Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 29

c

c
c
c
c
c 
c
   
 c c
c
c
c
c
c

 
c
c c
c
Regeneración y movilizaciones urbanas: la lucha de los
comerciantes minoristas en Guayaquil
c
c
c

 
c
 


c c 
c 
 
 c

c
c
 c c   c

 c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
cc !c"#c$%&%'c
c c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

Y  
(c)c*# +(#c,"!c c ,(-c.c #c(#*(c*#cc
/,)0, 'c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''''''''''''''''c1c
&'c #.,((c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''c1c
$'c #(c,"c)c# " *#c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''c1c
1'c #c(#*(c2#* 3c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''c4c
5'c c c#+(c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''''''''''''''''''''''''''' c&1c
6'c 7( ,8c9c)c*# +('c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' c&:c
;'c  c(.#c.c c .#c " #c/*+c< /=c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''' c&>c
:'c ## #?c.c c9#!c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''''''''''''''c$%c
4'c  c@#.*#c. c(#*(#c#* cc c(#7#c.c,c*#. #c.c
.# #c#@ " c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' c$5c
>'c A, c79(Bc'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''''''''''''''''''''''' c$;c
&%'c " #?c'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''c$4c
c

$c
c
Regeneración y movilizaciones urbanas: la lucha de los comerciantes
minoristas en Guayaquil.

è  
      
  



 



        


 
   
    

      
 
 

     


 
   

    
  

   !  "

 
   
 



 

 # 
$
 
   

 
   %  &
|ntrevista a Mónica Lucero.
Presidenta de la Asociación de Kioscos y Carretillas
c
u.c Vntroducción
c ,.#c c "c c &c )c #"(#c  +.c c #c )c C, #c . c
$%%>8c.*Dc.c,c7-,cc.c c9c #( c..c  cE#c$%%%c-c c
C, #c . c $%%>8c *c c  c 0,c c  +#c c.((c . c 9c ,.#'c
?c **#c
,#c  ##c #c 9#c .c .#(,* $c )c ##c (##*Cc (#.#c c c
F"8cc #c0,cc.#(,*"c #c*#c)c c9#c9##+.c9#c
#c (#*(c #* 8c c  c 9#c .c *9#c (#..#'c c .c  c
(#7#cc c0,cc.# c c*# +(#8c(#..#cc,c.*c #( c
)c  #" 8c  +*#c ,c (,c ..c ,c 99(c *7c . c 9#(#c .c
(c ,"8c , +.#c  c (#(9#c .c (,*, (c 9#c .9#c
.# .#c 9#c .c G)c c ,c ,.#c #"c c (,..8c )c #c ,.#c #"c
*#*#c #( c ,"#c .c  'c "c E c 0,c  c *#*#c c 0,c c
(cc(8c c#+(#c.c(#*(c *#cc(#"c
*# +.c (*8c c c H*c ,(-c (#c c ,#..c #( c )c
(# c 9c #"c  c (##(*#c .c ,c "C#c 9 *.#c c ,c ,*#c
C,?.(#c#* 'c
c
G.c Renovación urbana y neoliberalismo
 c .#8c -c .#c -(*c (#..#c 9#c c ",,?c (c (#*( c
,)0, E8c (#*#c ,c ,*#c ,(# c c c 99,(c .c c  (#c .c
.#*(8c#"c c0,cc(, c,c9#.c(#*(#8c.# (#c)c9# ?(#'c#*#c
E c (c c c#8cDc",,?cc9#.c. c9#c c)c #c, +c(#*#c
,c#*." c9 (c.c(,*, (c.,c#c9#.#cc0,c9*(cc
 c#"#c< c c#c$%%5!4&='cc cE#c&>6&8c* #c #(c?0,+c,.8cC,#c
c 7#c ,c H8c c#*#c #( c#c< =8c0,cc(#?c9##c
 c .#c #( c #c < =c )c c  c 9c 9# ?(#c .c c ",,?c
,)0, E'c 9,Hc .c &>44 18c  c 9#)#c 9# ?(#c . c c c D*"#c (# c c c
." .#c 9#*'c
c c ,(8c c  c ,)0, Ec
.*#c ,c 99(c  c D*"#c #( 8c ,(,.#c ,c c .c
(cc c9# ?(c(# c)c#*.#c c(## c.c,c"c.c9#)#c, 8c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&
c c .(c 9#c ,c  #c (#",(#c !c #c # .#8c (c ,(#8c I,c #8c 9# c
#.?,+8c / .)c .#c )c  (c (#'c c .c .c #+(#c .c (#*(c
*#'c
$
c c ##8c
.Hc c , .8c #'c /,)0, c #* 'c #(,* 'c
-9!FFF'(,( '(#*-#F(##.7'9-9B.J165c
1
c c8c c"c#.#c*#c,c9#.#c(#*#c .c.c c9K" (cc&>44'c

1c
c
c(,..c.c/,)0, 'c2 c.#c,c,c.c9 ,c.c #c(# cc #c #( 8c-,"#c
,c,(*#8cc ("c c 798cc ,c 9#)(#c .c .#*#c (# 8cc(*"#c
.c(## .c c(## c.c c(,..c)c(# cc,c.,(#c79," 8c..c c
(, c9#.?c#(c,c(cc c.#3c<,"#c$%%>!$5='c#cc(#(c
c &>>$8c (#c c  ((c c c
( .?c .c /,)0, c . c 7c .c c "c
#.#'cc
9,Hc .c ,c #c 9#.#c .c #"#c #( c((#8c (#,9#c c (8c  c
5c(.#cc c,c. c7c .c c"c#.#c<&>>$@&>>;=c<&>>;@
$%%%=8c c  c  c .c  *.#c (#c ,c (#!c .# c c #c ,9#c .c #c
# D0,(#c c(## c#"c c(,..c ,#c.c,c #c9#.#c.c .#*#c9#9, c
. c,(9#c<,"#c$%%>!$5='cc#"C#8cc*(c.Dc.c c9#*c.c
,9,c (#c c #"" ..c 0,c 9"c #"c c (,..8c c Hc .c ,c ,c
.*(c *,(9 c ((+.c 9#c  c (#8c  c 9**#8c c #"c ?(cc
0,8c c ,*8c 9"c ,c *c .9# +.c . c (..#c )c ,c 9#9,c
<c $%%5!55='c c .c . c c  c ,(9#8c c .c c ,c *#*#c c 0,c c
(,..c c ."?c c 2 *" c (#.(#c .c  ,"..8c ,c .(.c
,(,c )c #c #c 9#" *c .#c 9#c c 79 #c .*#D(c .c #c
(#c#( c *Dc .9#?.#8c(,)#c 9*c ((*#c c",)cc .H(.c
.c.(## .c*(c3c<L# 8c$%%:!:4='c
c #c#"C#c9(9 c. c,#c
( .8cc.(c c ,(-c9#c c,##*?c
9(#c . c 9#.c ( 'c c #"C#c c (#(c #* *c (,.#c  c .#c
( c(##(8c c,(9#c .c /,)0, 8c,cc .c (#*9(8c 0,c 9*c
(c c*(#c,(# c)cC,?.(#c.#cc+c cH7#c.cc,cc.c
(,*, ('c c #9(8c .(c c *c c c 0,c -(*c c  c
,)0, Ec c -c  (#.#c (#c c (c . c 9#.c 9# ?(#'c 2 c ,(9#c
9c c (c C,?.(8c #( c )c (#*(c .c ,c #"#c #( c ,#*#c
9#8c 9#c *"Hc #"#c 0,c #c 9(c c c 2,#3c .#c c
(#,(3c < c c #c $%%5!&14=Mc ,(,c .c 9#.c #( c ,"(.c ,c .c c
,(,c .c 9#.c (# 8c )c c (,#c  8c #c ,"#..'c c c
#( (c c c (,..c .c /,)0, 8cc 9c (#*#c ,c (,+.c (?(8c (#*#c
,c" cc(#c c((c)c c(#c*9cc c,"Mc)c78c(#c
 c( *#c(.#cc c(9 cN,#'ccc(#7#cc*c)cc *c c
9#(#c.c#(c,"8c(#*#c9c.c,cc.c@(, (c. c9#.c
#( c9c #8c..cc"8c(,9c ,(ccD*"#c(# 'cc
c&>>;8c c(c9.8c"C#c9..#c.cO #c/,#8c .c.c c
#((c
.c (#c .#c . c (,.#c )c .c C(,#c . c (#c c #c .c
/,)0, 8ccc c..c.c7#.c##Pc.c 8c(#c c9#9#c.c
9(9c c c  "#(c .c ,c 9#)(#c ,"?(#c  (c $%%%8c c
.# c c c .#.c +#c (#*( c )c "(c .c c (,..'c  c #)(#c
 (c $%%%c c 9#9,#c (#*#c ,c 9#)(#c .c (c ,"c 0,c ",("c
cc.#c.c(#8c.#c,*c #cc c, #c .E#c c**#c
)c 9#c (#,c ,c (#." c ((c .c c c *#" c 0,c c c
*#*#c"c#( +.cc#cDc.c c(,..6'c cc *#.#8c,c+c *Dc c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
5c
 c c(#C,c #c(#.#8c( (#8c*9 c)c.9(#c((?(#cc c.(-c
*#.cc(,.#c)c,c.(,#c#"c(, ,cc...8cQ c,)0, E..Q8c#(.#cc,cc
-#(8c *(, c )c 9(c .c c -#8c  *#c 0,c #c 79 #.#c 9# ?(*c 9c c
 (#cc(#c. c( *#c.*#c 8c".#cc c(9 8cN,#'c
..8cR'c

  i 
    $ '         
    (  'c
(,.#c "'c ,*'c;4'cc
6
c-9!FFF'* (#$%%%'#,.(#* (#$%%%-#'9c

5c
c
"(c9.c *(c c.((c.c .# #c.c c(,..8cE .#c(#*#c9,#c .c
(#c c  #(c .c c +#c .c /,)0, c .#.c c "c  c 9*c .(#c
 c.c c(,..!c c(#c.c c #'c#c.c #c9(9 c#"C#c. c
9#)(#c .c (c c ,*c  c  #c . c , #c ,"#8c c 9( c c +#c
"(c(#c #" c "(#c 9c #c 9#9#c . c, #c ,"#c.)(8c 0,c
c c (#c c *"Hc ,c 9#*##'c (-c 9#9,c c (#.c 9#c  c 'c
c "c #.#8c
( .c .c /,)0, 8c 0,c 9#(.c c (#,c c &>>:c c
,.(ccc.c ,(#c (c$%%%'cc
c(#,(c.c c#+(ccc.c ,(#c (c$%%%8cc&>>:8c.*c
 c(#c. c9#(#c.c#(c,"8c0,cc(#?cc c9 c,.* c.c
c .*(c #( (c c c (,..'c (-#c 9#(#c c ,?c c c
((c .c ,c c .c  /8c (##*.c 9#c c ,(#c 9K" (c )c 9.c
.c c (,..c .c /,)0, 8c (#c  c c .c  +c c c )c (#(c .c #"8c
0,c -(?c 9c . c 9#)(#c .c (c ,"c *9, .#c ..c c
,(9 ..;'c c #+(#c (#,)c ,c 9(#c 9.*D(#c .c c
(c ,"'c ,c  ..c (#c c c .( +(c # " c . c
(#*(#8c  *(c .c c ",#((c  8c 0,c 9#.?c (#,c ,c #c c #c
(*"#c .D(#8c 9#(#c (#,.#8c .c .# #c ,"#c )c c ,(c .c
#*#c ,(# c  8c 0,c 9#.c c ?.c #( 'c #c #"C#c #c
(#-c (#c c (#*9#(8c 0,c .(c c 9(9(c .c #c 9(9 c
*#c )c 9#.c (#*(#c #( 8c . c .(##c ,..#c .c c ,.(c
 (c$%%%!c
Miembro del Directorio Vnstitución de pertenencia

'c c"c#.#c ''c,(9#c.c/,)0, c

'c .#c/*+c, c /c/ @,.(c (c$%%%c

'c, c  *c "#c /#"(c. c/,)c

 'c #cO +c9c c#c  c

'c  #c #c#c (, c ,9#c # H((c. c # c

'cI#c# c.c ..c (c #c.c/,)0, c


"'c c# .#c
, c ..c c.c/,)0, c

'c
#c/,#c "c
#((c.c(#c .#c. c(,.#c

'c#.#c
..c#.?,+c D*c.c c#,((c.c/,)0, c

'c7 c
"#c ,*c
 c D*c.c.,c.c/,)0, c

'c cC#cc D*c.c c 0,Ec.,c. c/, )c

'c ,c,C #c,*c D*c.c#*(#c.c/,)0, c

'c #,cGc,c D*c #( c.c,*#c. c/,) c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
;
 /c (#c ,..c 9* c c )c #+(#c (+.#8c c (, c -c ,*.#c
9#" ..c #(.c  c (#*#c *c  c #.c )#c .*c c Dc .c .c
/,)0, 8c *c , c ?9(*c (c *#c 9#" ..c 9#c #c (#c  c )c
*" (#c.c# (c(#c c(,..#c(#*Kc</(8c$%%5!6>='c

