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Application of 3D-3C seismic exploration in Saihantala lithologic reservoirs

Zou Xuefeng*, Deng Zhiwen, Cui Shitian, He Yong, Bai Xuming, Guo Xiangyu, Wang Jiushuan, Tang Chuanzhang,
Li Haidong, BGP, CNPC

Summary Data processing

The ongoing exploration in the Saihantala Depression has C-wave data processing features a four parameter velocity
been focused on lithologic reservoirs. It is difficult to analysis and anisotropic PSTM technology. The obtained
reduce ambiguity and to assess uncertainty in seismic C-wave data and resulting C-wave imaging are dramatically
lithology discrimination and fluid type identification using improved.
conventional compressional wave (P-wave) exploration. A
three dimensional, three component (3D-3C) seismic survey Due to the approximate nature of the calculation of the
with P-wave source and 3C geophones has been performed in common conversion point (CCP) of C-wave data, and due to
the study region, taking advantage of combining P-wave and the fact that C-wave dip moveout (DMO) is strongly
converted wave (C-wave or PS-wave) exploration. Instead velocity-dependent, the C-wave PSTM method is used to
of using vibroseis, a dynamite source is used to improve the avoid the CCP calculation and to improve C-wave imaging.
signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and bandwidth of the C-wave data. C-wave anisotropic PSTM can be calculated as follows:
High quality C-wave imaging has been achieved using
tc 0 ( )
x 2p 1 + γ eff (1 + γ 0 )
four-parameter velocity analysis and anisotropic pre-stack tc = 1+ − 2η eff Δt 2p + (1)
time migration (PSTM). Sedimentary facies have been well 1+ γ 0 Vc22 t c20γ eff
discriminated using the obtained Vp/Vs ratios in the target tc0 ∗ γ 0 x s2 (1 + γ eff )(1 + γ 0 )
layer. Our study shows that the combined exploration method 1+ − 2ξ eff Δt 2p
effectively characterizes the lithologic reservoir. 1+ γ 0 Vc22 t c20γ 0
where ηeff and ξ eff are the effective anisotropic
Introduction parameters for P and S waves, respectively. Two other
anisotropic parameters, χ eff and ξ eff , are defined as,
Since the 1990s, 3D exploration has been carried out in the
main area of the Saihantala Depression, located in the Inner χ eff = γ 0γ eff
ηeff − ξ eff = (γ 0 − 1)γ eff
ηeff (2)
Mongolia. The inferior technology and equipment used in
exploration resulted in poor quality seismic profiles with ξ eff = γ eff
ηeff (3)
insufficient resolution for recognizing lithologic traps or
predicting lithologic stratigraphic reservoirs. Therefore
3D-3C, a more advanced technology, is needed in seismic C-wave imaging using PSTM can be obtained in four steps:
exploration in the Saihantala region. 3D-3C exploration 1) Estimation of the four parameters follows Li and Yuan
makes use of P-wave and C-wave data together to improve (2003) to obtain the ACP stack velocity model. The four
the accuracy of reservoir predication, structural imaging, parameters are VC2, γ0, γeff and χeff and can be estimated
lithology identification, and fluid detection. In this study the as follows (for qualifying the C-wave zero-dip response
Saizhong Sag of the Saihantala Depression is selected to for VTI media).
apply the 3D-3C exploration survey. High-quality P-wave x2 A4 x 4
and C-wave data have been achieved using 3C seismic data tc2 = tc20 + + (4)
acquisition, processing, and interpretation. Vc22 1 + A5 x 2

Data acquisition (γ 0γ eff )

− 1 2 + 8(1 + γ 0 )χ eff (5)
A4 = −
To ensure the uniform distribution of CCP fold coverage and 4t c20Vc42γ 0 (1 + γ eff )2
offsets, the following geometry is used: a 12-line, 6-shot, 234
trace oblique pattern with a bin of 20m×20m, 78 coverage,
A5 =
A4Vc22 (1 + γ 0 )γ eff (γ 0 − 1)γ eff
+ 2 χ eff ] (6)
(1 − γ 0γ eff ) − 2(1 + γ 0 )γ eff χ eff
small rolling interval of scroll one line, and 4,875 m long
spread. Dynamite is used as the source, improving S/N ratio ( )
γ 0 − 1 γ eff

and bandwidth of the obtained C-wave data, compared with VC2 is the C-wave stack velocity; γ0 and γeff are the
traditional vibroseis (Figure 1). vertical and effective P and S wave velocity ratios; χeff is
the anisotropic parameter defined in Eq. (2). Figure 2
Conducting a multiwave uphole survey to investigate P and S shows non-hyperbolic DMO velocity analysis of
wave near surface parameters, C-wave statics were calculated C-wave and the dynamic correction gathers of traces
correctly, and a precise surface structure was obtained.

