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Lectures in Engineering

Mathematics

George Nakos

Engineering Mathematics

The Johns Hopkins University

Fall 2004

1

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2. Matrix Multiplication

2

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Basic Definitions

tries. A matrix has rows that are numbered top to bottom and

columns that are numbered left to right. The (i, j ) entry is the

entry at the ith row and jth column.

and n columns. If m = n, then the matrix is called square. In

this case, n is the size of the square matrix.

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5 × 1, and 1 × 2.

7.1

1 −2

" # a11 a12 a13 3.2 h

−3 5

21 −1

7 √ i

, , a21 a22 a23 , −1.5

, a b

0 6 9 5 4

a31 a23 a33 4.9

2 −8

6.9

The (3, 2) entry of the first matrix is 6. The third matrix is square

of size 3.

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by

a11 a12 a13 · · · a1n

a21 a22 a23 · · · a2n

A=

... ... ... ... ...

am1 am2 am3 · · · amn

This is abbreviated by

h i

A = aij

where i and j are indices such that 1 ≤ i ≤ m and 1 ≤ j ≤ n.

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6.1 Vectors

If n = 1, then A is called a column matrix, or a m-vector, or

a vector. If m = 1, then A is called a row matrix, or a n-row

vector, or a row vector. The entries of vectors are usually

called components.

a 4-vector, and the third is a n-vector.

" # 4 v1

7 −3 v2

, ,

−3

2

...

−1 vn

Here are some row vectors.

h √ i h i h i

[−3] , 1.2 3 , a b c , −2 3 0 4 1

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are some examples.

" # 0 0 0

0 0 h i

0 = [ 0] , 0= , 0=

0 0 ,

0= 0 0 , 0=

0

0 0

0 0 0

if A and B have the same size and their corresponding entries

are equal. So, if

" # " #

1 2 c d

A= , B=

a b 3 4

then A = B, only if a = 3, b = 4, c = 1, and d = 2.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 7

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We can add two matrices of the same size by adding the cor-

responding entries. The resulting matrix is the sum of the two

matrices.

Example We have

" # " # " #

1 −3 0 0 4 5 1 1 5

+ =

2 −4 7 −1 4 −2 1 0 5

h i h i

In general, if A = aij and B = bij , for 1 ≤ i ≤ m and 1 ≤ j ≤ n,

then

h i

A + B = aij + bij

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We also multiply any real number c, times a matrix A, by multi-

plying all entries of A by c.

Example We have

1 0 2 0

2 −3 4 = −6 8

5 −1 10 −2

h i

In general, if A = aij , then

h i

cA = caij

This operation is called scalar multiplication. The multiplier c

is often called a scalar, because it scales A.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 9

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The matrix (−1) A is called the opposite of A and it is denoted

by −A. For example,

0 4 5 0 −4 −5

− =

−1 4 −2 1 −4 2

difference between A and B. This is the subtraction operation.

A − B = A + (−1) B

Example We have

1 −2 1 −1 0 −1

7 4 6 3 1 1

5 −5 − 7 0 =

−2 −5

8 0 −3 7 11 −7

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Theorem

1. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (Associative Law)

2. A + B = B + A (Commutative Law)

3. A + 0 = 0 + A = A

4. A + (−A) = (−A) + A = 0

8. 1A = A

9. 0A = 0

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is the n × m matrix obtained from A by switching all columns of

A to rows and maintaining the same order.

Example We have

T a T

1 2

" # 1

1 3 5 h iT b

3 =

h

1

i

3 4 = , a b c d = , −8

2 4 6 c −8 3

5 6

d

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Theorem

1. (A + B )T = AT + B T

2. (cA)T = cAT

T

3. AT =A

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A matrix A such that AT = A is called symmetric. Examples

a b c d

" # 0 −1 3

5 −7 b e f g

, −1 4 9 ,

−7 6 c f h i

3 9 6

d g i j

Note the mirror symmetry of a symmetric matrix with respect

to the upper-left to lower-right diagonal line.

amples

0 −b −c −d

" # 0 −1 3

0 7 b 0 −f −g

, 1 0 −9 ,

−7 0 c f 0 −i

−3 9 0

d g i 0

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 14

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form the main diagonal. A is called upper triangular, if all

entries below the main diagonal are zero, i.e., if aij = 0 for j < i.

Matrix A is called lower triangular, if the entries above the main

diagonal are all zero, so aij = 0 for i < j. If the main diagonal is

also zero, we talk about strictly upper triangular and strictly

lower triangular matrices.

strictly lower triangular.

a 0 0 0 0 0

a b 1 0 7 0

A= , B = b c 0 , C = 1 0 0 , D = , E=

0 c 0 −2 0 7

d e f 1 1 0

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matrix is called diagonal. If all entries of a diagonal matrix are

equal, then we have a scalar matrix. Matrices D and E are

diagonal. Matrix E is a scalar matrix.

an identity matrix and it is denoted by In, or by I.

1 0 ··· 0

" # 1 0 0

1 0 0 1 ··· 0

I = I2 = , I3 = 0 1 0 , . . . , In =

0 1 ... ... .

. . . ..

0 0 1

0 0 ··· 1

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Let A be a m×k matrix and B be a k×n matrix. The productAB

is the m × n matrix C = [cij ] = AB, with entries cij are given by

a11 a12 · · · a1k

... ... ... ...

b11 · · · b1j · · · b1n

b21 · · · b2j · · · b2n

A= ai1 ai2 · · · aik B=

... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ...

bk1 · · · bkj · · · bkn

am1 am2 · · · amk

k

X

cij = ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j + · · · + aik bkj = air brj

r=1

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Examples

3 2 4

2 0 1 −2 4 6 7 6

5 =

2 1 2 4 14 9

0 3 −2

1

−2

4 −1 −2 1 =5

3

5

4 −1 −2

1 1

−2 −8 2 4 −2

3 4 −1 −2 1 = 12 −3 −6 3

5 20 −5 −10 5

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Theorem

6. 0A = 0 and A0 = 0

7. (AB)T = B T AT

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AB may not equal BA. In fact, if AB is defined, then BA may

not be defined. If BA is defined, then it may not have the same

size as AB. If it does have the same size, it may still not equal

AB.

they commute.

" # " #

0 0 1 0

Example A = and B = commute.

1 1 2 3

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 20

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Let A be a square matrix. The product AA is also denoted by

A2. Likewise, AAA = A3 and AA · · · A = An for n factors of A. In

addition, we write A1 = A and if A is nonzero, we write A0 = I.

An = AA

| {z· · · A} , A1 = A, A0 = I

n factors

Example

1 −1 3 −4 11 −15

A1 = , A2 = , A3 = , ···

−2 3 −8 11 −30 41

1 2 1 2 1 2

B1 = , B2 = , B3 = , ···

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0

C1 = , C2 = , C3 = , ···

0 0 0 0 0 0

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Let x = (x1, x2) , y = (y1, y2) , and z = (z1, z2) be coordinate

frames. Suppose we go from frame y to frame z by using the

linear transformation

z1 = a11y1 + a12y2

z2 = a21y1 + a22y2

and from frame x to frame y by the linear transformation

y1 = b11x1 + b12x2

y2 = b21x1 + b22x2

If we want to go from frame x to frame z, we substitute

z1 = a11 (b11x1 + b12x2) + a12 (b21x1 + b22x2)

z2 = a21 (b11x1 + b12x2) + a22 (b21x1 + b22x2)

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z2 = (a21b11 + a22b21) x1 + (a21b12 + a22b22) x2

formations and C is the coefficient matrix of the last one, then

we see that

C = AB

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Example

Each of three appliances outlets receive and sell daily from three

factories TVs and VCRs according to the following table.

TV VCR

Factory 1 40 50

Factory 2 70 80

Factory 3 60 65

Each outlet charges the following dollar amounts per appliance.

Outlet 1 Outlet 2 Outlet 3

TV 215 258 319

VCR 305 282 264

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compute and interpret the product AB.

40 50 " # 23 850 24 420 25 960

215 258 319

AB = 70 80 = 39 450 40 620 43 450

305 282 264

60 65 32 725 33 810 36 300

The (1, 1) entry 40 · 215 + 50 · 305 = 23, 850 is the first outlet’s

revenue from selling all the appliances coming from the first

factory. The remaining entries are interpreted similarly.

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Definition A linear system of m equations in n unknowns

x1, . . . , xn, is a set of m linear equations

a11x1 + a12x2 + · · · + a1nxn = b1

a21x1 + a22x2 + · · · + a2nxn = b2

... (1)

am1x1 + am2x2 + · · · + amnxn = bm

The numbers aij are the coefficients and the numbers bi are

the constant terms. If all constant terms are zero, then the

system is called homogeneous. The homogeneous system that

has the same coefficients as system (1) is said to be associated

with (1). If m = n, then the system is called square.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 26

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x1 + 2x2 = −3

2x1 + 3x2 − 2x3 = −10 (2)

−x1 + 6x3 = 9

is linear square with coefficients 1, 2, 0, 2, 3, −2, −1, 0, 6, constant

terms −3, −10, 9, and associated homogeneous system

x1 + 2x2 = 0

2x1 + 3x2 − 2x3 = 0

−x1 + 6x3 = 0

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ancient Chinese text.∗

3x + 2y + z = 39 x1 + x2 = 5 y1 + y2 + y3 = −2

2x + 3y + z = 34 x1 − 2x2 = 6 y1 − 2y2 + 7y3 = 6

x + 2y + 3z = 26 −3x1 + x2 = 1

Carl Boyer’s A History of Mathematics (New York: Wiley).

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The matrix that consists of the coefficients and constant terms,

is called the augmented matrix of the system. The augmented

matrix of system (2) is

1 2 0 −3

2 3 −2 −10

−1 0 6 9

The matrix with entries the coefficients is the coefficient matrix

of the system. The vector of all constant terms is the vector of

constants. The coefficient matrix and the vector of constants

of system (2) are

1 2 0 −3

2 3 −2 and −10

−1 0 6 9

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system (1), if all the equations are satisfied when we substitute

x1 = r1, . . . , xn = rn. The set of all possible solutions is the

solution set. Any generic element of the solution set is called

the general solution.

called inconsistent.

Two linear systems with the same solution sets are called equiv-

alent. A solution that consists of zeros only is called a trivial

solution.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 30

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A basic solution method of a linear system is to eliminate unknowns so that

an equivalent “triangular” system is obtained. This is done by performing

elementary equation operations: (a) adding to an equation a multiple of

another, (b) multiplying an equation by a nonzero scalar, (c) switching two

equations.

