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Application Data and Selection Procedure

How to Check Horsepower Rating of Design Horsepower
Installed Drive When making drive selections consideration is given to the
1. Determine the types of driving and driven loads and loads imposed on the chain. Service factors based on the
obtain the proper service factor, as explained in Steps 1 type of equipment to be driven (Table I, Page E162) and the
and 2 under Selection Procedures. type of input power (Table II, Page E162) are used to com-
2. Find the multiple strand factor, for the number of chain pensate for these loads.
strands in the drive, from the Multiple Strand Factor Table,
in Horsepower Tables (Page E-186 thru E-192). Horsepower Rating Tables
3. From the horsepower rating table for the chain pitch, read
The horsepower ratings in this catalog apply to lubricated
the figure under the RPM of the small sprocket and to the

single pitch, single strand precision roller chains, both stan-

right of the column giving number of teeth in the small
dard and double pitch roller chain.
4. The horsepower this drive can properly transmit is as The ratings reflect a service factor of 1, a chain length of
follows: approximately 100 pitches, use of recommended lubrication
methods, and a drive arrangement where two aligned
sprockets are mounted on parallel horizontal shafts.
DRIVE CAN = ( Rating Table
Horsepower ) X ( Multiple Strand
Factor ) The horsepower ratings relate to the speed of the smaller
TRANSMIT Service Factor sprocket and drive selections are made on this basis,
whether the drive is speed reducing or speed increasing.
Center Distance For ratings of multiple strand roller chains refer to Multiple
The following general principals should be applied in deter- Strand Factor in Horsepower Tables.
mining shaft center distances. The center distance must
always be greater than one-half the sum of the sprocket out- Lubrication
side diameters to avoid interference of teeth. When the
It has been shown that a separate wedge of fluid lubricant is
speed ratio is greater than 3 to 1, the center distance should
formed in operating chain joints much like that formed in
be not less than the sum of the sprocket diameters. Chain
journal bearings. Therefore, fluid lubricant must be applied to
wrap should be at least 120° of the small sprocket — one-
assure an oil supply to the joints and minimize metal to metal
third of the teeth meshing.
contact. Lubrication, if supplied in sufficient volume, also
Longer center distances give greater chain wrap. For average provides effective cooling and impact damping at the higher
applications a center distance of 30 to 50 pitches of chain is speeds. For this reason, it is important that the lubrication
recommended for best results. For pulsating loads, a center recommendations be followed. The horsepower rating tables
distance of 20 to 30 pitches may be desirable. For center dis- shown throughout this catalog, apply only to drives lubricat-
tances of 80 pitches or greater, idlers or chain guides should ed in the manner specified in the tables.
be used to support the chain. Slightly adjustable center dis-
Chain drives should be protected against dirt and moisture
tances will provide chain tension as the chain elongates with
and the oil supply kept free of contamination. Periodic oil
change is desirable. A good grade of non-detergent petro-
leum base oil is recommended. Heavy oils and grease are
Alignment generally too stiff to enter and fill the chain joints.
Accurate alignment of shafts and sprocket tooth faces pro-
vide uniform distribution of the load across the entire chain
width and contributes substantially to optimum drive life.
Shafting, bearings, and foundations should be suitable to
maintain the initial alignment. Periodic maintenance should
include an inspection of alignment to insure optimum chain


Application Data and Selection Procedure

Types of Lubrication Most roller chain drive applications allow considerable lati-
tude in the selection of sprocket sizes and chain pitch,
There are four basic types of lubrication for chain drives. The although usually one combination will best fulfill the require-
recommended type shown in the horsepower rating tables is ments of power, speed, space limitations and economy.
influenced by chain speed and the amount of power trans-
mitted. These are minimum lubrication requirements and the
use of a better type (for example, Type C instead of Type B) is
Chain and Sprocket Selection
acceptable and may be beneficial. Chain life can vary appre- Procedure Steps:
ciably depending upon the way the drive is lubricated. The 1. Determine class of driven load.
better the lubrication, the longer the chain and sprocket life.
2. Select service factor.
For this reason, it is important that the lubrication recommen-

dations be followed when using the rating tables given in this 3. Calculate design horsepower.
catalog. 4. Select chain pitch.
5. Select number of teeth in small sprocket.
Lubrication 6. Determine number of teeth in larger sprocket.
TYPE A — Manual Lubrication. Oil applied periodically with 7. Determine center distance.
brush or spout can.
8. Calculate chain length.
TYPE B — Oil Bath or Oil Slinger. Oil level maintained in cas-
ing at predetermined height.
Drive Positions
TYPE C — Oil Stream. Oil supplied by circulating pump
inside chain loop on lower span.
NOTE: Drip Lubrication. Oil applied between link plate edges
from a drip lubricator and should be used in clean environ-
ments only.

Selection of Roller Chain Drives

The following information is necessary for the proper selec-
tion and design of Roller Chain Drives:
1. Type of input horsepower (electrical motor, internal com-
bustion engine.) Good Permissible
2. Type of equipment to be driven.
3. Horsepower to be transmitted.
4. Full load speed of the fastest running shaft. (R.P.M.)
5. Desired speed of the slow speed shaft. (R.P.M.)
6. Diameters of the driving and driven shafts.
7. Center to center distance of shafts.
8. Position of drive and space limitations.
Avoid Except with
9. Method of lubrication. Adjustable Centers Avoid
10. Conditions of drive, steady or fluctuating load, hours of
operation, lubrication.


