ ان‬.ٍ‫حنًلخ‬
ghostly gleam before the shell closed down. .‫يفش‬ٜ‫يخ ً قزم أٌ طغه حن‬ٛ‫قخ ً يو‬َٚ‫ ٍٔأٖ ر‬،‫وَس‬ٜ‫ٓخ حن‬ٛ‫طوي‬
He rose to the surface, and put the large oyster in the boat. He didn't ‫ نووى‬.‫ حنقووخٍد‬ٙ‫ووَس فو‬ٛ‫ووع حنًلوخٍس حنكز‬ٟٔٔ ،‫وعي انووٗ حنٔوطق‬ٛ
dare look at it, and first pulled up his basket and his rock. Juana ‫ طرخَْص‬.ّ‫وَط‬ٛٔ ّ‫ً ٓلذ ٓهظ‬٢ٔ‫ ٔأ‬،‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫ـَإ انٗ حنُرَ ان‬ٚ
pretended to look away. He opened a small one. Maybe it was better to ٍ‫ ٍرًووخ كووخٌ يوو‬.‫َس‬ٛ‫ووغ‬ٛ ‫ فووظق ٔحكوويس‬.ً‫وويح‬ٛ‫ؿٕٔحَووخ رووخنُرَ رع‬
open the oyster last. .ً‫يظق حنًلخٍس هَح‬ٚ ٌ‫م أ‬٠‫ف‬ٞ‫ح‬
He slipped his knife into the shell and cut it open. He lifted the flesh, ،‫ ُْٔخب كخَض طَقي‬،‫ ٍفع حنهذ‬.‫يفش ٔفظلٓخ‬ٜ‫ حن‬ٙ‫ُّ ف‬ٛ‫ىّّ ٓك‬
and there it lay, the great pearl, perfect as the moon. It was the greatest ٙ‫ نقووي كخَووض أعرووى نئنووئس فوو‬.ًَ‫ يكظًهووش كووخنق‬،‫ووَس‬ٛ‫حنهئنووئس حنكز‬
pearl in the world. He held it in his hand and saw it was perfect. Juana ٗ‫ ًْزووض ؿٕٔحَووخ انوو‬.‫وويِ ٍٔأٖ أَٓووخ يكظًهووش‬ٛ‫ أئووكٓخ ر‬.‫حنعووخنى‬
went to Coyotito and removed her seaweed treatment. .‫ش‬َٚ‫ع٘خد حنزل‬ٞ‫ؽ رخ‬٣‫ظٕ ٔأُحنض حنع‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫ك‬
He looked past the pearl, and saw that the baby's shoulder was no ً
ٌ‫عي أكًَح – كخ‬ٚ ‫ ٍٔأٖ أٌ كظف حنطيم نى‬،‫َرَ ههف حنهئنئس‬
longer red - the poison was leaving his body. He clenched his fist ‫يوووش‬١‫وووظّ كوووٕل حنهئنوووئس رعخ‬٠‫ أئووو رقز‬.ِ‫غوووخىٍ ؿٔوووي‬ٚ ‫حن ّٔوووى‬
around the pearl with emotion and screamed. The men in the other ‫ ٔقووي‬،‫ووَْى‬ٜ‫هووَٖ ر‬ٞ‫ حنقووٕحٍد ح‬ٙ‫ ٍفووع حنَؿووخل فوو‬.‫ووَم‬ٛٔ
canoes looked up, shocked, and then raced towards his canoe. .ّ‫ ٔػى َْعٕح َلٕ قخٍر‬،‫ييٕح‬ٛ
- 35 -
0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Before Kino and Juana and the other fishermen reached Kino's house, ،ٕ‫ُو‬ٛ‫وض ك‬ٛ‫هؤٌَ ر‬ٜ‫خىٌٔ ح‬ٜٛ‫ُٕ ٔؿٕٔحَخ ٔحن‬ٛ‫م ك‬ٜٚ ٌ‫قزم أ‬
everyone in the town knew - Kino found the Pearl of the World. The َ‫ عوو‬.‫ُووٕ نئنووئس حنعووخنى‬ٛ‫ حنزهوويس – ٔؿووي ك‬ٙ‫ووع فوو‬ًٛ‫عووَ حنـ‬
shopkeepers, the beggars and the doctor knew. Only Kino stood in the ٙ‫ُوٕ ٔقوف فو‬ٛ‫ ك‬٢‫ فقو‬.‫وذ‬ٛ‫لخد حنًظخؿَ ٔحنًظٔوٕنٌٕ ٔحنطز‬ٛ‫أ‬
way of everyone's dreams, so he became every man's enemy. .‫ع‬ًٛ‫زق عئ حنـ‬ٛ‫ ٔنٌن أ‬،‫ع‬ًٛ‫و حنـ‬٣‫ أك‬َٚ١
The news stirred up something black and evil in the town. But Kino and ‫عهوى‬ٚ ‫ ٔنكوٍ نوى‬.‫ حنزهويس‬ٙ‫َح فو‬َٚ‫جخ ً أٓوٕىحً ٔٗو‬ٛٗ ٍ‫هزخ‬ٞ‫أػخٍص ح‬
Juana did not know this. They were happy and excited, so they thought ٌ‫ ٔنٌن حعظقيح أ‬،ًٍٛٔ‫ٍ ٔيظل‬ٚ‫ي‬ٛ‫ كخَخ ٓع‬.‫ُٕ ٔؿٕٔحَخ رٌٓح‬ٛ‫ك‬
everyone else was. The neighbours gathered to see the pearl. .‫ش حنهئنئس‬ٚ‫َحٌ نَإ‬ٛ‫ طـًع حنـ‬. ‫هٌَٔ كهٓى كخَٕح كٌن‬ٜ‫ح‬
Kino looked into his pearl. And in it, he saw Coyotito sitting at a desk in ٙ‫ يقعي فو‬ٙ‫ـهْ ف‬ٚ ٕ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫ ٍأٖ ك‬،‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫ ٔف‬.ّ‫ نئنئط‬ٙ‫ُٕ ف‬ٛ‫َرَ ك‬
a school, just as Kino had once seen it through a door. He looked at his .‫ل روخد‬٣‫ُوٕ ًنو ًحص يو َّس يوٍ هو‬ٛ‫ طًخيخ ً كًوخ ٍأٖ ك‬،‫ييٍٓش‬
neighbours fiercely. .‫َحَّ رعُف‬ٛ‫َرَ انٗ ؿ‬
Kino had never said so many words together in his life. The neighbours .ّ‫خطوو‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٙ‫ووَ ؿوويحً يووٍ حنكهًووخص يعوخ ً ْكووٌح فوو‬ٛ‫ُووٕ حنكؼ‬ٛ‫هيووع ك‬ٚ ‫نوى‬
knew this was a great occasion: the time that Kino became a great man ٌ٘‫ حنٕقووض حنوو‬4‫ًووش‬ٛ‫ووَحٌ أٌ ْووٌِ كخَووض يُخٓووزش عر‬ٛ‫عووَ حنـ‬
or the time when his madness began. .َُّٕ‫ّ ؿ‬ٛ‫ًخ ً أو حنٕقض حنٌ٘ ريأ ف‬ٛ‫ً عر‬٣‫ُٕ ٍؿ‬ٛ‫ّ ك‬ٛ‫زق ف‬ٛ‫أ‬
My son will go to school. He will open and read books, and he will ‫كظذ‬ٚ ٕٓٔ ،‫قَأ حنكظذ‬ٚٔ ‫يظق‬ٛٓ .‫ انٗ حنًيٍٓش‬ُٙ‫ٌْذ حر‬ٛٓ
write and make numbers. And these things will make us free because he ّ‫َوو‬ٞ ً‫خء أكوَحٍح‬ٛ‫ٗو‬ٞ‫ ٓوظـعهُخ كو ّم ْووٌِ ح‬.‫ٍقووخو‬ٞ‫ظعخيوم يوع ح‬ٚٔ
will know. This is what the pearl will do. .‫ ٌْح يخ ٓظقٕو رّ حنهئنئس‬. َ‫ع‬ٛٓ
The doctor left, saying he would return in an hour. Kino looked down ٗ‫ُووٕ انوو‬ٛ‫ َرووَ ك‬.‫عٕى رعووي ٓووخعش‬ٛ‫ً اَووّ ٓوو‬٣‫ قووخث‬،‫ووذ‬ٛ‫غووخىٍ حنطز‬
and saw the pearl in his hand, and realised he must hide it. He buried it .‫ٓووخ‬ٛ‫وي‬ٚ ٌ‫ووّ أ‬ٛ‫ ٔأىٍب أٌ عه‬،ِ‫ووي‬ٚ ٙ‫ٓوويم ٍٔأٖ حنهئنووئس فوو‬ٞ‫ح‬
in the corner. They ate, and the baby's face became red, and he was very ٌ‫ ٔكووخ‬،ً‫ووزق ٔؿووّ حنٕنووي أكًووَح‬ٛ‫ ٔأ‬،‫ أكهووٕح‬.‫ووش‬ٚٔ‫ حنِح‬ٙ‫ىفُٓوخ فوو‬
sick. .ً‫خ ً ؿيح‬٠َٚ‫ي‬
The doctor knew Kino must have hidden it, so looked at Kino's eyes to ٗ‫ ٔنوٌن َروَ انو‬،‫ُوٕ قوي هزؤْوخ‬ٛ‫ روي أٌ ك‬٢ ّ‫ذ أَو‬ٛ‫عَ حنطز‬
see if he would give away the hiding place. Kino's eyes flicked towards َِٜ‫ُٕ ر‬ٛ‫ هطف ك‬.‫َّف رخنًوزؤ‬ٜٛٓ ٌ‫َٖ اًح كخ‬ٛ‫ُٕ ن‬ٛ‫ ك‬ُٙٛ‫ع‬
the corner, and the doctor saw it and left. .ٍ‫ذ ٔغخى‬ٛ‫ ٍٔ ْخ حنطز‬،‫ش‬ٚٔ‫َلٕ حنِح‬
An evil feeling kept Kino awake. He heard a faint sound in the corner ‫وش‬ٚٔ‫ حنِح‬ٙ‫وٕطخ ً هخفظوخ ً فو‬ٛ ‫ ٓوًع‬.ً ‫قروخ‬ٚ ٕ‫ُو‬ٛ‫َ ك‬َٚٗ ٍٕ‫أرقٗ ٗع‬
and jumped off the mat with his knife. His knife struck cloth, and he felt ،ٕ‫ُّ رقًووخ‬ٛ‫ووَرض ٓووك‬ٟ .ُّٛ‫َس ٔيعووّ ٓووك‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ٔقيووِ يووٍ حنل‬
a blow to his head. .ّٓ‫ ٍأ‬ٙ‫َرش ف‬٠‫ٔٗعَ ر‬
In the morning, they saw the pearl's beauty, and they began the day َ‫ عو‬.‫ ٔرويءح حنُٓوخٍ رؤيوم‬،‫ ٗخْيح ؿًخل حنهئنئس‬،‫زخف‬ٜ‫ حن‬ٙ‫ف‬
with hope. Everyone knew that Kino was going to sell his pearl that ُٕٛ‫عخ ً يع ك‬ًٛ‫ ًْزٕح ؿ‬.‫ٕو‬ٛ‫ع نئنئطّ ًن حن‬ٛ‫ز‬ٛٓ ُٕٛ‫ع أٌ ك‬ًٛ‫حنـ‬
day. They all went with Kino and Juana to sell the pearl. It was such ٢ ٌ‫ ٔيوٍ حنـُوٌٕ أ‬،ً‫ٕيخ ً ْخيوخ‬ٚ ٌ‫ نقي كخ‬.‫ع حنهئنئس‬ٛ‫ٔؿٕٔحَخ نز‬
an important day, it would be crazy if they didn't go. .‫ٌْزٕح‬ٚ