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Example We solve the system by elimination.

x1 + 2x2 = −3

2x1 + 3x2 − 2x3 = −10

−x1 + 6x3 =9

1 2 0 −3 1 2 0 −3

R2 − 2R1 → R2

2 3 −2 −10 0 −1 −2 −4

R3 + R1 → R3

−1 0 6 9 0 6 2 6

1 2 0 −3 1 2 0 −3

0 −1 −2 −4 R3 + 2R2 → R3 0 −1 −2 −4

0 0 2 −2 0 0 2 −2

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The system is in triangular form. Start at the bottom and work upwards to

eliminate unknowns above the leading variables (first variables with nonzero

coefficients) of each equation (back-substitution).

1 2 0 −3 1 2 0 −3

0 −1 −2 −4 R2 + R3 → R2 0 −1 0 −6 R1 + 2R2 →

0 0 2 −2 0 0 2 −2

1 0 0 −15 1 0 0 −15

(−1) R2 → R2

0 −1 0 −6 0 1 0 6

(1/2)R3 → R3

0 0 2 −2 0 0 1 −1

x1 = −15, x2 = 6, x3 = −1

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 33

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x + 2y − z = 4

2x + 5y + 2z = 9

x + 4y + 7z = 6

1 0 −9 2

reduces to 0 1 4 1 . We get x−9z = 2, y +4z = 1. Hence,

0 0 0 0

x = 9r + 2

y = −4r + 1 r∈R

z=r

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6.3 No Solutions

in the (p, q, k)-coordinate system.

q − 2k = −5

2p − q + k = −2

4p − q = −4

Solution:

The augmented

matrix of the system reduces to

2 −1 1 −2

0 1 −2 −5 . The last row corresponds to the false ex-

0 0 0 5

pression 0 = 5. Hence, the system is inconsistent. Therefore,

the planes do not have a common intersection.

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the matrix-vector product we have

a11 a12 · · · a1n x1 b1

a21 a22 · · · a2n x2 b2

=

... ... ... ...

... ...

am1 am2 amn xn bm

This is also abbreviated as

Ax = b (3)

where A is the coefficient matrix, x is the vector of the unknowns,

and b is the vector of constants.

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2x1 − 3x2 + 9x3 = −8

Solution: We have

" # x1 " #

7 4 5 1

x =

2

2 −3 9 −8

x3

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A zero row of a matrix is a row that consists entirely of zeros. The first

nonzero entry of a nonzero row is called a leading entry. If a leading entry

happens to be 1, we call it a leading 1. Similarly, we can talk about zero

columns.

2. The leading entry of each nonzero row after the first occurs to the right

of the leading entry of the previous row.

4. All entries in the column above and below a leading 1 are zero.

satisfies all four conditions, we call it reduced row echelon form. We often

omit the word “row” and just say echelon form, or reduced echelon form.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 38

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Example

Consider the matrices.

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 −6 1 0 1

A= 0 0 1 0 , B= 0 1 0 0 , C = 0 0 1 ,

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 −1 0 0 1

1 1 0 0 2 1 7 0 9 0

0 0

D= 0 0 1 0 3 , E= , F = 0 0 1 −8 0 ,

1 0

0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 −1 0 1 0 0 0

G= 0 1 0 0 , H= 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 −2

Matrices A, B, D, F, G, H are in echelon form. Out of these, A, B, D, F are in

reduced echelon form. Matrices G and H are not in reduced echelon form.

For G condition 4 fails. For H condition 3 fails. Matrices C and E are not in

echelon form. For C condition 2 fails. For E condition 1 fails.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 39

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Algorithm [Gauss Elimination] To reduce any matrix to reduced row echelon

form apply the following steps.

2. If the first row has a zero in the column of step 1, interchange it with

one that has a nonzero entry in the same column.

3. Obtain zeros below the leading entry by adding suitable multiples of the

top row to the rows below that.

4. Cover the top row and repeat the same process starting with step 1

applied to the leftover submatrix. Repeat this process with the rest of

the rows, until the matrix is in echelon form.

5. Starting with the last nonzero row work upward: For each row obtain a

leading 1 and introduce zeros above it, by adding suitable multiples to

the corresponding rows.

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of the matrix.

0 3 −6 −4 −3

−1 3 −10 −4 −4

4 −9 34 0 1

2 −6 20 8 8

Solution:

−1 3 −10 −4 −4

0 3 −6 −4 −3

R1 ↔ R2

4 −9 34 0 1

2 −6 20 8 8

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−1 3 −10 −4 −4

R3 + 4R1 → R3

0 3 −6 −4 −3

R4 + 2R1 → R4 0 3 −6 −16 −15

0 0 0 0 0

−1 3 −10 −4 −4 −1 3 −10 −4 −4

0 3 −6 −4 −3 0 3 −6 −4 −3

Step 1

0 3 −6 −16 −15

−−−−−→

0 3 −6 −16 −15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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−1 3 −10 −4 −4 −1 3 −10 −4 −4

0 3 −6 −4 −3 0 3 −6 −4 −3

R3 − R2 → R3

0 3 −6 −16 −15 0 0 0 -12 −12

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

STEP 5: Starting with the last nonzero row work upward: For

each row obtain a leading 1 and introduce zeros above it, by

adding suitable multiples to the corresponding rows.

−1 3 −10 −4 −4

0 3 −6 −4 −3 R2 + 4R3 → R2

(−1/12)R3 → R3

0 0 0 1 1 R1 + 4R3 → R1

0 0 0 0 0

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−1 3 −10 0 0

−1 3 −10 0 0

3 −6 0 1 1

0 0 1 −2 0 3

(1/3)R2 → R2 R − 3R →

0 0 0 1 1

1 2

0 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

−1 0 −4 0 −1 1 0 4 0 1

1 0 1 −2 0 1

0 1 −2 0 3 (−1)R1 → R1 3

0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Definition Let v1, v2, . . . , vk be given n-vectors and let c1, c2, . . . , ck

be any scalars. The n-vector v

v = c1v1 + c2v2 + · · · + ck vk

is called a linear combination of v1, . . . , vk . The scalars c1, . . . , ck

are called the coefficients of the linear combination. If not all ci

are zero, we have a nontrivial linear combination. If all ci are

zero, we have the trivial linear combination. The trivial linear

combination represents the zero vector.

vectors and then we add them.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 45

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Example Check that the following are linear combinations of the

vectors v1, v2, and v3.

−v1 + 3v2 + 4v3, v1 + 1.5v2 − 9v3, v1 − v3

Solution: We have

−v1 + 3v2 + 4v3 = (−1) v1 + 3v2 + 4v3

v1 + 1.5v2 − 9v3 = 1v1 + (1.5) v2 + (−9) v3

v1 − v3 = 1v1 + 0v2 + (−1) v3

is the linear combination 1v1 + (−1) v2 with coefficients 1 and

−1.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 46

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A sports company owns two factories each making aluminum and titanium

mountain bikes. The first factory makes 150 aluminum and 15 titanium bikes

a day. For the

second factory the numbers are 220 and 20, respectively. If

150 220

v1 = and v2 = , compute and discuss the meaning of:

15 20

(a) v1 + v2

(b) v2 − v1

(c) 10v1

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Solution: " #

370

(a) v1 + v2 = represents the total number of aluminum

35

(370) and titanium (35) bikes produced by the two factories in

one day. " #

70

(b) v2 − v1 = represents how many more bikes the second

5

factory makes

" over # the first one in one day.

1500

(c) 10v1 = represents how many bikes the first factory

150

makes in 10 days." #

150a + 220b

(d) av1 + bv2 = represents the total number of

15a + 20b

bikes produced if the first factory operates for a days and the

second for b days.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 48

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Definition The sequence of m-vectors v1 , . . . , vk is linearly dependent (or

the vectors are linearly dependent), if there are scalars c1 , . . . , ck not all zero

such that

c1 v1 + · · · + ck vk = 0 (4)

So, there is a nontrivial linear combination of the vis representing the zero

vector. Equation (4) with not all ci zero is called a linear dependence

relation of the vis.

Example The vectors

1 1 4

−1 2 14

3 , 0 , −6

4 2 4

are linearly dependent, because if we let c1 = 2, c2 = −6, and c3 = 1, then

1 1 4 0

−1 2 14 0

2 + (−6) + 1 =

3 0 −6 0

4 2 4 0

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0 1 3

Example Let S = −2 , 2 , 14 .

3 7 9

Solution: (a) We seek c1, c2, c3 not all zero such that

0 1 3 0

c1 −2 + c2 2 + c3 14 = 0

3 7 9 0

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Equivalently, we seek nontrivial solutions to the homogeneous linear system

0 1 3 c1 0

−2 2 14 c2 = 0

3 7 9 c3 0

We solve this system to get c1 = 4r, c2 = −3r, c3 = r. There are nontrivial

solutions, hence the set is linearly dependent.

to the parameter r. For example, if r = 1, then we have

0 1 3 0

4 −2 + (−3) 2 + 1 14 = 0

3 7 9 0

This is one of infinitely many linear dependence relations.

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independent, if it is not linearly dependent. This is the same

as saying that there is no linear dependence relation among

v1, . . . , vk . So, all nontrivial linear combinations of the vis yield

nonzero vectors. Equivalently, we have

if c1v1 + · · · + ck vk = 0, then c1 = 0, . . . , ck = 0

In other words, the homogeneous system [v1 · · · vk ] c = 0 has

only the trivial solution. We often say that v1, . . . , vk are linearly

independent.

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(" # " #)

1 5

Example Show that , is linearly independent in

−2 3

R2 .

other words,

" # " # " #

1 5 0

c1 + c2 =

−2 3 0

" #

1 5 0

We solve the system with augmented matrix to get

−2 3 0

c1 = 0 and c2 = 0. Therefore, the set is linearly independent.

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Example Show that S is linearly independent.

2 8 −4

3 −6 3

S = , ,

2 5 1

4 0

−6

coefficient matrix.

2 8 −4 2 8 −4

3 −6 3 0 −3 5

∼

2 5 1 0 0 −21

4 0 −6 0 0 0

This number is 3, the same as the number of columns, so the

set is linearly independent.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 54

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The rank of a m × n matrix A is the maximum number of linearly

independent rows of A.

dent columns of A.

and count the number of nonzero rows or the number of pivot

columns.

Lecture 1 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 55

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1 2 2 −1

1 3 1 −2

The rank of A = 1 1

3 is 2.

0

0 1 −1 −1

1 2 2 −1

1 2 2 −1

0 1 −1 −1

B=

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

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Lecture 2 in Engineering

Mathematics

George Nakos

Engineering Mathematics

The Johns Hopkins University

Fall 2004

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4. Matrix Inversion

6. Linear Transformations

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Definition Let V be a set equipped with two operations named

addition and scalar multiplication. Addition is a map that

associates any two elements u and v of V with a third one,

called the sum of u and v and denoted by u + v.

