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compression: computational aspects

(1) Department of Construction and Transportation, University of Padova, Italy

(2) Department of Architectural Construction, IUAV - Venice, Italy

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the mechanical behaviour of masonry prism under typical laboratory testing conditions, such as uniaxial compression, was

simulated by means of finite element analysis by both two-dimensional and three dimensional models. The analyses were performed by assuming

damage constitutive law for the component materials (mortar and bricks). The effect of lateral stresses arising from the Poisson's effect is

emphasised and the main failure mechanism is identified, demonstrating the inability of usual plain-stress and plain-strain 2-D analysis to capture

the actual structural response in the most common practical cases. A modified 2-D model accounting for the out-of-plane interaction between

mortar and units is therefore proposed and comparative stress-strain diagrams are presented.

1359-5997 9 2004 RILEM. All rights reserved.

RI~SUMI~

Dans cet article, on analyse le comportement m~canique de briques sous chargement &pique de laboratoire, comme par exemple compression

uniaxiale, grdce (I la m(thode des Ol~mentsfinis avec des modkles 21) et 3D. L 'endommagement est pris en compte pour les dew: mat(riaux (briques et

mortier). On met en avant les effets de tension lat~rale provenant du coeflqcient de Poisson et on identifie les m(canismes principaux de rupture,

d~montrant l 'inccqJacit(des rnodkles 2D de tension plane de reproduire le comportement du mate'riau. On propose donc an modkle modifi~ 21:)qui prend

en eompte les interactions hors du plan entre le mortier et une brique, et on prOsente une comparaison tension-d~formation entre les deux modkles.

compressive strength of the masonry may greatly exceed the

The behaviour of masonry subjected to compression in the cube crushing strength of the mortar, while it remains lower

direction normal to the bed joints has widely been studied and than the compressive strength of the unit.

many investigations, based on experimental as well as Some interesting experimental tests about the effect of the

numerical approaches, (e.g. [1-5]) have been carried out. properties of bed materials have been conducted e.g. by the

The failure of masonry in compression depends basically Structural Clay Products Research Foundation in the United

on the interaction of unit and mortar joint as the result of their States [7], by Morsy [8], and by Binda et al. [3].

different deformation characteristics. In particular, the The other basic factor affecting the masonry compressive

difference of the elastic properties of the component materials strength (and the correspondent failure mode) is the transverse

strongly influences the failure mode which can cause either tensile strength of the units. It is influenced by the clay quality,

tension cracks parallel to the direction of loading or a kind of the fLring temperature, the porosity, etc, Schubert in [9] has

shear failure along some lines of weakness [6]. The latter evidenced some other factors which may be fundamental in

occurs in some cases when the mortar mechanical characterizing the tensile strength of the unit (e.g. the inner

characteristics are similar, or even greater than, the unit ones stresses caused by firing and cooling, as well as cracks due to

(i.e. certain types of concrete brickwork), while the first mode draining and firing for clay bricks; the matrix strength -

of failure, i.e. the usual tensile splitting failure, always occurs binding agents, finest material, water - as well as the bonding

when the units, which are stiffer than mortar, restrain the with the aggregates for calcium silicate and concrete units; the

lateral defornaation of the mortar leading to a state of triaxial percentage and pattern of perforation in case of perforated

compression in the mortar and compression/biaxial tension in units). All these parameters together with the texture, and the

doi:10.1617/14096

250 L. Berto et al. / Materials' and Structures 38 (2005) 249-256

Cry

compressive behaviour, so that various experimental results

have been carried out during the years.

Anyway, the response of masonry under ulaiaxial

compression is the object of a long-going debate among

researches and is out of the aims of this study. A discussion

can be found in [6, 9, 10].

The goal of the present paper is to investigate whether the

proposed numerical analyses can reproduce the actual response

of masonry under compression. Moreover, the effect of the

presence of out-of-plane stresses oz is carefully analysed, by

considering the usual case with mortar weaker than units and its ~y

complementary case, although this one rarely occurs. Therefore

finite element analyses were performed to characterize the Fig. 1 - Brick-mortar prism subjected to compression orthogonal

mechanical and structural behaviour of a masonry prism in to the bed joints.

compression, with particular attention to the lateral stress

effects. The study has been carried out by assuming a non linear component materials and a uniform stress state holding in

behaviour for both the mortar and bricks. the specimen.