All of them hoped that riches would not turn Kino's head. He was well- ٌ‫ فقووي كووخ‬.ٕ‫ُوو‬ٛ‫ووَ ك‬ٛ‫ووَ حنكُووُٕ طيك‬ٛ‫ طغ‬٢ ٌ‫ووؤيهٌٕ أ‬ٚ ‫كووخٌ كهٓووى‬
liked, and it would be a pity if the pearl destroyed him and his family. .ّ‫َ نه٘يقش اًح ىيَطّ حنهئنئس ْٕ ٔأَٓط‬ٛ‫ ٔيٍ حنًؼ‬،ً‫يلزٕرخ‬
It was believed that the pearl buyers were individuals, bidding ٗ‫ووخٍرٌٕ عهوو‬٠ٚ ،ً‫هعظقووي أٌ ي٘ووظَ٘ حنهئنووئ كووخَٕح أفووَحىح‬ٚ ٌ‫كووخ‬
against each other. Sometimes, in the excitement of buying fine ،‫وم‬ًٛ‫ػوخٍس عُوي ٗوَحء حنهئنوئ حنـ‬٠‫ى ح‬٠‫ ه‬ٙ‫ ف‬،‫خَخ‬ٛ‫ أك‬.‫ٓى‬٠‫رع‬
pearls, the buyers had given fishermen too much money for them. So .ّ‫َس ؿيحً يقخره‬ٛ‫خى٘ حنًٔ َقٕىحً كؼ‬ٛٛ ٌٕ‫عط‬ٚ ٌَٔ‫كخٌ حنً٘ظ‬
instead, there was now one pearl buyer with many hands. The others ّ‫ٌ ي٘وظَ٘ نئنوئ ٔحكوي نو‬ٜ‫ كوخٌ ُْوخب ح‬،‫ً يٍ ْوٌح‬٢‫ ري‬، ‫ٔنٌن‬
sold to fight for his favour, and for the joy of buying at the lowest ‫ؿوم‬ٞٔ ،ّ‫ؿه‬ٞ ‫ُخفٕٔح‬ٚ ٙ‫عٌٕ نك‬ٛ‫ز‬ٚ ٌَٔ‫ه‬ٜ‫ كخَٕح ح‬.٘‫ي‬ٚ‫عيس أ‬
prices. .ٌ‫ػًخ‬ٞ‫ ح‬ٚ‫حنٔعخىس عُي حنَ٘حء رؤٍه‬
The dealers were scared - they knew they had played too hard. But .‫وَس‬ٛ‫وَفٕح رقٔوٕس كز‬ٜ‫ٍ – عَفوٕح أَٓوى قوي ط‬ٛ‫كخٌ حنظـخٍ هوخثي‬
Kino had gone. His neighbours said later that the dealers must know ‫ روي‬٢ ٍ‫ًخ رعي اٌ حنظـخ‬ٛ‫َحَّ ف‬ٛ‫ قخل ؿ‬.‫ُٕ قي ًْذ‬ٛ‫ٔنكٍ كخٌ ك‬
more about these things than they did, and that fifteen hundred pesos ‫ ٔأٌ هًًٔخثش‬،ِٕ‫خء أكؼَ يًخ عَف‬ٛٗٞ‫عَفٌٕ عٍ ٌِْ ح‬ٚ ‫أَٓى‬
was fifteen hundred more than Kino had now. .ٌٜ‫ُٕ ح‬ٛ‫ًه ك‬ٚ ‫ٕٔ كخَض هًًٔخثش أكؼَ يًخ‬ٛ‫ر‬
Juan Tomas left, and Kino sat in his thoughts as Juana sang the Song ‫ًُووخ غُووض‬ٛ‫ُووٕ يووع أفكووخٍِ ر‬ٛ‫ ٔؿهووْ ك‬،ّ‫غووخىٍ ؿووٕحٌ طٕيووخ‬
of the Family and tried to keep the Song of Evil away. Kino could ُٕٛ‫ حٓظطخع ك‬.َ٘‫ش حن‬ُٛ‫َٓس ٔكخٔنض ارعخى أغ‬ٞ‫ش ح‬ُٛ‫ؿٕٔحَخ أغ‬
sense evil. Suddenly, he saw a shadow, and leapt out of the door. .‫ ٔقيِ انٗ هخٍؽ حنزخد‬،ً٢‫خ‬ٛ‫ ٍأٖ ه‬،‫ ٔفـؤس‬.َ٘‫حن٘عٍٕ رخن‬
Juana couldn't stop him. She froze in fear, and then she put Coyotito ٕ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫عض ك‬ٟٔ ‫ ػى‬، ٕ‫ طـًيص يٍ حنو‬.ّ‫قخف‬ٚ‫نى طٔظطع ؿٕٔحَخ ا‬
down and followed Kino. But it was over by then. He was trying to ‫لوخٔل‬ٚ ٌ‫ كوخ‬.ٌ‫ٔحٌ عُيثو‬ٞ‫ ٔنكٍ فخص ح‬.ُٕٛ‫ ٔطزعض ك‬ٍٝٞ‫عهٗ ح‬
stand up, covered in blood. She helped him up and cried. .‫َهض‬ٛٔ ٕ‫ ٓخعيطّ عهٗ حنٕق‬.‫ ْٕٔ يغطٗ رخنييخء‬، ٕ‫حنٕق‬

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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
During that night, Kino opened his eyes in the darkness, as he sensed ‫ًُوخ أكوْ رلَكوش‬ٛ‫ ر‬،‫ حنرهًش‬ٙ‫ّ ف‬ُٛٛ‫ُٕ ع‬ٛ‫ فظق ك‬،‫هش‬ٛ‫ طه حنه‬ٙ‫ف‬
movement near him. He was still, only his eyes moved in the moonlight َ‫وٕء حنقًو‬ٟ ٙ‫وّ فو‬ُٛٛ‫ طلَكوض ع‬٢‫ فق‬،ً‫ كخٌ ٓخكُخ‬.ُّ‫رخنقَد ي‬
towards Juana rising silently. She moved like a shadow towards the ٕ‫وخل َلو‬ٛ‫ طلَكوض كو‬.‫وًض‬ٜ‫ ر‬ُٞٓ‫ كخَض طو‬ٙ‫َلٕ ؿٕٔحَخ حنظ‬
door, pausing for a moment by Coyotito's box, and then she was gone. .‫ٔػى غخىٍص‬،ٕ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫ُئق ك‬ٛ ‫ ٔطٕقيض نلرش قَد‬،‫حنزخد‬
Anger rose in Kino. He followed her to the beach, and leapt at her just ً ‫ٓوخ طًخيوخ‬ٛ‫ ٔقيِ ان‬،‫ت‬١‫ طزعٓخ انٗ حن٘خ‬.ُٕٛ‫ذ عُي ك‬٠‫حُىحى حنغ‬
in time to stop her arm throwing the pearl into the sea. He pushed her ٗ‫ حنهئنووئس انوو‬ٙ‫قووخ ًٍحعٓووخ عووٍ ٍيوو‬ٚ٠ ‫ حنٕقووض حنًُخٓووذ‬ٙ‫فوو‬
down in rage and she fell onto the rocks. She stared at him, accepting ‫غ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،ّٛ‫ كيقض ف‬.ٍٕ‫و‬ٜ‫ذ ٔٔقعض عهٗ حن‬٠‫ ىفعٓخ رغ‬.َ‫حنزل‬
whatever he did. .ّ‫قٕو ر‬ٚ ٌ‫طيًٓض ك ّم يخ كخ‬
The rage left him and was replaced by disgust. He walked away with ‫ حرظعوووي يوووع‬.ُ‫ٗووًجِح‬٢‫ي ٔكووو ّم يلهوووّ ح‬ٚ‫وووذ حن٘ووي‬٠‫غووخىٍِ حنغ‬
the pearl, and his senses were dulled by emotion. But he knew he had ٌ‫ ٔنكُوّ عوَ أَوّ كوخ‬.ّ‫ٔو‬ٛٓ‫يظّ يٍ أكخ‬١‫ ٔهييض عخ‬،‫حنهئنئس‬
to act to protect his son's future. .ُّ‫ش ئظقزم حر‬ٚ‫َ نلًخ‬ٜ‫ّ حنظ‬ٛ‫عه‬
When he got there, his grandfather's canoe had been punctured. This َ‫ كخٌ ٌْح ٗو‬.ّ‫ كخٌ قخٍد ؿ ّيِ قي ط ّى هَق‬،‫م ُْخب‬ٛٔ ‫عُييخ‬
was an evil beyond understanding. A boat cannot protect itself, and it .ٗ‫٘ووي‬ٚ ٢ٔ ،ّ‫ َئوو‬ٙ‫لًو‬ٚ ٌ‫ع قووخٍد أ‬ٛ‫ٔوظط‬ٚ ٢ .‫ظـوخُٔ حنيٓووى‬ٚ
does not heal. He was an animal now, running back to his house, as he ٗ‫ٔظطع كظ‬ٚ ‫غ نى‬ٛ‫ ك‬،ّ‫ظ‬ٛ‫خ ً انٗ ر‬٠‫عٕى ٍحك‬ٚ ،ٌٜ‫ٕحٌ ح‬ٛ‫كخٌ ك‬
could not even imagine taking a neighbour's canoe. .ٌ‫َح‬ٛ‫م أهٌ قخٍد أكي حنـ‬ٛ‫ظو‬ٚ ٌ‫أ‬
As he reached the brush houses, flames rose from the house, and he ٍ‫ حٍطيعض أنٔوُش حنهٓوذ يو‬،‫َحص‬ٛ‫ٕص حن٘ـ‬ٛ‫م انٗ ر‬ٛٔ ‫عُييخ‬
saw Juana and Coyotito running towards him. Kino was afraid. He ٕ‫ُو‬ٛ‫ كوخٌ ك‬.ّ‫وخٌ رخطـخْو‬٠‫َك‬ٚ ٕ‫ظو‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫ ٍٔأٖ ؿٕٔحَخ ٔك‬،‫ض‬ٛ‫حنز‬
took Juana into the shadows and they made their way to Juan Tomas's ٌ‫وض ؿؤٕح‬ٛ‫قًٓوخ انوٗ ر‬َٚ١ ‫ أهٌ ؿٕٔحَخ انٗ حنرم ٔٗقخ‬.ً ‫هخثيخ‬
house. .ّ‫طٕيخ‬
They left that night, walking along roads in the tracks left by wagons to ٍ‫ػخ‬ٜ‫ٕل حنطَق عهٗ ح‬١ ٗ‫غ ٓخٍٔح عه‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫هش‬ٛ‫غخىٍٔح طه حنه‬
hide their footprints. They walked all night at the same speed. They saw ‫وم‬ٛ‫وٕحل حنه‬١ ‫ ٓخٍٔح‬.‫هيخء ػخٍ أقيحيٓى‬٠ ‫ طَكظٓخ حنعَرخص‬ٙ‫حنظ‬
no one. The music of the pearl was loud in Kino's head, with the music ‫وش‬ٛ‫قٗ حنهئنوئس عخن‬ٕٛٓ‫ كخَض ي‬.ً‫٘خْئح أكيح‬ٚ ‫ نى‬.‫رُيْ حنَٔعش‬
of the family underneath it. .‫َٓس طلظٓخ‬ٞ‫قٗ ح‬ٕٛٓ‫ يع ي‬،ُٕٛ‫ ٍأّ ك‬ٙ‫ف‬
At sunrise, Kino found a hiding place by the side of the road. He . ‫و‬َٚ‫ووَ حنط‬١ ٗ‫ُوٕ يوزووؤ عهو‬ٛ‫ ٔؿووي ك‬،ًْ‫عُوي ٗوؤَق حن٘و‬
brushed their footprints away with a stick, and they ate breakfast and ٍ‫ ٔنك‬.‫فطخٍ ٔحٓظَحكٕح‬٠‫ ٔطُخٔنٕح ح‬،‫خ‬ٜ‫أُحل ػخٍ أقيحيٓى رع‬