V × V → V, (u, v) → u + v

Scalar multiplication is a map that associates any real scalar c

and any element u of V with another element of V, called the

scalar multiple of u by c and denoted by cu.

R × V → V, (c, u) → cu

Such a set V is called a (real) vector space, if the two operations

satisfy the following properties, known as axioms for a vector

space.

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Addition

(A4) There exists a unique element 0 ∈ V, called the zero of V, such that for

all u in V

u+0=0+u=u

(A5) For each u ∈ V there exists a unique element −u ∈ V, called the negative

or opposite of u, such that

u + (−u) = (−u) + u = 0

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Scalar Multiplication

The elements of a vector space are called vectors. Axioms (A1) and (M1)

are also expressed by saying that V is closed under addition and is closed

under scalar multiplication. Note that a vector space is a nonempty set,

because it has a zero by (A4).

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Operations: The usual vector addition and scalar multiplication. Zero:

The zero n-vector 0. Axioms: For the axioms see the Properties of

Matrix Operations Theorem.

Operations: The usual matrix addition and scalar multiplication. Zero:

The m × n zero matrix 0. Axioms: For the axioms see the Properties of

Matrix Operations Theorem.

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Operations:

cients of the same powers of x of the polynomials. Explicitly, if

p1 = a0 + a1 x + · · · + anxn, p2 = b0 + b1 x + · · · + bm xm , n≥m

we write p2 as p2 = b0 + b1 x + · · · + bnxn, by adding zeros if necessary, and

form the sum

p1 + p2 = (a0 + b0 ) + (a1 + b1 ) x + · · · + (an + bn) xn

a constant.

cp1 = (ca0 ) + (ca1 ) x + · · · + (can) xn

cients.

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The set F (R) of all real valued functions defined on R.

Operations: Let f and g be two real valued functions with domain R and let

c be any scalar.

values are given by

(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) for all x ∈ R

(c f )(x) = c f (x) for all x ∈ R

3. Zero: The zero function 0 is the function whose values are all zero.

0(x) = 0 for all x ∈ R

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Is R2 with the usual addition and the following scalar multiplica-

tion, denoted by , a vector space?

" # " #

a1 ca1

c =

a2 a2

" # " # " #

a1 (c + d) a1 ca1 + da1

(c + d) = =

a2 a2 a2

and

" # " # " # " # " #

a1 a1 ca1 da1 ca1 + da1

c +d = + =

a2 a2 a2 a2 2a2

" # " # " #

a1 a1 a1

So, (c + d) 6= c +d and axiom (M3) fails.

a2 a2 a2

Lecture 2 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 65

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6.4 Subspaces

Definition A subset W of a vector space V is called a subspace of

V, if W itself is a vector space under the same addition and scalar

multiplication as V . In particular, a subspace always contains the

zero element.

V. Then W is a subspace of V if and only if it is closed under

addition (axiom (A1)) and scalar multiplication (axiom (M1)),

that is, if and only if

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vector v of a vector space V is a subspace of V.

spaces of V. {0} is called the zero subspace.

the zero polynomial is a subspace of P.

on R is a subspace of F (R).

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If v1, . . . , vn are vectors from a vector space V and c1, . . . , cn are

scalars, then the expression

c1 v1 + · · · + cn vn

is well defined and is called a linear combination of v1, . . . , vn.

If not all ci are zero, we have a nontrivial linear combination.

If all ci are zero, we have the trivial linear combination. The

trivial linear combination represents the zero vector.

of these vectors and it is denoted by

Span {v1, v2, . . . , vk }

If V = Span{v1, . . . , vk }, we say that v1, . . . , vk span V and that

{v1, . . . , vk } is a spanning set of V.

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Example Let V be a vector space and let v1 , v2 be in V. The following vectors

are in Span{v1 , v2 }.

0, v1, v2 , v1 + v2 , −2v1 , 3v1 − 2v2

Example Let V be a vector space and v be in V. Span{v} is the set of all

scalar multiples of v.

Span{v} = {cv , c ∈ R}

Example Let p = −1 + x − 2x2 in P3 . Show that p ∈ Span {p1 , p2 , p3 } , where

p1 = x − x2 + x3 , p2 = 1 + x + 2x3 , p3 = 1 + x

Solution: Let c1 , c2 , c3 be scalars such that

−1 + x − 2x2 = c1 x − x2 + x3 + c2 1 + x + 2x3 + c3 (1 + x)

Then

−1 + x − 2x2 = (c2 + c3 ) + (c1 + c2 + c3 ) x − c1 x2 + (c1 + 2c2 ) x3

Equating coefficients of the same powers of x yields the linear system

c2 + c3 = −1, c1 + c2 + c3 = 1, −c1 = −2, c1 + 2c2 = 0

with solution c1 = 2, c2 = −1, c3 = 0. Therefore, p is in the span of p1 , p2 , p3 .

Lecture 2 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 69

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Definition Let v1 , . . . , vn be vectors of a vector space V. Then {v1 , . . . , vn} is

linearly dependent, if there are scalars c1 , . . . , cn not all zero such that

c1 v1 + · · · + cn vn = 0 (5)

So, there are nontrivial linear combinations that represent the zero vector.

Equation (5) with not all ci zero is called a linear dependence relation of

the vis.

Example Show that the set {2 − x + x2 , 2x + x2 , 4 − 4x + x2 } is linearly

dependent in P3 .

Solution: This true, because

2(2 − x + x2 ) + (−1) (2x + x2 ) + (−1) 4 − 4x + x2 = 0

Definition The set of vectors {v1 , . . . , vn} from a vector space V is called lin-

early independent, if it is not linearly dependent. This is the same as saying

that there is no linear dependence relation among v1 , . . . , vk . Equivalently,

c1 v1 + · · · + ck vk = 0 ⇒ c1 = 0, . . . , ck = 0

So, every nontrivial linear combination is nonzero.

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6.4 Linear Independence Example Show that set {E11 , E12 , E21 , E22 }

is linearly independent in M22 .

Solution: Let

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 =

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

c1 c2 0 0

⇒ =

c3 c4 0 0

Hence, c1 = c2 = c3 = c4 = 0. So, the set is linearly independent.

Example Are 1 + x, −1 + x, 4 − x2 , 2 + x3 linearly independent in P3 ?

Solution: If a linear combination in these polynomials is the zero polynomial,

then

2

3

c1 (1 + x) + c2 (−1 + x) + c3 4 − x + c4 2 + x = 0 ⇒

(c1 − c2 + 4c3 + 2c4 ) + (c1 + c2 ) x + (−c3 ) x2 + c4 x3 = 0

Equating coefficients yields,

c1 − c2 + 4c3 + 2c4 = 0, c1 + c2 = 0, −c3 = 0, c4 = 0

We solve this linear system to get c1 = c2 = c3 = c4 = 0. So, the vectors are

linearly independent in P3 .

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6.4 Basis

Definition A subset {v1, . . . , vn} of a nonzero vector space V is

a basis of V, if

2. it spans V.

The empty set is, by definition, the only basis of the zero vector

space {0}.

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Rn .

of Pn.

dard basis of Mmn.

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Example Show that B = {1 + x, −1 + x, x2} is a basis of P2.

a + bx + cx2 to be a linear combination in B. So, we look for

scalars c1, c2, c3 such that

c1(1 + x) + c2(−1 + x) + c3x2 = a + bx + cx2 ⇒

(c1 − c2) + (c1 + c2)x + c3x2 = a + bx + cx2

which leads to the system c1 − c2 = a, c1 + c2 = b, c3 = c. We

have

1 1

1 0 0 2a + 2b

1 −1 0 a

1 1 0 b ∼ 0 1 0 − a+ b

1 1

2 2

0 0 1 c 0 0 1 c

Lecture 2 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 74

so the system is consistent for all choices of a, b, c. Thus, B

spans P2.

that

c1(1 + x) + c2(−1 + x) + c3x2 = 0 ⇒

(c1 − c2) + (c1 + c2)x + c3x2 = 0

Hence, we have the system c1 − c2 = 0, c1 + c2 = 0, c3 = 0.

Now

1 −1 0 0 1 0 0 0

1 1 0 0 ∼ 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

So the system has only the trivial solution c1 = c2 = c3 = 0.

Thus, B is linearly independent.

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following theorem.

basis of V if and only if for each vector v in V there are unique

scalars c1, . . . , cn such that

v = c1v1 + · · · + cnvn

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6.4 Dimension

then V is called finite dimensional and we say that n is the

dimension of V. We write

dim(V ) = n

on the choice of basis. The dimension of the zero space {0} is

defined to be zero. A vector space that has no finite spanning

set it is called infinite dimensional.

see that dim(Rn) = n, dim(Pn) = n + 1, dim(Mmn) = m · n.

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6.6 Determinants

" #

a11 a12

Let A = . The determinant, det (A) , of A is the

a21 a22

number

det(A) = a11a22 − a12a21

Let A be

a11 a12 a13

A = a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

The determinant of A in terms of 2 × 2 determinants is the

number

a a a

21 a23

a

21 a22

det(A) = a11 22 23 − a12 + a13

a32 a33 a31 a33 a31 a32

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6.6 Determinants

a11 a12 a13 a14

a

22 a23 a24

a

21 a23 a24

a21 a22 a23 a24

= a11 a32 a33 a34 − a12 a31 a33 a34 +

a31 a32 a33 a34

a42 a43 a44 a41 a43 a44

a41 a42 a43 a44

a a22 a24 a

21 a22 a23

21

+ a13 a31 a32 a34 − a14 a31 a32 a33

a41 a42 a44 a41 a42 a43

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6.6 Determinants

1 2 0 1

−1 1 2 0

C=

−2 1 0 −2

1 0 2 −1

1 2 0 −1 2 0 −1 1 0 −1 1 2

1 1 0 −2 − 2 −2 0 −2 + 0 −2 1 −2 − 1 −2 1 0

0 2 −1 1 2 −1 1 0 −1

1 0 2

= 1 · 6 − 2 · (−12) + 0 · (−3) − 1 · 0 = 30

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We have introduced what is known as the cofactor expansion of a deter-

minant about its first row. Each entry of the first row is multiplied by the

corresponding minor and each such product is multiplied by ±1 depending on

the position of the entry. The signed products were added together. Actually,

instead of the first row can use any row or column. Here is how: Let

a11 a12 · · · a1n

a21 a22 · · · a2n

A= ... ... ... ...

an1 an2 · · · ann

First we assign the sign (−1)i+j to the entry aij of A. This is a checkerboard

pattern of ±’s.

+ − + ···

− + − ···

+ − + ···

... ... ... . . .