6c
c
'cc+c ,.(c ,c

'c "#-c-"#cG-c ,.(c ,c

('c  #cc #,c I,c?(c.c/,)0, c

'c .#c
,)#c," #c ,.(c(,.#c

,!c-9!FFF'* (#$%%%'#,.(#* (#$%%%.(##,..#'9 c


ccccccccc  "#(!c# c# c) c

c&>>$c c9#.cc9ccI*c "#8c-#*"c.c(#+c. c


( .c c
c "c #.#8c /#".#c . c /,)c .,c c 9.(c .c c , *#c
<&>45@&>44='c C#c  c  #c i—c ,..i c c *9.c ,c c .c #"c .c
.(*#c.c(#c9#c.c c,"'c
cc9#(#c.c#(c.c
c ,"c c #c .#*c 2(c "38c *(.#c .(c 9(#c c c
.(c7cc c/,)0, c.*.#c9#c c9#9, *#'c c9cc
#c ,)0, E#c (#*#c K(c  c 9#" c c c .(##*?c S(,..c . c (#cTc
(,..c .c *(.#S8c *c  c C,#c  c #, #c ,)0, E#c )c c ,c #c "c ..c
.c .c 9##'c 2 c c #(c ,"c E c ,c (*9#c .c ."c #"c c
(#c c c *#.(c  c 9(#c #(#@(, , c )c -".#8c )c c
.(#(c(#*9 C..c.c c(#c",#(D(8c*9 8c  c )c
9# ( c0,c* +c#c(*"#3c</(Hc$%%5!65='c c9#)(#c.c#(c
,"8c*9..#cc c(,..c.c/,)0, 8cc.c(#(c c(,..c.c/,)0, c
(#c  c *(.#c *,. c )c (#c c .D*(c -#*#+c 9#9c .c c
 #" +(8cc c*(#c.c,c*#. #c.c.# #c*(.*c# " 'c
#c (*"#c ,"#c (.#c (#c c (#,((c . c  (c $%%%c +c
D9.*c c c ,c c .c .*(c #( ('c  c,#c *9, #c  c
.# #c.c c(,..c.c9,#ccC"c(#*#c#"C#c c.(*#c.c c+#c
.)(c  c  (c )c c #c "#c .c  8c .c )c #'c c+c Dc c
,.(c/,)0, c  #cRR:c c(.c.c.c c#" c "#8c0,c(#*9#Dc
(*"#c 9#,.#c c c #*c .c c )c c c (,..c .c /,)0, 'c c (,..8c c
#+c ,(# *c c #c c .c c  c ,)0, E8c (#*#c E c
G)!c
c (,c .c 0,Hc 9#c .c (,..c0,*#c #c 9,.c c .#(.c .c c 0,c
9 c 0,Hc 9#c .c +#c #( 8c .c  (#c (#c c , +8c .c  #c .c
.8c .c (# #?c )c .c  #c H(#c .*#'c  c .(-#c c c (,..c c
*,(-#c*Dc0,c c ".c.., c.c((.cc #c(,#c,"#!ccc. c
.(-#cc(*"#cc###c**#c(*".#c c(,..c<G)c$%%4!$1='c
c .c c 9.#Cc . c *#. #c .c .# #c *9, .#c 9#c  c ,(9#c .c
/,)0, 8c c c 9#c .*,(c .c c c c (#8c c #c .c ,c
,*#c . c #c ..#c c c #"c ?(8c c c .c . c (*#'c c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
:
c c ,.(c  #c RRc c c ,c (#c c c .c c . c c (c . c (#8c
.*c )c *c c #"c .c ,(,c (#,.!c   
  '   )   
            
       
%        


  
  
   
   
  
   
 
  
   "% 
 
*        
%  
  
             
        +
  Ô    %  

 

  
 
      
    

 

      
   
  
  

 
  % 
     
 c
-9!FFF',)0,  #77'(#*0,'-*'c

;c
c
c 9c "(#c )c c * #c 9c *9c .c (*#c
<*#c#(,8c.c9#9..c.c c"c#.#c)c9##*c"#".c
9#c  c ,9#c G# (*=8c .c .#0,c <
.#*,c .c 9#9..c . c (#,#c .c I*c
"#=c )c 9c ,c ,9#c  (#c .c &:c (#c ,##8c (, .#c  c c 9#c
 (#c9 c)c.c( c<*,(-#c.c #c#c**"#c.c ,"c.c c=48cc
0,c #c .C,.(c ,(*c #.c c #"c 9K" (c .c /,)0, >'c c  c E#c
$%%48c  c ;1Uc .c c c *,(9 c c .#c c c #"c 9K" (c )c (c
,"8c *c # #c ,c &1Uc c 9#)(#c .c ((c #( c )c  c :Uc c (#c c c
(#*,..&%'c 2N,*#c *"Hc c ,c (,..c "#8c V0,*#c ,c (,..W'''c
*" *8c c (#c #c .#c (#(#c 0,c H c 9#8c  c 9," #c #c (#*X'#c c
9,.c 9c c 9#"+c 9#.#c *,(-c  (8c c 9#"+c 78c 0,c 9c c
9#"+c(#c(*#X3&&'c#*#cE cG)8c2 c,"+(c*9c-c.#c,c
*#c .c ( 8c )c 0,c #c 7(.c #c 7?.#c .c  Kc #c )c .c  ,8c
*c 0,c  c (## c #"c ,c , +(c -", *c .(c c 9#(c *#3c
<G)c$%%4!$5='c
c(c,"cc,c9#(#c7( ,)c..c c9,#c.cc0,((#c
)c 9# ?(#8c 0,c 79c c .(c H(c )c .c ( 'c c .,(c c  c .#c
*" (#c )c ?(#c .c #c -"c .(# 8c . c (#c .c c (,..!c ..#c
#* 8c Cc .c (#c 9#9, 8c c ( C#8c ",.#c )c
.(9(.#Mc (#*9#c c 9#c 9+(c . c 9(#c 9K" (#c c *#c .c
c,.(#c)c c*9#(c.c#*c.c(#*9#*#c#*.c.c,c*# c
C,.#@(c #(.c -(c c *(c .c c .# #?c # " Mc
(#-*c (#c c *#. #8c c (,..c c #*c c ,c 9(#c c  c 0,c #c
.(-#c .c 9#9..c )c #c "(#c 9 c #.#c #c .*Dc .(-#c <G)c
$%%4!$1='c (-#c9#(#cc9#)cC,?.(*cc c.+c*,(9 c)cc,c
9#c.c9(,(c )c98c c *#c.c ,9#c(c9* 8c(.#c
c #c S    
,-.8c #c # (?c #9# &1'c c c c (#8c #c 2.#c
(#c c *# c 9K" (38c c (,c c c #.+c *,(9 8c C,(c c
9c)c,98c(,*c(#c c,#c.c c,+8c.c.(-#c)c ".'c
#.?*#c *c 0,c c c (,..c .c /,)0, c c  c )c c )8c c Hc .c ,c
#c .c 9c )c .#(*#8c (##*c ,c .(,#c .# (#8c c c
(9(c *7c .c  c (#((8c (#,.#c (#c c  ..c .c 99,c )c
*c c (#c.c.#*(c*9 ?(cc c*#.#c.c9#.,((c(9 'c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
4
c  c  ,"c .c c c c ,c ,(c  c 9c .c c  0,?c ,)0, E8c ,c
**"#c9#c.c c* c9(c.c c(,..c)c.c c",,?c(c)c*9 ' c
>
c c #c E#c $%%6c )c $%%;c c .C,.(c ((c .c 1%6c * #c .c . c c ,c ,9#c .,(.#c .c &:c
(#8cc #c(, cc.(!c##(#cG c *(8cG. #cYcG. #8c# 8c0,c
)c(,(#,((#8c#,(#c. c # 8c##(#cc)cI' c#,((#' c
&%
c Dc #*(c *c ,c 9#9#(#.c 9#c  c
0'c (#c  ((8c #(C c . c ,(9#c .c
/,)0, 'c
&&
c "-c  (#8c .c.c c.(c.c#*(c. c/,)'c
&$
c c c Cc .c #c (#*(c #* c .c c (,..c .c /,)0, c #c # (?c #9# #c
c *.#c#"c",#cc
&1
c, 0,c,.#c((c.c c(,..c.c /,)0, c0,c9,cc,cc.c 9D((c "D(!c
,c #c 9.c 9c *, c c -#*#+(c . c 9(#c 9K" (#8c c #"@ (c
9# ( c.c+#c(#*( c)c,?(8c c(#C,(c.c,c ,Cc ##Z(, , c0,c *c
*" (*c c.# #c)c *8c c7#+(c.c*# c* c(#*#c,c 

 c
9c79, c)c *c(..c)c9#" (#ci@#( i-c #c,#c*Dc.c c(,..'c
/(H8c -'c i| 
 
 $ 
   
       /
      
   (  i  'c ,*'c$%8cN,#8c$%%58c99'c6;'c

:c
c
c #"c?(c c(#*9Ecc .c c *9#(c .c ,c *#. #c . c .c .c ,"8c 0,c
(#*9#c,c.(c.c #c.(-#c.c(,..?c)c(,*c c# (c
.c #c .(-#c ,.* c .c #c ,9#c *Dc , " c .c c #(..'c #*#c
E c R'c
..8c  c 9#(#c .c #(c ,"c (c (,..#c .c 9*c )c
,.c ( Mc C0,?c (.c (#c ,c*c ,##c *(.#c .c ,c .(,#c
.*#(D(#&5!c2(,.#c,9*#c0,c#c"cc,"(c9,*#cA..c#ccc
9#8c.c0,c*#ccB8c#*#c(#*(8c(*#c"C'c c*"#8c
-c -#c #c -*#c .#c ,c # ,(3&6'c  c .(-#c c c 9#9..8c ...#c
#+*c 9#c c .*(c # " c #( c )c ,c 9#c * c <D*c .c
#*(#cc.,=8cc.#cc #c(#*(c2#* 38cc0,cc c
(#(c,c*(.?c<9#9..c9.=8c(#*#c#*c.c9c9#c c#(,9(8c
(#cc c#.+c*,(9 8c.c( c)c('c c.(-#c.c c9#9..cc
(##(c )c ..8c c ((#8c 9c c )c *9c c H*c.c
*##9# #Mc c c (,.#c c 2.(#*3c c *(.?c c #c (#*(c
2#* 3!c 2.(#*c c  c #*"(#X9#c ###c #c **#c #"#'c #c #c
9#.*#c *c .(#*c (,.#c *#c [$%c c *(.?8c c #c c c )c
#c9.c[6%c9c 8c.c )c*#c0,c  3&;'c
c  c 7( ,)8c 9(#c c c , +(c .c #c 9(#c .#8c
#*c9K" (#c)c-#)c.c-(-#8c,0,c#c.c.(-#8c9+.#8c. c c
((?(c . c 2. (,3'c c (#(,(c .(c .c c (#,((8c c c
(* +(c .c c ((?(c .c #c ,C#8c .9.*c .c 0,c #c
c #c #c 9##c .c c (#c . (#Mc #c ,C#8c c , c c (,c .c ,c
((?(c ?(8c *#.#c .c 79c )c  #c .c (#,*#c 2*9(#38c #c #c
,(# c c c (..c . c *(.#8c @#( 'c #c @#( c ."c c
79, .#c. c(#c.#c9c.c9#cc(#,*.#8c#c*9(#8c0,cc
.9c c #c  #c .c .c *9, .#c 9#c  c 9#)(#c # " 'c c ((c .c
,#c  #c .c .8c c Hc . c .# #c ,"?(#c (9 8c (#,)c ,c
*(*#c(c.c"#(c.c #c7(.c. c(9 8c.#c9#c c(c
(#*(c c c (# &:'c c #c 7c ,(c 9#.c .c (#*9c c  c
*(.#8c ."c (#c ,#c *(.#c *.c c 79c . c (#*(#c
7#8c c 9#*#(c .c ,#c 9#.,(#c )c  #c .c .8c c ((c .c ,#c
,*#c (.(#c )c  c #c 9K" (#c )c 9.#c (.#c c Hc . c
.,.*#c<G)8c$%%4!$5='c
c
º.c Los comerciantes ³informales´ u
c 9 "c #* c .c . c -(-#c 0,c c (##*?c #c #c (98c 9#0,c  c
9,9,#c. c.#c#c(##(c c#.(c,#*c. c"C#'cc(#,)c
,c(,.c #c #*c .c .8c 0,c * c c c (#c c (c .c *(.#c *9,c
9#c  c *#. #c # " 'c c *"#8c c2#* ..3c #c c c c (#c *#c
.c  c .c #+(8c29#c ,c #+(c *,)c ,8c  ,C#c(#c )c .c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&5
cccRc
..8c(c. c.#(,* c/,)0, c#* ' c
&6
cccI,c#'c<c(-='c
&;
c "-c  (#8c .c.c c.(c.c#*(c. c/,)'c
&:
c(,.#8c(,)c(##*?c ,c.# +.c c " 8cc cc,c.c c 9#c (c.c,c-#8c
(#c,c (c(,*, .c. c;>8&U8c,c.H(c( c. c5Uc)c,c.,.c7c9K" (c.c*Dc.c
&5'%:5c* #c.c. c<&6'4&1c* #c.c,#='c,+c
##8cI#H'c(,.#cc #c.c,c9#c
(c(#*('c-9!FFF'*((##*('(#*9#9#(,.#'-*c
&4
c c , +(c .c c 9 "c c #* 8c 9c c c #c (#*(c *#c ,#*#8c
9c,c9*c#c.c#.#c(#*#cc.*#Dcc #c #c. c7#'cc