rested. But all Kino saw was Coyotito's face, red from the medicine. ،ٕ‫ُوو‬ٛ‫ َوخو ك‬.‫ أكًوَ يوٍ حنووئحء‬،ٕ‫ظوو‬ٛ‫ٕط‬ٛ‫ُووٕ ٔؿوّ ك‬ٛ‫كو ّم يوخ ٍ ِ ك‬
Kino slept, and when he woke, he was troubled. .ً ‫طَرخ‬٠‫ كخٌ ي‬،‫قع‬ٛ‫ٔعُييخ حٓظ‬
He saw three men: two on foot and one on a horse. The two on foot ٌ‫ كووخ‬.ٌ‫ووخ‬ٜ‫ ٔٔحكووي عهووٗ ك‬،ً‫َح‬ٛ‫ حػُووخٌ ٓوو‬،‫ػووش ٍؿووخل‬٣‫ٍأٖ ػ‬
were looking at every part of the ground, finding tracks. They were ٍ‫زلؼووخٌ عوو‬ٚ ،ٍٝٞ‫ُرووَحٌ انووٗ ك و ّم ؿووِء يووٍ ح‬ٚ ٌ٣‫حن وَّحؿ‬
hunters. Kino stayed still and held his knife as they paused at the spot ‫ًُوخ‬ٛ‫ُّ ر‬ٛ‫ُوٕ ٓوخكُخ ً ٔأئو ٓوك‬ٛ‫ ٔقف ك‬.ٍٚ‫خى‬ٛٛ ‫ كخَٕح‬.ٍ‫ػخ‬ٜ‫ح‬
where he had left the road. They passed, but he knew they would be ّ‫ ٔنكُو‬،‫ عزؤَح‬. ‫و‬َٚ‫ طوَب عُويْخ حنط‬ٙ‫طٕقيوٕح عُوي حنزقعوش حنظو‬
back soon. .ً ‫زخ‬َٚ‫عٕىٌٔ ق‬ٛٓ ‫عَ أَٓى‬
They went as quickly as they could, not covering their tracks. There ‫ نوى‬.‫غطوٕح ػوخٍْى‬ٚ ‫غ نوى‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫ حٓظطخعْٕخ‬ٙ‫ًْزٕح رخنَٔعش حنظ‬
was no water, and there were rocks that cut their legs. But they had ٍ‫ ٔنكو‬.‫ووٍٕ طـوَف أقويحيٓى‬ٛ ‫ ٔكخَوض ُْوخب‬،‫كٍ ُْخب يوخء‬ٚ
distance from the trackers. The sun started setting, and the slope got ،‫ روويأص حن٘ووًْ رووخنغَٔد‬.ٍٚ‫خى‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫كووخَٕح عهووٗ ئووخفش يووٍ حن‬
steeper. Kino was aiming towards trees, as he knew there must be ،ٍ‫ٗووـخ‬ٞ‫ُووٕ انووٗ ح‬ٛ‫ظـووّ ك‬ٚ ٌ‫ كووخ‬.‫ووزق حنًُلوويٍ أكؼووَ ك و ّيس‬ٛ‫ٔأ‬
water, and finally, they found a lake. .‫َس‬ٛ‫ ٔؿئح رل‬،ً‫َح‬ٛ‫ ٔأه‬،‫ ري أٌ ُْخب يخء‬٢ َّ‫غ عَ أ‬ٛ‫ك‬
He saw Juana's legs were cut and that she was tired. He looked back َ‫ َرو‬.‫ٍ ٔأَٓوخ كخَوض يظعزوش‬ٛ‫ ؿٕٔحَوخ يـؤَكظ‬ٙ‫ٗخْي أٌ ٓوخق‬
and searched in the distance. He could see three tiny dots. There were ١‫ػووش َقووخ‬٣‫ووش ػ‬ٚ‫ حٓووظطخع ٍإ‬.‫انووٗ حنووٍٕحء ٔرلووغ عهووٗ ئووخفش‬
caves above them. He climbed up past the caves, making as many ، ٕ‫ طٔوه فوٕق حنكٓو‬.‫ كوخٌ ُْوخب كٓوٕ فٕقٓوخ‬.ً‫َس ؿيح‬ٛ‫غ‬ٛ
tracks as he could, then carefully returned to the cave. .‫ ػى عخى رلٌٍ انٗ حنكٓف‬،‫ُع ػخٍحً رقيٍ يخ حٓظطخع‬ٛ ‫غ‬ٛ‫ك‬
The hunters came, and made a camp by the lake. As he saw only one ‫ ٔعُووييخ‬.‫ووَس‬ٛ‫ً وخ ً رووخنقَد يووٍ حنزل‬ٛ‫ ٔأقووخيٕح يو‬،‫خىس‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ؿووخء حن‬
man awake with the only gun, he knew he could finish it. If he killed ،‫وويس‬ٛ‫ووش حنٕك‬ٛ‫قووع ٔيعووّ حنزُيق‬ٚ ‫ ٍؿووم ٔحكووي‬٢‫ٍأٖ أٌ ُْووخب فقوو‬
the man with the gun, he could kill them all, and his family would be ‫لًووم‬ٚ ٌ٘‫ اًح قظووم حنَؿووم حنوو‬.َ‫يوو‬ٞ‫عووَ أٌ ربيكخَووّ آَووخء ح‬
safe. .ٌ‫ أيخ‬ٙ‫ ٔٓظكٌٕ أَٓطّ ف‬،ً‫عخ‬ًٛ‫ًكُّ قظهٓى ؿ‬ٚ ،‫ش‬ٛ‫حنزُيق‬
There was no moonlight yet, so he knew he had to move quickly. He ‫وّ حنظلوَب‬ٛ‫ ٔنوٌن عوَ أٌ عه‬،‫ٕء قًَ رعوي‬ٟ ‫كٍ ُْخب‬ٚ ‫نى‬
moved like a lizard over the rocks. As he came close, the family song ‫ كخَوض‬،‫ًُوخ حقظوَد‬ٛ‫ ر‬.ٍٕ‫وو‬ٜ‫ش فوٕق حن‬ٛ‫ طلو َّب كٔوله‬.‫رَٔعش‬
was alive in his head. He drew his knife. But he was too late, the moon َ‫ ٔنكُوّ طوؤه‬.ُّٛ‫ ٓولذ ٓوك‬.ّ‫ ٍأٓو‬ٙ‫وَس فو‬ٟ‫ٓوَس كخ‬ٞ‫ش ح‬ُٛ‫أغ‬
rose. He could not wait, he had to jump when the watcher turned his ِ‫وّ حنقيو‬ٛ‫ كوخٌ عه‬،ٍ‫َظروخ‬٢‫ٔوظطع ح‬ٚ ‫ نوى‬.َ‫ فقي ظَٓ حنقًو‬،‫َح‬ٛ‫كؼ‬
head. .ّٓ‫عُييخ أىحٍ حنلخٍّ ٍأ‬
- 37 -
0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Kino was in mid-air as the gun fired and he landed with his knife in ‫ووش َٔووِل‬ٛ‫ق حنُووخٍ يووٍ حنزُيق‬٣‫وو‬١‫ حنٓووٕحء عُووي ا‬ٙ‫ُووٕ فوو‬ٛ‫كووخٌ ك‬
the chest of the watcher. He took the gun and struck the second man ‫ووَد حنَؿووم‬ٟٔ ‫ووش‬ٛ‫ أهووٌ حنزُيق‬.ٍّ‫وويٍ حنلووخ‬ٛ ٙ‫ٍ فوو‬ٛ‫ٔحنٔووك‬
with it, before shooting the third man who was trying to escape. ٌ‫ق حنُوخٍ عهووٗ حن َّؿوم حنؼخنووغ حنوٌ٘ كووخ‬٣‫وو‬١‫ قزوم ا‬،‫ رٓووخ‬َٙ‫حنؼوخ‬
Something was wrong. .‫ كخَض ُْخب ي٘كهش‬.‫لخٔل حنَٓد‬ٚ
Some signal was trying to reach him. And then his brain cleared and he ً ‫خ‬ٛ‫وخف‬ٛ ّ‫وزق ًُْو‬ٛ‫ ٔػى أ‬.ّٛ‫ٕل ان‬ٕٛ‫كخَض طلخٔل اٗخٍس يخ حن‬
heard the sound - the hysterical cry coming from the little cave, the cry ‫ش حنقخىيووش يووٍ حنكٓووف‬َٚٛ‫ووَهش حنٓٔووظ‬ٜ‫ووٕص – حن‬ٜ‫ٔٓووًع حن‬
of death. .‫َهش حنًٕص‬ٛ ،َٛ‫غ‬ٜ‫حن‬
Everyone remembers the return of the family. Kino and Juana came ٗ‫ُووٕ ٔؿٕٔحَووخ ؿُز وخ ً انوو‬ٛ‫ ؿووخء ك‬.‫ٓووَس‬ٞ‫ووع عووٕىس ح‬ًٛ‫ظووٌكَ حنـ‬ٚ
side by side, not with Kino in front as usual. The sun was behind them ‫ كخَوض حن٘وًْ ههيًٓوخ‬.‫ حنًقييش كخنعوخىس‬ٙ‫ُٕ ف‬ٛ‫ْ ك‬ٛ‫ ٔن‬،‫ؿُذ‬
and they seemed to be carrying two pillars of darkness with them. .‫و يعًٓخ‬٣‫ٍ يٍ حنر‬ٚ‫ٌ عًٕى‬٣ً‫ل‬ٚ ‫ٔريح أًَٓخ‬
Over Juana's shoulder was a little bundle, and it was covered in blood. ‫ ٔكخَوض يغطوخس‬،‫َس‬ٛ‫وغ‬ٛ ‫فٕق كظف ؿٕٔحَخ كخَض ُْخب كِيش‬
Her eyes were wide and she seemed as if she was no longer in the ٙ‫ ف‬.‫ حنعخنى‬ٙ‫ٍ ٔريح ٔكؤَٓخ نى طعي ف‬ٛ‫ُخْخ ٔحٓعظ‬ٛ‫ كخَض ع‬.‫رخنيو‬
world. In Kino's ears, the Song of the Family was as loud as a cry. .‫َهش‬ٜ‫ش ك‬ٛ‫َٓس عخن‬ٞ‫ش ح‬ُٛ‫ كخَض أغ‬،ُٕٛ‫ ك‬ًَٙ‫أ‬
They walked past the burned square that was their house and reached َ١ ٗ‫ ان‬٣ٛٔٔ ‫ظًٓخ‬ٛ‫ كخَض ر‬ٙ‫طـخُٔح حنٔخكش حنًلظَقش حنظ‬
the water's edge. Kino put the gun down and reached into his clothes. ٌ‫ أهوو‬.ّ‫رٔوو‬٣‫ ي‬ٙ‫ووخ ٔرلووغ فوو‬ٍٟ‫ووش أ‬ٛ‫ُووٕ حنزُيق‬ٛ‫ووع ك‬ٟٔ .‫حنًووخء‬
He took the pearl and saw evil faces coming from it, and he heard the ٗ‫ق‬ٛ‫ ٔٓوووًع يٕٓووو‬،‫ يُٓوووخ‬ٙ‫َس طووؤط‬َٚ‫حنهئنووئس ٍٔأٖ ٔؿْٕوووخ ٗووو‬
music of the pearl, insane and terrible. .‫عش‬ٛ‫ كًقخء ٔفر‬،‫حنهئنئس‬
He drew back his arm and threw the pearl with all his strength. They ‫ ٗوخْيحْخ‬.ّ‫ٓلذ ًٍحعّ انٗ حنوٍٕحء ٍٔيوٗ حنهئنوئس ركو ّم قٕطو‬
watched it go, shining in the setting sun. They saw the little splash, and ‫ٍططوخو‬٢‫ ٗوخْيح ح‬.‫ كخَوض طغوَد‬ٙ‫ حن٘وًْ حنظو‬ٙ‫ ٔط٘ع ف‬، ‫طزظعي‬