Then we pick a row or column and multiply each entry aij of it by the corre-

sponding signed minor (−1)i+j Mij . Lastly, we add all these products.

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The signed minor (−1)i+j Mij is called the (i, j) cofactor, of A and is denoted

by Cij .

Cij = (−1)i+j Mij

expanded about the ith row in terms of the cofactors as follows.

det A = ai1 Ci1 + ai2 Ci2 + · · · + ainCin

be expanded about the jth column in terms of the cofactors as follows.

det A = a1j C1j + a2j C2j + · · · + anj Cnj

factor, or Laplace expansion and it is attributed to Vandermonde and to

Laplace.

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1. A and its transpose have the same determinant, det(A) = det(AT ). For example,

a1 a2 a3 a1 b1 c1

b1 b2 b3 = a2 b2 c2

c1 c2 c3 a3 b3 c3

2. Let B be obtained from A by multiplying one of its rows (or columns) by a nonzero

constant. Then det(B) = k det(A). For example,

a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 ka3 a1 a2 a3

kb1 kb2 kb3 = k b1 b2 b3 , b1 b2 kb3 = k b1 b2 b3

c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 kc3 c1 c2 c3

3. Let B be obtained from A by interchanging any two rows (or columns). Then det(B) =

− det(A). For example,

a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 a1 a2 a3 a3 a2 a1

b1 b2 b3 = − a1 a2 a3 , b1 b2 b3 = − b3 b2 b1

c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3 c3 c2 c1

4. Let B be obtained from A by adding a multiple of one row (or column) to another.

Then det(B) = det(A). For example,

a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a3

ka1 + b1 ka2 + b2 ka3 + b3 = b1 b2 b3

c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3

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Note that

terminant as follows. We convert it to triangular form by Gauss

elimination and then multiply the diagonal entries of the trian-

gular form.

Lecture 2 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 83

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1 2 3 −1 8 1 2 3 −1 8

0 0 4 2 −1 0 0 4 2 −1

0 −5 5 3 7 = 0 −5 5 3 7 −R1 + R5 → R5

0 0 0 1 6 0

0 0 1 6

1 2 3 −2 −9 0 0 0 −1 −17

1 2 3 −1 8

0 −5 5 3 7

= − 0 0 4 2 −1 R2 ↔ R3

0 0 0 1 6

0 0 0 −1 −17

1 2 3 −1 8

0 −5 5 3 7

= − 0 0 4 2 −1 R4 + R5 → R5

0 0 0 1 6

0 0 0 0 −11

= 1 · (−5) · 4 · 1 · (−11)

= −220

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Let Ax = b be a square system with

a11 . . . a1n x1 b1

A = ... ... ... , x = ... , b = ...

an1 . . . ann xn bn

Let Ai denote the matrix obtained from A by replacing the ith column with

b.

a11 · · · a1,i−1 b1 a1,i+1 · · · a1n

Ai = ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

an1 · · · an,i−1 bn an,i+1 · · · ann

Cramer’s Rule gives an explicit formula for the solution of a consistent square

system.

Cramer’s Rule If det(A) 6= 0, then the system Ax = b has a unique solution

x = (x1, . . . , xn) given by

det(A1 ) det(A2 ) det(An)

x1 = , x2 = , . .. , xn =

det(A) det(A) det(A)

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Example Use Cramer’s Rule to solve the system.

x 1 + x 2 − x3 = 2

x 1 − x 2 + x3 = 3

−x1 + x2 + x3 = 4

A and the determinants of

2 1 −1 1 2 −1 1 1 2

A1 = 3 −1 1 , A2 = 1 3 1 , A3 = 1 −1 3

4 1 1 −1 4 1 −1 1 4

to get det(A) = −4, det(A1) = −10, det(A2) = −12, det(A3) =

−14. Hence,

det(A1) 5 det(A2) det(A3) 7

x1 = = , x2 = = 3, x3 = =

det(A) 2 det(A) det(A) 2

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B such that

AB = I and BA = I

In such case B is called an inverse of A. If no such B exists

for A, then we say that A is noninvertible. Another name for

invertible is nonsingular and another name for noninvertible is

singular.

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and C. Then

Therefore, B = C.

So

AA−1 = I and A−1A = I

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Next we see how to compute the inverse of an invertible matrix A. The idea

is simple: If A−1 has unknown columns xi, then AA−1 = I takes the form

[Ax1 · · · Axn] = [e1 · · · en]

This matrix equation splits into n linear systems

Ax1 = e1 , . . . , Axn = en

which we solve to find each column xi of A−1 . These systems have the same

coefficient matrix A. Solving each system separately would amount into

n − 1 unnecessary row reductions of A. It is smarter to solve the systems

simultaneously, by simply row reducing the matrix

[A : I]

If we get a matrix of the form [I : B] , then the ith column of B would be xi.

Thus, B = A−1 . So, in order to compute A−1 , we just row reduce [A : I] .

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1 0 −1

Example Compute A−1 , if A = 3 4 −2 .

3 5 −2

−1

" #

1 0 −1 1 0 0

1 0 −1 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 0

3 4 −2 0 1 0 ∼ 0 4 1 −3 1 0 ∼ 0 4 1 −3 1 0 ∼

3 5 −2 0 0 1 0 5 1 −3 0 1 0 0 − 14 3

− 54 1

4

−1 −2 −4 −2 −4

1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 5

0 4 1 −3 1 0 ∼ 0 4 0 0 −4 4 ∼ 0 1 0 0 −1 1

0 0 1 −3 5 −4 0 0 1 −3 5 −4 0 0 1 −3 5 −4

Therefore,

−2 −4

5

A−1 = 0 −1 1

−3 5 −4

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Theorem Let A and B be invertible n × n matrices and let c be a nonzero

scalar. Then

1. AB is invertible and

(AB)−1 = B −1 A−1

(A−1 )−1 = A

3. cA is invertible and

1 −1

(cA)−1 = A

c

4. AT is invertible and

T

(AT )−1 = A−1

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Recall that AB = AC does not imply that B = C. However, if A is invertible,

then the implication is true.

cancellation laws hold:

AB = AC ⇒ B = C, BA = CA ⇒ B = C

Proof: Let AB = AC. Since A−1 exists, we can multiply on the left by A−1

to get

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Cauchy’s Theorem The determinant of a product of two n×n

matrices is the product of the determinants of the factors.

det(AB) = det(A) det(B)

Theorem

nonzero.

1

det(A−1) =

det(A)

Lecture 2 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 93

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x = A−1b

1. det(A) = 0

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6.7 Adjoint

entry is the cofactor Cij of A is the matrix of cofactors of A.

Its transpose is the adjoint of A and it is denoted by Adj(A).

C11 C21 · · · Cn1

C12 C22 · · · Cn2

Adj(A) =

... ... ... ...

C1n C2n · · · Cnn

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6.7 Adjoint

Example Find the adjoint of A, where

−1 2 2

A= 4 3 −2

−5 0 3

C11 = 9, C12 = −2, C13 = 15

C21 = −6, C22 = 7, C23 = 10

C31 = −10, C32 = 6, C33 = −11

Hence,

C11 C21 C31 9 −6 −10

Adj(A) = [Cij ]T = C12 C22 C32 = −2 7 6

C13 C23 C33 15 −10 −11

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Theorem

A Adj(A) = det(A)In = Adj(A) A

−1 1

A = Adj(A)

det(A)

9 6 10

−6 −10 − 17 − 17

1 9

17

−1 1 2 7 6

A = Adj(A) = −2 7 6 = − 17

det(A) 17 17 17

15 −10 −11 15

− 10 11

− 17

17 17

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The dot product u · v of two n-vectors u = (u1, ..., un) and

v = (v1, ..., vn) is the matrix-vector product

u · v = uT v

The matrix in this case is the row vector obtained by transposing

u. In terms of components the dot product is the number

v1

u · v = [ u1 · · · u n ] .

.. = u1v1 + · · · + unvn (6)

vn

If the dot product of two vectors is zero, we call these vectors

orthogonal.

matrix [a] with its single entry a.

Lecture 2 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 98

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Example Let u = (−3, 2, 1) , v = (4, −1, 5) , and w = (−2, 1, −8) .

(a) Find u · v.

Solution:

(a) We have

4

u·v = −3 2 1 −1 = (−3) 4 + 2 (−1) + (1) (5) = −9

5

u · w = (−3, 2, 1) · (−2, 1, −8) = 0

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Definition The norm, or length, or magnitude of an n-vector u = (u1 , . . . , un)

is

√ 2

1

2 2

k uk = u · u = u 1 + · · · + u n

The (Euclidean) distance between two n-vectors u and v is

ku − v k

A n-vector is a unit vector, if its norm is 1.

Solution: We have

2

21 √

(a) kvk = 12 + 22 + (−3) + 12 = 15

1 5

√

(b) kv − uk =
, , − 72 , 32

2 2

= 21

1 1 1 1

(c) kuk =
2

, − ,

2 2

, − 2

= 1. So, u is a unit vector.

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The dot product for plane and space vectors is related to the

length and angle between the vectors by the following formula

This can be seen by using the law of cosines on the triangle OP Q

with OP = u and OQ = v.

1 2 2 2

kuk kvk cos θ = kuk + kvk − kP Qk

2

3 3 3

1X 2 2

( v i − u i )2

X X

= ui + vi −

2 i=1 i=1 i=1

3

X

= ui v i = u · v

i=1

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Let u, v, w be n-vectors and c be a scalar. Then

1. u · v = v · u (Symmetry)

2. u · (v + w) = u · v + u · w (Additivity)

ku + vk2 = kuk2 + kvk2

6. (Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz Inequality)

|u · v| ≤ kuk kvk (8)

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Definition An inner product on a (real) vector space V is a function that

to each pair of vectors u and v of V associates a real number, denoted by

hu, vi .

h , i : V × V → R, (u, v) → hu, vi

This function satisfies the following properties, or axioms.

A real vector space with an inner product is called an inner product space.

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Theorem Let u, v, and w be any vectors in an inner product

space and let c be any scalar. Then

3. hu − w, vi = hu, vi − hw, vi

5. h0, vi = hv, 0i = 0

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1. The dot product of Rn is an inner product.

u = (u1, . . . , un) and v = (v1, . . . , vn) be any n-vectors. The following

defines an inner product in Rn.

h u, v i = w 1 u 1 v 1 + · · · + w n u n v n (9)

a1 a2 b1 b2

A= , B=

a3 a4 b3 b4

The following function defines an inner product in M22 .

hA, Bi = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 + a4 b4

4. Let f (x) and g(x) be in C[a, b], the vector space of the continuous real-

valued functions defined on [a, b]. Then the following defines an inner

product on C[a, b].