It is worth nothing that the importance of the out-of-plane With such hypotheses the lateral strains in the bricks and

stresses in the vertical uniaxial compression of masonry and in the mortar joints in the x and z directions can be easily

the benefit derived from numerical methods able to capture derived:

them have been underlined by Pegon and Anthoine in [11],

b_ 1 b

who have preferred the generalized plane stress analysis

instead of the plane stress, and by Lourengo [12].

Within the isotropic damage approach, firstly a fully 3D b 1 b

analysis is carried out in order to capture the real behaviour of (1)

the sample; then a usual 2D stress plane analysis is considered.

Finally the same 2D analysis is enhanced by implementing in gxm = F o1mr n[-E • _ v r n ( ~ y + O . 2 ) l

the finite element code the formulae which provide the lateral

stresses ~z in mortar and brick. The obtained results are then s = FOmEm

1 [ z -vm(Oy+Om)l

compared.

These analyses have been performed for two cases where Eb and ETM are the Young's moduli of brick and

characterised by a different ratio between the elastic properties mortar respectively, and v b and v m the corresponding

of the masonry components. The comparison of the obtained Poisson's ratios.

results shows that only a numerical analysis which takes into As the lateral strains in the bricks and mortar at their

account the presence of stresses crz is able to reproduce the real interface are the same, we have:

compressive strength and failure mode of masonry in

whichever situation, while the usual 2D plane stress analysis b m and b m

ex = gx ~z = ez (2)

may significantly underestimate the peak strength and

incorrectly predict the failure mode in the more common Besides, for the equilibrium, the total lateral force in the

situations in which the mortar is weaker than the units. mortar must be equal to the ones in the bricks; hence, by

Obviously, the 2D plane strain analysis approach is not assuming that each of the component materials is subjected

suitable for the analysis of masonry, since it leads to to a uniform stress state, it follows:

overestimate the compressive stresses % in both the mortar m b

and bricks. Finally, it is worth underlining that the proposed % = - ~ ~x (3)

analyses deal with the mechanical behaviour of brickwork type m b

(5"z = -Or (5"z

masonry, characterized by a ratio of joint thickness to unit

height ranging from 0.15-0.2. where c~ is the ratio of the height of the unit and the

thickness of the mortar joints.

The substitution of the formulae(l) together with (3) in

2. COMPRESSION BEHAVIOUR BASED Equations (2), with the introduction of the dimensionless

ON ELASTIC ANALYSIS parameter t3 = Eb/E ra, gives:

b _ b O'Y( -13Vm + v b )

A simple and very intuitive way to estimate the lateral

(5"x -- r =

stresses induced by a vertical compression load in a 1 + a[~ --Vb -- al~V m (4)

masonry prism can be derived from the classical continuum

conditions (e.g. [6, 13]). m _ m =

1 + otl3 --V b -- U,~V m

axial compressive test along y direction (Fig. 1) by

assuming a linear elastic isotropic hehaviour for the that provide the relationships between the lateral stresses in the

L. Berto et al. / Materials and Structures 38 (2005) 249-256 251

b

~y is a typical condition for panels and shear walls.

The properties of masonry to be introduced in the macro-

Cyb models may be derived from specific experimental tests as

b

(Yx z well as from homogeneization techniques or by means of

b

b ~x micro-modeling analyses. In the two last cases, the evaluation

CYz

of masonry properties should be performed by considering the

b

Gy importance of the 3D effect for masonry subjected to uniaxial

in compression, even if full three- dimensional analyses can not

O'y in

in (3"z

be afforded because too expensive in computing terms. In the

(Yx In case of homogeneization approach, such a concept is stressed

m O"x also by Pegon and Anthoine in [11] and Lourengo in [12].

CYz

in In the following the micro-modelling technique is adopted

(Yy

to analyse the response of masonry under compression.

Bricks and mortar are represented by different elements

Fig. 2 - State of stress in the case in which the mortar is weaker whose non linear behaviour is described by means of an

than the units. isotropic damage model. To this aim a full 3D analysis is

component materials and the vertical compressive stress Cry. carried out so that the effect of the out of plane stresses can

In the usual cases characterised by mortar weaker than be captured; then, an enhanced 2D stress plane analysis is

units, from the formulae (4) we can obtain %b = %b >0 and proposed, which includes the 3D effect without turning to a

%m = crm<0 , that lead to a triaxial compression state in the more expensive three dimensional analysis.

mortar and compression/biaxial tension state in the bricks, as

shown in Fig. 2. As a consequence the failure occurs by

4. ISOTROPIC D A M A G E MODEL

splitting in the units with the usual development of tension

cracks parallel to the axis of loading.

