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Circle of Fifths

OF FIFTHS
The Circle of Fifths is a graphical
representation of major and MAJOR
minor key signatures and their
C
THE CIRCLE OF FIFTHS IS A GRAPHICAL
REPRESENTATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR KEY
relationships to
SIGNATURES ANDeach other.
THEIR RELATIONSHIPS

F G
TO EACH OTHER.

B minor
a D
d e
g b

E c f A
f c
b /a g
e/d
A E
MOVING CLOCKWISE AROUND

D/C B
THE CIRCLE, EACH KEY (OR
IN THIS CASE, EACH COLOR)
IS AN ASCENDING FIFTH FROM
THE PREVIOUS KEY. MOVING

G/F
COUNTER-CLOCKWISE, EACH
KEY IS AN ASCENDING FOURTH

Choose your clef


FROM THE PREVIOUS KEY.

CHOOSE YOUR CLEF


MAJOR C G D A E B G /F D /C A E B F

minor a e b f c g e /d b /a f c g d
TREBLE
ALTO
BASS

THE BASICS
Tuba
Symphonic Warm-ups John McAllister
Long Tones 1 q = 100
? 44 ∑ ∑ ∑
w w w bw w w w

11
? U
∑ ∑ ∑
bw w w w w w bw
Long Tones 2
21
? bw ∑ bw ∑ bw ∑
w bw w

30
? bw U
∑ bw ∑ bw
bw w
bw
Long Tones 3
38 (Low)
? ∑ ∑ ∑
bw w bw bw bw w bw bw
Flexibility 1
49
? U
∑ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ ∑ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∑
bw w b˙ ˙

58
? ∑ ∑
bœ b œ œ œ bœ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ b œ œ œ #œ # œ
b˙ ˙ #˙
Flexibility 2
66
? U
∑ bœ œ bœ œ ∑ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ ˙ œ
˙ œ
DO NOT
TONGUE!
73
? ∑ ∑
œ œ bœ œ bœ œ
œ œ ˙ bœ bœ bœ bœ ˙
Copyright 2015 © John McAllister
All Rights Reserved
2 Tuba
78 Flexibility 3
? œ
œ œ œœ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ Œ bœ œ œ b˙ ™ Œ œ #œ œ œ
œ œ bœ
œ œ ˙
85
?
œ œ Œ œ #œ œ œ ˙™ Œ bœ œ œ œ bœ
bœ bœ
Œ bœ œ bœ œ b˙ ™ Œ
œ
92
? œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ
œ œ œ œ œ ˙™
œ
Articulation 1 Articulation 2
96 (on scale) (on scale)
? Ó Ó
œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙

Articulation 3
100
3 3 3 3
?
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ w

105 Art. Exercise


? ^ ^
Œ Œ
œ- œ. ˙ œ. œ œ. œ. œ. >œ œ- bœ- ˙ œ- >œ >œ >˙
b œ œ
œ. œ œ- >œ . . œ. œ. œ œ
. -
Chorale 1 q = 72
112
? 3 U U 4
Œ bb 4 œ œ œ j œ ˙ b 4
>˙ ™ œ™ œ œ œ œ
œ ˙
œ ˙ œ
˙™
˙™
Chorale 2
121
? 44 Œ Œ
b ˙ ˙™ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
˙ ˙ ˙™ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Chorale 3
130
? U U
b bb œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
w ˙ ˙

136
?b U
b ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ w
Concert Pitch Transposition Chart

Concert Pitch: C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B
Db Eb Gb Ab Bb
Concert Pitch Instruments C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B
Transposition: no change
Piccolo, Flute Db Eb Gb Ab Bb
Oboe, Bassoon
Trombone, Baritone B.C., Tuba
Mallet Percussion

Bb Instruments D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C C#
Transposition: up a major 2nd
Clarinet, Bass Clarinet Eb Gb Ab Bb Db
Soprano Saxophone
Tenor Saxophone
Trumpet, Baritone T.C.

Eb Instruments A A# B C C# D D# E F F# G G#
Transposition: down a minor 3rd
Soprano Clarinet Bb Db Eb Gb Ab
Alto Clarinet
Alto Saxophone
Baritone Saxophone

F Instruments G G# A A# B C C# D D# E F F#
Transposition: up a perfect 5th
English Horn Ab Bb Db Eb Gb
French Horn

G Instruments F F# G G# A A# B C C# D D# E
Transposition: up a perfect 4th
Alto Flute Gb Ab Bb Db Eb
+
Brass
  Slides pulled out = flatter, pushed in = sharper
  Temperature:  cold = flat, hot = sharp

  Extreme range:  high = sharp, low can go either way depending


on player’s experience level.

  Dynamic level:  loud = sharp, soft = flat


  Mutes:  straight and harmon = sharp (pull out tuning slide when
using), cup = flat

  Embouchure and voicing:  pinching = sharp, loose = flat.  The


voicing that takes place inside the oral cavity (tongue position)
can also move the pitch up or down.
  Mouthpiece design:  shallow cup = sharp, deep cup = flat

  Trombone players often misplace slide positions.


+
Brass
  Valve combination tendencies:

  Open: in tune
  2nd: in tune
  1st : in tune

  1st, 2nd: littlesharp (3rd valve as substitute = little flat)


  2nd, 3rd: little flat
  1st, 3rd: sharp (trumpets MUST "kick" 3rd valve slide)
  1st, 2nd, 3rd: very sharp (trumpets must kick 3rd valve
slide)
+
Brass
  Overtone series/Partial tendencies:
  1 in tune (1 not available on trumpet)
  2 in tune
  3 slightly sharp (2 vibrations per second)
  4 in tune
  5 slightly flat (some can be lipped, many players use
alternate fingerings)
  6 sharp
  7 very flat
  8 in tune