watched the place for a long time. And the pearl sank down to the floor ‫ ٔغَقض حنهئنئس‬.‫هش‬ٕٚ١ ‫ ٔٗخْيح حنًكخٌ نيظَس‬،‫ف رخنًخء‬ٛ‫ع‬٠‫حن‬
of the sea and into the sand. .‫انٗ قخع حنزلَ ٔانٗ حنَيم‬
A crab moved and made a cloud of sand, and when it settled, the pearl ،‫ ٔعُوييخ حٓوظقَص‬،‫ًوش يوٍ حن َّيوخل‬ٛ‫وُع غ‬ٛٔ ٌ‫خ‬١َ‫طلَب ٓو‬
was gone. And the music of the pearl turned to a whisper and ْ‫ووش حنهئنووئس انووٗ ًْوو‬ُٛ‫ ٔطلٕنووض أغ‬.‫كخَووض حنهئنووئس قووي حهظيووض‬
disappeared. .‫ٔحهظيض‬
(3) The Diamond As Big As The Ritz ( By F. Scott Fitzerald) p. 47
‫األنًبعخ ثكجش فُذق سٌزض‬
John Unger was an eighteen-year-old boy from a rich family in Hades, ً ‫ ع٘وَ عخيوخ‬َٙ‫زهو يوٍ حنعًوَ ػًوخ‬ٚ ً‫ حَغَ ٔنيح‬.‫ ص‬. ٌٕ‫كخٌ ؿ‬
on the Mississippi river. He had left his family two years ago to go to ّ‫ طوَب أٓوَط‬.ٙ‫ز‬ًٛٔٛٔٛ‫ عهٗ ََٓ حن‬،ّ‫ي‬ْٛ ٙ‫ش ف‬ُٛ‫يٍ أَٓس غ‬
the most expensive boys' school in the world. It was there that he made .‫ حنعوخنى‬ٙ‫كؼَ كهيش فو‬ٞ‫ى ح‬٢ٔٞ‫ ٍ نهٌْخد انٗ ييٍٓش ح‬ٛ‫قزم ُٓظ‬
friends with a quiet, handsome boy called Percy Washington. .ٍ‫ ٔحُٗط‬َٙٓٛ‫هيعٗ ر‬ٚ ‫ًخ‬ٛٓٔٔ ً ‫خىق ٔنيحً ْخىثخ‬ٛ ‫ُْٔخب‬
They went on a train together to visit Percy‘s family. Percy had always َٙٓٛ‫ ىحثًخ ً يخ حنظِو ر‬.َٙٓٛ‫خٍس عخثهش ر‬ِٚ‫ قطخٍ يعخ ً ن‬ٙ‫ًْزخ ف‬
kept quiet about his family, but they had such a friendship that he ّ‫ّويحقش أَو‬ٜ‫ ٔنكٍ كوخٌ نًٓوخ يؼوم ْوٌِ حن‬،ّ‫خل أَٓط‬ٛ‫ًّض ك‬ٜ‫حن‬
wanted John to spend the summer with them. .‫ف يعٓى‬ٜٛ‫ ؿٌٕ حن‬ٙ٠‫ق‬ٚ ٌ‫أٍحى أ‬
At two minutes after seven, they got off the train in Montana and a small ‫ يَٕظخَخ ٔظَٓص‬ٙ‫ يٍ حنقطخٍ ف‬٢َِ ،‫ش رعي حنٔخرعش‬َٛ‫قش حنؼخ‬ٛ‫ حنيق‬ٙ‫ف‬
buggy appeared from nowhere to drive them away. Half an hour later, ‫ طٕقف‬، ‫ف ٓخعش‬َٜ ‫ رعي‬.‫يكخٌ نُقهًٓخ‬ٜ‫َس يٍ ح‬ٛ‫غ‬ٛ ‫ٕل‬ٛ‫عَرش ه‬
the silent black driver stopped, and a big car came towards them. .‫َس َلْٕى‬ٛ‫خٍس كز‬ٛٓ ‫ ٔؿخءص‬،‫خيض‬ٜ‫ٕٓى حن‬ٞ‫حنّٔخث ح‬
It was a huge car – larger and more magnificent than any car John had ‫خٍس ٍ ْوخ‬ٛ‫ أكزوَ ٔأكؼوَ ٍٔعوش يوٍ أ٘ ٓو‬،‫وًش‬ٟ ‫خٍس‬ٛٓ ‫كخَض‬
ever seen. Two black men got out, dressed in the kind of clothes that ٙ‫رووْ حنظوو‬٣ً‫ووش حن‬ٛ‫هزٔووخٌ َٕع‬ٚ ،ٌ‫ٌ أٓووٕىح‬٣‫ هووَؽ ٍؿوو‬.ٌٕ‫ؿوو‬
you see in pictures of royal processions in London, and took their bags. .‫ ٔأهٌح كقخثزًٓخ‬،ٌ‫ نُي‬ٙ‫ش ف‬ٛ‫ٍٕ حنًٕحكذ حنًهك‬ٛ ٙ‫طَحْخ ف‬
The government doesn‘t know this five square miles exists. And there's ‫ ُْٔوخب‬.‫خل حنًَرّعوش حنؤًوش‬ٛ‫ي‬ٞ‫ طعهى حنلكٕيش رٕؿٕى ٌِْ ح‬٢
only one thing my father‘s afraid of –one thing in the world that could ٍ‫ًكو‬ٚ ‫ حنعوخنى‬ٙ‫ء ٔحكي ف‬ٙٗ – ٙ‫وخ يُّ أر‬ٚ ‫ء ٔحكي‬ٙٗ ٢‫فق‬
be used to find us – aeroplanes. We shoot them down and take the pilots ٍٍٚ‫وخ‬ٛ‫ َٔقطٓخ َٔؤهٌ حنط‬.‫ُخ – حنطخثَحص‬ٛ‫حٓظويحيّ نهعؼٍٕ عه‬
as prisoners, but there‘s always a chance we could miss one. .‫ أٌ طيهض يُخ ٔحكيس‬ٙ‫ش ف‬َٛ‫ ٔنكٍ ُْخب ىحثًخ ً ف‬،‫كٔـُخء‬
Covered in the light of the stars, an exquisite castle rose from the edge . ‫َس‬ٛ‫َ حنزل‬١ ٍ‫ ظَٓص قهعش ٍحثعش ي‬،‫ٕء حنُـٕو‬٠‫يغطخس ر‬
of the lake. Its towers climbed to half the height of the mountain next to .‫ووف حٍطيووخع حنـزووم حنًـووخٍٔ نٓووخ‬َٜ ‫ووم حٍطيووخع أرَحؿٓووخ‬ٛٔ
it. The boys stopped before high marble steps. .‫ش يٍ حنَّهخو‬ٛ‫طٕقف حنٕنيحٌ أيخو ىٍؿخص عخن‬
John didn‘t remember much of the rest of the night; he was in a daze of َ‫هوش؛ كوخٌ يُزٓوَحً رخنًُووخظ‬ٛ‫وش حنه‬ٛ‫وَ يوٍ رق‬ٛ‫ظوٌكَ ؿوٌٕ حنكؼ‬ٚ ‫نوى‬
beautiful sights and sounds. He fell asleep in comfort after a delicious ‫ ٔعُووييخ‬،ٌ‫و‬ٌٚ‫ ٍحكوش رعووي ع٘وخء ن‬ٙ‫ َووخو فو‬.‫هوش‬ًٛ‫وٕحص حنـ‬ٛٞ‫ٔح‬
dinner, and when he woke up, Percy was with him. .ّ‫ يع‬َٙٓٛ‫ كخٌ ر‬.‫قع‬ٛ‫حٓظ‬
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Percy‘s grandfather was Colonel Fitz-Norman Washington, a direct ‫م‬ٛ‫ ٓووه‬،ٍ‫ظووِ– ٍَٕيووخٌ ٔحٗووُط‬ٛ‫ووم ف‬َٕٛ‫ حنكٕن‬ٙ‫َٓوو‬ٛ‫كووخٌ ؿ و ّي ر‬
descendant of George Washington. He was twenty-five at the end of the ٙ‫ كخٌ عًَِ هًٔش ٔعٌَ٘ٔ عخيخ ً ف‬.ٍ‫يزخَٗ نـٍٕؽ ٔحُٗط‬
Civil War, and he left his brother in charge of the family farm so he ‫ عٍ يٍِعش حنعخثهوش‬٢ٔ‫ ٔطَب أهخِ ئئ‬،‫ش‬ٛ‫ْه‬ٞ‫ش حنلَد ح‬ٚ‫َٓخ‬
could travel west. .‫ظًكٍ يٍ حنّٔيَ انٗ حنغَد‬ٚ ٙ‫نك‬
He took twenty four loyal slaves to try to start a sheep and cattle ranch. ‫لووخٔل اَ٘ووخء يٍِعووش‬ٛ‫ وخ ً ن‬ٜ‫ٍ عزوويحً يوه‬َٚ‫أهووٌ أٍرعووش ٔع٘وو‬
After a poor first month in Montana, he made his great discovery. He ‫ قوووخو‬،‫ يَٕظخَوووخ‬ٙ‫وووَ فووو‬ٛ‫ رعوووي أٔل ٗوووَٓ فق‬.‫ش‬ٛ‫نهووووَح ٔحنًخٗووو‬
got lost and extremely hungry while riding, and he was forced to chase a ٌ‫ًُووخ كووخ‬ٛ‫قووّ ٔكووخٌ ؿخثعووخ ؿوويحً ر‬َٚ١ ‫ و ّم‬ٟ‫ أ‬.‫ى‬ٛ‫رخكظ٘ووخفّ حنعروو‬
squirrel. .‫ ٔكخٌ يـزَحً عهٗ يطخٍىس ُٓـخد‬،‫َكذ‬ٚ
As he ran after it, he noticed something shiny in its mouth. Just before it ٌ‫ طًخيوخ قزوم أ‬.ّ‫ فًو‬ٙ‫جخ ً رَّحقوخ ً فو‬ٛ‫كوع ٗو‬٢ ،ّ‫ ههيو‬ٞ‫وَك‬ٚ ْٕٔ
disappeared into its hole –for Fate did not want this squirrel to ease his ‫ه٘ووزع ْووٌح‬ٚ ٌ‫ووي أ‬َٚٚ ٍ‫كوو‬ٚ ‫ٌ حنقوويٍ نووى‬ٞ – َِ‫ ؿلوو‬ٙ‫ فوو‬ٙ‫وظيوو‬ٚ
hunger – it dropped it. .ّ‫حنُٔـخد ؿٕعّ – أٓقط‬
In ten seconds, Fitz-Norman wasn‘t hungry any more and had gained ً
‫م عهٗ يخثوش‬ٜ‫ ٍَٕيخٌ ؿخثعخ ٔك‬-ِ‫ظ‬ٛ‫عي ف‬ٚ ‫ نى‬،ٌ‫ عَ٘ ػٕح‬ٙ‫ف‬
one hundred thousand dollars. The squirrel, which had refused to ِ‫ أعطوخ‬، ً ‫عخيوخ‬١ ٌٕ‫كو‬ٚ ٌ‫ أ‬ٞ‫حنٌ٘ ٍف‬، ‫ حنُّٔـخد‬.ٍ٢ٔ‫أنف ى‬
become food, had given him a large and perfect diamond. .‫َس ٔيكظًهش‬ٛ‫أنًخٓش كز‬
Twelve hours later, all his slaves were digging at the side of the َ‫و‬١ ‫ليؤٌَ عُوي‬ٚ ِ‫وي‬ٛ‫ كوخٌ كو ّم عز‬،‫ عَ٘س ٓوخعش‬ٙ‫رعي حػُظ‬
mountain. And soon, he realised the size of his discovery. It was not a ،ّ‫كٍ يُـى أنًوخ‬ٚ ‫ نى‬.ّ‫ أىٍب كـى حكظ٘خف‬،‫ حنلخل‬ٙ‫ ٔف‬.‫حنـزم‬
diamond mine, but a single enormous diamond. .‫وًش‬ٟ ‫ٔنكٍ أنًخٓش ٔحكيس‬