Z b

hf, gi = f (x)g(x) dx

a

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Let V be an inner product space. Two vectors u and v are called orthogonal

if their inner product is zero.

u and v are orthogonal if hu, vi = 0

The norm (or length, or magnitude) of v is the nonnegative number kvk,

defined by

p

k v k = hv , v i (10)

We also define the distance, d(u, v), between two vectors u and v by

d(u, v) = ku − vk (11)

Note that

d(0, v) = d(v, 0) = kvk

A vector with norm 1 is called a unit vector. The set S of all unit vectors of

V is called the unit circle or the unit sphere.

S = {v , v ∈ V and kvk = 1} (12)

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basic properties.

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Example (a) Are the functions sin (x) Rand sin (2x) orthogonal in C [−π, π]

π

under the integral inner product hf, gi = −π f (x) g (x) dx?

(b) What is the norm of sin (2x) with respect to this inner product?

(a) We have

π

1 π

Z Z

hsin (x) , sin (2x)i = sin (x) sin (2x) dx = (cos x − cos 3x) dx

−π 2 −π

π

1 1

= sin x − sin 3x = 0

2 3 −π

so the functions are orthogonal.

(b) The norm is

Z π 1/2 Z π 1/2

1 √

ksin (2x)k = sin2 (2x) dx = (1 − cos (4x)) dx = π

−π 2 −π

1 1

Note: (a) sin (a) sin (b) = (cos (a − b) − cos (a + b)) (b) sin2 (a) = (1 − cos 2a)

2 2

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A matrix transformation T : Rn → Rm, is a transformation for which there

is an m × n matrix A such that

T (x) = Ax

for all x in Rn.

h i

3 −7 8

Example Consider the matrix transformation T : → R3 R2 with A = 2 1 −4

x1 x1

3 −7 8

T x2 = x2

2 1 −4

x3 x3

So

x1

3x1 − 7x2 + 8x3

T x2 =

2x1 + x2 − 4x3

x3

For example, the image of the vector (−2, 3, 5) under this transformation is

−2 −2

3 −7 8 13

T 3 = 3 =

2 1 −4 −21

5 5

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Definition A linear transformation or linear map from a vector

space V to a vector space W is a transformation T : V → W such

that for all vectors u and v of V and any scalar c, we have

1. T (u + v) = T (u) + T (v)

2. T (cu) = cT (u)

T (u) + T (v) is addition in W. Likewise, scalar multiplications cu

and cT (u) occur in V and W, respectively. In the special case

where V = W, the linear transformation T : V → V is called a

linear operator of V.

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• Matrix transformations. Because if A is the matrix of the transformation,

then

T (x1 + x2 ) = A (x1 + x2 ) = Ax1 + Ax2 = T (x1 ) + T (x2 )

and

T (c1 x1 ) = A (c1 x1 ) = c1 Ax1 = c1 T (x1 )

−1 0 1 0 −1 0 cos θ − sin θ

, , ,

0 1 0 −1 0 −1 sin θ cos θ

are linear and represent reflection about the y-axis and the x-axis, reflec-

tion about the origin and rotation by θ radians about the origin.

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h i

a b

• T : M22 → P3 , T c d = d + cx + (b − a) x3 is linear.

h i h i h i

a1 b1 a2 b2 a1 + a2 b1 + b2

T c1 d1 + c2 d2 =T c1 + c2 d1 + d2

= d1 + c1 x + (b1 − a1 ) x3 + d2 + c2 x + (b2 − a2 ) x3

h i h i

a1 b1 a2 b2

=T c1 d1 +T c2 d2

and

h i h i

a1 b1 ca1 cb1

T c c1 d1 =T cc1 cd1

= c d1 + c1 x + (b1 − a1 ) x3

h i

a1 b1

= cT c1 d1

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114

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7.1 Eigenvalues

an eigenvector of A, if for some scalar λ

Av = λv (13)

The scalar λ (which may zero) is called an eigenvalue of A

corresponding to (or associated with) the eigenvector v.

the same line through the origin.

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7.1 Eigenvalues

Example Let

2 2 2 1

A= , v1 = , v2 =

2 −1 1 −2

Solution: We have

2 2 2 6 2

Av1 = = =3 = 3v1

2 −1 1 3 1

2 2 1 −2 1

Av2 = = = −2 = −2v2

2 −1 −2 4 −2

Therefore, v1 is an eigenvector with corresponding eigenvalue λ = 3 and v2

is an eigenvector with corresponding eigenvalue λ = −2.

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7.1 Eigenvalues

Example Find all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A geometrically, if

0 1

(a) A = .

1 0

(b) A is the standard matrix of the rotation by 30◦ in R3 about the z-axis in

the positive direction.

(a) Ax is the reflection of x about the line y = x. The only vectors that remain

on the same line after rotation are the vectors along the lines y = x and

y = −x. These without the origin are the only eigenvectors. For v along

y = x we have Av = 1v, so v is an eigenvector with corresponding

eigenvalue 1. For v along y = −x, Av = −1v, so v is an eigenvector with

corresponding eigenvalue −1.

(b) The only vectors that remain on the same line after rotation are all vectors

along the z-axis. These without the origin are the only eigenvectors. The

corresponding eigenvalue is 1.

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Theorem Let A be a square matrix.

only if v is a nontrivial solution of the system

(A − λI)v = 0 (14)

det(A − λI) = 0 (15)

det(A − λI) is a polynomial of degree n in λ and is called the characteristic

polynomial of A. The matrix A − λI is called the characteristic matrix of

A. If an eigenvalue λ is a root of the characteristic equation of multiplicity k,

we say that λ has algebraic multiplicity k.

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1. We have

Av = λv ⇒ Av = λI v

⇒ Av − λI v = 0

⇒ (A − λI)v = 0

Hence, v is an eigenvector if and only if it is a nontrivial

solution of the homogeneous system (A − λI)v = 0.

if and only if the determinant of the coefficient matrix is zero.

Thus, λ is an eigenvalue of A if and only if det(A − λI) = 0.

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7.1 Eigenspace

be the set that consists of all eigenvectors of A corresponding

to λ and the zero n-vector. Then Eλ is a subspace of Rn.

vector and the eigenvectors of A with eigenvalue λ is called an

eigenspace of A. It is the eigenspace with eigenvalue λ.

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In the next examples we compute the eigenvalues, the eigenvectors and find

bases for each eigenspace of the given matrix A.

1 −1 −1

Example A = −2 0 4 .

−2 6 −2

1 − λ −1 −1

= −λ3 − λ2 + 30λ = −λ (λ − 5) (λ + 6) = 0

−2 0 − λ 4

−2 6 −2 − λ

Hence, the eigenvalues are

λ1 = 0, λ2 = 5, λ3 = −6

Next, we find the eigenevectors. For λ1 = 0 we have

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1 −1 −1 0 1 0 −2 0

[A − 0I : 0] = −2 0 4 0 ∼ 0 1 −1 0

−2 6 −2 0 0 0 0 0

2r 2

E0 = r , r ∈ R = Span 1

r 1

2

and eigenvector v1 = 1 defines the basis {v1 } of E0 .

1

For λ2 = 5 we have

−4 −1 −1 0 1 0 1/2 0

[A − 5I : 0] = −2 −5 4 0 ∼ 0 1 −1 0

−2 6 −7 0 0 0 0 0

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The general solution is (−r/2, r, r) for r ∈ R. Hence,

−r/2 −1/2

E5 = r , r∈R = Span 1

r 1

Any

nonzero vector of E5 is a basis of E5 . We may choose a fraction free one. So, v2 =

−1

2 defines the basis {v2 } of E5 .

2

For λ = −6 we have

−1 −1 −1/20

7 0 1 0 0

[A − (−6) I : 0] = −2 6 4 0 ∼ 0 1 13/20 0

−2 6 4 0 0 0 0 0

r/20 1/20

E−6 = −13r/20 , r∈R = Span −13/20

r 1

1

Any nonzero vector of E−6 is a basis of E−6 . For example, v3 = −13 defines the basis

20

{v3 } of E−6 .

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0 0 1

Example A = 0 1 0 .

0 0 1

−λ 0 1

= −λ (1 − λ)2 = 0

det(A − λI) = 0 1 − λ 0

0 0 1−λ

Hence, the eigenvalues are

λ1 = 0 , λ2 = λ3 = 1

Next, we find the eigenevectors. For λ1 = 0 we have

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

[A − 0I : 0] = 0 1 0 0 ∼ 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

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The general solution is (r, 0, 0) for r ∈ R. Hence,

r 1

E0 = 0 , r ∈ R = Span 0

0 0

1

and eigenvector v1 = 0 defines the basis {v1 } of E0 (Fig. Ex. ).

0

For λ2 = λ3 = 1 with algebraic multiplicity 2, we have

−1 0 1 0

[A − 1I : 0] = 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

The general solution is (r, s, r) for r ∈ R. But (r, s, r) = r(1, 0, 1) + s(0, 1, 0),

so

r 1 0

E1 = s , r ∈ R = Span 0 , 1

r 1 0

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1 0

The spanning eigenvectors v2 = 0 , v3 = 1 are linearly independent. So, {v2 , v3 } is

1 0

a basis for E1 and the geometric multiplicity of λ = 1 is 2.

det(A − λI) = (a11 − λ)(a22 − λ) · · · (ann − λ)

We conclude that the eigenvalues of a triangular matrix are the diagonal entries.

−1

1 0

Example A = 0 −4 2 .

0 0 −2

A is triangular, so the eigenvalues are the diagonal entries 1, −2, −4. By row reducing

[A − 1I : 0] , [A − (−2)I : 0], and [A − (−4)I : 0] we get

1 1/3 1/5

E1 = Span 0 , E−2 = Span 1 , E−4 = Span 1

0 1 0

The spanning eigenvectors define bases for the corresponding eigenspaces.

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7.5 Diagonalization

Matrix arithmetic with diagonal matrices is easier than with any other matri-

ces. This is most notable in matrix multiplication. For example, a diagonal

matrix D does not mix the components of x in the product Dx.

2 0 a 2a

=

0 3 b 3b

Also, it does not mix rows of A in a product DA (or columns in AD).

2 0 a b c 2a 2b 2c

=

0 3 d e f 3d 3e 3f

Moreover, it is very easy to compute the powers Dk .

k k

2 0 2 0

=

0 3 0 3k

advantage of the easy arithmetic. We use eigenvalues to develop criteria that

identify these matrices and we explore their basic properties.

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7.5 Diagonalization

A if there exists an invertible matrix P such that

B = P −1 AP

called diagonalizable. We also say that A can be diagonalized. This means

that there exists an invertible n × n matrix P such that P −1 AP is a diagonal

matrix D.