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using different parameters. following features:

2) Obtain common imaging point (CIP) gathers by using 1)Compressed velocity ratio of layers can reflect the
the estimated parameters and velocity model for PSTM distribution of the fan bodies effectively;
(first iteration). 2)The velocity ratios of the fan bodies are low, and the
3) Perform another PSTM at the selected CIP points and velocity ratios of mudstones in the center of lacustrine basin
update the C-wave prestack migration velocity model are high;
(V cmig, γ 0 , γ eff , χ eff ) by migration velocity analysis. 3)The velocity ratio chart reflects the provenance of the
Vcmig is the C-wave migration velocity. steep slope and the ramp.
4) Conduct the final PSTM imaging using Eq. (1). Repeat Because of the large inclination of structure and fault
Steps (2) and (3) until the optimal velocity is obtained. development in the research area, joint post-stack inversion
of the PP and PS waves has been performed. By analyzing
Data interpretation the cross-well profiles of P and S wave impedance, it is
shown that mudstone is low impedance, while sandstone is
With P and S wave joint interpretation, sedimentary facies high and the conglomerate is even higher impedance. The
have been well discriminated using the obtained P and S conglomerate develops at the heading wall of the steep slope.
wave velocity ratios in the target layer. P and S wave joint
inversion clearly identifies the lithologies of reservoirs. Applications

P and S wave velocity ratio (gamma) can be estimated using Figure 3 shows anisotropic P-wave and C-wave PSTM
different approaches. profiles. It is shown that both P-wave and P-SV wave
1) Layer method reflection imaging features high S/N ratio and can be used for
This is the most common method. If there are more than horizon correlating and layer tracking. Figure 4 shows the
two layers identified in the PP and PS wave seismic profiles, distribution of P and S wave velocity ratios for identification
gamma would be calculated in the corresponding layer. of sedimentary facies. In the southeast part of the study area,
The formula of gamma is given by: the velocity ratio of the nearshore subaqueous fans is low.
The ratio increases in the center of the lacustrine basin
Vp 2h Δt pp 2Δt ps − Δt pp (7) because of the development of mudstones in the middle of
γ= = =
Vs (
2h 2Δt ps − Δt pp ) Δt pp the research area. In the west and north parts of the study area,
the velocity ratio of the fan delta front increases even more.
2) Correlation method The distribution of identified sedimentary facies correlates
This method can be summarized as follows: first, scan a with local geology.
range of gamma values within a short time interval, and then
calculate the correlation of the PP and PS seismic gathers, Figure 5 shows the cross-well profile of inverted P and S
and display the result with a contour image, similar to the wave impedance. The wells are S84, S85, S68, S66, S80, and
energy groups in velocity analysis. The optimal gamma is S79 in order. From the inversion profiles, we can see that the
chosen at the maximum correlation. The calculated gamma sandstones in Sand Groups IV and V become thinner in order
profiles at different locations could be interpolated to a 3D from S79, S80, S66, and S68. The sedimentary facies change
gamma distribution, which would be available to compress gradually from the root to middle of the alluvial fan, and then
PS data to the PP time domain. to turbidity fan and semi-deep lacustrine. S79 and S80 are a
3) Dual-inversion method part of the mid-fan and S66 is the turbidity fan while S68 is
The dual-inversion can be used to obtain a gamma near the lake area with thickening mudstone and thinning
profile at each CDP position, which could match the PP and sandstone. The sandstones near wells S84 and S85 are a small
PS data body. fan and come from the hanging wall of the ramp.
4) The well-logging curve method
The gamma curve can be derived from the well-logging
curve. In this study, a 3D-3C seismic survey has been performed in
the Saizhong Sag of the Saihantala Depression. Based on the
In this study, the layer method is used to calculate average obtained results, we can draw the following conclusions.
Vp/Vs ratios. Velocity ratio can reflect the sedimentary and 1)Good imaging of P and P-SV waves with continuity in
the petroliferous characteristics of reservoirs. In general, a the reflection horizons is obtained and can be used for
low ratio suggests sandstone and a high ratio corresponds to horizon correlating and tracing.
the mudstone. The presence of oil and/or gas in sandstones 2)P and S wave joint inversion predict the reservoirs
lower the ratio dramatically. Our study demonstrates the

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and sand bodies better than P wave alone. Acknowledgement

3)The predicted distribution of sedimentary facies using
P and S wave velocity ratios correlates well with geological This work was supervised by Chief Engineer Xiangyu Guo,
information. Assistant Chief Engineer Jiushuan Wang, and Lina Huo in
the BGP Institute Processing Center.

Figure 1: Comparison of dynamite and vibroseis at 5-10 Hz. Shown are the dynamite at 23 m (left), variable frequency vibrator
(center), and liner sweep vibroseis (right).

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Figure 2: Four-parameter velocity analysis of C-wave (A) and dynamic correction gathers of traces using different parameters (B,
C, and D). B) Vc, hyperbolic moveout correction, only the near offset events are flattened; C) γ0, γeff, non-hyperbolic moveout
correction, the intermediate offset events are flattened; and D) χ, non-hyperbolic moveout, the far offset events are flattened.

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Figure 3: PSTM profiles of a P-wave (left) and a converted-wave (right)

Sand Group Ⅳ
layer velocity ratio



Figure 4: Plan view map of average Vp/Vs distribution of Sand Group IV

Sand 4s
layer 5s


Sand 4s
layer 5s


Oil-bearing Oil
formation layer

Figure 5: P (top) and S (bottom) wave impedance profiles inverted from cross wells (S84, S85, S68, S66, S80, S79)

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Note: This reference list is a copy-edited version of the reference list submitted by the author. Reference lists for the 2009
SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts have been copy edited so that references provided with the online metadata for
each paper will achieve a high degree of linking to cited sources that appear on the Web.

Li, X. Y., and J. Yuan, 2003, Converted-wave moveout and conversion point equation in layered VTI media: Theory and
application: Journal of Applied Geophysics, 54, 297–318.
Yuan, J., X. Y. Li, and A. Ziolkowski, 2001, Converted wave move out analysis in layered anisotropic media: A case study: 63rd
Annual Conference and Exhibition, EAGE, Extended Abstracts, L027.

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