He filled four bags with small samples and rode back east to sell them. ً
‫َس ٍٔكوذ عخثويح انوٗ حن٘وَق‬ٛ‫وغ‬ٛ ‫ُّوخص‬ٛ‫ أٍرعوش كقخثوذ رع‬ٟ‫ي‬
He sold the small ones quickly, but couldn‘t sell the bigger ones because ‫وع‬ٛ‫ز‬ٚ ٌ‫ٔوظطع أ‬ٚ ‫ نكُّ نى‬،‫َ رَٔعش‬ٛ‫ّغ‬ٜ‫نًخّ حن‬ٞ‫ رخع ح‬.‫عٓخ‬ٛ‫نز‬
of the chaos they caused – he was briefly arrested when a shopkeeper ‫َس‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ووٗ حنووٌ٘ ٓووززظّ – حعظقووم نيظووَس ق‬ٟٕ‫ووَس رٔووزذ حني‬ٛ‫حنكز‬
fainted after seeing one. .‫ش ٔحكيس‬ٚ‫خكذ يظـَ نيٖ ٍإ‬ٛ ٗ‫ عه‬ًٙ‫عُييخ أغ‬
He left New York as stories of a wonderful new diamond mine were ‫وي‬ٚ‫وٍٕب رٔوزذ حَظ٘وخٍ أهزوخٍ عوٍ يوُـى أنًوخّ ؿي‬َٕٚٛ ٍ‫غوخى‬
being spread. People were searching far and wide to try to find it, but ،ّٛ‫ٍ حنعؼٍٕ عه‬ٛ‫ ك ّم يكخٌ يلخٔن‬ٙ‫زلؼٌٕ ف‬ٚ ّ‫ كخٌ حنُخ‬.‫ٍٔحثع‬
only Fitz-Norman knew where it was. However, he had a problem. .‫ ٔحؿّ ي٘كهش‬،ٍ‫ ٔنك‬.َّ‫ ٍَٕيخٌ عَ يكخ‬-ِ‫ظ‬ٛ‫ ف‬٢‫ٔنكٍ فق‬
The diamond was the size of all the other diamonds in the world, and there ‫ ٔكخٌ ُْوخب‬،‫ حنعخنى‬ٙ‫هَٖ ف‬ٞ‫نًخّ ح‬ٞ‫نًخٓش رلـى ك ّم ح‬ٞ‫كخَض ح‬
was only enough gold in the world to buy a tenth of it. Even if he could sell ٌ‫ كظووٗ ٔا‬.‫ حنعووخنى ن٘ووَحء عه٘ووَْخ‬ٙ‫ يووٍ حنووٌْذ فوو‬ٙ‫كيوو‬ٚ ‫ يووخ‬٢‫فقوو‬
it, diamonds would become so common that they would be worthless. .‫ًش‬ٛ‫ ق‬٣‫كٌٕ ر‬ٛٓٔ ً‫نًخّ ٗخثعخ ً ؿيح‬ٞ‫زق ح‬ٜٛٓ ، ‫عٓخ‬ٛ‫حٓظطخع ر‬
He would be the richest man ever, but only if his secret was protected. ِ‫ٍّ أهخ‬ٛ‫ ع‬.َِّٓ ‫ش‬ٚ‫ اًح طًض كًخ‬٢‫ ٔنكٍ فق‬،‫كٌٕ أغُٗ ٍؿم‬ٛٓ
He put his brother in charge of the slaves, and kept them loyal by ‫و اهزوخٍْى‬َٚ١ ٍ‫ثٓوى عو‬٢ٔ ٗ‫ ٔكخفع عه‬،‫ي‬ٛ‫ عٍ حنعز‬٢ٔ‫ئئ‬
telling them that the South had won the Civil War, so slavery was still ‫ش‬ٚ‫ ٔنٌن كخَض حنعزٕى‬، ‫ش‬ٛ‫ْه‬ٞ‫ حنلَد ح‬ٙ‫َ ف‬ٜ‫أٌ حنـُٕد حَظ‬
legal. Fitz-Norman, meanwhile, was visiting kings and emperors ٌ‫ظووِ – ٍَٕيووخ‬ٛ‫ كووخٌ ف‬، ‫ووٌٕ ًن و‬٠‫ غ‬ٙ‫ ٔفوو‬.‫ووش‬ََٕٛ‫يووخ طووِحل قخ‬
around the world, selling them huge diamonds. .‫ّوى‬٠‫نًخّ حن‬ٞ‫عٓى ح‬ٛ‫ز‬ٚ ، ‫َس كٕل حنعخنى‬١‫رخ‬ٞ‫ٍِٔ حنًهٕب ٔح‬ٚ
After two years, he had made a billion dollars. He was always scared ‫ووظى‬ٚ ٌ‫ووخ يوٍ أ‬ٚ ً ‫ كوخٌ ىحثًوخ‬.ٍ٢ٔ‫وخٍ ى‬ٛ‫ ؿًووع يه‬،ٍٛ‫رعوي ٓوُظ‬
of being robbed as he travelled, but his secret remained safe. He had to ٌ‫وّ أ‬ٛ‫ كوخٌ عه‬.ٌ‫ ٔنكوٍ ظو ّم ٓوَِّ رؤيوخ‬،َ‫ٔوخف‬ٚ ٌ‫ًُخ كوخ‬ٛ‫ٓهزّ ر‬
murder his brother, whose carelessness often risked revealing the ،َ‫ ٔحنٌ٘ غخنزخ ً يخ كخٌ اًْخنوّ يـخُفوش رك٘وف حنٔو‬،ِ‫قظم أهخ‬ٚ
secret, but very few other murders were needed. .‫هش ؿيحً كخَض يطهٕرش‬ٛ‫ٔنكٍ ؿَحثى قظم أهَٖ قه‬
After Fitz-Norman died, his son made a record of the money he had in ٙ‫ً روخنُقٕى حنظو‬٣‫وع حرُوّ ٓوـ‬ٟٔ ، ٌ‫ظوِ– ٍَٕيوخ‬ٛ‫رعي أٌ يخص ف‬
his thousand banks and closed the mine. All he had to do was keep the ٌ‫ ك ّم يخ كوخ‬.‫نف ٔأغه حنًُـى‬ٞ‫خٍفّ ح‬ٜ‫ ي‬ٙ‫لظيع رٓخ ف‬ٚ ٌ‫كخ‬
mountain secret, and he would stay the richest man in the world. .‫ حنعخنى‬ٙ‫زقٗ أغُٗ ٍؿم ف‬ٛٓٔ ،‫كظيخظ رٔ َّ حنـزم‬٢‫ّ فعهّ ح‬ٛ‫عه‬
That afternoon, Percy and Braddock showed John around. Braddock .‫ ؿٕنوش‬ٙ‫ ٔروَحىٔب ؿوٌٕ فو‬ٙ‫َٓو‬ٛ‫ أهوٌ ر‬،‫وٕو‬ٛ‫ ئخء ًن حن‬ٙ‫ف‬
was about forty, with a proud face and intelligent eyes. He carried a ٌ‫ُوخ‬ٛ‫ نوّ ٔؿوّ فووٍٕ ٔع‬، ٍٛ‫ٍرعو‬ٞ‫قوخٍد ح‬ٚ ‫كخٌ عًَ رَحىٔب‬
plain walking stick with a large jewel for a grip. He pointed his stick at ‫وَس‬ٛ‫ٓوخ ؿوَْٕس كز‬ٛ‫َ يهَّٕش ف‬ٛ‫ غ‬ٙ٘‫خ ي‬ٜ‫لًم ع‬ٚ ٌ‫ كخ‬.ٌ‫ظخ‬ٛ‫ًك‬
a group of marble buildings. . ‫ش‬ٛ‫ش حنَّهخي‬ُٛ‫ر‬ٞ‫خِ انٗ يـًٕعش يٍ ح‬ٜ‫ أٗخٍ رع‬.‫ش‬٠‫كقز‬
The slaves are all descendants of the ones my father brought with him. . ّ‫ يعوو‬ٙ‫ووَْى أروو‬٠‫ٍ أك‬ٌٚ‫ووي حنوو‬ٛ‫ حنعز‬ٙ‫ه‬ٛ‫ووي كهٓووى يووٍ ٓووه‬ٛ‫حنعز‬
There are two hundred and fifty now. They‘ve lived away from the ٌُ‫ي ح ً عٍ حنعخنى ي‬ٛ‫ فقي عخٕٗح رع‬. ٌٜ‫ُْخب يخثظخٌ ٔهًٌٕٔ ح‬
world for so long their language can‘t be understood any more. We ّ ٗ‫ووي ؿوويح كظوو‬ٛ‫ُيووٍ رع‬
ٍّّ‫ َووي‬. ‫أٌ نغووظٓى نووى ط هعووي ييٕٓيووش‬
teach English to a few of them who serve in the house. .‫ض‬ٛ‫ حنز‬ٙ‫وييٌٕ ف‬ٚ ‫ش نًـًٕعش يُٓى‬ِٚٛ‫َكه‬٢‫ح‬
An Italian escaped who I let out to teach your sisters. He could have ٢‫ٔوق‬ٚ ٌ‫ كخٌ يٍ حنًًكوٍ أ‬. ‫يٍّّ أهٕحط‬ٛ‫ أهَؿظّ ن‬ٙ‫طخن‬ٚ‫َْد ح‬
fallen off the cliff, and it is likely they wouldn‘t believe him anyway. ،ً‫ ٔفوٍٕح‬.‫وش كوخل‬ٚ‫و ّيقِٕ عهوٗ أ‬ٜٚ ٍ‫ ٔيٍ حنًلظًم أَٓى نو‬،‫يٍ حنظهش‬
Just in case, I sent twenty men after him, and fifteen said they killed ‫ ٔقوووخل هًٔووش ع٘وووَ آَووى قظهوووٕح‬،ِ‫ً ٍٔحء‬٣‫ٍ ٍؿوو‬َٚ‫أٍٓووهض ع٘ووو‬
someone of his description. They probably wanted the reward. .‫ يٍ حنًلظًم أَٓى أٍحىٔح حنـخثِس‬.‫يخص‬ٛ‫خ ً نّ َيْ حنًٕح‬ٜ‫ٗو‬
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬ ‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
He stopped talking as they came to a hole in the ground covered with ٍٝٞ‫ ح‬ٙ‫ووهٕح انووٗ كيووَس فوو‬ٛٔ ‫غ عُووييخ‬ٚ‫طٕقووف عووٍ حنلووي‬
an iron fence. John looked down into the bearded faces of over twenty ‫ي‬ِٚٚ ‫ش نًخ‬ٛ‫ حنٕؿِٕ حنًهظل‬ٙ‫ َرَ ؿٌٕ ف‬.٘‫ي‬ٚ‫خؽ كي‬ٛٓ ‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫غط‬ٚ
men. Some looked angry, others despairing. But they all seemed well َ‫ه‬ٜ‫ ح‬ٞ‫ ٔحنزع‬،ٍٛ‫ز‬ٟ‫ يُٓى غخ‬ٞ‫ ريح حنزع‬.ً٣‫ٍ ٍؿ‬َٚ٘‫عٍ ع‬
fed. .‫يس‬ٛ‫ش ؿ‬ٌٚ‫هٌٕ عهٗ طغ‬ٜ‫ل‬ٚ ‫ع‬ًٛ‫ ٔنكٍ ريح أٌ حنـ‬.ٍٛٔ‫خث‬ٚ
I‘ll kidnap your wives, children and mothers to stay with you if you ‫زقوووٕح يعكوووى اًح‬ٛ‫يوووخنكى ٔأ ّيٓوووخطكى ن‬١‫ ٔأ‬،‫ٓوووؤهظطف ُٔؿوووخطكى‬
want, and I'll make your hole bigger, but I can‘t let you leave. If you can ‫ع أٌ أطوَككى‬ٛ‫ أٓوظط‬٢ ٙ‫ ٔنكُو‬،َ‫ ٔٓؤؿعم كيوَطكى أكزو‬،‫أٍىطى‬
think of any idea about how to leave that keeps my secret safe I would ‫وش حنًغوخىٍس‬ٛ‫ي‬ٛ‫ اًح حٓوظطعظى أٌ طيكؤَح ريكوَس عوٍ ك‬.ٌٍٔ‫طغوخى‬