4c
c
*(.?c *9#8c (, .#c c ,c #?(c #+.3c &>c'c c #* ..c
#c c ,c ",#c .c c(..8c (#,)c *Dc "c c (#(,(c .c c  c .c
9,c)c9(c. c.#8c, .#c.c c*(c.c c (c# " 'c

?c**#8c c(#*(#c2#* 3c9c,c# ,(8c c*#c9( 8c c((#c


9#" *c .c .*9 #c 0,c 0,Cc c ,"$%8c c ,c *(*#c .c "#(c . c
.*9 #c# ,#'c#cc."c c(D(c**c(#*( c.c c(,..c
.c9,#8c0,c c(#cc,c9+c9c#"c c.*9 #8c.#c9#c
c (#c (c (#*(c 0,c c c ,(c .c 9#"+c ((c .c c
9c. c9?'cc9#c#c0,c #c*c9c,c9#(c(c.c #c
(#*(c ,#*#c 0,c .?c c .?c "C8c #c  c *#c c .c "C8c c c
( 8c 9 +c )c *(.#c .c c (,..!c 2c #c #(c E#c *c 9.8c ##c .c c
9#(c. c(-8c*cC#cc c(,..c.c/,)0, cc.c., (c)c98c-" *#c
*Dc#c*#c.cE#c\>$3$&'c
c c 9,#c c (#c .(c 0,c c c .c .#(,9(c c c (,..c .c
/,)0, cc ,"(c 9#c"c .c c .c ##c (#c ,"#c )8c .c (#(,(8c .c c
*.c(# !c
|volución trimestral de tasa de desempleo entre marzo G y marzo G

G G G G G G G G G G G G G
%
Mar jun sep Dic Mar Jun Sep dic mar jun sep dic mar
(c"c >8>c :8$c :85c :84c 484c :85c :8&c ;8&c ;8>c ;85c :8&c :81c 48;c

N,#c :8>c ;8;c ;85c >8$c 48$c 68>c :85c ;8&c ;85c 68>c ;8$c 684c :8%c

/,)0, c &&81c >8&c 48;c 48&c &%8:c 48>c :8$c :8%c :8>c 48:c 486c >86c &58%c

,(c ;86c 68:c 58;c ;8;c ;86c 68;c ;8$c 68%c 68%c 58;c 68:c 585c 58>c

(- c >8$c 48&c ;86c :8>c 48;c ;81c 68>c 186c 68%c ;85c :8>c 48:c &%8>c

,!c c
 "#(!c# c# c) c
c
Gráfico comparativo de principales centros urbanos por niveles de desocupación entre marzo G
y marzo G

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&>
ccc #c(##*c #c 8c c #c)c
.)c .#.#8c$4%;$%%>'c
$%
cc(#.(c.c0,c c*c. c.(-#c c"C#c)c0,c c(..c.c,9(c.c,c
*9 c9c.c c9#" (8c."cc*##c.c9#(,9(c. c" .#8c c# (*#c,c+c*Dc
,c,.(8c0,c.c9#c c. ##c0,c9#.c9#*ccc0,*#'c (*#c#cc
c*..c0,c c.*9 #cc,c.c.##c.c c.c.c c9#" (c)c c.c c. (,(8c
#c 0,c ."c c c 9(9 c 9#(,9(c .c c ''c ,(9 ..'c c  c
( .c I*c "#'c
#*(c
,#*#c)c#c.c c(,..c.c/,)0, 8c>c.cC,#c. c$%%4'c
$&
ccc#c# .#'c .c.c c.(c.c#*(c#'c1&%&$%%>'c

>c
c



^ c

 

   


^
 
 
  
  
 

^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^
c
,!c c
 "#(!c# c# c) c

c
c,(ccKc*Dccc*#c #c.#c.c#(,9(c9 $$cc c**#c
9#.#c .c *9#8c .#.c c (,..c .c /,)0, c c ,"(c *,)c 9#c ."C#c .c #c
 c.c#(,9(c9 c.cN,#c)c,(!c
c
|volución trimestral de tasa de ocupación plena entre septiembre G y marzo G

G G G G G G G G G G G G G
%
mar jun sep dic mar jun sep dic mar jun sep dic Mar
Nac.Urb. 1184c 158;c 168:c 1686c 1$8;c 1481c 5%8$c 5$8;c 1484c 5$8;c 5&8&c 518;c 1484c

Quito 5;8>c 5686c 5;8:c 5:84c 568:c 5;8&c 548;c 6;81c 618$c 6681c 6$8;c 6&8:c 5684c

Guayaquil º º º ºG º u ºu º  ºº   º

Cuenca 5%85c 518$c 5&8&c 168>c 1:8:c 518:c 5>8;c 6181c 5>M5c 648>c 6;8$c ;%86c 6$84c

Machala $>8;c $48;c $>81c $484c $:8:c 1%86c 1485c 1:8:c 1>86c 5%8;c 148&c 518:c 118:c

,!c c
 "#(!c# c# c) c

c c
Gráfico comparativo de principales centros urbanos por niveles de ocupación plena entre marzo
G y marzo G

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
$$
c(,9.#c9 #'c #c c9#c0,c"Cc(#*#c*?*#c cC#.c  c.c5%c-#c* 8c
#c"c0,c-".#c"C.#c*#c.c5%c-#c9#c(, 0,c*##8c#c.c"Cc*Dc-#c
)c.*Dc(,c(#c,c#c. c"C#c(,)#c*##cc, c#c,9#c c #c*?*#c  'c
-9!FFF'('#'(F",.(".#]#(.*9],"].c

&%c
c
^
^
"^
^ #  #

!^   
^   

^ 

^  
 
  
  
 

^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^
c
,!c c
 "#(!c# c# c) c

c
c c ,(c 9#.*#c ..,(c 0,c ,c  #c 9#(Cc .c 
c < #" (c
(#*(*c (=8c 0,c #c c (,c c ,(c .c 9 c #(,9(8c
(,c #(,9.c c  c (#c #* 'c Kc  c  8c #c "C.#c . c (#c
#* c ?c ( ,.#c c c (#?c .c ,"*9 #'c c 9#c Dc
,"*9 .8c(,.#c c2.,(c#c9#.,(..c c,c"C#cc#cc,c c
.c 9 #c *9 #3$1'cc c.#8c  c .*9 #c c",)cc (#c (, .#c c
.# #c (#*(#c (,.#c #c (,#c #c c , +c 9#c  c .c .# #c . c
(#c c c (,'c  c (#*(#c #* c ?c 9#9#c c c (#?c .c
,"*9 #8c c(#,c,c,", +(8c..c c9,#c.cc.c c9#.,(..8c
.c #c(,#c*9 .#ccc(#'c
c
|volución trimestral de tasa de subempleo bruta entre marzo G y marzo G

G G G G G G G G G G G G G
%
mar jun sep dic mar jun sep dic mar jun sep dic Mar
Nac.Urb. 6;85c 648$c 6;8>c 6;8:c 6486c 618:c 6&8>c 6%8$c 6$81c 6%8&c 6&85c 5484c 6&8>c

Quito 568$c 5:8>c 5;8>c 518%c 5;8&c 5;84c 5$84c 1684c 1;8$c 1:8;c 5%86c 5&8;c 568&c

Guayaquil   º G  G         

Cuenca 618&c 6&8&c 6581c 6:86c 668>c 6%8;c 558$c 5%8$c 5586c 168:c 1:8:c 158>c 5&86c

Machala ;&8$c ;181c ;58$c ;181c ;18:c ;$84c 658$c 6:8:c 6581c 6$84c 658%c 5:85c 668&c

,!c c
 "#(!c# c# c) c
c
Gráfico comparativo de principales centros urbanos por niveles de subempleo entre marzo G y
marzo G

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
$1
c #.# #?c #c .c c (,c .c *9 #8c .*9 #c )c ,"*9 #'c
-9!FFF'('#'(F",.(".#]#(.*9],"].c

&&c
c
^
^

"^
^ # 
#
!^ 
^   

^

^
 
 
  
  
 

^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^
c
,!c c
 "#(!c# c# c) c

c
Kc .#c . c  8c c c .c #* ..c c ,"(c  ..#c . c 5:8;U'cc
(..c  ,c c ,9#c .c 9#" (c , " !c *#c c .c ..8c *8c
(#8c *,C8c .#(,9.#8c c #c 9 "c #c 0,c c  c ,)0, Ec .c
(#*#c @#( Mc c,(c .c , " ..c )c 7( ,c #c -c -(-#c ?(*c
9. (c .c #c ",#c .c c ,#..c .c ,#c 0,c #c -c .,..#c c , +c c
# (c )c c 7#c 9c ,(c .c c (..c .c "C#c .c c *9 #c ,9#c
9#" (# 'c #*#c 79 (c #c # .#8c .c .c c .(c .c
#*(c #!c 2 #c #9 #c c ..c -(c *,(-#c *9#8c -" *#c
*Dc #c *#c .c E#c \>$Mc ,c c c #(c (,.#c ,?c #c 9*#c #9 #c c
*#c .c c # (?c ,(9 8c )c c c H9#(c ?c c *.c K9.c .c #c
# (?c ,(9 8c 0,c c c # .c #c  #c .c #c .c #c 9(#c
,(9 cc cH9#(c.c #c,(*3$5'c
#c .c #c 9(9 c #"D(, #c c c ,9(c .c c ,(c .c 9(..8c 0,c
9c #"c c (..c (#*( c*#c ,#*8c c c  c .c 9#9..c #* c
#"c #c (,#c .c "C#8c 0,c (#.(#c c 9#" ..c .c #"c (H.#c c c
.c.c(*#c#* 8c,*.#cc c(..c.c*C#c.c 0,.+8c #c-(c
?(*c.c,,#c(#*K*c.#*.#c2(-, 0,#3$6'cc
 c(9 c.c"C#8cc9#*.#8c.c&%%c. c*(#8c #c.0,c.c #c
,,#c0,c c(c,c.,.c9#cc*##c(#c,cc.c4%c. c
<$%Uc c .(#.#c (9.*=c )c ,c (#*9#*#c .c 9#c .c 5c . c
*(#c9#c.?'c #8cc,c(D (, #c(, 8c(c,cc c.c;$1Uc c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
$5
ccc#c# .#'c .c.c c.(c.c#*(c#c
,#*#'c
1&%&$%%>'c
$6c
#c*,)c9#(#c(,#c9#9#cc?c0,c,c c#"(c.c(,#c(#8c)c(#c
(..c .c *C#c .c 0,.+c < c (#*(#c c  c *Dc ?0,.#c .c c (##*?=8c #c (#*(c
*#c c c #" .#c c (,c  c (*#c #* 'c
,+c ( 8c I, #Mc  #c
+#8c  Mc -D+c /(?8c I(PMc ,9Ec /*+8 c "-Mc /,c .8c GH(#Mc c
/#+ 8c  #Mc  .#.#c L9#8c
.)Mc ?#c 8c
.H'c
,#c .c +c (#*#c
# ?(c .c # ...c 9c  c # #c #( c c 9(9#!c ,c 9#9,c c (#c . c .*9 #c
# ,#c)c(#((c.c #c#c,"#'c..c#*9 ,c.c..'c..8c
" c
$%%6'c

&$c
c
E#8c c c c c #( c .c &5'5Uc , Mc #c 0,c 9c ,c 9H..c .c
(#*9..c*,)c .c<
,+Mc #Mc-D+Mc,9EMc/,Mc Mc
 .#.#Mc?#c$%%6!;1='cc
*#c . c c ,c ( #c 9#(#c .c (,*, (c .c (9 8c 0,c c (#(c c c
.9#c.c #c(#*(c*#8ccHc.c #c #c8c.c #c,#c
.c,c"C#'cc
c #cK *#cE#8cDc,(c-c .#cc(#cc,c9#" *c.c,..c
(,..8c  c *#*#c 0,c #c *(*#c .c (#(8c , +.#c 9c +c  c
9#c .c #c 9*#8c c  c .c 2(#3$;c 9c .c C*9 #c )c .,.c c #c
.,.#cc(,*9 c9,, *c(#c #c(#*9#*#c,*.#!c2K **c*#c
0,cDc*,)c (#.#c(#c c,,c< c(#=8c#"c#.#cc(#c9H(#Mc
(,.#c#c9,.c98c #c9*c c7c c9#c(#c*+8c( ,#c(#c
c *,3$:'c
c #c c ,*c c (.,*"c .c *c ,c 9,#c .c "C#8c
(#(,(c.c c9# ?(c.c9(,(c *9..c9#c c,#..c *,(9 8c0,c
-(c .c c (..c 7*.*c #c (#c ,c  (c (##@"(#c
*c 9#9#(# 'c c 9#" ..c .(c .c c ,(c c 8c c
98c c((c. cc/#"#c(# 8c9(#cc c(..c.c(##(*#c
.c c 9#" (c (#*#c ,C#c (#*(#8c #( c )c 9# ?(#Mc Dc ,(c c -c -(-#c
9#" c c *(c .c c 9# ?(c .c *(8c 7( ,c )c 9(,(c .c #c
(#*(c#* c*9, .c..c c,(9#c.c/,)0, cc c(#7#c.c
c(c "'c c (8c 9#c9c .c c,#..8cc .c c,"C..c
.c #c (#*(c *#c ,#*#c #c .( (c (#*#c  #(,#c . c
.c c ,#..c *,(9 !c 2#c #)c c *c .D ##c (#c ,#c .c #c
**(-#c#"c c*c.c #c#* 3$4'cc
c
.c De la organización
 c(#*(#c*#c,#*#cc,c(,.8c,c#*c.c.'cDc9#.cc,c
#+(c *,)c ,c (#c  ,C#c (#c )c .c *(.?c *9#8c c ,c
*(.#c7*.*c.D*(#8c((+.#c9#c c(#.(#c.c9(..cc
c0,cc.# !cc
#c*(.#8c(#*#c#.#c*#c#( 8c#c,(,c(#*9 CMc# ,(c
*K 9 c.*#c )c.(,#'c #c*##c#cc7E#ccH 8c, *c
#c #c c c .(*(c )c (c c #c ,C#c 'c c c
.D*(c c  (#c #( c .c 9#.c C,c ,c # c 99#.c c c
9#.,((c .c #c .(,#c )c c  ..c #( c )c ?(c <
,+Mc  #Mc
-D+Mc,9EMc/,Mc Mc .#.#Mc?#c$%%6!&:='c
c#+(c.c #c(#*(8ccHc.c,c.c.c#((#c)c.(#8c
-c*9c9.#c,c *#c,.* c.c c,(,(c. c(#*(#cc
c 9 +c )c *(.#'c #c ,(#c .c .(-#c 9.#c (#c (D(c ( c 0,c
9#.cc,c,(,cCD0,(c( *c..'c c(c.c.*c)c
c #c9,#cc #c0,c #c(#*(c79.c,c9#.,(#c)c9c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
$;
c Kc c## cI,c #c, 8cc#*.c.c c # (?c. c/,)8cE c0,c c(#c#c
Dc9(.#c(#*#c. #cc c )c. c9?8ccc c(#?c.c(?*c# #'c c#8c
$%%;$%%>'c
$:
c c  c ## c I,c c  #c , 8c #* .c .c # (?c . c /,)'c  c #8c
$%%;$%%>'c
$4
c ( (#c. c
( .cI*c "#cc9,cc c9(c.c. ##c+.c9#c #c
(#*(c#* 'c #c c#8c$%%6$%%4'c

