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4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

CHAPTER 10 : RATE OF REACTION

10.1 : Meaning of Rate of Reaction


1. Rate of reaction is a measurement of the change in quantity of reactant or product in a certain
range of time.

change in quantity of reac tan t / product


Rate of reaction = time taken

2. It is the speed at which reactants are converted into the products in a chemical reaction.
3. A rate of reaction is …………. if the reaction occurs fast within a short period of time.
4. A rate of reaction is…………. if the reaction occurs slowly within a long period of time.
5. Rate of reaction is inversely proportional with time.

1
Rate of reaction ∝ time taken

 The shorter the time taken, the higher the rate of reaction.
 The longer the time taken, the lower the rate of reaction.
6. The change in amout of reactant or product that can be measured by :
 increasing in volume of gas released
 increasing in mass/concentration of product
 decreasing in mass/concentration of reactant
 Formation of precipitate
 changes in pH, temperature or electrical conductivity.
Activity 1:-
Study the reaction between 2.0 g of CaCO3 with excess of 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl.

CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)


Sketch the graph below :
Mass of Concentration of
CaCO3 (g) HCl (mol dm-3 )

Time (s) Time (s)


t
Concentration of Volume of CO2
CaCl2 (mol dm-3 ) gas (cm3)

Chapter 10 Time1(s) Rate of Time


Reaction
(s)
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

10.2 : Measuring the Rate of Reaction

1. Two ways to measure the rate of reaction :


(a) Average Rate Of Reaction
Average rate of reaction =
increa sin g in amount of product // decrea sin g in amount of reac tan t
time taken for the change to occur

Determination the average rate of reaction from the graph :

Volume of gas/cm3 The average rate of reaction for the

whole reaction =
V3
V2
V1

t1 t2 t3 Time/s

( V1 – 0) cm3
The average rate of reaction in the first t1 second =
( t1 – 0 ) s

The average rate of reaction between t1 second and t2 second = ( V2 – V1) cm3
( t2 – t1) s

(b) Instantaneous Rate Of Reaction ( Rate of Reaction at any given time ) :

= the gradient of the graph of the amount of reactant / product against time at any given time.

Volume of
gas/ cm3

V2
The rate of reaction at ta second
= the gradient of tangent to the curve at the given time
∆ y = ∆ y cm3
∆ xs
V1 = V2 - V1
∆ x t2 - t1

Chapter 10 2s
Time/ Rate of Reaction
t1 ta t2
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

Activity 2 :-

An experiment is carried out to determine the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate
and dilute hydrochloric acid. The volumes of carbon dioxide gas evolved at fixed
intervals are recorded.

Graph of the volumes of carbon dioxide gas against time are shown below.

Volume of
carbon dioxide Graph of the volumes of carbon dioxide gas against time
gas /cm3

40

30

20

10

Time/s
40 80 120 160 200

(a) Write an equation for the above reaction.

……….……………………………………………………………………………

(b) Draw a labeled diagram to show the set-up of the apparatus in the experiment.

Chapter 10 3 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

(c) Calculate :

(i) the average rate of reaction for the whole reaction.

(ii) the rate of reaction at 40 second and 80 second.

at 40 second at 80 second

(d) Base on the answer in (c) (ii), which have the higher rate of reaction. Explain your answer.

…………………….……………………………………………………………………………

…………….……………………………………………………………………………………

………………..…………………………………………………………………………………

………………..…………………………………………………………………………………

(e) Suggest another way to increase the rate of above reaction

…………………...……………….……………………………………………………………

…………………...……………….……………………………………………………………

…………………...……………….……………………………………………………………

Chapter 10 4 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

Activity 3 :-

20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 HCl is reacted with magnesium ribbon. The results are shown below.
Time /s 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150
Volume of
0.0 8.5 16.0 22.0 27.5 32.0 36.0 39.0 42.0 44.0 46.0
H2 /cm3

(a) Draw the graph of the volume of hydrogen gas released against time.

Chapter 10 5 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

(b) From the graph, calculate :


(i) the average rate of reaction in the first 20 seconds.

(ii) the average rate of reaction between 30 seconds and 75 seconds.

(iii) the rate of reaction at 30 seconds.

(iv) the rate of reaction at 105 seconds.