P −1 AP = D

The process of finding matrices P and D is called diagonalization. We say

that P and D diagonalize A.

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7.5 Diagonalization

Theorem Let A be an n × n matrix.

vectors of A and the diagonal entries of D are the corresponding eigen-

values.

ing eigenvalues λ1 , . . . , λn, then A can be diagonalized by

λ1 · · · 0

P = [v1 v2 · · · vn] and D = ... . . . ...

0 · · · λn

1. A is diagonalizable.

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7.5 Diagonalization

0 0 1

Example A = 0 1 0 .

0 0 1

Solution: We found before that λ1 = 0, λ2 = λ3 = 1 and

1 1 0

E0 = Span 0 , E1 = Span 0 , 1

0 1 0

A has 3 linearly independent eigenvectors so it is diagonalizable. We may

take

1 1 0 0 0 0

P = 0 0 1 , D= 0 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 1

We may check this by

−1

1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

−1

P AP = 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 = 0 1 0 = D

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1

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7.5 Diagonalization

Example

1 −1 0

A = 0 −4 2 .

0 0 −2

1 1

1 3 5

E1 = Span 0 , E−2 = Span 1 , E−4 = Span 1

0

1 0

A has 3 linearly independent eigenvectors so it is diagonalizable. We may

take

1 13 15

1 0 0

P = 0 1 1 , D = 0 −2 0

0 1 0 0 0 −4

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7.5 Diagonalization

Theorem Let λ1 , . . . , λl be any distinct eigenvalues of an n × n matrix A.

B = B1 ∪ · · · ∪ Bl

is linearly independent.

nalizable, if and only if B in part 2 has exactly n elements.

1 0 3

Example Is A = 1 −1 2 diagonalizable?

−1 1 −2

Solution: We have found that λ1 = λ2 = 0, λ3 = −2 and

−3 −1

E0 = Span −1 , E−2 = Span −1

1 1

This time A has at most 2 (< 3) linearly independent eigenvectors, so it is not diagonalizable,

by part 2 of the theorem.

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Let A be diagonalizable n × n matrix, diagonalized by P and D, so A = P DP −1 . We have

A2 = (P DP −1 )(P DP −1 ) = P D2 P −1 . We iterate to get

Ak = P Dk P −1

1 0 1

A= 0 2 0

3 0 3

Solution: A has eigenvalues 0, 2, 4 and the corresponding basic eigenvectors (−1, 0, 1),

(0, 1, 0), (1, 0, 3) are linearly independent. Hence,

k −1

−1 −1

0 1 0 0 0 0 1

Ak = 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0

1 0 3 0 0 4 1 0 3

0 0 0 − 34 0 1

−1

0 1 4

= 0 1 0 0 2k 0 0 1 0

1 0 3 0 0 4k 1

0 1

4 4

" #

4k−1 0 4k−1

= 0 2k 0

3 · 4k−1 0 3 · 4k−1

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Let us now discuss an idea that is in the core of most applications of di-

agonalization. Let A be diagonalizable, diagonalized by P and D. Often a

matrix-vector equation f (A, x) = 0 can be substantially simplified, if we re-

place x by the new vector y such that

x = P y or y = P −1x (16)

and replace A with P DP −1 to get an equation of the form g(D, y) = 0 that

involves the diagonal matrix D and the new vector y.

To illustrate suppose we have a linear system Ax = b. Then we can convert

this system into a diagonal system as follows. We consider the new variable

vector y defined by y = P x. We have

Ax = b ⇔ P Ax = P b

⇔ P AP −1 y = P b

⇔ Dy = P b

The last equation defines a diagonal system.

Lecture 3 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 134

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columns. This means that every pair of columns is orthogonal and each

column is a unit vector.

Note that a nonsquare matrix with orthonormal columns is not called orthog-

onal. (Perhaps a better name for orthogonal matrix would be “orthonormal”.)

Orthogonal matrices are invertible, because they are square with linearly

independent columns. We have the following important theorem.

Theorem Let A be a square matrix. The following are equivalent.

1. A is orthogonal.

2. AT A = I

3. A−1 = AT

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Example Show that the rotation matrix A is orthogonal

cos θ − sin θ

A=

sin θ cos θ

and find its inverse

Solution: A is orthogonal because

2 θ + sin2 θ

cos 0 1 0

AAT = =

0 cos2 θ + sin2 θ 0 1

cos θ sin θ

A−1 = AT =

− sin θ cos θ

2 1 2

3 3 3

B = − 32 2 1

3 3

1 2

3 3

− 23

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Theorem For A a n × n matrix, the following statements are equivalent.

1. A is orthogonal.

matrix A is also called orthogonal. By the last theorem we see that orthogonal

matrix transformations preserve dot products. Hence, they preserve lengths

and angles.

Theorem If λ is an eigenvalue of an orthogonal matrix A, then |λ| = 1.

Proof: If v an eigenvector of A, then by part 3 of the last theorem

kvk = kAvk = kλvk = |λ| kvk

Hence, |λ| = 1, since kvk 6= 0.

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Theorem

or zero.

1 1 2

A= 1 2 1

2 1 1

has real eigenvalues: 1, 4, −1.

The skew-symmetric matrix B

0 2 1

B = −2 0 1

−1 −1 0

√ √

has pure imaginary or zero eigenvalues: 0, i 6, −i 6.

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and Unitary Matrices

Definitions Let A be a square complex matrix. Then

T

1. A is called Hermitian, if A = A.

T

2. A is called skew-Hermitian, if A = −A.

T

3. A is called unitary, if A = A−1 .

matrix C is unitary.

" √ #

1 3

−2i

4 2+i 0 2−i 2

A= , B= , C= √

2−i 0 −2 − i −4i − 3i 1

2 2

Solution: That A is Hermitian because

T T

T 4 2+i 4 2−i 4 2+i

A = = = =A

2−i 0 2+i 0 2−i 0

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and Unitary Matrices

B is skew-Hermitian, because

T T

T 0 2−i 0 2+i 0 −2 + i

B = = = = −B

−2 − i −4i −2 + i 4i 2+i 4i

T

To show that C is unitary, it suffices to check that C C = I. We have

" √ #T " √ #

1

T 2

− 23 i 1

2

− 23 i

C C= √ √ =

3 1 3 1

− 2

i 2

− 2

i 2

" √ #" √ #

1 3 1

i − 23 i

2 2 2 1 0

= √ √ = = I2

3

i 1

− 3

i 1 0 1

2 2 2 2

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and Unitary Matrices

REMARKS

called skew-symmetric.

matrix is orthogonal.

imaginary numbers.

T

5. Equivalent statements for A being a unitary matrix are: A A = I and

also by taking the transpose

AT A = I

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and Unitary Matrices

Theorem Let A be a complex square matrix. Then

1. If A is Hermitian, then its eigenvalues are real. (Thus, this holds for

symmetric matrices.)

(Thus, this holds for skew-symmetric matrices.)

holds for real orthogonal matrices.)

and v, we have with respect to the complex dot product:

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George Nakos

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143

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3. Euler’s Formula

Coefficients

5. Sturm-Liouville Theory

144

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1. sin (a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b

1 + cos 2a

7. cos2 (a) =

2

1 − cos 2a

8. sin2 (a) =

2

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1 1

9. sin a cos b = sin (a + b) + sin (a − b)

2 2

1 1

10. sin a sin b = cos (a − b) − cos (a + b)

2 2

1 1

11. cos a cos b = cos (a − b) + cos (a + b)

2 2

π

14. cos (2k − 1) = 0, k integer.

2

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We consider continuous real-valued functions defined on an interval [a, b] . So

they are in the set C [a, b] .

Definitions

1. We say that the distinct functions gm (x) and gn (x) are orthogonal on

[a, b] , if their integral inner product is zero. I.e., if

Z b

hgm , gni = gm (x) gn (x) dx = 0, for m 6= n

a

is an orthogonal set on [a, b] , if all functions are pairwise orthogonal.

I.e., if

hgm , gni = 0, for all m 6= n

Recall that the norm or length of each gm on [a, b] under this inner product

is

s s

p Z b Z b

2

kgm k = hgm , gm i = gm (x) gm (x) dx = gm (x) dx

a a

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Definition We say that the sequence of distinct functions g1 (x) , g2 (x) , . . . , gn (x) , . . .

is an orthonormal set on [a, b] , if

to saying

Z b

0, for all m 6= n

hgm , gni = gm (x) gn (x) dx =

a

1, for all m = n

1

each function by its own norm. So we replace gm with gm .

kgm k

1 1

This is because if kgm k 6= 1, 0, then gm

= kgmk = 1 kgmk = 1

kgmk kgmk kgm k

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4.7 Assumptions

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Example 1 Let gm (x) = sin mx, m = 1, 2, . . .

Solution:

1. If m 6= n, then

Z π

hgm , gni = sin (mx) sin (nx) dx

−π

Z π

1

= [cos ((m − n) x) − cos ((m + n) x)] dx

2 −π

1 1

= sin ((m − n) x)|π−π − sin ((m + n) x)|π−π

2 (m − n) 2 (m + n)

= 0+0

= 0

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2. Each norm is computed from

Z π

2

kgm k = sin2 (mx) dx

−π

1 π

Z

= (1 − cos (2mx)) dx

2 −π

π

1 sin (2mx)

= x−

2 2m

−π

1

= (2π)

2

= π

So

√

ksin (mx)k = π, for m = 1, 2, . . .

So, the corresponding orthonormal set is

√ , √ , √ ,..., √ ,...

π π π π

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Example 2 Consider the set

1, cos x, sin x, cos (2x) , sin (2x) , . . . , cos (mx) , sin (mx) , . . .

Solution:

1. We have

a.

Z π

π

sin (mx)

h1, cos (mx)i = (1) cos (mx) dx = =0

−π m

−π

b.

Z π

π

cos (mx)

h1, sin (mx)i = (1) sin (mx) dx = − =0

−π m −π

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c. If m 6= n, then hsin (mx) , sin (nx)i = 0. This was proved before.

d. If m 6= n, then

Z π

hcos (mx) , sin (nx)i = cos (mx) sin (nx) dx

−π

Z π

1

= (sin ((m + n) x) − sin ((m − n) x)) dx

2 −π

−1 1

= cos (m + n) x|π−π + cos (m − n) x|π−π

2 (m + n) 2 (m − n)

= 0+0=0

e.

Z π

hcos (mx) , sin (mx)i = cos (mx) sin (mx) dx

−π

Z π

1

= sin (2mx) dx

2 −π

π

1 cos 2mx

= − =0

2 2m −π

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f. If m 6= n, then

Z π

hcos (mx) , cos (nx)i = cos (mx) cos (nx) dx

−π

Z π

1

= (cos ((m − n) x) + cos ((m + n) x)) dx

2 −π

1 1

= sin (m − n) x|π−π + sin (m + n) x|π−π

2 (m + n) 2 (m − n)

= 0+0

= 0

a.