&1c
c
9,#c .c (# ,(c c c ,#..c )c #c (#*(c *.#8c 0,c c
 (#c# #c)c7( ,*ccHc.c,c.'cc#+(#c#c c
9,#c .c ,c )c (# ,(c c .c ,9#c .c #c (#*(8c #+.#c
c #((#c *.8c c ,c +8c c c .(#c .c #*('c #c
*(.#c  C8c (#*c c (,#c c 9,.c 98c,c ( c #+(c )c
.c . c "C#8c .#.c (.c ..,#c c ,c # c 9(?(#8c 0,c (,*9 8c .c
(,.#cc(,#c(#..#c(#c c#+(c.c9(c
G(*8c  c # c .c c #((#c )c .(#c .c (#*(c c
(#("cc.#c9(#!c*8c c#+(c.c #c9,#8c(# ((c
.c (,#c 9c (,#c .c *9+c )c #c (..8c .c . c "C#c .#c
. c(#c.#8c c*#*#c0,c(.c#+(c*?c c*##9# #c#"c,c
.*.#c 9(#8c .(.#c 9#c  c )c .c .#Mc 7*8c c c
 (c (#c c,#..c )c c c #((8c .c +c c +8c .c c (#.(#c .c
"C#c.c,c*.#'cc
c#*c.c# c #c9#" *cDc (#.c(#cc*#.#c.c#+(c
)c9#c c.",(c. c9(#c?(#cc c(, c(#*( +8c)c0,c9#c c# #c
-(-#c .c c c c ( c c  Kc *#*#c c 0,c c ,"(.#8c #c c
(9c)c9#c#cc.c(#*#c c ?c.c# ,(c.c9#" *!c
( .c.c
c(,..8cIc.c(.#c#c (#c.c*(.#8c .c.c c.(c )c
.c.c c#((#c<
,+Mc #Mc-D+Mc,9EMc/,Mc Mc
 .#.#Mc?#c$%%6!&:='c
c (cc c,#..c)c #c(#*(c#* cc(, "cc,c.c
.c(#,9(c0,c#" "cc #c(#*(c c9#c.c(#*c9c9#.c"C8cc
c *8c #c .c ,*?c c # c .c #((c (#c c ,#..c .c ,#'c
(-#c *c c *c .c -(-#c .,c c .*(c .c "c #.#8c c
*"#8cc(#*+cc(#,c,c*(#cC,?.(#8ccHc.c c9#( *(c.c,c
c.c #.+c9c, c c,#c. c9(#c9K" (#cc+#ccc.c
9#c c(c ,"!c c .+c,(9 c .c)
|
   0  1 c
. c &4Z&&Z&>>$c )c .c '   )   c . c $>c .c (*"c . c $%%%c )c . c $6c .c
)#c. c$%%&8cc(,(c .c c23 " ' Ô c0,c" (c
0,c 2#c ,(#c 9*#. c . c ,(9#8c c (#,((8c **#8c #8c
*" (*#c)c *(c. c,#c.c(*#8c( 8c90,8c9 +c)c.*Dc
9(#c9K" (#38c(#,)c,c9*c,#cC,?.(#c .c c9# ?(c.c79, c
.c #c (#*(c #* c .c ( 8c 9 +c )c 90,c . c (#c .c c ,"8c ?c
(#*#c  c ,#c C,?.(#c c c (c .c #c .(-#c )c ".c,.* c .c
* c.c(,..#c*9 .#cc.(-c(..'cc
c c ,#c (#8c c#((#cc 0,c (c,c# c .c *..#c
c c,#..c)c #c(#*('c c *"#8cc# #c(#c c .c.cI*c
"#c c  c E#c $%%%8c 0,c c #.+c c (#*9Ec .c ,c 9 c .c (,(c 0,c
(#*9#c c9(,(c(c.c #c(#*(c#* 'c2c cE#c$%%%c(,.#c
cI*c "#c .cc c
( .?c.c/,)0, 8cc(#*#c0,cccC(,c#.c
c#.+c*,(9 8c0,c)c"c-(-8c ,c#c"c9#".8c9#c
0,c,#c9#".c(#c c9#)#c.c,c#C#c# *c#( (#8c*,(-c.c
c #.+c "c (#c #.#c 9#c .c (#*(#c "(.#c c *9c
9.8c #c (#c (#*( c )c c .c (.c .c .",(3$>'c c# c .c c
#((#c )c .(#c (*"8c c 9c .cc.*.#c .c 9(#c c
#c *(.#8cc 9,#c .c (# ,(c )c (#,((c .c c(cc c 9# ?(c .c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
$>
cccI,c#8c1%c.cC,#c$%%>'c

&5c
c
. #C#c *9, .c ..c c *,(9 ..'c c c (#7#c (c *K 9 c
#((#c 0,c c .c (# ,c .#c .c c .(# 1%8c c c .c .0,c ,c
*)#c 9 .#c 0,c c 9*c ,c *)#c (9(..c .c #((c (#c c
,#..'cc
c  c E#c $%%&8c #c .c .c c 9(9 c #+(#c .c (#*(c . c
(.#c .c c .#c 9" #c /*+8c ,.c  cc .#c .c #*(c<='c c
#"C#c . c <=c c  ,c c c .c #((#c )c #+(#8c
*.#c .(c (#c ,(,c 9.8c 98c ,9.#c c .(c
.# (c)c9# ?(8c(##*c,cc(#*Kc.c(c(#c c,#..c
.c ,#'c 2,(-#c .c #c .c 0,c #*#c  c c .#c c (,c -#)c
0,".#8c *,(-#c -c *,#c 9#c c *##8c #c 0,c #c 0,.*#c0,?c ,*#c
.#c#+.#3'c c#+(c(#c #c**"#c.c c.(#c9#c
*"Hc (#*(c 0,c 0,c .-c c ?, #c 9# 'c c c (#7#8c c
#+(c,*8c c,c,(,!c
c

þ
þ  

$ 
c c 
 c

  c
c
 cc.#c,cc cE#c$%%&c)c c$%%6c c ,c.#.cc9 (c cc
.c(c(#c #c",#c.c c,#..c*,(9 'c c,(,c. cc
c *9"c c ,c *c .c #*c .c .(#c .c (D(c .*#(D(#'c c
.(#c c #*"c ,c #*Hc (#*9,#c 9#c #.c c .(c )c 0,c
(##*"c  c ,#c # ?(#c #D(#c .c c #+('c  c ,#c 9# ?(#8c 9c
*" c 0,c c ?c (#c #c **"#c .c c #+(#8c .(,?c ,c *8c
.9,Hc"cc,c,.c.(,cc c"Mc#"c c(#( ,#c*.c
9#c c
*" 8c c,#c9# ?(#c,c.(c 'c
c *(c . cc ,c c (#(,(c .(c .c c9c 0,c # 9#c c
.(c.c #c(#*(cc #c #c.c #cE#'c #c(#,#c*#c
(#*#c (c c #c . #C#8c .(#8c * #c )c (,(#c 0,c ()#c
#"c c.(8c #cc0,c*,(-#c.c#cc9 8c2 #c,c*#*#8cc c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
1%
(-c .(#c Kc c ,c +c #((#c .c ,9#c (# c .c (#*(c #* !c

#((c.c#*(c#c&%c.cI,#8c
#((c.c(#*(c*#c&4c.c#8c

#((c .c #*(c #c  #)c


#8c
#((c .c #*(c #c $&c .c
#8c ('c c #*(c #c . c (.#c  8c ('c c #*(c *#c ;c .c
(*"8c
#'c#*(c#c c(c K 8c
#'c c#*(c#c" c
# #8c
#((c .c #*(c #c .#c 'c c + )8c
#'c c #*(c
#c .c c -?8c
#((c .c ..#c .c L#P#c )c ( 8c
#'c c #*(c
#c(.#c  , 8cc#'c
c

&6c
c
$%%18c c 0,c  c ,(9#c #c ((#c #.c c .#c " #c /*+8c 9c  #8c c
*"#c,*#c"C.#3'c#c,*.#cc #c(#,#c((*#c9#c9c.c
.c 9.#c 9# ?(#c 0,c -c .#c .c (9c ,c .(8c c .c
*#*#8c 0,c (#(.8c (c *98c (#c 9#.#c  (# 8c c #c 0,c c
(9(..c .c *# +(c .c #c (#*(c , c ,* c c c (#.c
9# ?(1&'c ,#c .c #c((*#c -c(.#c ,c9,c9#c c c
(..c )c .((#c .c #c (#*(c *#8c -c .#c c c
 (# +(c.c c.(c)cc,c9#c*('cc
Kc 9 "c . c #c # .#8c ,#c .c #c ?*c .c c #+(#c .c
(#*(c *#c c 9#9#c c  c .c ,c (#((c .c ( c ,8c 0,c c
9*c  c ,c .((#c 9(9 *c (c c .((#c *Dc
9#,.c .c 9#c ,(, 'c  c *##c 9(9 c .c c ((c c c  c .c
(9((c .9#" c 9c #c **"#c .c .(-c #+(#'c c #*(c c
*c9(9 *cc c,##*(c.c c.(8c0,c#c+c c#*(c
.# (c.c,c"'c c c((c.c(,#cc."c.*Dcc c(#c ,(-c
9#c *c ,c ,##*?c 9(#c c 9.#c 9# ?(#c 0,c -c ",(.#c (9c
9.*c c .(c c c .c ,* +c ,c )c 9#".c (9(..c .c
*# +('c  c 9.c .c c c .c #*(c #c < =8c
.( #c c #c  c #c  c &6c .c "#c . c $%%68c ,c .(c 9(#c  c
#"#c ( !c 2 c (#c "#8c c (#c  c #"#8c c (#c  c 'c c (#c Kc
c.c c# 0,?3'cc

(, *8c c ,c # c .c # (c )c 91$c 0,c # 98c ,c +c *Dc c #c
(#*(c *#8c -c .#c c c #+(c . c 8c Kc I,c #8c
**"#c(#c.c c.(c)c7c**"#c. c,#c9# ?(#c#D(#c*c c
# ,.c.c,9c c (# +(c.c c.(cc #c(#*(#c. c$;c.c" 8c)c
*9+cc"Ccc c "#(c.c,c )c.c c. c#*(c#c
)c
,#*#8c c#*cc c )c .cH*c ,(9 c )c c9#" ..c .c 9(9c
c,c@9 ((c.c c.c.c(.#c0,c9*c c( ,c)c#+(c
.c(#*(cc(#.(#c.cc ,c.#.c 7c,c c9#" ..c .c
#"('c
c ,(,c 0,c c .c (##*c ,c c K(#c .c (#*(c c c
##..#c +(#c #( c .c #*(c #'cc (##..#c
(#*9.cc,c+c c.(#c)c#((#c.c(#*(c*#'cc,c
#+(c (#c ,c 9#(c 9# ?(c "c ..8c  c *#*#c 0,c ,#c .c ,c
*D7*#c .8c #c # .#8c c 9c . c (, c 9.#c .c #"#c
+c

