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Proceedings of the Nineteenth (2009) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Osaka, Japan, June 21-26, 2009

Copyright © 2009 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)
ISBN 978-1-880653-53-1 (Set); ISSN 1098-618

Full Scale Experiment for Frictional Resistance Reduction using Air Lubrication Method
C.L. Hoang, Y. Toda, Y. Sanada
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Graduate school of Engineering, Osaka University
Suita, Osaka, Japan

the previous two experiments, the full-scale experiment using the same
ship, Pacific Seagull, was carried out in 2008.

This full-scale experiment was conducted by the cooperative

ABSTRACT research project with National Maritime Research Institute Japan
(NMRI), Hokkaido university, Osaka university and Azuma shipping
This paper describes the full scale experiment using air lubrication company. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development
method to reduce the frictional resistance. The full scale experiment Organization (NEDO) sponsored for this project. Kodama (2008)
with the cement carrier Pacific Seagull was conducted from January to showed a brief summary of this full-scale experiment with about 4%
March, 2008. Torque and thrust are decreased due to the effect of net fuel consumption reduction in case of full load condition and 7% in
bubbles. If we assume the value of thrust deduction is constant with case of ballast condition. In this paper, the results from shear stress,
and without bubbles, the effect of bubbles in reducing frictional thrust and torque measurement done by the authors are presented and
resistance or ship resistance is clearly proved by the experimental considered using simple momentum integral equation of the boundary
results. The maximum total resistance reduction in case of ballast layer. The data was taken from January 6th to 11th, 2008.
condition and full load condition are about 11% and 6% respectively.
The mean propeller inflow velocity was increased for with air
lubrication from no air condition due to the viscous resistance reduction. EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENTS
This phenomenon was considered using very simple boundary layer
method. General Arrangement of Experimental Equipments
KEY WORDS: Full scale experiment; energy saving; air The principal dimensions of Pacific Seagull ship are shown in table 1.
lubrication; frictional resistance reduction. In order to conduct the full scale experiment, the ship was equipped
with experimental equipments such as blowers, cameras, ultrasonic
INTRODUCTION velocity profiler (UVP), thrust and torque gauge on the propeller shaft,
shear stress sensor on the hull surface and etc.
Air lubrication method is a promising method to reduce frictional
resistance which is nearly 70% of total resistance of low speed ship. There are 5 sets of blowers, 3 on starboard and 2 on the port side.
Bubbles were injected at the fore bottom part of the ship. After The pressure is 100 kPa. The ability of air supply of one blower is
injection, it is expected that bubbles will cover all the bottom part about 22 m3/min, so maximum bubble generation is 110 m3/min. Air
downstream and take effect on local frictional resistance reduction. was fed from blowers to bubble generation device using the related
In 2002, the full-scale experiment was carried out in SR 239 project for piping system which was installed from the main deck to the bottom of
the first time using the training ship Sein-maru. The net energy saving ship. Three cameras were installed at propeller plane, bubble injector
in that experiment was 2% at air injection rate 40 m3/min. Based on position and near shear stress sensors position. The main purpose of
this result, the effect of bubbles on frictional resistance reduction of these cameras is to capture the images of bubble when blowers were
ship was proved (Nagamatsu et al. 2003). active.

Three years later, in 2005, the second full-scale experiment was done In order to keep bubble more efficiently inside the bottom area of
using the cement carrier Pacific Seagull. This ship has a box shape hull ship, end plates were welded along the side end under the bottom of
and was equipped with blowers which could be used to supply air for ship. These end plates have the same height of 0.15 m and the total
bubbles. However, injected bubbles did not cover the bottom of ship length of end plates is 47.2 m. Figure 1 shows the general arrangement
sufficiently so maximum frictional resistance reduction was only 1% at of equipments in full scale experiment.
air injection of 50 m3/min (Kodama et al. 2007).
Overall brief description of experiments was shown in Kodama(2008).
Based on the results and accumulation of experience obtained from