be delighted to hear it. . ‫ أيخٌ ٓؤكٌٕ يزظٓـخ ً نًٔخع ًن‬ٙ‫كظيخظ رَّٔ٘ ف‬٢‫يع ح‬
Every day during summer, Mr Washington and the two young men ٍٛ‫ّي ٔحٗووُطٍ ٔحن٘ووخر‬ٛ‫ ًْووذ حنٔ و‬،‫ف‬ٛ‫وو‬ٜ‫ووٕو أػُووخء حن‬ٚ ‫ ك و ّم‬ٙ‫فوو‬
went hunting or fishing in the forests or swimming in the cool lake. ‫ حنزَكووش‬ٙ‫ حنغخروخص أٔ حنّٔوزخكش فو‬ٙ‫ٓوًخب فوو‬ٞ‫ي ح‬ٛ‫و‬ٛ ٔ‫ي أ‬ٛ‫ّو‬ٜ‫نه‬
John soon found it hard work being with Braddock, as he was ،ً‫ً ٗوخقخ‬٣‫ حنلخل ٔؿي ؿٌٕ حنزقخء يع روَحىٔب عًو‬ٙ‫ ٔف‬.‫حنزخٍىس‬
completely uninterested in any ideas other than his own. .ٍِ‫ش أفكخٍ رخٓظؼُخء أفكخ‬ٚ‫نعيو حكظَحػّ يطهقخ ً رؤ‬
John met Percy‘s older sister, Jasmine. She had wanted to go to ‫ أٍحىص أٌ طوٌْذ‬.ًٍٛ‫ ؿخٓو‬،َٖ‫ حنكزو‬َٙٓٛ‫قخرم ؿٌٕ أهض ر‬
Europe to serve food during the World War, and was extremely sad ‫ُوش‬ِٚ‫ ٔكخَوض ك‬،‫ّوش‬ًٛ‫انٗ أٍٔٔرخ نظع ّي حنطعخو أػُخء حنلَد حنعخن‬
when it ended. Braddock had started making arrangements for a new ‫زووخص‬ٛ‫ كووخٌ رووَحىٔب قووي روويأ ربعوويحى حنظَط‬.‫ؿوويحً عُووييخ حَظٓووض‬
Great War, but he stopped when he saw pictures of wounded soldiers ً ‫ووٍٕ ح‬ٛ ٖ‫ ٔنكُووّ طٕقووف عُووييخ ٍأ‬،‫وويس‬ٚ‫ًووش ؿي‬ٛ‫نلووَد عر‬
and lost interest. . ‫ْظًخو‬٢‫نـُٕى ؿَكٗ ٔفقي ح‬
One day, John was left to explore on his own. It was then that he saw the ٍٛ‫ ًن حنل‬ٙ‫ اَّ ف‬. ّٔ‫ٔظك٘ف رُي‬ٛ‫ طهَب ؿٌٕ ن‬،‫خو‬ٚٞ‫ أكي ح‬ٙ‫ف‬
most beautiful person he had ever seen. It was Percy‘s younger sister. .َٖ‫غ‬ٜ‫ حن‬َٙٓٛ‫ كخَض أهض ر‬.ِ ٍ ٚ‫أٌ ٍأٖ أؿًم ٗو‬
She said she was going to university in the autumn. She had never met ً‫ نووى طقخروم ٔنوويح‬.‫وف‬َٚ‫ حنو‬ٙ‫قخنوض آَووخ ٓوظٌْذ انووٗ حنـخيعوش فوو‬
a boy her age before, and he had never met anyone as wonderful. They .‫خ ً رٌِٓ حنَٔعش‬ٜ‫قخرم ٗو‬ٚ ‫ ْٕٔ نى‬،ً‫رُيْ عًَْخ يٍ قزم أريح‬
fell in love quickly and decided to get married. .‫ حنلذّ رَٔعش ٔقٍَّح حنِٔحؽ‬ٙ‫ٔقعخ ف‬
John was happy until the end of August, when he was about to leave. It .‫م‬ٛ‫ عُييخ كخٌ عهٗ ٔٗ حنَّك‬،‫ش د‬ٚ‫يحً كظٗ َٓخ‬ٛ‫كخٌ ؿٌٕ ٓع‬
was then that he wondered what had happened to previous guests. .ٍٛ‫ٕ حنٔوخرق‬ٛ‫و‬٠‫ ًن حنٕقوض أٌ طٔوخءل ع ًّوخ كويع نه‬ٙ‫اَّ ف‬
Catherine told him not to ask about it, but she started to cry. .‫ ٔنكُّٓخ ريأص رخنزكخء‬، ‫ٔؤل عٍ ًن‬ٚ ٢ ٌ‫ٍ أ‬َٚ‫أهزَطّ كخػ‬
Father kills them in their sleep before they leave. We never know it is ‫ َعهوى أرويحً رلوئع‬٢ .‫غوخىٍٔح‬ٚ ٌ‫ أػُخء َوٕيٓى قزوم أ‬ٙ‫قظهٓى أر‬ٚ
happening, so we don‘t have the sadness of saying goodbye. It‘s only ٢‫ فقو‬ٙ‫عو‬ٛ‫ يٍ حنطز‬.ً ‫ُخ حنلهٌِ نُقٕل ٔىحعخ‬ٚ‫ْ ني‬ٛ‫ ٔنٌن ن‬، ‫ًن‬
natural we get all the pleasure we can out of our guests before they are ٍ‫ٓوخ يو‬ٛ‫وٕل عه‬ٜ‫ًكُُوخ حنل‬ٚ ٙ‫م عهٗ ك ّم حنّٔوعخىس حنظو‬ٜ‫أٌ َل‬
murdered. .‫ظى قظهٓى‬ٚ ٌ‫ٕفُخ قزم أ‬ٟٛ
John was furious and wanted to escape immediately. Catherine, ٍَٚ‫ ٔنكوٍ كوخػ‬.‫ حنلوخل‬ٙ‫زخ ً ؿيحً ٔأٍحى حنَٓد ف‬ٟ‫كخٌ ؿٌٕ غخ‬
however, said she would go with him. He hid his anger, as he knew he ّ‫ عُووييخ عووَ أٌ نوو‬،ّ‫ووز‬٠‫ أهيووٗ غ‬.ّ‫قخنووض آَووخ ٓووظٌْذ يعوو‬
had a better chance of escaping with her help. They arranged to leave ‫هش؛‬ٛ‫ طه حنه‬ٙ‫ ٍطزخ حنًغخىٍس ف‬.‫م نهَٓد رًٔخعيطٓخ‬٠‫ش أف‬َٛ‫ف‬
that night; John knew he could be killed at anytime. .‫ أ٘ ٔقض‬ٙ‫هقظم ف‬ٚ ٌ‫عَ ؿٌٕ أٌ يٍ حنًًكٍ أ‬
Shortly after midnight, John suddenly woke up. He heard footsteps ‫ ٓوًع ٔقوع أقويحو‬.‫قع ؿوٌٕ فـوؤس‬ٛ‫ حٓظ‬،‫م‬ٛ‫م رقه‬ٛ‫ف حنه‬ٜ‫رعي يُظ‬
outside his door, but they were moving away from it. He slowly walked ٗ‫ء انو‬٢‫ ي٘وٗ روز‬.‫ ٔنكُٓخ كخَض طزظعي عُٓوخ‬،ّ‫هخٍؽ رخد غَفظ‬
to the door, opened it, and saw three slaves he had never seen before ًٌّٕ ‫و‬٠ُٚ ‫وَْى يوٍ قزوم‬ٚ ‫وي نوى‬ٛ‫ػوش عز‬٣‫ ٍٔأٖ ػ‬،ّ‫ ٔفظلو‬،‫حنزخد‬
joining a nervous and angry looking Braddock in the lift. .‫عي‬ًٜ‫ حن‬ٙ‫ذ ف‬٠‫ّ حنظٕطَّ ٔحنغ‬ٛ‫نزَحىٔب حنٌ٘ ريح عه‬
He was sure they were there to kill him and wondered what had ‫وق‬ٟ‫ ر٘وكم ٔح‬.‫كخٌ يظؤكيحً أَٓى ُْخب نقظهّ ٔطٔخءل ع ًّخ كيع‬
happened. Clearly something had happened – now was the time to ّ‫قو‬َٚ١ ٌٕ‫ ٗو ّ ؿو‬.‫ٌ كخٌ ٔقوض حنٓوَد‬ٜ‫ء يخ – ٔح‬ٙٗ ‫كيع‬
escape. John carefully made his way to Catherine's room. They rushed ‫ووغ‬ٛ‫ ك‬،‫٘وخْيح‬ٛ‫ حَويفعخ انووٗ حنّٔوطق ن‬.ٍَٚ‫رلوٌٍ انوٗ غَفووش كوخػ‬
to the roof to watch, where they saw bombs falling first on the ‫ ٔػوى‬،‫خىس نهطوخثَحص‬٠ً‫ً عهٗ حنزُخىق حن‬٢ٔ‫ أ‬٢‫ٗخْيح قُخرم طٔق‬
antiaircraft guns, and then on the slaves‘ buildings. .‫ي‬ٛ‫ش حنعز‬ُٛ‫عهٗ أر‬
By four in the morning, John and the two sisters were in a hidden part ً
ٍ‫ يو‬ٙ‫ ؿوِء يويو‬ٙ‫هظوخٌ فو‬ٞ‫ كخٌ ؿٌٕ ٔح‬،‫زخكخ‬ٛ ‫ حنَحرعش‬ٙ‫ف‬
of the forest where they could watch in safety and in secret. After the ٌ‫ رعي أ‬.َّ٘ٓ ‫غ كخٌ ربيكخَٓى حنًَحقزش رؤيخٌ ٔر٘كم‬ٛ‫حنغخرش ك‬
sisters had fallen asleep, John heard the faint sound of people. .ٙ‫ٗوخ‬ٞ ً ‫ٕطخ ً هخفظخ‬ٛ ٌٕ‫ ًٓع ؿ‬،ٌ‫هظخ‬ٞ‫َخيض ح‬
He followed them up the mountain from a safe distance. He came to ٙ‫ووم انوٗ حنُقطووش حنظوو‬ٛٔ .‫طوزعٓى أعهووٗ حنـزوم يووٍ ئووخفش يُوش‬
the point where the trees stopped and saw Braddock standing ّ‫ ٔيع‬،‫ ٓكٌٕ طخو‬ٙ‫ٗـخٍ ٍٔأٖ رَحىٔب ٔحقيخ ً ف‬ٞ‫ٓخ ح‬ٛ‫طٕقيض ف‬
completely still, along with two slaves carrying a large object. They ‫ أٗوَقض‬.‫َفعخَوّ انوٗ حنّٔوًخء‬ٚ ‫ ريءح‬.ً‫َح‬ٛ‫جخ ً كز‬ٛٗ ٌ٣ً‫ل‬ٚ ٌ‫عزيح‬
started lifting it to the sky. The sun rose, and its yellow beams struck ‫ ْٔوٕ حنًخٓوش‬،‫ء‬ٙ‫يَحء ٌْح حن٘و‬ٜ‫َرض أٗعظٓخ حن‬ٟٔ ،ًْ٘‫حن‬
the object, an enormous, beautiful diamond. .‫هش‬ًٛ‫وًش ٔؿ‬ٟ
John realised he was trying to bribe God. The diamond was a sample, ‫نًخٓوش‬ٞ‫ كخَوض ح‬.‫هَٗوٗ حنوَّد‬ٚ ٌ‫لوخٔل أ‬ٚ ٌ‫أىٍب ؿٌٕ أَّ كوخ‬
and Braddock listed great buildings and monuments that he would build ٙ‫ًش حنظو‬ٛ‫َّٔف حنعر‬ٜ‫ش ٔحن‬ُٛ‫ر‬ٞ‫ع رَحىٔب قخثًش رخ‬ٟٔٔ ،‫ُّش‬ٛ‫ع‬
for God, if he would bring his slaves back and destroy the aircraft. .‫يِ ٔى ّيَ حنطخثَس‬ٛ‫ اًح أعخى نّ عز‬،‫ٓخ نهَّد‬ُٛ‫ز‬ٛٓ