Z π

2

k1k = 1dx = x|π−π = 2π

−π

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b.

Z π

2

kcos (mx)k = cos2 (mx) dx

−π

1 π

Z

= (1 + cos (2mx)) dx

2 −π

π

1 sin (2mx)

= x+

2 2m

−π

= π

c. ksin (mx)k2 = π was proved in the last example. So the norms are

√ √ √

k1k = 2π, kcos (mx)k = π, ksin (mx)k = π, for m = 1, 2, . . .

So the orthonormal set is

1 cos x sin x cos (2x) sin (2x) cos (mx) sin (mx)

√ , √ , √ ,, √ , √ ,,..., √ , √ ,...

2π π π π π π π

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Orthogonal sets are very important because if f (x) is a given

function defined on [a, b] and g1 (x) , g2 (x) , . . . , gn (x) , . . . orthog-

onal on [a, b] , then in general f (x) can be represented as a con-

vergent series of the gn (x) .

∞

X

f (x) = angn (x) = a1g1 (x) + · · · + angn (x) + · · · (GFS)

n=1

where the an are constants that depend on the function f (x) .

with respect to the orthogonal set gn (x) n = 1, 2, . . . . The

coefficients an are the generalized Fourier coefficients of f (x) .

the function f (x) .

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ficients can be computed as follows.

* ∞ + ∞

X X

hf, gni = amgm, gn = am hgm, gni = an hgn, gni

m=1 m=1

because hgm, gni = 0 for m 6= n, by orthogonality. Therefore,

hf, gni hf, gni

an = = (GFC1)

hgn, gni kgnk2

Or by the definition of the integral inner product

Z b Rb

1 a f (x) gn (x) dx

an = 2 a

f (x) gn (x) dx = Rb (GFC2)

kgnk 2

a gn (x) dx

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Consider the orthogonal functions on [−π, π] of Example 2: 1, cos x, sin x, cos (2x) , sin (2

If a function f (x) is defined on [−π, π] then the special generalized Fourier

series

∞

X

f (x) = a0 + (an cos (nx) + bn sin (nx)) (FS)

n=1

is called the (classical) Fourier series of f (x) . The coefficients are computed

by using (GFC2) to get

Z π

1

a0 = f (x) dx

2π −π

1 π

Z

an = f (x) cos (nx) dx

π −π

1 π

Z

bn = f (x) sin (nx) dx

π −π

because we have already seen in Example 2 that

√ √ √

k1k = 2π, kcos (mx)k = π, ksin (mx)k = π, for m = 1, 2, . . .

Lecture 4 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 158

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Function

Let be a positive function defined on [a, b] . I.e., p (x) > 0 for all x in [a, b].

The assignment

Z b

(f, g) → hf, gi = p (x) f (x) g (x) dx

a

defines as inner product on the vector space of all real-valued continuous

functions C [a, b] defined on [a, b] . The norm defined by this inner product is

s

Z b

kf k = p (x) f 2 (x) dx

a

functions g1 (x) , g2 (x) , . . . is an orthogonal set on [a, b] with respect to the

weight function p (x) , if the inner product with weight p (x) is zero. I.e., if

Z b

hgm , gni = p (x) gm (x) gn (x) dx = 0, for m 6= n

a

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Function

If each function in an orthogonal set has norm 1 with respect to the weight

function p (x) , then the set is orthonormal with respect to the weight

function p (x) .

Notes

function p (x) = 1, for all x in [a, b] .

2. If the g1 (x) ,p

g2 (x) , . . . is orthogonal with respect to weight p (x) and we

set hn (x) = p (x)gn (x) , then by the weighted orthogonality we get

Z b Z bp p

hm (x) hn (x) dx = p (x)gm (x) p (x)gn (x) dx

a

Za b

= p (x) gm (x) gn (x) dx

a

= 0

So the functions h1 (x) , h2 (x) , . . . are orthogonal in the usual sense.

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Euler’s Formula

Euler’s Formula relates the complex exponential function with the trigono-

metric sines and cosines. If t is a real number, then

eit = cos t + i sin t

√

where i = −1 is the complex unit such that

i2 = −1

Example We have

eiπ = −1, eiπ/2 = i, ei2π = 1, e2+3i = e2 (cos 3 + i sin 3)

because

eiπ = cos π + i sin π = −1 + i0 = −1

eiπ/2 = cos (π/2) + i sin (π/2) = 0 + i = i

ei2π = cos (2π) + i sin (2π) = 1 + i0 = 1

e2+3i = e2 e3i = e2 (cos 3 + i sin 3) ' −7. 315 1 + 1. 042 7i

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Review

Linear Homogeneous with Constant Coefficients

dny dn−1 y dy

an n + an−1 n−1 + · · · + a1 + a0 y = f (x) (N)

dx dx dx

where all ai are constants and f (x) is a given function.

differential equation:

dny dn−1 y dy

an n + an−1 n−1 + · · · + a1 + a0 y = 0 (H)

dx dx dx

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Review

Linear Homogeneous with Constant Coefficients

constant. Given that

dk rx k rx

(e ) = r e

dxk

substitution into (H) yields

an (rnerx ) + an−1 r n−1 erx + · · · + a1 (rerx ) + a0 (erx ) = 0

rx n n−1

⇒ e anr + an−1 r + · · · + a1 r + a0 = 0

⇒ anrn + an−1 rn−1 + · · · + a1 r + a0 = 0

So to find solutions of the form y = erx it suffices to solve the auxiliary

polynomial equation

anrn + an−1 rn−1 + · · · + a1 r + a0 = 0 (A)

The roots of (A) can be real, or complex, or repeated.

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Review

Linear Homogeneous with Constant Coefficients

For the special case of a second order equation the general solution is dis-

cussed the following theorem.

d2 y dy

a 2 +b + cy = 0 (H2)

dx dx

with auxiliary

ar 2 + br + c = 0 (A2)

1. If (A2) has two distict real roots r1 and r2 , then the general real solution

of (H2) is given by

y (x) = c1 er1 x + c2 er2 x

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Review

Linear Homogeneous with Constant Coefficients

2. If (A2) has a double real root r, then the general real solution

of (H2) is given by

for any constants c1 and c2.

the general real solution of (H2) is given by

for any constants c1 and c2.

Lecture 4 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 165

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Review

Linear Homogeneous with Constant Coefficients

Example Solve 2y 00 + 5y 0 − 3y = 0.

y (x) = c1 e4x + c2 xe4x

Example y 00 − 8y 0 + 20y = 0.

y (x) = c1 e4x cos (2x) + c1 e4x sin (2x)

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Review

Linear Homogeneous with Constant Coefficients

and initial conditions (IC’s).

y 00 + 16y = 0, y (π ) = 3, y 0 (π ) = −5

c1 cos (4x) + c2 sin (4x) . Differentiate to get y 0 = −4c1 sin 4x +

4c2 cos 4x. Now y (π ) = 3 yields c1 = 3 and y 0 (π ) = −5 yields

c2 = − 54 . So the solution is

5

y (x) = 3 cos (4x) − sin (4x)

4

Lecture 4 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 167

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

A Sturm-Liouville problem (S-L) defined on [a, b] is a boundary value problem

for a second order homogeneous differential equation in unknown function

y = y (x) that can be written in the form

0

r (x) y 0 + [q (x) + λp (x)] y = 0

k1 y (a) + k2 y 0 (a) = 0

l1 y (b) + l2 y 0 (b) = 0

where the constants k1 , k2 are not both zero and the constants l1 , l2 are also

not both zero. The number λ is called the parameter of the S-L problem.

Note that a S-L problem has always the trivial solution y (x) = 0 for all x in

[a, b] . If λ is a scalar such that the S-L problem has a nontrivial solution y (x),

λ is called an eigenvalue of the the problem and the nontrivial y (x) is called

an eigenfunction corresponding to λ.

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Example Find the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the S-L problem.

y 00 + λy = 0, y (0) = 0, y (π) = 0

y 00 − v 2 y = 0 ⇒ r 2 − v 2 = 0 ⇒ r = ±v

This is a case of two real roots. So

Using the boundary conditions: The first yields y (0) = 0 = c1 + c2 , so

c2 = −c1 . The second condition yields y (π) = c1 (evπ − e−vπ ) = 0. So, c1 = 0.

Hence, c2 = 0. We only get the trivial solution.

Using the boundary conditions we get y (0) = 0 = c1 . Hence, y (x) = c2 . Now

y (π) = c2 = 0. Thus, we again get the trivial solution.

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

y 00 + v 2 y = 0 ⇒ r2 + v 2 = 0 ⇒ r = ±vi

This is a case of two complex conjugate roots. So

Using the boundary conditions we get y (0) = 0 = c1 . So y (x) = c2 sin (vx) .

Now y (π) = c2 sin (vπ) = 0. If c2 = 0, we get the trivial solution. If c2 6= 0,

then sin (vπ) = 0. Hence, vπ = nπ, where n is any integer. Therefore, v = n

is an integer. So there are infinitely many eigenvalues

λn = n2

with corresponding eigenfunctions

yn (x) = sin (nx) , n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

y 00 + λy = 0, y (π) = y (−π) y 0 (π) = y 0 (−π)

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Theorem 1 (Orthogonality of Eigenfunctions) If p (x) , q (x) , r (x) , and

r 0 (x) are real-valued continuous functions defined on [a, b] for an S-L problem.

0

r (x) y 0 + [q (x) + λp (x)] y = 0

k1 y (a) + k2 y 0 (a) = 0

l1 y (b) + l2 y 0 (b) = 0

Let ym (x) and yn (x) be two eigenfunctions corresponding to different eigen-

vlues λm and λn. Then ym (x) and yn (x) are orthogonal with respect to weight

function p (x) . Furthermore:

y (a) = y (b) , y 0 (a) = y 0 (b)

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

r0 (x) are real-valued continuous functions defined on [a, b] for

i0

0

h

r (x) y + [q (x) + λp (x)] y = 0

k 1 y (a ) + k 2 y 0 (a ) = 0

l1y (b) + l2y 0 (b) = 0

and p (x) is either positive in the entire interval [a, b], or nega-

tive in the entire interval [a, b] , then all the eigenvalues are real

numbers.

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Periodic Boundary Conditions

Example 2 Find the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the S-L problem.