(c) Compare the rate of reaction at 30 seconds and 105 seconds. Explain why?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

10.3 : FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION


1. Size of Reactant / Total Surface Area
(a) [ Experiment I ]
The reaction of large pieces of calcium carbonate chips with hydrochloric acid is conducted.
The volume of gas collected in the burette are recorded at every 30 seconds.
[ Experiment II ]
This experiment is repeated using small pieces of calcium carbonate chips.
Temperature, volume and concentration of HCl acid, and the mass of calcium carbonate are
fixed.

(b) Chemical equation for the reaction :


CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

(c) The graph of volume of carbon dioxide gas against time obtained is as shown below :

Volume of CO2 gas / cm3

Experiment I
Large pieces

Experiment II
Small pieces

Time / s
tx ty tz

Based on the graph complete the following statements :


• Average rate of reaction for the whole experiment :
Experiment I Experiment II

p = q =

The value of p is ………………… than q.

Chapter 10 7 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10
 The average rate of reaction in Experiment II is …………………. than Experiment I throughout
the experiment.

• Rate of reaction at a given time :


The gradient of the graph at tx seconds for Experiment II is …………………. than the gradient of
the graph for Experiment I.
The rate of the reaction in Experiment II is …………………. than Experiment I at tx seconds.

• The rate of reaction of the small pieces of calcium carbonate chips is …………………… than the
rate of reaction of the large pieces.
Relationship between the size of marble chips and their total surface area :
 small pieces have a ……………… total surface area than that of large pieces of marble chips of
the same mass.

 The smaller the size of marble chips, the ………………….. the total surface area of marble
chips.
The larger the total surface area of marble chips, the ………………….. the rate of reaction.

 The smaller the size of marble chips, the ………………….. the rate of reaction.

• The maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas collected for both experiments are
…………………. because the …………………. of the reactants are ………………….

Activity 4 :-

A group of students was carried out two experiments to investigate the factor affecting the rate of a
reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

Table below shows information about the reactants used in each experiment.

Experiment Reactants

I Excess zinc granules and 25 cm³ of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.

II Excess zinc powder and 25 cm³ of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.

(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction occur in these experiments.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(b) State the factor that affecting the rate of the reaction of Experiment I and Experiment II.
Chapter 10 8 Rate of Reaction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The graph below shows the result obtained from these experiments.

Volume of gas
collected (cm3)

20

II
15

10

Time (s)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

(c) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I and Experiment II.

(b) Based on the table and graph, compare the rate of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II

……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Chapter 10 9 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. Concentration of Reactant
(a) An experiment to show a reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric
acid acid is conducted.
(b) The rate of reaction is measured by how fast yellow precipitate (sulphur) is formed.
Observation is made on the time taken for the “X” sign placed under the conical flask to disappear
from view.
Temperature, volume and concentration of the hydrochloric acid are fixed but the concentration
of sodium thiosulphate solution is varied.
(c) Chemical equation for the reaction :
Na2S2O3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + S + SO2 + H2O

(d) The graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against time, and the graph of
concentration against 1/time are plotted.

Concentration of Concentration of
Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3 ) Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3 )

Time (s) 1/time (s-1 )

• Concentration is ……………….proportional to time. • Concentration is …………….proportional to 1/time.


When the concentration of Na2S2O3 increases, the time [ 1/time shows the rate of reaction ]
taken for yellow precipitate formed that covers the ‘X’ When the concentration of Na2S2O3 increases, the rate
mark is ……………………….. of reaction is ………………………..

• The higher the concentration of Na2S2O3, (the higher the • The higher the concentration of Na2S2O3, the ………….
number of moles of Na2S2O3, ) the ……………… the ……… the number of particles perunit
number of particles perunit ……………………… ………………….
 Therefore, the ……………… the frequency of  Therefore, the ……………… the frequency of
collision between particles. collisions between particles.
 The ……………… the frequency of effective  The ……………… the frequency of effective
collisions. collisions.
 The ……………… the rate of reaction.  The ……………… the rate of reaction.

Chapter 10 10 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

3. Temperature
()a Study through observation to yellow precipitate (sulphur), the product of the reaction between
sodium thiosulphate solution with hydrochloric acid.
()b In this reaction, the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate solution is changed.
()c All other conditions such as volume and concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution and
hydrochloric acid is remain constant.
()d Time taken for certain amount of the yellow precipitate formed and covered the ‘X’ mark below
the beaker is recorded.
()e Two graph are obtained :

Temperature of Temperature of
Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3 ) Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3 )

Time (s) 1/time (s-1 )

• Temperature is ……………….proportional to time. • Temperature is ……………. proportional to 1/time.