 'c c ( c 9#(c 9# ?(c c .# (c .c 8c 0,c c  Cc c ,c +c c c
(..,c.c#c# .#c(#*#c#(C c.c/,)0, cc c ((#c. c$;c.c
" c. c$%%>8c9c9#c,c .#c,cC8c c*#*#c0,c c9#)#cc
 cc
"c.,#cc c*#8c9#c*"Hc,c *(c*9#cc c#*(c.c
,c c (#*Kc c .9.c .c #c (#*(c 0,c #8c,9.#c c (c
9.c)c #cH.#c9# ?(#8c(##*c,c(#c#( c)c9# ?(#c(#c(9(..c.c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
1&
cc#.c c.c9# ?(c-c",(.#c((*#c(#cc(#!c c .#c #( c#c
< =8c .#c # .#c (,##c < =8c .#c #(..c (c < =8c #*#c #9, c
*#(D(#8c
+c
 c
1$
c #c .?c $$8c $1c )c $5c .c I, #c . c $%%>c # #c *#c c c # (?c ,(9 c )c #c
(#*(c*#cc.#cc c,c. c(.#c 'c c#.c.c. #C#c)c.(#*#c
.c c *(.?c .(.#c ,c # c 9,c .c #c (#*('c c 9c #( c #c
,*#c ##c c c 0,c c 9#.?c c (#*#c #c (#*(c ?c .#c c c (*#c )c
 C*c# 9.#'cc

&;c
c
(.c)c*#.(c c (c.c.#*(c0,c((+8c*Dc Dc.c c(,..c.c
/,)0, 8c c9?'c

.c |clusión represión y movilización.


c *( +(c . c 9(#c 9K" (#8c c #c .c #c c .c 9#(#c ,9#c .c
9#.8c)c c *(c.c #c(#*(c*#c.c c(,..8c(#c c# (c#cc
Hc .c c (#*9(c .  8c 9#).c ,(# *c ..c  c #"#c #( 8cc
(#*9##c ,c (,.(*#c .c c (#.(#c .c 9(..c c 0,c "#c #c
(#*(c*#c,#*#cc/,)0, 'c c9#c7( ,8c9c)c
*(c .c c ,9#c .c 9#" (8c *#c .9.#c c (#((c .c
9(c c ,c ,9#c #( 8c (#c c (#*,c 0,c 9#.?c c .(.#c
(# (*!c2 #c9##c.c c ,(-c#( c#c#c c( c#( 8c#c
,9#c #( c c (c *)#c c (c *#c 0,c c ( Xc ,(c .c
c(# (#3c< c #,c$%%&!&::='cc
c *# +(c.c #c (#*(c #* c,?c c9,cc c29# #?c
.c c*#...38c..c(#*#c2(# (#c#(#@9# ?(c0,8c9#c,c,c#c
?8c#c ##c,c?c c,"C..8c(,..?c)c *(9(8c..#c,c
c ,(.8c .,.8c 93c < c #,c $%%&!&41='c  c 9#(#c .c
(c "c c .,(c c ,c .(c . c (#(9#c .c (,..?c c
,"C..c c *(9(8c .#c c ,c 7(#c .c #* +(c .(9 c
#,(, 'c#*#cE c"(-8c #c*#*#c#( c #*(#c-#)c#c
c29,c c*##c#( c0,c9##(#c c# .c# " c.c #c#(-8c0,c
#(#c c #*c .c .c .c #c (#c 9#9, c  c .# c )c .(#*9#c c
#*c .c 9#.,((c )c 9#.,((c # c )c *" (c 0,c (#,"c ,c
##c )c ,c .c (#.3c <"(-c $%%1!&46='c c *# +(#c .c #c
(#*(c #* 8c c c (,..c .c /,)0, 8c *c c9,cc c # .c
# " c *9, .c ..c  c ,(9#c c Hc .c c (c ,"'c c
9#)(#8c.+c"C#c c *c2Dc,..3c,c9#(#c#c.c9+(c. c
9(#c 9K" (#c )c (## c #( 8c 0,c 9c (*c 9#c c 79, c .c #c @
#( 'c
c ,c . c 2@#( 3c c ,c (#,((c #( c 7( ,)8c ,(# c c .c
0,c 2*(3c ((.c c #c .(-#c "D(#c .c (,..?c c  c /,)0, c
.#'c 2 #c @#( 38c c ,*c #c # *c  c #"C#c .c c ,c
(#,((#c .c ,..8c #c c c "c * c .c c 79, c (?(c </(Hc
$%%5!6;='c #c 2@#( 3c (#,)c ,c *c 0,c 9c #"c #c (#,*.#c
*9(#8c #c 8c (#,*.#c (,)#c  #c .c .c )c .c (#,*#c #c , c
,(# c  c *#. #c .c .# #c # " Mc (#,)c c ,c +c ,c (#c .c
7( ,c #( c 9#c *##c .c c )c ( 'c2 c 9((c .c (* +(c .c #c
@#( c c -c .(.#c 9(*c 9#c ,c (#,c c (#c 9# ?(*c
+##c#c  c)c c((?(c#(#@(, , c0,c c c**c9#c
0,c 2, 3c (#* #3c </(Hc $%%5!6:='c c (* +(c . c (#*(#c #* c
c c (,..c .c /,)0, 8c )c c ,(c *+(c . c (#*(c (#*#c @
#( 8c 9#.#c . c (#c )c *#c . c .# #c #..#c .c c (,..8c c 9c
(#*#c "c (, , c .c *(c . c 9#(#c .c 79, c . c (#*(c c #c
*Dc. c(#c.c c(,..'c
#c(#c.c *9+c)c#.c#.,(.#c(#c c9#(#c.c(cC,(c
 c @#.*#c . c (#*(#c .c c (,..8c *.c c (#,((c .c c .c .c
(.#c,(9 'c c7( ,c.c #c(#c.#8c #c(#*(8c.c c

&:c
c
9 ((c.c c(..c(#*( cc c(,..8c, .#c c,c*9#(c0,c
c (c c #c ,9,#c "(#8c .(..#c (#,#c
*#c c,#..c )c (#*(c )c c c (#,((c .c ,cc .c
,(,c0,c9*(c-c c.?c.c-#)c(c".#.'cI,c#c..,c
c c7( ,c.c #c(#*(c.c #c9#(#c.c.(8c c9(9 c*##c. c
(#c.c c.c.c(.#!c
c cDc ,#c #c c# #c ..c c .#c " #c /*+8c ###c0,?*#c
.*#c 0,c c 9#.?*#c *9, c 9#9,8c c 8c 0,c c #c #*c c
(,cc c#*c.c c#.+c*,(9 c)c c )c.cH*c,(9 8c
c( ,c.c #c(#*(cc c.*(c.c #c*(.#8c c*#*#c
0,c###c(*#c0,c#c #c(#*(c0,c."cc(.#c.c
c.*(c.c #c*(.#8c-#c-c(.#c,cc.c*(.#c0,c#c
 c " (#8c ,(,c 9c $%%c (#*(c 0,c c (,c #(,9.#c
9c9#c1%c)c5%c(#*('cc
 c(.#c.c c,#c+11c8c..#cc,c9(9#cc c,"((c.c #c
(#*(c .#c c c ( c .#c " #c /*+c )c c  c (#c  .E#c c c
..c 0,c ##*)# 15  .(c c (#(,(c .c c  c .c
9 (('c
 c*(.#c(,#c*+c#c,(#c9#c,cc.c9#" *8c,c(#cc
c (#*(c )c #c (#c c c *", 8c )c #c (#c c c (#*(c . c
*#*#8c-)c8c0,cc c*9#.c.c "#8cc.c#.c9cc.c
"#c )c .9,Hc .9(Mc  c ,(9#c ."?c ..,c 0,c #c #c
(#*(c" 8c c9#" *c.c c,#c+cc8c c*.c.c c
9#cc c0,cc c#c #c9,#cc(#*(c, 8cc c
9*c (c  #c (#.#Mc (#(,(c .c #8c #c (#*(c  c c
.*", c 9#0,c -)c #c 9,.c .3'c c (#,((c .c .(-#c *(.#8c
(#c 9c c
( .?c ,c c .c [&85c * #Mc c (,c c ,c
*)#?c(?#'c c ,(c. c*(.#cc"C8c #c(#*(c.,(c0,c
-(c9#(#c#(#8c*,(-#c.( cc c"#.c.c c0,"'c E c0,c c
c #c (,.c 9#0,c  c (.#c c (,c ,"(.#c c ,c +#c #C!c 2-)c
9#(c(  8cc(c*c-c.#cc.c.#c c#c,c. 16'c
2 c-(-#cc0,c c2@#.*#3c.c c(,..c"c2T,"( #3cc#c
.c #*(#c <.#c (#*#c 9(#c ?(#c 0,((*c .E.#c )c
.#*.#c *(.#=c 0,c #c 9("c *H(#c #c (#c c c (..c
(#*( c0,c +Mcc##c9(#!c,c. c ,c(, c.c(*"#8cc
,c*(#c0,c((c(#8c"C#c(#.(#c0,c #c9("c(#*#c7Ecc,c
(#,*"c )c ?(*c 9#9.c 9c c "#c .c , .'c c (#*#c c c
9# ?(c *,(9 c c ,c +c *Dc .c 9(..c c c c .c c 9 +c
<
,+Mc  #Mc -D+Mc ,9EMc /,Mc Mc  .#.#Mc ?#c $%%6!1;=3'c
#c # .#8c .c .c #c (#*(c *#8c 79 (c 0,c  c 9#" *c
.(c c 0,c 2 #c (#c (#*( c ."?c 9 (c c #c ,c .#.c )c
7c *#c .c (#*('c c c .#c " #c /*+c #c (#*(c
c 1%5%c E#8c #c (#c *,(-#c ,+#8c (#c ,c +#c #Cc c ,c +#c
(#*( c ,c ,#c . c "C#c .,#c .c *,(-c 9#'c #c c 9,.c (#c .c c
#(-ccc*Ec,c+#c#Ccc,c+#c(#*( 3'c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
11
c.+c,(9 c9c c(#"#c. c #c9#c c#(,9(c.c #c9,#cc c ,#c(.#c.c
?(, #c #'c $$Z&%Z$%%1'c -9!FFF'(".'(#*.#(:55%>:4.+)&$#@.@9(#@)@
@ ," (B,#.#FJ9.c
15
cc7, c.c c.+'c
16
c ( (#c.c(#*(c. c(.#c.c c,#c+'c

&4c
c
#c(#c.(.c.c c9#8c,c)c8c c, +(c.c c(c.c
#c 9,#c c c .c .c (.#c (#*#c *(*#c .c (-C'c #c 9,#c c #c
,#c *(.#cc "c c "c cc (#c (  c c  c,(9#c )c
 ,#c .c .c #c (#*(8c c c c (,c c ^..c .c #c
(#*(c. #C.#'c
c ,#c.cc.c# c #c9#" *c.c #c(#*(8c c
,(9#c c -c (.#c .c ..#c (.#c ,c 9#9#c .8c #c
,#c .c c -c (.#c .c # ,(#c #c 9#" *8c A*#c #c
, Bc c0,c #c9,#cc #c(#*9E#c*Dc,#c9c.D #cc #c
,#c(#*(Mcc#c-)c9,#c9c #cC#c(#*#c# ,(#c c9#" *c
.c #c,#8c#c #c-(c,c,9#c.c.cc(#,"#c(#c c,(9#'c
G)c,*#8c0,c c(c.c9,#c.9.c.c(#",(#c(#*(8c
#c -)c 9,"c .c #8c 9#c c  #(..c (#c c 0,c  ,#c , c ,c
9#" *c, c7E#c9c #c(#*(c0,c.9,Hc.cE#c.c ,(-c#c
-c #.#c, +c,c,(1;'cc
cc.D*(8c9#.*#c..,(c0,c c2((3c.c,#c.8c(#*9E.c
.c c (c  (8c c "c c (#c 9#(#c ( #8c (#,)c ,c #*c .c
..c )c ." c c#((#c )c.(#c 0,c9c c(c .c #c
(#*(c*#c,#*#'c
c #+(c .c #c .c #*(c #8c ,*Dc c ((?(c .c c
#+(#c .(# 8c 9 ,.#c .c #c *#*#c #( c .(# c )c
#+(#c .( *c ,8c 9 ,.#c .c #c ,#c *#*#c #( c #c
(#*#c((c(# (c(8cc.c.c(,#c#*c9#?.#8c"C#8c
, +(c .c 9(#c 9K" (#Mc )c (#*#c ((c (# (c 9#(8c .(.#c
(,#c 0,c #*c #c 7?8c 9(9(c .*#(D(8c 9#.c 9# ?(#Mc c
(#,c .c c *c ,c #+(c #( c (#c .((#c .(# c )c
.( *c*#.cc c+1:'c
c
.c |l Mercado de la Pedro Pablo Gómez (PPG)
c  c E#c &>;18c (,.#c  c
( .c < #c ,c +c E?=c .(.c ,c c #c
(#*(c 2#* 3c .c c (,..c c c *+c (H(c .c c (,..8c
,.#c?c c*(.#c.c"#c.c c .#c " #c/*+8c*Dc(##(.#c(#*#c c
/'cc*(.#cc(#c9#*cc c9(9 c(#c.c"#c.c c
(,..c.c/,)0, !cc
c /c c  c K( #c .c ,c *c c .c .c .",(c .c  *#c (,)c
79c *Dc " c #c c .8c -# 8c #8c c *", c .c
(#*.c )c "".c 99.8c ##c *(.#8c c "c c #*(c )c
 ",'ccK( #c +c9#7*.*c c:%Uc.c c(#*( +(cc.c
?c0,c cc/,)0, 8c #c(, cc#c..#cc*,(-c(c.c*c
9(c<
,+Mc #Mc-D+Mc,9EMc/,Mc Mc .#.#Mc?#c
$%%6!6;='c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
1;
cccI,c#'c
1:
c*#c?c,c(#*"(cc.c.c(,#c#*c9#?.#c< c,=8c(#c c
.*.c.c(,#c0,c#*c#c7?8ccc(#c.(-#c.*#(D(#cc9#.c9# ?(#c
0,c-(cc c*, ,.c,c#*c.c*# +(c9#,.*c.(# c)c.( *c*#.c
9#c,c98c)c9#c#c.c)c#cc c+'c/(?c 8cO #'c c,(,c.c #c
*#*#c#( cc# 'c
8c 9*"c$%%&8c99'c&4;'c