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0940227436 ٌ‫حًذا‬‫ يؤٌذ‬: ‫ انًذسط‬www.eschoolsy.net ‫انًهحك األدثً يذسعخ عىسٌب اإلنكزشوٍَخ‬ ً‫ انثبنث انثبَىي األدث‬: ‫انهغخ االَكهٍضٌخ‬
Braddock had never been refused anything; he was confident. John ٌٕ‫ ٍحقذ ؿ‬.ً ‫جخ ً أريحً؛ كخٌ ٔحػقخ‬ٛٗ ‫ نزَحىٔب‬ٞ‫ليع أٌ هٍف‬ٚ ‫نى‬
watched with fascination as the birds stopped singing and trees stopped ٍ‫ٗوـخٍ عو‬ٞ‫ٍٕ عٍ حنغُوخء ٔطٕقيوض ح‬ٛ‫ًُخ طٕقيض حنط‬ٛ‫رٌْٕل ر‬
moving. However, with a distant roll of thunder, God refused the bribe. .‫ حنَّد حنَّٕٗس‬ٞ‫ ٍف‬،‫ي‬ٛ‫َ ٍعي رع‬ٚ‫ٕص ْي‬ٜ‫ ر‬،ٍ‫ ٔنك‬.‫حنلَكش‬
By this time, the aircraft had landed, and the pilots were making their ٌٍٔ‫ووخ‬ٛ‫ ٔكووخٌ حنط‬،‫ كخَووض حنطوخثَس قووي ْزطووض‬،‫ ْووٌح حنٕقووض‬ٙ‫فو‬
way up the mountain. John ran and grabbed the two girls so they could ٙ‫ٍ نكو‬ٛ‫ ؿٌٕ ٔأئ حنزُظ‬ٞ‫ ٍك‬.‫قٓى أعهٗ حنـزم‬َٚ١ ٌٕ‫٘ق‬ٚ
get away as soon as possible. .ٍ‫ظًكُٕح يٍ حنَٓد رؤَٓع ٔقض يًك‬ٚ
They turned around and saw that Percy and his mother had joined ‫و ًّخ انووٗ رووَحىٔب‬٠َ‫ ٔأ ّيووّ قووي ح‬ٙ‫َٓوو‬ٛ‫حٓووظيحٍٔح ٔٗووخْئح أٌ ر‬
Braddock and the slaves halfway up the mountain and were going into ٙ‫ويههٌٕ فوو‬ٚ ‫و أعهووٗ حنـزوم ٔكوخَٕح‬َٚ‫وف حنط‬َٜ ٙ‫وي فو‬ٛ‫ٔحنعز‬
a secret hole. Catherine cried out. .ٍَٚ‫َهض كخػ‬ٛ .‫ش‬َٚٓ ‫كيَس‬
With an enormous blast, the castle and the mountain were thrown up into ‫كوٍ ُْوخب‬ٚ ‫ نوى‬.‫ حنٓوٕحء‬ٙ‫وخٍص حنقهعوش ٔحنـزوم فو‬١ ،َ‫و‬ٛ‫ٔرخَيـخٍ كز‬
the air. There was no fire, and only dust was left of what was once the ٍ‫كوو‬ٚ ‫ نوى‬.‫وض حنًـوَْٕحص‬ٛ‫ ي ًّوخ كووخٌ يوَّس ر‬ٙ‫ حنغزوخٍ رقو‬٢‫ ٔفقو‬،ٍ‫َوخ‬
house of jewels. There was no sound, and the three people were alone. At ‫ عُووي غوؤَد‬. ‫ػووش نٕكوويْى‬٣‫ حنؼ‬ٙ‫ٗوووخ‬ٞ‫ ٔكووخٌ ح‬،‫ووٕص‬ٛ ‫ُْووخب‬
sunset, they stopped to eat the rest of the food that Jasmine had brought. ًٍٛٓ‫َطّ ؿخ‬٠‫ؤكهٕح يخ طزقّٗ يٍ حنطعخو حنٌ٘ أك‬ٛ‫ طٕقيٕح ن‬،ًْ٘‫حن‬
)ٌ‫( األعهحخ واإلَغب‬ ( 4) Arms And The Man ( By George Bernard Shaw) p 37
In November 1885, Serbia and Bulgaria are at war. After losing a battle ‫ رعي هٔخٍس‬.ٌ‫خ يظلخٍرظخ‬ٍٚ‫خ ٔرهغخ‬ٛ‫َر‬ٛ ،0226 ‫ٍ أٔل‬َٚ٘‫ ط‬ٙ‫ف‬
while fighting for the Serbians, an escaping Swiss soldier climbs into a ‫َٔ٘ ْخٍد‬ٕٚٓ ٘ ّ ‫ظٔه ؿُي‬ٚ ،‫َّد‬ٜ‫يعَكش أػُخء حنقظخل يع حن‬
young Bulgarian lady‘s bedroom. When a Bulgarian soldier comes to ٍ٘‫ ؿُوي٘ رهغوخ‬ٙ‫وؤط‬ٚ ‫ عُوييخ‬.‫ش ٗخرّش‬ٍٚ‫ّيس رهغخ‬ٛٓ ‫انٗ غَفش َٕو‬
look for him, the lady successfully hides him until the soldier leaves. .٘‫هغخىٍ حنـُي‬ٚ ٗ‫ّيس رُـخف كظ‬ٛٔ‫ّ حن‬ٛ‫ طوي‬،ُّ‫نهزلغ ع‬
Four months later, there is peace. Sergius Saranoff is a Bulgarian major ٍ٘‫ْ ٓخٍحَٕ ٍحثي رهغخ‬ٛ‫َؿ‬ٛٓ .‫ ُْخب ٓهى‬،َٓٗ‫رعي أٍرعش أ‬
who won the earlier battle with a brave and dangerous attack. He is ٕ‫ ْٔوو‬.َ‫وو‬ٛ‫ حنًعَكووش حنٔووخرقش رٓـووٕو ٗووـخع ٔهط‬ٙ‫ووَ فوو‬ٜ‫حَظ‬
engaged to marry Raina. Along with Major Petkoff, Raina‘s father, he ‫ ٔقووي عووخى يووٍ حنلووَد يووع حنَحثووي‬.‫ظِٔؿٓخ‬ٛ‫ُووخ ٔٓوو‬ٛٚ‫ووذ ٍح‬ٛ‫هط‬
has returned from the war. Raina‘s mother greets them in the garden. .‫قش‬ٚ‫ حنلي‬ٙ‫ُخ ف‬ٛٚ‫ٓى أو ٍح‬ّٛٛ‫ طل‬.‫ُخ‬ٛٚ‫ ٔحني ٍح‬، ٕ‫ظك‬ٛ‫ر‬
I am no longer a soldier. Soldiering is the coward‘s art of attacking ‫ ٍكًوش عُوييخ‬٣‫ حنٓـٕو رو‬ٙ‫فٍ حنـزخٌ ف‬ ّ ‫ش‬ٚ‫ حنـُي‬.ً ‫خ‬ٚ‫نى أعي ؿُي‬
mercilessly when you are strong, and keeping out of harm‘s way when .ً ‫يخ‬ٛ‫وع‬ٟ ٌٕ‫ًٖ عُوييخ طكو‬ٞ‫و ح‬َٚ١ ٍ‫رظعخى عو‬٢‫ ٔح‬،ً‫خ‬ٕٚ‫طكٌٕ ق‬
you are weak. That is the whole secret of successful fighting. Get your ٙ‫ عهٗ حنعئ ْٕٔ ف‬ٝ‫خ‬٠‫َق‬٢‫ ح‬.ّّ‫ٌْح ْٕ ٓ َّ حنقظخل حنُـخف كه‬
enemy at a disadvantage; and never fight him on equal terms. .‫ش‬ٚٔ‫ يظٔخ‬١َٔٗ ٙ‫ طقخطهّ ف‬٢ ‫عف؛ ٔأريح‬ٟ ‫كخنش‬
We shouldn't have been able to begin fighting if these foreigners hadn‘t ‫ؿخَوذ‬ٞ‫ُوخ أٔنجو ح‬َٚٚ ‫ٍ عهٗ أٌ َزيأ حنقظخل نٕ نى‬ٍٚ‫نى َكٍ قخى‬
shown us how to do it: we knew nothing about it; and neither did the ٌٕ‫كو‬ٚ ٍ‫ نو‬.‫َّد‬ٜ‫ حن‬٢ٔ ‫جخ ً عُّ ؛‬ٛٗ َ‫ نى َع‬4 ‫ف َقٕو رٌن‬ٛ‫ك‬
Serbians. There‘d have been no war without them! !‫ُْخب كَد رئَٓى‬
He cheated us—tricked us into giving him fifty able-bodied men for two ‫ووش يقخرووم‬ُٛ‫٘ حنز‬ّ ٕ‫ً قوو‬٣‫ٍ ٍؿ و‬ٛ‫ اعطخثووّ هًٔوو‬ٙ‫غ ّ٘ووُخ– هوويعُخ فوو‬
hundred tired old horses. They weren‘t even eatable! We were two ! ‫كوم‬ٟ‫وخنلش ن‬ٛ ٍ‫ كظٗ أَٓخ نى طك‬.‫خٌ طعزش َْٔيش‬ٜ‫ ك‬ٙ‫يخثظ‬
innocent children in the hands of that consummate soldier. .ًَّّ‫ي٘ ًن حنـُي٘ حنًظ‬ٚ ٙ‫ٍ ف‬ٛ‫ج‬َٚ‫ٍ ر‬ٛ‫يه‬١ ‫كُخ‬
Being a thorough soldier, he ran away like the rest of them, with our .ِ‫ ٔفَٓووخَُخ ططووخٍى‬،‫ووظٓى‬ٛ‫ ْووَد يؼوم رق‬،َٚٚ‫كَٕوّ ؿُووي٘ كوو‬
cavalry at his heels. To escape their attentions, he had the good taste to ‫هظزخء رغَفوش‬٢‫ ح‬ٙ‫ي ف‬ٛ‫ كخٌ نّ حنٌٔق حنـ‬،‫نهَٓٔد يٍ حَظزخْٓى‬
hide in the bedroom of some patriotic young Bulgarian lady. .‫ش‬ُٛ١ٔ ‫ش ٗخرش‬ٍٚ‫يس رهغخ‬ٛٓ ‫َٕو‬
The young lady was enchanted by his persuasive commercial traveller‘s .‫َّفخص حنًٔخفَ حنظـخٍ٘ حنًقُعش‬ٜ‫يس حن٘خرش كخَض ييظَٕش رظ‬ٛٔ‫حن‬
manners. She very modestly entertained him for an hour or so, and then ٙ‫ ٔػى َخىص أيٓخ ف‬، ‫َ نٔخعش أٔ َلٕ ًن‬ٛ‫ع كز‬ٟ‫خفظّ رظٕح‬٠‫حٓظ‬
called in her mother in case the way she acted could look dishonourable. .‫َ يَّ٘فش‬ٛ‫ًكٍ أٌ طكٌٕ غ‬ٚ ‫ٓخ‬ٛ‫َفض ف‬ٜ‫ ط‬ٙ‫قش حنظ‬َٚ‫كخنش أٌ حنط‬
The Swiss soldier in Sergius‘s story, Captain Bluntschli, turns out to be ،ٙ‫ حنكووخرظٍ رهُظ٘ووه‬،ْٛ‫َؿ‬ٛ‫ووش ٓوو‬ٜ ّ ‫ ق‬ٙ‫ٔووَ٘ فوو‬ٕٚٔ‫حنـُووي٘ حن‬
the same man who was in Raina‘s room. He comes back to return the ‫وي‬ٛ‫ع‬ٛ‫عوٕى ن‬ٚ .‫ُوخ‬ٛٚ‫ض ٍح‬ٛ‫ ر‬ٙ‫ هي أَّ َيْ حنَّؿم حنٌ٘ كخٌ ف‬ٜٚ
coat that Raina gave him to disguise himself when he left. Raina does ٢ .ٍ‫ظُ ّكووَ روّ عُووييخ غووخى‬ٛ‫ُووخ ن‬ٛٚ‫وخِ ٍح‬ٚ‫حنًعطوف حنووٌ٘ أعطظووّ ا‬
not tell Sergius that Bluntschli hid in her bedroom. .‫ غَفش َٕيٓخ‬ٙ‫ حهظزؤ ف‬ٙ‫ْ أٌ رهُظ٘ه‬ٛ‫َؿ‬ٛٓ ‫ُخ‬ٛٚ‫طوزَ ٍح‬