When the temperature of Na2S2O3 increases, the time [ 1/time shows the rate of reaction ]
taken for yellow precipitate formed that covers the ‘X’ When the temperature of Na2S2O3 increases, the rate
mark is ……………………….. of reaction is ………………………..

• The higher the temperature of Na2S2O3, the ………… • The higher the temperature of Na2S2O3, the …………
2- +
the kinetic energy of S2O3 ions and H ions. the kinetic energy of S2O32- ions and H+ ions.
 Therefore, the ……………… the frequency of  Therefore, the ……………… the frequency of
2- +
collision between particles [ S2O3 ions and H collision between particles [ S2O32- ions and H+
ions ]. ions ].
 The ……………… the frequency of effective  The ……………… the frequency of …………….
collision. collision
 The ……………… the rate of reaction.  The ……………… the rate of reaction.

Chapter 10 11 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

4. Catalyst
• Catayst is a chemical substance that increases the rate of reaction [change the rate of reaction],
but it does not change chemically at the end of the reaction.
• Positive catalyst increase the rate of reaction while negative catalyst decrease the rate of reaction.

• Characteristics of catalyst :
 It does not change the quantity (amount) of the products formed.
 It is unchanged chemically at the end of the reaction.
 The amount of catalyst is the same before and after reaction.
 It is specific.
 Only small amount is needed.
 It could become less effective when there are impurities.

• Most catalysts are transition elements or compounds of transition elements.


• The presence of catalyst affects the rate of reaction.
• Quantity of catalyst also can effect the rate of reaction.

• Study through :
I : The reaction between zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
[copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4 solution as the catalyst]
II : The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2
[using different quantity of manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2 as the catalyst]

Experiment I :
 The reaction between zinc with dilute sulphuric acid [CuSO4 as the catalyst]

(a) Chemical equation for the reaction :

Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2

(b) Volume of hydrogen gas collected in a burette are recorded at every 30 seconds.
(c) This experiment is repeated by adding 2 cm3 copper(II) sulphate solution.
(d) In this reaction, mass of zinc, volume and concentration of sulphuric acid and temperature
are remain constant.

(e) Graph of volume of hydrogen gas produced against time are obtained :
Volume of
H2 gas /cm3

With catalyst

Without catalyst
Chapter 10 12 Rate of Reaction

Time/s
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

• From the graph above :

 The gradient of the curve with catalyst is ………………. than the curve without catalyst.

 At the end of this reaction, the total volume of H2 gas in both reactions is the same because
the ……….. of zinc and the…………………………………. of sulphuric acid is the same.

• Copper(II) sulphate as catalyst lowered the ………………...………, Ea for the reaction.

 therefore, more particles will reach the same or more than the ………………………, Ea of
the reaction.

 the frequency of collision between particles ……………………………..

 the frequency of effective collision ………………………………………

 the rate of reaction ..………………………………………..

Experiment II :
(a) In this reaction, all other conditions such as volume and concentration of hydrogen
peroxide, temperature are remain constant.

2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2
(f) Graph of volume of oxygen gas produced againts time are obtained :
Volume of
O2 gas (cm3)

V An increase in the quantity of catalyst


1 spatula of used will increase the rate of
MnO2 reaction.
The quantity of catalyst does not
affect the total volume of gas
produced.
½ spatula of
MnO2

Time (s)
t1 t2
• From the graph :

 The gradient of the curve using 1 spatula of MnO2 is ………………. than using ½ spatula
of MnO2.
Chapter 10 13 Rate of Reaction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10
 At the end of this reaction, the total volume of O2 gas in both reactions is the same because
the …………………. and …………………………… of hydrogen peroxide is same.

• Manganese(VI) oxide as catalyst lowered the ………………………...…, Ea for the


decomposition of H2O2.

 therefore, more particles will reach the same or more than the ……………………….., Ea
of the reaction.

 the frequency of collision between particles ……………………………..

 the frequency of effective collision ………………………………………

 the rate of reaction ..………………………………………..

5. Pressure
• Only for reactions involving reactants in gaseous state.
• When the pressure of a reaction (involving gaseous reactants) increases, the rate of reaction
increases.
• When the pressure of the gaseous reactants increases, the particles of the gaseous reactants are
compressed to occupy a smaller volume.
 Thus, the number of gas particles per unit volume increases.

 the frequency of collision between particles ……………………………..

 the frequency of effective collision ………………………………………

 the rate of reaction ..………………………………………..