&>c
c
c c *(.#c.c c /c9#?c.*Dc#c9(, ..8cc c **#c(#c(#?c
,c*(.#c*#c< c(.#c*#c.c c /=c)c,c*(.#c*)#'c
#c c .c.c c(c,"8c c*(.#c.c c /c(#*+cc79.'c
,c .c ",(#c #8c .#.c c ,"c #c (#*(c 0,c -"?c .#c
9#*c 79, .#c.c#cDc.c c(,..'c c /cc((+"8cc,c
+8c 9#c ,c #+(c ,c .c (D(c ( !c 2 c )c c 0,c
9.#*c #c c .c c #((#c 0,c c ,c +c #".(c c 9 ,.c c #c
*#c .c c .(c .c #*(c #c . c /,)3c <
,+Mc
 #Mc -D+Mc ,9EMc /,Mc Mc  .#.#Mc ?#c $%%6!6>='c #c c
.c .c c (c ,"8c  c *(.#c .c c /c (#*+c c 79.8c #c
9#0,c ,c .c ",(#c #8c .#.c c ,"c #c (#*(c 0,c -"?c .#c
9#*c 79, .#c .c #c Dc .c c (,..'c c c *#*#8c c /c c
#+c c :c#((#c,9.c"C#c c.(8c.c c 0,c c .9.c<c  c
$%%&=c  c *#*#c
((c # ?(c .9.c <
=8c (##*.#c
7( ,*c9#c(#*(c.c c /14'cc
c9*c *# +(8c *c)c#+.8c.c #c(#*(c *#ccc
c &>>$8c .,c c
( .?c .c c"c#.#8c (#*#c 9,c c c.+c
0,c.9#?c c(#"#c.c6%%c,(8c9#c*#c(,..#c.c9(#c, +.#'c
cc
,(8c c #((#c .c (#*(8c ..c 9#c c .(c .c
#*(c #c . c /,)8c c *# +c c *c #+.c #.#c
9#c c (#c c 9 ((c .c c #.+'c 9,Hc .c c (.c c c ,c
9#.#c.c c( *c-c c .8cc cE#c$%%%8c.cI*c "#cc c
( .?'c
ccE#cc-(c9K" (c c.(c.c@,"(cc #c(#*(c.c c /8c(#*#c
(#(,(c.c#c c*(.#cc@#+c)c.(.c8c#+.*8cc #c
#c.c. #C#c.c c /'c
c c$%%&8c #c(#*(c.c c .#c " #c/*+c(##*c cc<c.#=c
9..#c 9#c I,c #'c
*9.#c "C#c .(-c #+(8c c *# +c (#c  c
. #C#c. c*(.#c.c c /8c(#,)H.#cc,c*" *c.c c*# +(#c
9#c c.(-#c c"C#c)c c9(9(c9# ?(c.c #c(#*(c.c c(,..'cc
c  c #c .c c #+(8c (.c 9c (##(8c 9 (c )c #+c c
(8c0,c c(.#c.c c /cc(#cc  c?*"# #c.c c(c)c.c
c ,(-c #( c .c #c (#*(c *#c .c c (,..c .c /,)0, 'c  c Dc
,#c #c c# #c ..c c .#c " #c /*+8c ###c"?*#c 0,cH*#c  c
?*"# #c .c c "#(c 0,c -"?c c c 9#(c . c /,)8c 0,?*#c9#"c 0,c #c
(#*(c 9#.?*#c )c ."?*#c 9(9c c c 9 ((c )c .*(c .c
#c*(.#1>'c
c
.c Cronología de las protestas :
 c&$c.c*+#c. c$%%&8cc.#c*#cc #c(#*(c. c*(.#c
.#c " #c/*+8c#+.#cc cc.#c.c#*(8c(#*#c, .#c
.c,c *(-c9(?(cc c0,c# ("c c#(#c.c c#.c .c. #C#c . c
*(.#'c c *(-c 9(?(c .#c c # (8c c 9# (?c #c (#c "#*"c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
14c
(-#c*#*#c9(9cc c ((#c #( c9c#(C c #( c)c 9,.#cc
 c $%%;'c c 9#( c ,+c .c c *#*#c c . *Dc 9#*8c c (,c .c ,c
 (# +(c)c C*#c.c c,+c#( c0,c #c(##*#cc,c(#'c
1>
cccI,c#'c
5%
c c (## #?c  "#.c c "c 9(9 *c c  c #*c . c #*Hc *c .c .(-#c
G,*#c-9!(.-'#'(c)c#c.c9c.c c79#8c c#8c c #c)c c#*(#' c

$%c
c
(*c 9c .9c c #c *'c I*c "#c .( c 0,c c #.c .c
. #C#cc*#" 8c)c0,c c9 +#c9c c**#c0,."c" (.#c9c c1%c.c
*+#c . c **#c E#'c  c $>c .c *+#c . c $%%&8c ,c # c (,c *.c .c
9# (?c (# c )c *#9# #c . #Cc &&%%c (#*(c ,"(.#c c c .#c
" #c /*+8c (, c (.#c
 c (- 'c  c *(.#c ,c (#*9 *c
.*# .#c c *#c .c $5c -#'c ,c c ((c ,#c ..#c &:c (#*(c
0,cc#9#?c c. #C#'5&cc#*"c. c**#cE#c. #Cc9(?(*c #c
(#*(c ,"(.#c c  c (#c .c c ..c 0,c ##*)#'c
c c
. #C#8c c,c c(c c c ( c
)(,(-#c <..c I#Hc .c
9c -c
I#Hc(#='c
c #c . c $%%$8c  c ,(9#c .9,#c c ( ,,c .c $%%c #( c ,"(.#c c  c
9?*#c .c c ( c .#c " #c /*+'c #c "C.#c *#c )c c
#c 9#c #(-#c -#cc9# (?c )c *#9# #'c #c *##c .c c ( ,,c #c
"c "c .(.#8c #c  #cc *"cc .9#c 0,c c(cc ."?c c
# (c .c c #.+c *,(9 5$'c  c ,(9#c 9c ,c .,(c 9 c
9#c . #c .c " c c (#c .c , #c #8c _ .#c *c -*9+8c #c
#51'c  c 5c .c " c . c $%%$8c  c ,(9#c .c /,)0, c .,(#c 9 *c c
(.#c   #"#8c , c *8c ,.#c
,, 8c I,c #8c GH(#c ,)8c
#c #8c, #c#8c_ .#c *cc##c.c. cc.#c.c
#*(c #c .c c ( c .#c " #c /*+55'c  c C,(#c .c .(-c
.9#(cc #c,9,#c.#+#c#(#.#c9#c #c(,.#cc c* c.c
(c.c?c<=56'c Kc#c.c98cc #c *##c.c c
9#c c c 7#c .c c 0,c ?c ?(*c #c (#*(c 9#c 9c .c
9# c )c 9# (?c *,(9 8c 9c ,9c c ((#c *9,c 9#c  c
,(9#c9cc c<=5;'cc
c*)#c. c$%%18c c # (?c#9# c*9+cc.cc..#c*", c
.c#c.c,c*(c9,'c c.9,#c c( ,,c.c.9#c)c.9c0,c
c (#*( +"'c (-c .9#(c c C,(#c .,(.#c ,c .",(c #* c
. c 9#.,(#c )c *##c .c #.c )c *9+c ,"8c c .(.#c (#c .c [5%c .c
*, c)c:c.?c.c95:'c cc5c.cC,#8c #c..#c.c#c#+.#cc c

#((c .c ..#c


*", c .c /#c (,.#c  c ,(9#c .c
/,)0, c c ,c (c (#c  c 'c /,#c KE8c (#c . c .9*#c .c
#c
"#'c
c c c ,(9#8c #c (#*(c ,#c #..#c 9#c # (?c
,(9 c)c( cc,)"c0,c c9#9#c, #c)c# 9'c ,(*c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
5&
c-9!FFF'##.*#((#'#9# " #-#FB.J$%>:>$1U1
 # #U1
c&:1:>Y9J5c
5$
c#cc,c(#cc c*)#?c.c #c #c.c( ,,c. c,(9#c#".#cc c(,..c.c
/,)0, 'c
51
c c ((#c 9c #c .,E#c .c c *(.?c 0,c #c ?c ,c 9,#c  0, .#c c c 8c c
*9#(c.c #c9(#c)c #c* #c9#c9c.c #c9(#cc,#c ,#c.c #c*##c.c
c9#'cc
55
c-9!(.-'#'(cc
56
c c$6c.c*)#c. c$%%%8c c#(C#c# c79.c c2.+c *c.c c* c.c
(c .c ?c .c /,)0, 3'c
c ?+c .c c #.+c  c ,(9#c .9#c  c . #C#c )c
.,((c . c (.#c )#c .c c .#c " #c /*+c (#c (#(,(c c 9c #c
(#*(c*#c,"(.#ccc+#'c
5;
c c *"#8c #c .c *c #c -"c .#c 9c c #c (# (#8c  #c "c
"C.#cc c .#c " #c/*+'cI,c#8c,#c.c #c.c,9,*c# ,(.#cc #c
(.8c (,.c -"c c ).#8c c (,c .c ,c # 9+c 9#9#(#.#c 9#c #c **#c
*,(9 8c  c *#*#c .c #c -(-#'c c (,(#c (#c #c .c 9c ,c ( c
c.c(* +(c.c c.(c.,c. c c /'c
5:
c-9!FFF'##.*#((#'#9# " #-#FB.J$%>:>$1U1
 # #U1
&:1:>Y9J5c

$&c
c
9#(.#c c .9 #c (#c c (*#c )c c c (#(c *'c
(-c#c,#c.,(.cc c#*c.c (-#cG,*#c0,c# (c
 c,(9#c( (c #c-(-#'cGc c(-c#cc-c(".#c9,c9#c9c
.c c,#..'c
 c 6c .c #c .c $%%5c *#c c (#*(c .c c ( c .#c " #c
/*+c )c c # (?c #9# c .Cc (#*#c  .#c ,c -.#8c  c (#*(c
G,*"#c+,'cc *)#c. c **#cE#8c c *#c.c..c #c#c/ 8c
.c&$cE#c,c", *c..#c9#c c # (?c#9# c*c.?c(# c
c c(#c.c c,"'cc#(c.#c c,c.c #c(#*(c#* c0,cc
# (#c c c ( c c 9#Mc  ..#c .c &6%c 9#c c *# +#c (#c c
# (?c#9# 'c,#c.9.#c(#c# c)cc (*#c.C.#c(#*#c
 .#c .(,c ..#c )c ,*##c -.#'c c C,#c c 9c ,c
.,(c.c",#c.c c # (?c#9# cc(#*(c#* 8cc+cc
c *.(#c .c c ..c .c /,)0, 'c #c *#c -"c
9(.#c ,c # 9+c c ,c (#*(c c 9(c .c ,c 9#c c -Cc .c 9c
.#c E#'c #c ,.c #c c c C,(c 0,c c "c (#*.#8c
(#,.#c c "(c. c..#'cc #cK *#c*c. c$%%58c #c. #C#cc
7.cc c9c.c c(,..'c c. #Ccc(#*(cc c"#c c #.c
)c c  c#c . c #, #'c #c (#*(c . #C.#c 9.c  c,(9#c 0,c c
9*c"Cc9c9#.c,"c(#c,c* 'cc
c#c . c$%%6c-)c,c,#c *#c c #c(#*(c.c c /c)c c
# (?c #9# 'c (c .c 1%%c (#*(c #* c c c c c
. #C.#c 9#c c 9# (?'c c 9#c .C#c #c -.#c )c ((#c (#*(c
9#'c7c9,"c.c0,c c,+c. c#.c.9#c" c.c(,(-#'c#*#c
(#(,(c.c#c.9#c,c(#*(c*#c*c-.#cc c-#9 c
)c ##c 9.c c 9c 9#c #c # 9c ,.#'c  c 'c /,#c KEc c *#c c
.( c 0,c c " c ."#c -"c .#c .c #c 2(#*(c **#354'c c 9c
.(c0,c c*# +(#c#c*9, .c9#c c#"#c.c ,(#c/,H+'c
c#c. c$%%;8c c # (?c#9# c. #Ccc #c(#*(c,"(.#cc  c
P *#c&$86c.c c?c , 'c Kc c,#..c c*..cc#*#cc(,c.c c
(#c 0,Cc .c  ,"..8c .#.c )c (#c -(, c 0,c #c .c . c
(" .#c.,(#'c c'c/,#cKEc.( #c0,cc,"(.#'c
c "#c . c $%%48c c ,.(c  #c RRc .9#c c 79, c .c #c P#(#c .c
(#*.cD9.c,"(.#c c c( c
)(,(-#8cc c+#c .Ecc c-?'ccE#c
c .(-#c P#(#c -"?c .#c *#. .#8c (.#c c .9#(#c .c c
.+c ,(9 c 0,c " (c #c 0,#c *,(9 c 9c C(c (#c .c
(#*(#c .#c . c ( c . c %;Z&%Z%1'c c *"#8c c "#c c ( ,,.#c
9#c 2# c c .+c ,(9 3'c c +c *Dc  c  #c #c 9((c (, c
#.+8c c c 0,Hc H*#8c -c .#c # .'c c .(c *9#c . c ,(9#c
.c c 9#c c c ,9#c .c (#*(c 0,c -c  c *#*#c c -"?c
*.#c c*c.c c*# +(#'c c**#cE#c #c(#*(c.cP#(#c
)c ( c ,.c ,c #((c )c 9c cc c .(c .c #*(c
#'cC#c c, c.c c.(8c*9.c,c(,#c.c*9#c(#c c
,(9#c.c/,)0, c0,cc, cc,c#c c.(*"c. c**#cE#'c
c #c . c $%%:8c  c (#'c  c #c  .#c c c c 9.(c (#c c
9#9,c.c#*c c#,(c # ?(c. c(,.#c)c *9.c,c9#(#c.c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
54
c-9!FFF'##.*#((#'#9# " #-#FB.J$%>:>$1U1
 # #U1
&:1:>Y9J5c