Application Data and Selection Procedure

Step I Step III
Service Classification — Table I Determination of Design Horsepower
Uniform Load Determine the design horsepower of the required drive using the
Agitators, Liquid Generators following procedure.
Blowers, Centrifugal Line Shafts, Even Load 1. Determine Service Classification — Table I. Unlisted equip-
Conveyors, Even Load Machines, Even Load, ment may be classified by its similarity to a listed type.
Elevators, Even Load Non-reversing 2. Using Service Classification and Frequency of Service, select
Fans, Centrifugal Pumps, Centrifugal the Service Factor — Table II. Increase the Service Factor by
adding compensation for unfavorable operating conditions.
Moderate Shock Load

3. Multiply the normal operating horsepower of the drive by the

Beaters Laundry - Washers
Compensated Service Factor to obtain Service Horsepower.
Compressors, and Tumblers
Centrifugal Line Shafts, Uneven Load
Conveyors, Uneven Machines, Pulsating Step IV
Load Load, Non-reversing
Elevators, Uneven Load Pumps, Reciprocating, Triplex
Grinders, Pulp Screens, Rotary, Even Load Drive Selection
Kilns and Dryers Woodworking Machinery Using Design Horsepower computed above, use Trial Selection
Chart (Horsepower Tables) on page E184-E185, or enter tables of
Heavy Shock Load
Horsepower Ratings shown on pages E186 thru E192. Select the
Brick Machines Mills, Hammer, Rolling
smallest pitch chain which has the required horsepower rating for
Compressors or Drawing
a pinion sprocket turning at the specified RPM. Check to be cer-
Reciprocating Presses
tain the selected sprocket has a listed maximum bore large
Crushers Pumps, Reciprocating,
enough to accommodate the specified shaft. The tables on
Machines, Reversing Simplex or Duplex
pages E-158 thru E-159 gives maximum bores for the usual
or Impact Loads
range of driving sprockets.
If the Design Horsepower at the required RPM is greater than the
Step II horsepower rating of the largest pitch chain which can operate at
that speed, a multiple chain drive should be considered for the
Service Factor — Table II
Selection of drives to operate at speeds somewhat below the maxi-
TYPE OF INPUT POWER mum rating will increase the life of the drive and quietness of operation.
Internal Electric Internal
SERVICE Combustion Motor Combustion
CLASSIFICATION Engine with or Engine with Step V
Hydraulic Turbine Mechanical
Drive Drive
Driving Sprocket
Uniform Load 1.0 1.0 1.2
Moderate Shock In selecting the driving sprocket 17 teeth are recommended as
Load 1.2 1.3 1.4 a minimum although 15 teeth are quite often used, and as low as
Heavy Shock 7 teeth can be cut. When the maximum bore of the 17 tooth
Load 1.4 1.5 1.7 sprocket will not accomodate the driving shaft, it is necessary to
go to a sprocket with a greater number of teeth. Hardened teeth
Unfavorable Operating Conditions which may be present are recommended for sprockets with 25 teeth or less.
should be compensated for by adding .2 to the Service Factor for
each unfavorable condition. Some of these conditions are listed
1. Multiple Shafts — add .2 for each additional shaft.
2. Excessive speed ratios — exceeding 7 to 1.
3. Heavy starting loads with frequent starts and stops.
4. Conditions of high temperatures, unusually abrasive condi-
tions, or circumstances decreasing lubrication effectiveness or
not allowing the use of recommended lubrication procedures.


Application Data and Selection Procedure

Step VI Chain Drive Design Example
To select a roller chain drive from a 10 HP electric motor (15⁄8''
Driven Sprocket (Ratio) shaft) 1200 RPM (1150 under load) to a wood working
The number of teeth selected for the driven sprocket machine shaft at 300 RPM on 30'' centers. Drive conditions
depends upon the driving sprocket chosen and the — moderate pulsating load, good lubrication, 10 hour day
desired speed of the driven shaft. When space limitations operation.
are a factor, the diameter of the driven sprocket some- 1. Service class — moderate shock load (Table I).
times determines the final selection of drive.
2. Service factor — 1.3 (Table II).
The recommended maximum speed ratio is 7 to 1,
3. Design HP — 1.3 x 10 = 13 DHP.

although higher ratios are occasionally used. It is usually
better design, however, for large reductions to use a 4. Selection — The Horsepower Ratings on page E-184
double reduction drive. show that either of the following combinations may be
Select the driven sprocket size from the Speed Ratio
Table on page E-170 using the required speed ratio and No. D40-19 Tooth — Smoothest in operation
size of driver sprocket. No. 50-18 Tooth — Lower drive cost
For our purpose we select No. 50 chain and checking the
Step VII bore find that the 15⁄8″ shaft can be accommodated with a
stock bored to size sprocket.
Shaft Centers The driven sprocket is found as follows:
May be calculated from the formula on page E-168 where No. Teeth
the sprocket diameters and chain length are known. Driven
On many applications the motor base is adjustable, allow- Sprocket = 18 x 1150 (Ratio) = 68.99 or 69 Teeth
ing for slight changes in shaft centers. On long centers
some form of chain adjuster or take-up is recommended. Since 69 teeth is not a stock size we select 70 teeth. The
chain length is calculated as shown on page E-169 and is
142 pitches.
Overhung Load
Chain Length
When a Sprocket is mounted on a reducer shaft, a calcula-
On page E-168 is shown a simple method of computing tion should be made to determine the overhung load in
the length of chain necessary for a drive with given pounds using formula on page L-2 in general engineering
sprocket dimensions and center to center distance of section.
shafts. (See chart on page E-169 for length in ft.)