Solution: We have

r = ±v. So, y (x) = c1 evx + c2 e−vx . Using the boundary conditions we have

y 0 = vc1 evx − vc2 e−vx . Hence,

y (0) = c1 + c2 = y (2π) = c1 e2πv + c2 e−2πv

y 0 (0) = vc1 − vc2 = y 0 (2π) = vc1 e2πv − vc2 e−2πv

Thus, we get the homogoenuous linear system in c1 and c2

c1 1 − e2πv + c2 1 − e−2πv = 0

2πv −2πv

c1 1 − e + c2 e −1 = 0

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Periodic Boundary Conditions

The coefficient matrix has determinant

1 − e2πv 1 − e−2πv

= 2e−2πv + 2e2πv − 4 = 2 eπv − e−πv 2 6= 0

1 − e2πv e−2πv − 1

So the system has only the trivial solution.

Case 2 Let λ = 0. Then y 00 (x) = 0. Hence, y (x) = c1 x + c2 , by integration.

Using the boundary conditions we get

y (0) = c2 = y (2π) = 2πc1 + c2

y 0 (0) = c1 = y 0 (2π) = c1

Hence, c1 = 0. However, there is no restriction on c2 . So y (x) can be any

constant. Say, y (x) = a0 .

Case 3 Let λ < 0, say λ = −v 2 . Then the auxiliary is r2 + v 2 = 0. We get

r = ±iv. So, y (x) = c1 cos (vx) + c2 sin (vx) . Using the boundary conditions

we have y 0 = −vc1 sin vx + vc2 cos vx. Hence,

y (0) = c1 = y (2π) = c1 cos (2πv) + c2 sin (2πv)

y 0 (0) = vc2 = y 0 (2π) = −vc1 sin (2πv) + vc2 cos (2πv)

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Periodic Boundary Conditions

Thus, we get the homogoenuous linear system in c1 and c2

c1 (1 − cos (2πv)) + c2 (− sin (2πv)) = 0

c1 (sin (2πv)) + c2 (1 − cos (2πv)) = 0

1 − cos (2πv) − sin (2πv) = 2 − 2 cos (2πv) = 4 sin2 (πv) = 0

sin (2πv) 1 − cos (2πv)

c1 cos (nx) + c2 sin (nx), n is any integer.

1, cos x, cos (2x) , cos (3x) , . . . , sin x, sin (2x) , sin (3x) , . . .

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Lecture 5 in Engineering

Mathematics

George Nakos

Engineering Mathematics

The Johns Hopkins University

Fall 2004

176

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

and L. Let u (x, t) be the deflection or displacement (signed vertical distance

from the x-axis) of the string at location x at time t.

Goal: Calculate u (x, t) , given (a) the ends of the strings are fixed and (b)

initial displacement u (x, 0) and initial velocity ut (x, 0) .

This is because PDEs are very hard or impossible to solve exactly.

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Assumptions:

1. The mass of the string per unit length is constant (homogeneous string).

The string is elastic and does not resist to bending.

2. The tension caused by stretching is much greater that gravity. So, gravity

is not a factor here.

that both the deflection u (x, t) and its slope ux (x, t) are small.

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Forces:

Consider forces acting on small portions of the string.

Since there is no resistance to bending, the tension is tangential to the curve

of the string at each point.

Let T1 and T2 be the tensions at P and Q.

Horizontal direction: There is no motion in the horizontal direction, so the

horizontal component must be constant, say T . So

T1 cos α = T2 cos β = T (1)

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Vertical direction: In the vertical direction we have two forces, the vertical

components −T1 sin α and T2 sin β.

Let ρ be the linear mass density of the string, i.e., mass per unit length. By

∂ 2u

Newton’s second law the resultant force is mass ρ∆x times acceleration

∂t2

evaluated at some point between x and x + ∆x.

∂ 2u

T2 sin β − T1 sin β = ρ∆x 2

∂t

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Using (1) we get

T2 sin β T1 sin α ∆x ∂ 2 u

= = tan β − tan α = ρ

T2 cos β T1 cos α T ∂t2

∂u ∂u

But tan α = , tan β = are the slopes at x and x + ∆x. So

∂x x ∂x x+∆x

we have

!

ρ ∂ 2u

1 ∂u ∂u

− =

∆x ∂x x+∆x ∂x x T ∂t2

∂ 2u 2

2∂ u

=c (W-1)

∂t2 ∂x2

T

where c2 = .

ρ

Equation (W-1) is the one-dimensional wave equation.

Lecture 5 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 181

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

We solve the one-dimensional wave equation

∂ 2u 2

2∂ u

=c (W-1)

∂t2 ∂x2

u (0, t) = 0, u (L, t) = 0, t≥0 (BC)

and initial conditions specifying an initial deflection f (x) and initial velocity

g (x) , for x such that 0 ≤ x ≤ L.

∂u

u (x, 0) = f (x) , = g (x) , 0≤x≤L (IC)

∂t t=0

Method of solution

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Stage 1: Separation of Variables

First we seek nontrivial solutions of the system (W-1), (BC). Notice that the

trivial solution is already a solution.To solve (W-1), (BC) we use the method

of separation of variables. I.e., we seek solutions of the form.

u (x, t) = X (x) T (t)

where X = X (x) is a function of x only and T = T (t) is a function of t only.

Substitution into (W-1) yields

XT 00 = c2 X 00 T

where by X 0 we mean dX

dx

and by T 0 we mean dT

dt

. Now we separate the variables

by dividing both sides by c2 XT to get

T 00 X 00

=

c2 T X

Now x and t are completely independent variables, one being location and

T 00 X 00

one being time. So the only way the functions c2 T of t and X of x is if they

are both the same constant, say −λ. So,

Lecture 5 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 183

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

T 00 X 00

2

= = −λ

c T X

Therefore, we get a system of two ordinary differential equations homoge-

neous with constant coefficients: one in X only and only in T only.

T 00 + c2 λT = 0, X 00 + λX = 0

These can be readily solved, provided we know the constant λ.

The boundary conditions (BC) are written in terms of X and T. For all t ≥ 0

u (0, t) = X (0) T (t) = 0, u (L, t) = X (L) T (t) = 0

T cannot be identically zero (T (t) = 0, for all t), or else u (x, t) would be

zero for all x and t, hence we would get the trivial solution. So we must have

X (0) = 0 and X (L) = 0. We get the Sturm-Liouville problem

X 00 + λX = 0, X (0) = 0, X (L) = 0

which we have essentially solved before. We have the following cases:

Lecture 5 / @ Copyright: George Nakos 184

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Case 1 Let λ < 0, say λ = −v 2 for v > 0. Then we have

X 00 − v 2 X = 0 ⇒ r 2 − v 2 = 0 ⇒ r = ±v

This is a case of two real roots. So

Using the boundary conditions we get X (0) = 0 = c1 + c2 and X (L) =

−vL −vL

vL vL

c1 e + c2 e = 0. So c2 = −c1 . Hence, X (L) = c1 e − e = 0. Thus,

c1 = 0. So, c2 = 0 and we get the trivial solution.

Case 2 Let λ = 0. Then X 00 (x) = 0. Hence, X (x) = c1 x + c2 , by integration.

Using the boundary conditions we get X (0) = 0 = c2 . Hence, X (x) = c1 x.

Now X (L) = c1 L = 0. So, c1 = 0. Thus, we again get the trivial solution.

Case 3 Let λ > 0, say λ = v 2 for v > 0. Then we have

X 00 + v 2 X = 0 ⇒ r2 + v 2 = 0 ⇒ r = ±vi

This is a case of two complex conjugate roots. So

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Using the boundary conditions we get y (0) = 0 = c1 . So X (x) = c2 sin (vx) .

Now X (L) = c2 sin (vπ) = 0. If c2 = 0, we get the trivial solution. If c2 6= 0,

then sin (vL) = 0. Hence, vL = nπ, where n is any integer. Therefore,

v = nπ/L. So there are infinitely many eigenvalues

nπ 2

λn = , n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

L

with corresponding eigenfunctions

nπ

Xn (x) = sin x , n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

L

Note that since sin (−x) = − sin (x) and sin (0) = 0, so we need not keep any

negative integer values for n. These signs can be absorbed by the constant

coefficients.

the form

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

cnπ 2

Tn00 + Tn = 0

L

2

which can be solved right away, becuase cnπ L

> 0. The auxiliary is r2 +

cnπ 2 cnπ

L

= 0. So, r = ± L

i. We have for any constants an and bn

cnπ cnπ

Tn = an cos t + bn sin t , n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

L L

Hence, u = XnTn becomes

cnπ cnπ nπ

un (x, t) = an cos t + bn sin t sin x , n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

L L L

Note that since the system (W-1), (BC) is homogeneous, any finite sum of

solutions un is also a solution.

k

X

u (x, t) = un (x, t)

n=1

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

Under certain conidtions an infinite sum of solutions is also a solution

∞

X

u (x, t) = un (x, t)

n=1

So we may have a general solution of the form

X∞ cnπ cnπ nπ

u (x, t) = an cos t + bn sin t sin x (W-1-Sol)

n=1

L L L

Solution (W-1-sol) is the kind of solution this method produces, provided

we know the coefficients an and bn. These can be computed by using the

∂u

boundary conditions u (x, 0) = f (x) and ∂t t=0 = g (x) .

∞

X nπ

u (x, 0) = an sin x = f (x)

n=1

L

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

nπ

Now recall that the functions sn (x) = sin L

x were eigenfunctions to the

S-L problem on [0, L] . Therefore, by Theorem 1 on S-L problems, these

eigenfunctions must be orthogonal. So we can use the generic formula an =

hf, sni / hsn, sni to find an. We have

RL nπ

RL nπ

hf, sni f (x) sin L x dx f (x) sin L x dx

an = = 0R L = R 0L

hsn, sni 2 nπ 1 2nπ

0

sin L x dx 2 0

1 − cos L x dx

RL nπ

Z L

0

f (x) sin L

x dx 2 nπ

= = f (x) sin x dx

L/2 L 0 L

∞

∂u X cnπ nπ

= bn sin x = g (x)

∂t t=0 n=1

L L

L

x are orthogonal, So we can use the generic

cnπ

formula bn L = hg, sni / hsn, sni to find bn. We have

Engineering Mathematics / The Johns Hopkins University

RL nπ

RL nπ

L hf, sni L 0 g (x) sin L

x dx L 0

g (x) sin L

x dx

bn = = RL =

cnπ hsn, sni cnπ sin2 nπ cnπ L/2

0 L

x dx

Z L

2 nπ

= g (x) sin x dx

cnπ 0 L

one-dimensional wave equation.

∞

X cnπ cnπ nπ

u (x, t) = an cos t + bn sin t sin x

n=1

L L L

2 L

Z nπ

an = f (x) sin x dx, n = 1, 2, . . .

L 0 L

Z L

2 nπ

bn = g (x) sin x dx, n = 1, 2, . . .

cnπ 0 L

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