$$c
c
# ,(c (,..c c  c 9?'c c 9#.,(c ,c ((*#c (#c #c (#*(c
#* c0,c.( c0,c2 c*#c-#c(#*#c# #c.c c # (?c#9# c
)c c # (?c(# cc(c#c..3'c #c(#*(c#* c#+.#cc
 c (#c  c 9#)(#c )c  ,#c .8c ("+.#c 9#c  c
"'c #c # .#8c
#c  .#c (#*#c **"#c .c c
*" c #,)c c  c $%%4'c #c
9c.c #c(#*(cc c
*" c(#,c0,c c,c#,(c
# ?(c . c (,.#c 9,"c ,c .9#(c 0,c 2(##(c )c 9#c  c "C#c
,#*#c )c 9#c (,c 9#9c  +.#c c 9(#c 9K" (#8c 9*.#c 9#c c )c )c
#c, (#'c c9#-?"c#.c#*c.c(#((c.c,c9#.,(#8c* c#c
-*c .c "C#3'c c 9#"(c .c .(-c .9#(c "c ,c ,c c .c
(# (#c(#c c,(9#c.c/,)0, 8c9.#c9#c c
( .cI*c "#8c0,c
c ,c 9,"c .c ,+c (#c  c #"#c ( c (c c 9(,(#c c #c
(#*(c #* 'c ( (#c . c
( .c *c 0,c #c (#*(c
Dc .#c *9, .#c 9#c  c 9.#c .c #"#8c ?c **#c .( c 0,c  c
,(9#c#c(.Dcc9#c. c#"#c( cc)c.c,c,9#c.c2**(-#3c
0,c",(cc,*c c(#c)c c,(..cc c(,..c.c/,)0, 'c
c .( (#c . c
( .c c c #c (#*(c ,*c c c ( c c c
*(-c,#.#*.c.c2
Ô  
8c c&%c.cI,#c. c$%%4'c c#"C#cc
c  c ,(9#c ,c 9 #c .c 9#9,c 9c # ,(#c #c (# (#c (#c  c
(#*(#c#* 'c (-c*(-c*#c(#c*#c# #cc c # (?c
#9# 8c,(##c. c,(9#8c # (?c (# c)c(#*(c#* 'c
 c 9# c *,(9 c *c (#c #c *c (#c , #c (c )c
# 'c c,(9#c.( c0,c(,cc9,cc c# (c.(..c
9#c #c(#*(c9#).#c9#c c # (?c (# Mc cc.c c # (?c (# c
,c0,c c9# c. c,(9#c(c(#c9 #cc #c*c)cc #c**"#c
.c c # (?c0,cc(#"c9c9c+c c,..'c
c (,"c . c $%%48c c (9c  c 9#)(#c .c )c . c (#*9#c "C.#c

,#*#c )c #*(c #'c c 9#)(#c .c )c (#*9 c c 9#" ..8c
9c #c(#*(c#* 8c.c9(9cc c#*c.c.(#cc #c(#C#c
*,(9 'c c9#)(#c 0,.c9.c-c c$1c.cC,#c . c$%%>8c(,.#c c )c
c c 9*c ."c c c
*" c.c  (c )c( +('c (-#c 9#)(#c
c *9, .#c 9(9 *c 9#c c .(c .c #*(c
,#*#c . c
/,)8c "C#c c 9.(c .c  "-c  (#c )c  c 8c 0,c c ,#(##(c #c
9*#c .?c .c C,#8c .9,Hc .c (c c E#c .c 8c 9c 9#c c c
 "#(c . c 9#)(#Mc  c c c 9#9#c *9 c ,c (##(#c ,9.#c #c
c9# ?(#@9.c0,c -"?c9##(.#c,c." *#c)c(,9.#c  c
(D(c * c )c .( c .c c #+('c #c c ,c 9#,.#c (-+#c 9#c
9c. c,(9#c.c/,)0, 8c0,c*c0,c c )cc(#,(# c)c0,c
 c" .#c#c"c.9,#cc(c,c )c0,c",(c2 c##c. c(#cc c
(,..c.c/,)0, 8c(#c c9##c.c c(,..c0,c#c,+#c-c(#.#cc
#c,)0, E#35>'cc
#c.?c&68c&;c)c&:c.cC, #c. c$%%>8c #c(#*(c9#.#cc c*.(#c
. c (.#c  c ,#c . #C.#c (#c 7*c # ('c
,#c ..#c
.#c *"c (#*#c c # (?c #9# c -"?c .(#*.#c ,c
*(.?c # 9.#c c Cc *,Cc )c E#8c 2#c #c *#9# #c )c
9#c c(#8c# 9#cc #c(#*('cN,c0,c#c)*#c c*(.#c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
5>
c ( (#c. c
( .cI*c "#cc.#c ,(c%&%:%>'c

$1c
c
.c c ,#c +c 9#c  ?c #c c .c .36%c c # (c .c #c
*#c #c c c # (?c (# c c c 9c *.c c #c
#9# #c )c #c (#*(c 0,c 7?c ,c .(-#c c "C'c #c (.c
.C#c(#*#c, .#c,*##c-.#c)c(#,#8c,ccK*#c.c#8c0,c
,#c .( .#c 9#c  c .c .c # (?c   8c )c ,c ,#c 0,c c c
9#" ..c .c #"(c .c #c (#*(c )c ,c * 8c 2#c (,#c -C#c
0,c*c)c9#c(c.?c#c9,.#c"C8c#cc(#*#c. (,36&'c
c
.c |l re-ordenamiento del comercio informal en el conteto de un modelo de
desarrollo neo-liberal
c 9# ?(c .c 9(,(c . c (#*(#c *#c )c ,#*#c c c (,..c .c
/,)0, 8c c  c *(#c . c 9#(#c .c (c ,"8c c -(c 9c .c ,c
c.c@*(c. c(9 *#c #" ccD*"#c #( 'cc
 c(9 8cc,c9#(#c .c 79c #D(c )c .9 +*#c*9# c0,c
, c c (c.c#"(,*, (cc c0,c c9#( 8c (c (*c
,c9Cc ?(#c c,c9#9c*c )c*C+c c ,c *#*#8c9c ., #c
,#'c c c c -#c .c c .,((c (c <(#c #.c ,c (#(,(c
#( c )c *" c =c (9c c c # ,(c . c 9Cc ?(#c )c
#( c. c(9 *#c<G)c$%%5!&%1='cc
c.*(c #( 8c c c (#7#8c c 9c (#*#c ,c ,*#c  ##c .c
#"+c )c (## c (#*(#c 9c *9, c ,c 9#(#c .c  #" +(c )c c
#*(#cc c(,..8ccHc.c,c9#)(#c.c(c,"c# " 8c
(cc( c c(c.c c(,..cc c *(.#c *,. 'c c(c
,"cc9c(#*#c*(*#c.c"#(c.c #c7(.8c9#.,(.#c9#c c
.c c #"@(,*, (c .c (9 8c (#*#c (#(,(c .c c (c (#*(c )c
(c #" 'c
cc c (#7#8c c 9# ?(c .c @#.*#c ,"#c #9c ,c 9#(#c .c
(,*, (c#6$c8c0,c.#**#8c, +.#c c*# #?c.cG)8c.c
2(,*, (c 9#c .9#3'c c Dc (c .c (,*, (8c ((?(c . c ,#c
*9 *#8c9c9#c c79#9(c.c #c*.#c.c,"(8c(, 0,c0,c
#c8c.c c9#" (!c2 c*( +(c.c c#*c(, , 8c c-#c)c
c (..c  (, c ,9#c c # c .9#c T c .,c .c c *K(c c
.(c 9#c c 9#9(c )c 79 #(c .c c (, ,c )c c (..c 9#9, 'c c
(#9#+(c )c 9+(c .c (#c 9*c 9K" (#c <(#*#c c
,..=8c 9#c #c *(#c c # c .c 9+(c . c ,c )c ##c (#c
9K" (#c 0,c -c .#c  c *,.#8c (#,)c ,c ,c # c .c 2((*#c .c #c
"c(#*,3'c#*#cc c9.#8c c9#.c. c.#cc,.#c(,*c9c
#+c#c9#(#8c( ,#cc(#c.c c# ,.c9#9, 3c<G)c$%%5!&&6='c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
6%
c c9#c,cc/,)0, 'c #c c#*(#'c&4%:%>'c
6&
c ( (#c.c(c,#8c(#*('c
6$
c c,c .#cc ,cc #c#c.c9#.,((c.c c9 , ?cTc cD"(8cc c*8cc c,.#c
?(# c )c c  c *(.#c .c *((?'c #..c ?8c c (,*, (c c ,c 9#(#c 9,*c
(#*(#8c(,)cc*Dc*9#cc +cc #c(9 c)c #c"C.#c .#Xc
+8c 9#9..cc , ..c c 0,?c (#*#c #*8c c )c c *c c . H((c  .c .c ,c D c
(?(#c9c.(,"c(*#cc c(,*, (c c.(-#c.c9#9..cc(#cc9#9(c.c
9#9..c C8c  c (*"#c .c *((?c c 79 #(8c c , ..c c .#*#c .c ( 'c  c ##c
9(#c.c c(,*, (c. c(9 cc +cc c(9 c)c c#*c.c9#.,((c#c(9 'c
c9#(#cc.# cc c(c*,. 'c
0,?cc(#*#c*H#.#c c9# ?(c(# # 8c c*c
.c*9H#c(# 8c c9# ?(c.cc9.#8c c,'c
9(c0,?8cc.*, #8c c
# (8c  c E#8c c #9c )c c 9E'c #c ,7*",#c 8c G)8c .'c  c ,#c
*9 *#!c
(,*, (c9#c.9#'c #( c8c$%%5' c

$5c
c
c c(#c.c #c(#*(c,#*#c.c/,)0, 8cc9#(#c#9ccHc.c
c 79#9(c . c "C.#c .c #c*.#c .c ,"(8c *.c c (#((c
.c c *(.?c )c c 79, c .c #c **#c c c 98c .#.c .*,)c ,c
9#" ..c .c 8c )c 9#c #c #c .c 9#.,((c #( Mc ?c (#*#c *.c c
9+(c . c 9(#c 9K" (#8c 0,c (#,)c ,c ,c .c "C#c -", 'c c
2.9#3c.*c c9# +(c.c #c"C.#c,#*#c c(#c.c
c,#..c *,(9 8ccHc .c ,c (c c ,c.c .c (.#c *,(9 8c
0,c *c c,##*?c.c #c(#*(ccHc.c,c, (c 7(c.c,c
(..'c c 8c*9,#8c(##c.c 0, c)c *(#c.c-##8c0,cc
c #c *(.#c *,(9 cc,c,(c#" c9c #c(#*(8c
0,c c **.#c ,c ,##*?c c  c "C#8c c 9.#c ".#c ,c 9,#c .c
"C#c )c # c c .*", c 9#c c ( c #c ",(c #c #*c .c #"(61'c
9c ,c 29# +(c .c  *#c .c c 9#" (c -c c *#*#c
.9.3c<G)8c$%%4!$5='c c#c.c9c.cc,c*#c.c#"cc c
*(.#c . c "C#c  .#8c , .#c . c ,*#c .c #c #c )c (##c .c c
(..c (#*( c #* 8c ,*c #c  c .c .#(,9(c # ,8cc
9*.#c *c ,c #c .c "C#c 9(c 9#c 9c .c c ,c .c .c
*9c)c,.(#c(#(.cc c(c,"'c
c9# ?(c9#.c c c (c .c  *c #c (#*(c *#c .c c
+#c .c *)#c  ,(8c #(.#c  c " (*#c .c .c *98c
(# c )c 7C8c .c c c .",(Mc c #(c  c " (*#c .c
*##9# #8c #*(c .c c (9 8c )c .,(c ,c *9#c ,9#c 9#" (# c  c
.*9 #8c0,cc, c9#( c*#c.c#"c"c c(#c. c(9 'ccc
**#c 0,*c c ",(c  *c #c 9,#c .c (#*.c .(# c c 9 .#c
c .c (.c . c c ##.!c ('c # .8c L,(P)c .c -(Pc <L=658c
(,)#c K*#c )c 9(c c c (,..c -c ,*.#c c *c 79#( c c #c
K *#c &%c E#'c
(, *8c Lc (,c (#c ;$c " (*#c c /,)0, 8c
(#.#c  c (,.#c c ,c (,c 9 +c .c *9#(c c c c .c
*H(c
c)c c"66'c c c**c*8c c(,..c.c/,)0, c-c79*.#c,c
,*#c.c(.c.c,9*(.#c)c,#(#cc.c9,#c.c c(,..8c
0,c 9#c c (..c .c ,C#c .c *((?c )c ?c .c .",(c .(c (#,)c
,c(#*9(c.  c9c c(#*(#c#* 'c Kc.#c. c
8c cK*#c.c
#c,#(#cc/,)0, cc(,c.",.#c9c c$%%4cc,c#*!c
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
61
ccI,c#8c1%c.cC,#c. c$%%>'c
65
cc9#c#c0,c-)c0,c *cc #c(#*(c*#'c c90,Ec*(8c c.c.c
"#8c #cP#(#c.c(#*.cc0,c.9(c9c.c9#cc #c.c*#,#8c c.c
(.c *, (# 'c c c #c # .#'c c .c .c c .(c .c #*(c
#'c1&c.c#8c$%%>'c
66
cFFF' .'(''' .#@ .#@*9 ]%%5'97

$6c
c

cc
      
                    
              
                   
                 ?        
     