In order to investigate the compressive response of

It is worth noting that a compressive vertical load

masonry the non linear behaviour of the component

induces lateral stresses crx (in the plane of masonry) and Crz

materials (mortar and bricks) has been simulated by means

(out of plane of masonry) that are equal to each other.

of a phenomenological isotropic damage model based on

Hence both of them have to be taken into account to

the hypothesis of"strain equivalence"([29-31]).

properly simulate the behaviour of the material.

This model is able to describe the different behaviour of the

material under tensile and compressive loading by introducing

3. NUMERICAL M O D E L L I N G OF two internal independent damage variables d+ and d-(which

vary between 0 and 1). According to this formulation, the

MASONRY

effective stress tensor is split into two components N+ and

N- related to its tensile and compressive components:

Depending on the level of accuracy and the

computational effort required, the numerical analysis of 3

masonry can be performed by following two different

approaches: the micro and the macro-modelling. i=1

Micro-modelling is probably the best tool available to 3 (5)

analyse and understand the real behaviour of masonry, ~- ---- ( - - ~ ) : Z (--~i)Pi | P i = cr -O'+

particularly concerning its local response. Within such an i=1

approach is possible to characterise separately mortar,

blocks and their interfaces, adopting suitable constitutive where Pi ([[Pill = 1) is the unit vector for the direction of the im

laws for each component, which take into account their principal stress, and symbol /. ./. is the MacAuley operator,

different mechanical behaviour ([ 14-19]). which returns the value of the enclosed expression if positive,

On the other side, when large real structures have to be a zero value if negative.

studied in order to capture their global response, the macro- Moreover two equivalent effective stresses are introduced,

modelling is often the only effective option. Within such an one in tension:

approach, masonry is regarded as an equivalent material,

!

where mortar and blocks are melted together, and appropriate z = X/~+ : ~+ (6)

relations are established between averaged masonry strains and

averaged masonry stresses. A number of such models have and one in compression:

been developed (e.g. [20-23]), the most complete reproduce

the masonry as a macroscopically orthotropic material (7)

characterised by a non linear behaviour for each materials axis.

Some of these ([24-27]) have been developed in the where ~o-ct and Z-oct are respectively the octhaedreal normal

framework of damage mechanics, other ones (e.g. [12, 28]) are

stress and the octhaedreal shear stress obtained fi'om N - , and

based on the plasticity theory. Generally these models consider

252 L. Berto et al. / M a t e r i a l s and Structures 38 (2005) 2 4 9 - 2 5 6

increase observed in the biaxial and triaxial compression state. The compressive test is simulated by imposing a history

This set of equations gives a sort of Drucker -Prager failure o f monotonically increasing vertical displacements on the

criterion in the triaxial compression field with a cap - closure top face, while the nodes on the bottom face are restrained

in the tensile field. The intersection o f the damage surface with in the direction o f the load.

the ~3 = 0 plane is depicted in Fig. 3. In the following two different cases will be studied

The assumed constitutive law can be written in the form: characterised respectively by mortar weaker or stronger than

the units. The first case (i.e. mortar weaker than bricks) is the

most common in classical brickwork; it will be analysed by

using the previously described damage model and by

The evolution laws o f the damage variables d + and d are assuming for the constituent materials the properties

expressed respectively as function of ~+ and ~- : summarised in Table 1. The second analysis is performed by

considering the strength and the Young's modulus E m o f the

+ mortar 25 % higher than the units ones, and the Poisson's

d + = l-r~ -e ~" ~" tO)) moduli v m = v b =0.1.

u (9)

5.1 F i r s t case : m o r t a r w e a k e r t h a n u n i t s

rE l x

d- = 1- ~--x--.,I-B-,-B-.e -

5.1.1 319 analysis

where A + is dependent on some characteristics of the material In order to accurately simulate the real response o f the

and of the adopted mesh, A and B are material parameters specimen a three-dimensional numerical analysis has been

which describe the compressive constitutive law.

Fig. 4 shows the constitutive curves ~ - e for both cases of

uniaxial tension and compression.

All the details about the formulation o f this model and the

strategy adopted to control the mesh-dependency are described 115

in [31-33].

SUBJECTED TO UNIAXIAL

COMPRESSION LOAD

'I

1

Fig. 5 - Case study: masonry prism.