10.5 : Application of factors that affect the Rate of Reaction


 Daily lives :
⊗ Cooking of solid food in smaller size
 The total surface area on a smaller cut pieces of food is larger. The food can absorbed
more heat. Hence, the time taken for the food to be cooked is lower/decrease.
⊗ Storage of food in a refrigerator
 When the food kept in refrigerator, the food lasts longer. The low temperature in the
refrigerator slows down the activity of the bacteria. The bacteria produce less toxin ,
the rate of decomposition of food lower.

⊗ Cooking in a pressure cooker


 The high pressure in pressure cooker increases the boiling point of water to a
temperature above 100 °C. The kinetic energy of the particles in the food is
increase/higher. Hence time taken for the food to be cooked is lower/decrease.
Thus the food cooked faster at a higher temperature in a pressure cooker.

 In Industry :
⊗ Haber process; manufacture of ammonia :
Optimum conditions :
Temperature : 400 - 500 oC
Pressure : 200 – 400 atm
Chapter 10 14 Catalyst : Iron/ferum,Rate
Fe of Reaction
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10
N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

⊗ Contact process; manufacture of sulphuric acid [ catalyst : Vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 ]


⊗ Ostwald process; manufacture of nitric acid [ catalyst : platinum, Pt ]

10.6 : The Collision Theory


• For a reaction to occur, the reactant’s particles must collide.
• Not all collisions result in chemical reactions.
• For a reaction to occur, the collisions must satisfy two conditions :
(i) The colliding particles must have the right orientation of collision.
(ii) The colliding particles must have enough energy; i.e equal or more than a
minimum amount of energy known as Activation Energy, Ea

• The collisions that lead to a chemical reaction are known as effective collisions.

10.6 : Energy Profile Diagram and Activation Energy, Ea

Energy

Ea = Activation Energy without a catalyst


Ea’ = Activation Energy with a catalyst
Ea’ Ea ΔH = Heat of reaction
reactants (The energy diffence in the reactants
and in the products)
ΔH products

Progress of reaction

Ea  The minimum energy the reactant particles must possessed before collision between them
can result in a chemical reaction.
Ea’ The lower activation energy in the presence of a catalyst.

Activity 5 :-

Zinc powder reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid. The temperature of the mixture increases.

(a) Draw an Energy Profile Diagram for the reaction. On the diagram, show the :
 Heat of reaction, ΔH
 Activation energy without a catalyst, Ea
 Activation energy with a catalyst, Ea’

Chapter 10 15 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10
(b) Explain the Energy Profile Diagram.

Frequency of Effective Collision and Rate of Reaction


• When the frequency of collision between particles of reactants increases, the frequency
of effective collisions between particles will also increase.

• The effective collisions will result in chemical reaction. When frequency of effective
collision increases, the rate of reaction will also increase.

 Collision Theory and Factors Influencing The Rate of Reaction

CATALYST
SIZE OF TEMPERATURE OF Catalyst provides an
REACTANTS / CONCENTRATION alternative path of
REACTION MIXTURE
TOTAL SURFACE OF REACTANTS reaction which needs
AREA The higher the lower Activation
The higher the
The smaller the size of temperature, the higher is Energy, (Ea’).
concentration of reactants,
reactant, the larger the kinetic energy of
the higher is the number More particles are
is the total surface reacting particles. The
of particles in a unit able to overcome the
area exposed to reacting particles move
volume. new Activation
collision. faster.
Energy, (Ea’)

The frequency of collision between particles increases.

The frequency of effective collision between particles increases.

The rate of reaction increases.

Chapter 10 16 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

Activity 6 :-

Four experiments are carried out to study the factors that affect the rate of reaction.
The table below shows the details of each experiment.

Temperature of HCl
Experiment Reactants
/ °C
Excess of magnesium ribbon and
I 30
50 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm–3
Excess of magnesium powder and
II 30
50 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm–3
Excess of magnesium powder and
III 40
50 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm–3
Excess of magnesium powder and
IV 40
50 cm3 sulphuric acid 1.0 mol dm–3

(a) Write the chemical equation of the reaction occurred in Experiment I and IV

Experiment I : …….…………………………………………………………………………………..

Experiment IV : ………………………………………………………………………………………..

(b) Calculate the maximum volume of gas released at room condition in :


[ Molar volume of gas at room condition = 24.0 dm3 ]

(i) Experiment II

Chapter 10 17 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

(ii) Experiment IV

(c) Sketch the graph of the volume of gas released against time for each Experiment I, II, III and IV on
the axes provided below.