I have ten thousand knives and forks, and the same quantity of dessert ‫ع و‬٣‫ووش يووٍ ي‬ًّٛ ‫ َٔيووْ حنك‬،‫ٍ ٔٗووٕكش‬ٛ‫ ٓووك‬٢ ‫٘ ع٘ووَس‬ ّ ‫نووي‬
spoons. I have six hundred servants. I have six magnificent hotels, ‫خفش‬ٟ٠‫ رخ‬،‫ ني٘ ٓظش فُخىق ٍحثعش‬.‫ ني٘ ٓض يخثش هخىو‬.ٖٕ‫حنله‬
besides two stables, a tea garden and a private house. .ٙ‫ض هخ‬ٛ‫قش ٗخ٘ ٔر‬ٚ‫ ٔكي‬،ٍٛ‫انٗ آطزه‬
I have four medals for distinguished services; I have the rank of an ٢‫خر‬ٟ ‫ِس؛ ني٘ ٍطزش‬ًٛ‫ؿم حنوييخص حنًظ‬ٞ ‫خص‬ٛ‫يحن‬ٛ‫ني٘ أٍرع ي‬
officer and the reputation of a gentleman; and I have three native ‫٘ ٍؿوم‬ ّ ‫ أ‬ٙ‫ أٍَو‬.‫ش‬ٛ‫وه‬ٛ‫ػوش نغوخص أ‬٣‫٘ ػ‬ ّ ‫م؛ٔنوي‬ٛ‫ًٔٓعش ٍؿم َز‬
languages. Show me any man in Bulgaria that can offer as much! !‫ق ّيو يؼم ٌْح‬ٚ ٌ‫ًكٍ أ‬ٚ ‫خ‬ٍٚ‫ رهغخ‬ٙ‫ف‬
I appealed to you as a fugitive, a beggar, and a starving man. You ،ٙ‫ أَوض قزهظُو‬. ‫ ٔأَوخ ْوخٍد ٔيظٔوّٕل ٍٔؿوم ؿوخثع‬ٛ‫نـؤص ان‬
accepted me, gave me your hand to kiss and your roof to shelter me. .ُٙٚٔ‫ؤ‬ٛ‫قزهٓخ ٔٓقي ن‬ٞ ‫يب‬ٚ ُٙ‫ظ‬ٛ‫أعط‬
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‫جًم أعبعٍخ نهزشجًخ‬
People have been singing songs and telling each another stories for many thousands of years. ( p 1)
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are considered one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. ( p2)
Irrigation is a very important part of life today, especially in hot countries. ( p 2)
The garden was built up in tiers so that it resembled a theatre. ( p 2)
Jean Froissart was one of the most important French writers in the Middle Ages. ( p 3)
Satire is a genre of literature that makes fun of people. ( p 5)
In satire, human or individual vices or weakness are examined and mocked. ( p 5)
Many satirists criticise imaginary individuals, or people and events from many years before. ( p 5)
Juvenal is one of the most famous and imaginative of the Roman satirists. ( p 5)
Samuel Beckett uses absurdism to satirise life itself. ( p 5)
Samuel Beckett was one of the most important writers of the 20th century. ( p 8)
Beckett wrote novels, plays and poems in both French and English about what it is to be human. ( p 8)
Beckett suggests that the purpose of life is not something that is given to us. ( p 8)
Beckett uses satire so that we can understand his views on human nature. ( p 8)
While Vladimir and Estragon are waiting, they cannot find a purpose for their lives. ( p 8)
Beckett uses satire to make us laugh at his characters‘ silly behavior. ( p 8)
Ancient Roman and Greek, or ‗classical‘, writers had a massive impact on literature for centuries. ( p 9)
Blank verse does not need the balance found in classical writing, which allows more freedom. ( p 9)
Shakespeare was particularly interested in the language of the people. ( p 10)
William Shakespeare is one of the most popular writers in history. ( p 11)
Shakespearean criticism has changed considerably since the playwright‘s works were first performed. ( p 11)
The critics of Shakespeare found different meanings in his drama and poetry. ( p 11)
Shakespeare trained as an actor before he started writing. ( p 11)
Shakespeare was different from other playwrights because he did not go to university. ( p 11)
Most playwrights came from wealthy families and received a very good education. ( p 11)
The Romantic poets were inspired by Shakespeare‘s plays and used the same themes in their poems. ( p 13)
One day, as a punishment, Tom is told to whitewash the garden fence. ( p 14)
Tom and Huck witness the murder of the local doctor and find themselves in the midst of a real adventure. ( p 15)
Tom stands up in court and reveals the true identity of the murderer. ( p 15)
The villagers hurry to the caves and find the body of the murderer. ( p 16)
Mark Twain was the first American writer to use an American dialect in his writing. ( p 16)
James Joyce was an Irish poet and writer, who frequently wrote about his hometown. ( p 19)
Maria is a hard-working, kind and tolerant old woman. ( p 19)
Ernest Hemingway is frequently described as using ‗economy of language‘ in his writing. ( p 20)
Hemingway was an American novelist and journalist. ( p 20)
Hemingway loved fishing, boxing, bullfighting and hunting. ( p 20)
Hemingway had good knowledge of a fisherman‘s way of life. ( p 21)
Santiago is a Cuban fisherman who is struggling with a period of bad luck. ( p 21)
Santiago greatly respects the fish‘s strength, determination and ability to resist suffering. ( p 22)
The Prophet is a book of 26 poems written in English by the Lebanese writer and painter Gibran. ( p 23)
Virginia Woolf was one of the most ambitious and important writers of the 20th century. ( p 25)
James Ramsay, who is six years old, longs to visit a nearby lighthouse. ( p 25)
Mrs Ramsay's positive attitude is an effort to compensate for the world‘s disappointments. ( p 26)
Rupert Brooke was well-known for his intelligence, sporting talents and popularity. ( p 28)
Rupert Brooke expressed his pain in relation to the changing seasons in the English countryside. ( p 28)
An essay is a short work of non-fiction that explores a specific topic. ( p 29)
The essay first became popular during a time of social change in Britain. ( p 29)
Leslie Stephen criticises the pressure society puts on people to behave in a certain way. ( p 30)
The middle class people wanted to read about people like themselves and the world they lived in. ( p 33)
The story of Robinson Crusoe was about an ordinary man who overcomes problems through hard work. ( p 33)
Dafoe showed little interest in the thoughts and feelings of his characters. ( p 33)
Richardson‘s novel paid close attention to the thoughts of the protagonist. ( p 33)
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