151

Table 1 - Material parameters of the tested specimen

mortar brick

Young's modulus (MPa) E = 6000 E = 15000

Fig. 3 - Initial damage surface adopted in the model. in compression (MPa)

Uniaxial compressive strength ~'lV =5 fl~) = 14.9

(MPa)

Strain

Uniaxial tensile strength (MPa) Jo+ =1.3 J'0+ = 1.4

Fig. 4 - Constitutive law adopted in the model. Rate fzD /flD R0 = 1.25 R0 = 1.1

L. Berto et al. / Materials and Structures 38 (2005) 249-256 253

Fig. 6 - 3D finite element mesh. Fig. 8 - Bi-dimensional analysis. Finite element mesh.

failure: (a) tensile damage d+; (b) compressive damage d. Fig. 9 - First case. Plane stress analysis - Contours of the damage

variables at failure: (a) tensile damage d§ (b) compressivedamage d-.

performed.

The modelling of the sample is carried out with a structured take into account the occurrence of the out of plane stresses Cyz.

mesh made up of with 3400 8-noded brick element. The As a consequence, this technique underestimates the real

adopted finite element mesh is depicted in Fig. 6. compressive strength of the mortar (which is, in this case,

The damage contours at failure are shown in Fig. 7. As subjected to a triaxial compressive state of stress) and delays

expected, although the mortar joints are rather damaged in the tensile splitting failure of the bricks.

compression, the failure is governed by the tensile damage 5.1.3 21) analysis- enhanced plane stress approach

in the central brick, while the concurrent lower compressive

damage is due to the tensile-compressive behaviour of the On the basis of the previous considerations a new 2D

brick. Hence the resulting failure mode is tensile splitting analysis has been carried out by implementing in the numerical

on the vertical plane in the middle of the central brick, code the formulae (4) in order to consider the out of plane

which is the usual mode for the case characterised by stresses ~z. In such a way we have developed a method, which

mortar weaker than units. could be called "enhanced plane stress", able to macro-

scopically reproduce in the 2D framework the triaxial effect.

5.1.2 2D analysis -plane stress approach The damage contours obtained by this third numerical

The same analysis has been repeated by following a 2D analysis are given in Fig. 10. It is evident the similarity

approach. In particular, as usual in the numerical modelling between these results and the ones obtained with the "3D

of masonry structures, initially a plane stress analysis has analysis".

been performed. The tensile damage is concentrated in the middle of the

The mesh adopted for the bi-dimensional analysis is central brick, which fails when its tensile strength is

depicted in Fig. 8. It consists of 340 rectangular four noded exhausted, in a completely different way with respect to the

elements. usual 2D analysis.

The obtained results are shown in Fig. 9, in terms of 5.1.4 Results and discussion

damage contours at failure. It is evident that the failure is

connected with the compression damage of the bed joints, A comparison between the results of the three numerical

while the tensile damage is almost negligible and localised tests is given in Fig. 11 in terms of stress-strain curves and

in some edge zones. the following remarks can be made.

It is worth noting that the plane stress analysis, due to its Firstly, as expected (see section 2), the compressive

own characteristics, may not be able to capture the real strength of the sample, which is carried out by the 3D analysis,

behaviour of the masonry in compression, because it does not is nearly 8.5 N/mm 2, which is lower than the compressive

254 L. Berto et al. /Materials and Structures 38 (2005) 249-256

Fig. 10 - First case. Enhanced plane stress - Contours of the Fig. 12 - Second case. 3D analysis - Contours of the damage

damage variables at failure: (a) tensile damage d+; (b) compressive variables before the failure: (a) tensile damage d+; (b) compressive

damage d-. damage d-.

numerical results.

Fig. 13 - Second case. Enhanced plane stress analysis - Contours

strength of the bricks (14.9N/mm2), but higher than the of the damage variables before the failure: (a) tensile damage d+;

uniaxial compressive strength of the mortar (5 N/mmZ). (b) compressive damage d-.

Moreover, we can observe that, in spite of its simplified

formulation, the enhanced plane stress analysis is able to Contrary to the first case, in this situation the mortar,

properly capture the compressive masonry behaviour both in because of its higher stiffness, tends to reduce the lateral

terms of failure mode (as it is proved by the damage contours) strains in the bricks, leading to a state of compression-biaxial

and of peak strength (as proved by the stress-strain diagram). tension in the mortar mad of triaxial compression in the units.