Volume of H2 gas / cm3

Time / s

Chapter 10 18 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

(d) Explain the difference in the rate of reaction in the experiments below.
Use the Collision Theory in your explanation.

(i) I and II

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(ii) II and III

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(iii) III and IV

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………………………...

Chapter 10 19 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

Activity 7 :-
Interpretation of graph.
Study the graphs below and complete the following :

The gradient of graph I is ………………. than graph II.


The rate of reaction for reaction I is ………………. than reaction II.
Possibilities :

Quantity of product Reaction I used …………. size of reactants than reaction II.

 Reaction I : …………. pieces of CaCO3 ;


V
 Reaction II : …………. pieces of CaCO3.
II
Temperature of reaction I is …………. than reaction II.
I
Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is …………. than reaction
II.
Time Presence of catalyst :

t1 t2  Reaction I : ………………………. .

GRAPH 4.1  Reaction II : ………………………..

Final quantity of product for reaction I and II are the same.


Quantity of the reactants (number of moles) for reaction I and II must be
The ………………….
gradient of graph I and graph II are ……………………..
Mass
 The rate of
of the reactants
reaction usedreactions
for both in reaction
areI ……………………..
and II is …………………
Number of: moles [ n = MV ] of the reactants used in reaction I and II
 Possibilities
is …………………
• Size of reactant for both reactions are …………..
• Temperature for both reactions are …………...
Quantity of product
• Concentration of the reactants for both reaction are …………...

4V Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.


II
 Quantity of the reactants (number of moles) for reaction I must be
V I …………. than reaction II because the concentration of the reactants are
the same in both reactions.
Example :
Chapter 10 Time 20 I : 250 cm3 of HCl 1.0 mol dm-3
Reaction Rate of Reaction
t1 t2
Reaction II : 1000 cm3 of HCl 1.0 mol dm-3
GRAPH 4.2
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

The gradient of graph I is ……………… than graph II.

 The rate of reaction for reaction I is ……………. than reaction II.


 Possibilities :
Quantity of product
• Size of reactants for reaction I is …………. than reaction II.
II Reaction I : …………. pieces of CaCO3 ;
2V
Reaction II : …………. pieces of CaCO3.
I • Temperature of reaction I is …………. than reaction II.
V
• Presence of catalyst :
..

 Reaction I : ………………………. …….


Time
 Reaction II : ……………………………..
GRAPH 4.3
• Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is …………. than
The gradient of graph I is ……………. than graph II.
reaction II
 The rate of reaction for reaction I is ……………. than reaction II.
Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.
 Possibilities :
 Quantity of the reactants for reaction II must be ……… than reaction I.
• Size of reactants for reaction I is …………. than reaction II.
• Reaction
Mass ofIthe reactants used
: …………. in reaction
pieces of CaCOII3;
is …………………than
reactionIII. : …………. pieces of CaCO3.
Reaction

• Temperature of reaction I is …………. than reaction II.


• Presence of catalyst :
 Reaction I : ………………………. …….
 Reaction II : ……………………………..
Quantity of product
• Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is …………. than
reaction II.
2V II
Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.

V I  Quantity of the reactant for reaction II must be ……… than reaction I.


• Mass of the reactants used in reaction II is ……………than
Time reaction I.
t1 t2 • Number of moles [ n = MV ] of the reactants used in reaction II is
Chapter 10 21 Rate of Reaction
……………than reaction I.
GRAPH 4.4
Example :
4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

Activity 8 :-
Rate of Reaction and Thermochemistry (Conclusion)

1. The minimum energy of a reaction is …………………………., Ea.

2. …………………………., Ea must be overcome in order for the reaction to take place.


3. Particles of reactants must achieve ……………………………… and with ………………………..
to make the chemical reaction occurs.
4. The use of a …………………………. reduces the Ea.

5. ΔH is ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. The ……………… the size of reactants, the ……………… the total surface area.

7. Magnesium ribbon will react ……………… with warm sulphuric acid than cool sulphuric acid.

8. The ……………… the concentration of a solution, the ……………… rate of chemical reaction.

9. A ……………… is a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction. It ………………


undergo any chemical change.

10. ……………………… is a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler
substances.

Activity 9 :-
Complete the table below :

Industry process Reactants Catalyst

Chapter 10 22 Rate of Reaction


4541 CHEMISTRY Chapter 10

Haber process

Contact process

Ostwald process

END OF CHAPTER 10

Chapter 10 23 Rate of Reaction