           
                         
             
                                
     
          C     ?   
  ?                 
              
          
                      
             
c
c A l ci c
                            
       C                    
             !        
    
"                          # 
                  
 !                  " $  
    
             %        
   &                      
                        
                          
    C            C           
       C 
  ! C        
                C             
       C           '(  )   !   

                          
                        
            !                  

 

     $     %           
*++G,,-

G 

. c #cRR8cKcc.#c*"##c.c(#,(('cc(#9#(c9# ?(cc
.# (c-c"#c c ,C#c.c(,#c)c9(#c.c9(9(c0,c-c9*.#c
c #c (#*(c (#c c (#c #( 8c  #(,#c .c c ,#..c
#( c)c(# Mc#c*9 c2**(-#3c9#.#c. c(#'c
c c9#.#c9# ?(#cc-c+.#c ,c9#(#8c-#c (#*#c (#c,c?(, #c
c c #,('c c #"#8c * c #c "8c -c 9,#c  c #*"c .c #c
(#*(c 9#c (*c .c *,(-#c (#8c )c #c -c -(-#c 0,c #c 9.#c
9# ?(#cc(,.c .c ###Mc-#c #c (#*9E#c ."c  c )c ,(-c
9#c ,c 9#)(#c .( 8c * c )c 9# ?(#'c
-#c "c 0,c c (#c 78c
#*#c(#c9# ?(#6: 'c
c,c(c9#c9c. c9#.c9# ?(#8c-c(#",.#cc c9## +(c
.c c.(8c0,c cc,9c c (c9,*c* 8c9c9#9#c,c
,c *c .c c 9#c 9c .c c .*(c #( 'c c 9#9,c
< #)(#c.c )c. c(#*9#c"C.#c
,#*#c)c(#*(c*#=c
c c (#c  c *#. #c .c .*(c #( (#8c ((+.#c 9#c  c
.9#*#8c ,#*#c )c 9#c c *9#(c .c ,c *#. #c (,#" c .c
.# #c # " 8c #"9.#c c ,c +c c (c #( c )c (, D.#c (#c #c
(#*(c,#*#cc c(# 'ccc.#8cc*9#cE c0,c  c
#)(#c .c )c Dc .#c *9, .#c 9#c #+(#c .c (#*(8c c *Dc .c
/,)8c .c (-(-8c
+,)c )c #C'c #c ##c .#8c c 9## +(c .c c
.(c #c -c .#c ,8c )c -c (#,.#c ,c ,*#c (+c 9c #c ,c
*(c )c ." *#c .c c #+('c c -(-#c c .(c c c 0,c
9c c #+(#c .c (#*(c c /,)c 0,c c (#9,c c
.(c .c #*(c #c . c /,)8c "C#c c 9.(c .c  "-c
 (#8c)c c.(c.c,(#c.c#*(c#c. c/,)8c"C#c
c .(c.c#c# .#c<*"#c(9.#c9#c
+c
 =8c?c(#*#c(#c c
.(c .c #*(c .c c -?8c "C#c c .(c .c c )c ,#c
<(9.#c 9#c  c .#c #( (#@.c .c /,#='c  c ((#*#c ,c
.c c #(c .c c 9#c c  c (.#c  8c (,.#c c .c
.(c9(#8c9.*8c(#c c,(9#c)c c/#"(c9c #c,c
# ,(c c9#" *c.c,c*.#64'c
c c *8c  c ,#c  ,C#c .c(,#c )c 9(#c .c 9(9(c "#c (#c c
.c c/#"#c.c
+c
 8c,*.#cc c (c(  c(#c c0,c-c
*C.#c.(# *c #c(# (#c c,#..c *,(9 8cDc .#cc c
#+(c c ,c (8c (#(,(c .c c ,(-c .c 9#.c 0,c c -c "#c  c
#8c2 c9#" *cc0,c#.#c0,cc 8c)c.c0,cc# ..#36>'c
c9#c#c0,c*,(-#c.c-c#c c(..c.c(##(c cc.#8c
c c .c (#.c c #c (#*9E#c )c (#*9Ec #c  c *##c .c c ,(-8c
,9.#c c (c9.c0,c-c.#c." .#c c*#*#c)c*(.#c,c
?c 0,c  Cc (.c +c *Dc c "c .c c .('c Kc  ,((8c *"c
(#.(#c 9,.c (#7!c #c *#*#c c .c .#c )c ,c . c *c
,(# Mcc(9cc(-+c #c?(, #8c)c c**#c*9#c",(c,9 #8c
" (.#c,c.#" c(, (c.c,##*?c)c.c.9.(c0,c((+c c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
6:
cccI,c#'c1%c.cI,#c. c$%%>'c
64
c c*)#?c.c(#*(c#cc#*('c #c(#*9E#c0,c-c,*.#c c.(8c9#c
,c 9# ?(*8c c # .c .c c ..c (..c .c #c (#*(8c *c .#c
,* +.#c9#c #c9# ?(#c.c,#8c0,c.,c c ((#c*9cc(,.c.c###'c
ccI,c#c1%c.cC,#c. c$%%>'c
6>
cI,c#'cc1%c.cC,#c. c$%%>'c

$:c
c
*c9# ?(c)c c (cc #c*#*#c)c #c9#(#c.c9(c)c.c
.(' ;%c (-c (#7(c .9.?c . c .#c .c 9..c  c . c
*#*#8c )c #c # #c .c ,c .(8c .#c . c *c 9# ?(#'c c 9#" ..c .c
0,c c .*.c (# (cc*9 ?c )c (,c 9(#c .9.c . c *#.#c c  c
(, c #c (#c 9# ?(#c #c .,(c c ?c .c .*#((c c .*.c
9#c.c c((c(# (c< ,((c&>>6!c$1&='c
c
u.c?ibliografía

..8cRc<$%%;='cIcc/,)0, !c.c c(,.. c# +cc c *9+c


. c9(#c9K" (#'c ,c #(..8c #c$%%!c46@>6'c

..8c Rc <$%%:='c c .#*((c .c #c ,"c c  c /,)0, c


#*9#D#'c  c ,*'c$:!c6&@;5'c

,+c ( 8c I, #Mc  #c +#8c  Mc -D+c /(?8c I(PMc ,9Ec
/*+8c"-Mc/,c.8cGH(#Mc c/#+ 8c #Mc .#.#cL9#8c

.)Mc ?#c 8c


.Hc <$%%6='c
,#c .c +c (#*#c # ?(c .c
# ...c 9c  c # #c #( c c 9(9#!c ,c 9#9,c c (#c . c
.*9 #c# ,#c)c(#((c.c #c#c,"#'c (c #(# 'c
..c#*9 ,c.c..'c
#c
.8c /#+ #c <&>4%='c #*#c #( c ,"#c c N,#!c 2 c #*Hc
. c ," #3'cc9cc c#"(c . c?, #c.c *c c(c #( 8c(#c
*(cc,.#c. c # #'c
 @(,.#'c
,"#c.c 8c 9c<$%%>='c c ,(-c9#c/,)0, 'c  c ,*'c11!c$&@$;'c
#8c.#c <$%%5='c #c (#c -(#c c c c . 'c  c ,*'c $%!c
16@55'c
 8c, c<&>4;='c c(,..c)c c*'c #(# #?c.c #c*#*#c#( c
,"#'c..!c
+c.# 'cc
-()c
c ?c
7.'c (#(#(-c I*H+c c <$%%$='c  c (#,*#c
(, , c . c 9(#c 9K" (#c .c Cc .c (#c 9#9, c c c (c
"Mc#c* (c$%%%'c(,.#!c(, .c.c#*,((c(cGc.c c
..c c /.'c "C#c  c 9c c #"(c . c ?, #c .c ((.#c c
#*,((c #( 'cc
 .#c#"#8c0,c#"#8c#.cc/" c<$%%&='cc(#c
/'c c(*"#c.c/,)0, 'c,.#c9 *c9c,c9#9,c.c(#*,((c
, c #"c *#c ,"#c .c #c (,..#'c (,.#!c c  c 9c c
#"(c . c ?, #c .c ((.#c c (#*,((c #( c (#c *(c c .E#c
D(#c <*, *.=c )c ((c .c  'c (, .c .c #*,((c (c
Gc.c c..cc/.'cc
c c#c
,+8c (c<$%%5='c #c ##'c c(c#(, c.c c"((cc c
(,.#'c(,.#!c
")c 8cc
c #,c #8c#,c<$%%&='c #c,#c*#*#c#( 'c
 "c
6!c&::@$41'c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
;%
c ,((8c
"#'c c(# (#c )c c !c *#*#c#( c )c*c 9# ?(#'c # (# (8cE#c
&%8c,*#c$48c
(#8c( c)c*#*#c#( c'c)#c
##c&>>6'c

$4c
c
9-8c/)c<$%%6='c c *##c(#*#c .#*((c.c c(, ,'c#*#c
 c #c.c  c$%'c  8c ,*'c$&!c;>@::'cc
D.+c #c c <$%%;='c V%  %   
$ Ô 
  
 

  +   2     4 'c
!c #*c # c .c (c

 'c
 #c
,8c Rc <$%%:='c * +(c .c c ".c .c 79!c 9#c
#( c)c.*(c #( cc/,)0, 'c  'c ,*'c$:'c
/(H8c -c <$%%5='c i7( ,c (#,!c c #+(#c 9 c )c #c @
#( cc c#(c,"c.c/,)0, i  'c ,*'c$%!c61@;1'c
/(?c 8c O #c <$%%&='c c ,(,c .c #c *#*#c #( c c # 'c

 "c6!c$41@$>:'c
G)8c .c<$%%5='c c,#c*9 *#!c
(,*, (c9#c.9#'c #( c
'c
G)8c .c <$%%4='c c (-#cc c (,..'c-(#!c #( c (## c.c# (c
-#,!c1@$1'c
I(#*8c ,Mc c #Mc#8c#"c<&>>4='c # ?(c(#(#*(8c.",(c
.c c 0,+c )c 9#"+c c  c (,.#'c #(,*#c 99.#c 9c 9#)(#c
  
8c2 # ?(c*(#(#*(8c.",(c)c9#"+3'c
L*c /(H8c .,.#c <$%%5='c *##8c 9# ?(c .c c **#c c
,(# +(c.c c(, ,'c  'c ,*c$%!c$;@15'c
cI#c<&>4:='c  *#c)c9# ?(cc(#c,"#'cN,#!c(,.#c "c
<#c
.#c.c
((c #9, c

=c #c&18c*)#'c
L# c -*"8c #.# #c <$%%:='c  7c )c (!c .D ##c . c c (#c c
(c,"cc/,)0, 'c  8c ,*'c$:!c::@4>'cc
?+c  8c ,(#c <$%%5='c c 9(..c "# 8c *(c .c c * c
( ..c. c*9 #'cN,#!c,.#c
 'c
 ,((8c
"#c <&>>6='c  c (# (#c )c c  !c *#*#c #( c )c *c
9# ?(#'c #(# (8c E#c &%8c ,*#c $48c
(#8c ( c )c *#*#c #( c 'c
-9!FFF'#(# #('(#*'*79.$4&%'9.c<.cc*)#c4c.c$%%>='c
*?+c / #8c P c <$%%$='c 9 ,c .c c .('c *9,@ 
c
H(c)c# cc c(,.#c.cc.c #'c#c.c(#c
@
(, .c.c(cG,*c 'cN,#!c #(c.c

c,.#c(,##'cc
#Cc c /,. ,9c<&>4;='c  c (#*(#c *#c c /,)0, 8c ,c 9#" *D(c
#(#(#*(c )c #*c .c #+('c N,#!c (,.#c "c<#c
.#c .c

((c #9, c

=c #c&&8cC,#'c
#c?(#cG,#c<&>46='c c *,(9#!c.*.#c#c9#.c #( 'cN,#!c(,.#c
"c<#c
.#c.c
((c #9, c

=c #c:8c#'c
"(-8cK c<$%%1='c #c*#*#c#( c #*(#!c.(c)c.?#'c

c>!c&46@&44'c
c
c
c

$>c
c