Finally, we can remark that the application of the usual According to such a stress state the numerical results before

"plane stress analysis" in the simulation of the compressive the failure, which are given in terms of damage contours in

response of the masonry may lead to completely incorrect Figs. 12 and 13 respectively for the 3D and the 2D analysis,

results. In particular, in this first case such a kind of show a significant tensile damage in the mortar joints.

analysis not only has underestimated the real compressive The increasing of this damage in the joints is related to a

strength of the sample (nearly one third lower) but has reduction of the stiffness characteristics of the mortar

predicted a failure mode substantially different from the resulting in a reduction of its restraining action. As a

real one (failure due to compression of the bed joints consequence, the collapse is not directly connected with the

instead of tensile splitting of the central brick). damage in the mortar, but, according to what is stated in [6],

a kind of shear failure occurs, as evidenced by the damage

contours in Figs. 14 and 15 and by the deformed mesh at

5.2 S e c o n d case : m o r t a r stronger than units

failure given in Figs. 16 and 17.

To complete this study the three types of numerical Such a behaviour can be ascribed to the phenomenon of

analyses (i.e. 3D - 2D plane stress- 2D enhanced plane stress shear failure which can be found in multiaxial compression

analyses) have also been carried out for the case in which the test of brittle materials, e.g. [34].

mortar is stronger than the units. This situation rarely occurs It is worth noting that the presence of mortar with strength

in the common construction where masonry is usually greater than unit strength, has the effect of restraining lateral

characterised by mortar properties lower or similar to those deformation of the bricks and failure becomes similar of that

of the units. For such a reason in this case we have assumed attainable in a compression test on a brittle material, e.g. [6].

the strength and Young's modulus of the 25% higher than the Similarly Priestley [35] has found that, incorporation of

bricks ones. steel confining plates in the mortar beds dramatically changed

L. Berto et al. /Materials and Structures 38 (2005) 249-256 255

Fig. 14 - Second case. 3D analysis - Contour of the damage

Deformed mesh at failure.

variables at failure: (a) tensile damage d+; (b) compressive

damage d-.

Fig. 15 - Second case. Enhanced plane stress analysis - Contours numerical results.

of the damage variables at failure: (a) tensile damage d+;

that, because of the triaxial compression state in the units, the

(b) compressive damage d-.

compressive strength o f the sample is nearly 16.3 N/ram 2,

which is higher than the tmiaxial compressive strength o f the

brick (14.9 N/ram2).

As in this case the results of the plane stress analysis are

substantially identical to the ones o f the "enhanced plane stress

analysis", for the sake o f brevity the damage contours related

to the first analysis have been omitted, and only the ones

obtained with "the enhanced model" and the "3D model" have

been shown.

The good agreement found between the numerical

results allow to conclude that in such a case the effect o f the

out-of- plane stresses is almost negligible, and for this

reason a simple 2D "plane stress analysis" is able to capture

the real behaviour o f masonry both in terms o f stress-strain

curves and o f failure mode.

Fig. 16 - Second case. 3D analysis - Deformed mesh at failure.

splitting of the blocks was virtually eliminated, with a shear-

compression failure occurring. In lmmerical applications it is commonly adopted a

In this second case, due to its own peculiarity (i.e. mortar description of masonry walls via a plane-stress model. In this

stronger than units) and to the reduced difference existing paper the capability o f such an approach to simulate the

between the elastic properties o f the two component materials, masonry response in compression has been investigated. The

the occurrence of the out o f plane stresses ~z is not essential to results emphasise the need to consider the presence o f the out o f

be considered, as it is proved by the good agreement between plane stresses in the usual case characterised by mortar weaker

the results o f the three numerical analyses given in Fig. 18 in than units. It has been shown that in such a case neglecting

terms of ~-~ curves. Moreover this diagrams allow to note these effects can lead to unacceptable prediction both in term of

256 L. Berto et al. / Materials and Structures 38 (2005) 249-256

peak strength and failure mode. In order to overcome this [16] Loffi, H.R. and Shing, B.P, 'Interface model applied to

problem, without giving up the effectiveness and the efficiency fracture of masonry structures', J. Struc. Engng, ASCE 120 (1)

of the bi-dimensional analysis, a modified 2-D model has been (1994) 63-80.

introduced and validated with the results of a fully 3D analysis. [17] Louren~o, P.B. and Rots, J.G., 'Multisurface interface model

for analysis of masonry structures', J. Engng Mech., ASCE

123 (7) (1997) 660-668.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS [18] Zucchini, A. and Louren~o, P.B., 'A micro-mechanical model

for the homogenisation of masonry', Int. J. Solids and

Structures 39 (2002) 3233-3255.

The financial support of M I U R PRIN 2003 is gratefully [19] Gambarotta, L., Lagomarsino, S. and Morbiducci, R., 'Two-

acknowledged. dimensional finite element simulation of a large scale brick

masonry wall through a continuum damage model' In

'Experimental and numerical investigation on a brick masonry

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