Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33



The major resources for any production are the 4Ms. They are Men, Material,
Money, and Machine. Among the four, Men are very important that is, employees are the
backbone of any organization.

Human resources are very much essential for the success of any business. In the
beginning stage, while an employee joins the organization generally he will be highly
motivated by himself. He will have lot of eagerness to work and he will be self-motivated.
But after days pass he may lose that sprit and he may be demotivated due to various factors.
In this case the wonderful concept “Morale” comes.

In today’s scenario, it is important for the management to consider human

resources and to motivate them. They shall consider them as valuable and they can give much
importance by giving welfare facilities, bonus and others, which motivates them to work
better, that reflects in the health and wealth of an organization.

The concept of morale is defined as an overall state of groups emotional health,

arousal and enthusiasm. Morale is a composite attitude of various individuals employed by an
organization. It is generated by the group and may be considered as a byproduct of the group.
It must be noted that it is not an average of individual attitudes
Morale is the summation of feeling of employees as a group towards various aspects
of their work, the company, working conditions, fellow workers, supervisors, and so on. if
the attitude of employees towards all these aspects is more positive than negative, the morale
of the group can be said to be high, otherwise it is low. Research studies in India show that
high morale among workers may not be necessarily an indication of high productivity.

Definition of Morale:

The dictionary definition of morale is, “State of mind, especially of persons

associated with some enterprise, with reference to confidence, courage, hope, seal, etc.”
Morale may be defined as the “the total satisfactions as a person derives from his
job, his work-group, his boss, the organization and his environment”. It is also affected by his
personality structure.

The “morale pertains to the general feeling of well-being, satisfaction and

happiness of people”.

Simply explained, Morale refers to a composite of employees “Attitudes, behaviours,

expressions of opinions”, All taken together in their work situations.

The model conceptual view morale is essentially “Social” or “group-oriented”.

High Morale and Low Morale

According to Harrell, ‘high morale’, is defined as “a confident spirit of whole

hearted cooperation in a common effort”.

The individual’s feeling that “he is a part of the whole group”, which is engaged
in a given activity, stimulates him to perform his task energetically with a will, in spite of
great hardship that come his way.it is the important element in “high morale”.

High morale: what it leads to?

A high state of morale, essentially leads to:

i) A willing cooperation on the part of workers,

ii) Loyalty and a sense of belonging in the minds of workers for the organization,

iii) Prompt spotting and resolving conflicts, as they emerge,

iv) More effective communication and

v) Safety and safe work environments.

Low morale: Its diagnostic symptoms

Some studies highlight fact that ‘low morale’, is apparent in many industrial situations
characterized by: high rates of labour turnover, numerous grievances, slowdowns, strikes, and
other evidences of employees’ ill-will and dissatisfaction, with the employers, supervisors
and working conditions.

Important factors that affect morale

1. Work environmental setting

The bringing about of a congenial and healthy climate and a favourable atmosphere in
the work environmental setting is an important factor that counts in affecting morale of the

2. Managerial style of working

It may be observed that managerial style of working very much suggests and includes
the supervisory style of working too.

3. Organisational structure

How well the workers feel satisfied with conditions and circumstances within an
organization structure, is a big influencing factors affecting workers morale.

When the conditions and circumstances within an organization structure appear to be

favourable , the morale of the workers is said to be high, and when they are unfavourable ,
morale is low.

4. Equipment

Expert studies indicate that faulty equipment old and defective machines, can rightly
be a cause of grievance, absenteeism, and turn over, as a result of low morale, occasioned on
this account

5. Nature of work

The nature of work say repetitive nature of work, loading to lack of interest,
monotony and boredom, also the work load and level of work pressure, to what degree a
worker feels job satisfaction.

How well workers feel satisfied with their salaries, how well workers feel satisfied
with the opportunities provided to them for their advancement.
Methods of measurement of morale

The following methods are, most frequently used for ascertaining the employee attitude:-

1. Observation

2. Interview Method

3. Printed questionnaire for Attitude Surveys

4. Projective Techniques

5. Company Records and Reports

Company Records and Reports of method:

The personnel department collects various information regarding the job and the person
form time to time and keeps and maintains records of them. The investigators analyses the
records and bring out the variations in output, rat of absenteeism, labour turnover and
accident, grievances and complaints and their severity. By analyzing the records, he checks
the extent to which organization is achieving results.

The extent of increase or decrease in profitability, productivity or any other direct

benefits to the enterprise. It is the indirect method of measuring the employee morale.

The above methods of the measurement of the employee morale present only the
tendencies or the attitude of the employee morale. The statistical measurement of morale is
not possible because it relates to the inner feelings of human beings. We can say that morale
is increasing or decreasing but cannot measure how much it decreased or increased.
Projective techniques of method:

These techniques include a series of devices involving the use of written as

well as verbal materials in the measurement of attitudes.

The word -association'. The sentence competition, the short-competition tests

are among such devices, as are also, a series of projective methods which allow the subject to
call upon his literary imagination and to project his feelings and attitudes into the completion
of arguments, the invention of story-plots or the writing of autobiographical materials.

Printed questionnaire for attitude surveys of method:

Under this method, detailed questionnaires are prepared by the organization

with the help of psychologists and distributed among the workers, to be returned duly filled
in by them. The surveyor, then, analyses these questionnaires, and measures the attitude of
the workers. The questions include yes/no, true/false, items, check-lists, also sometimes
provide space for written comments on specific questions. This method is widely used in
measuring the morale of the work force.

Interview method:

Interview may be taken as one of the techniques of measuring morale. The

interviewer calls upon the employee and asks questions, Interview may be of two types-
guided and unguided, Guided interview emphasizes mainly on the questions set out before
hand in consultation with the higher management.

Under this method, the investigators go to the respondent with printed

questionnaires, explaining them the general objects and provide explanation, if asked for.

The interview asks a series of formal questions with simple choice responses,
similar to those included in the printed questionnaire which answered orally.

Under unguided interview, the participants are encouraged to talk freely about what
he thinks about the organization and its people. There are no specific or formal questions.
The interviewer listens to and encourages the employees to take freely with an assurance
that talk will remain secret and confidential. It may be held individually or in groups.

Administrative measures for raising morale:

On the basis of the factors of morale discussed earlier in this lesson, the following
administrative measures can prove conductive to the process of morale-building.

1. Sound wage structure:

The management should make deliberate efforts evolve a wage structure which will
make work satisfying to the workers form the pecuniary (financial) point of view. An ideal
wage structure will provide for systematic procedure for the fixation of just wage rates for
different categories and will provide incentives to encourage greater productivity and more
regular attendance.

2. Security :

The management should consistently follow a personnel policy that will assure
perfect security of income and employment to competent worked. They should be confident
that they will be promptly absorbed in an alternative job even if their services are no longer
required for their present jobs.

Drucker gives the instance of the I.B.M. to show how a feeling of security can be created
among the workers through wise personnel policy based on healthy precedents. If the
worker is under a constant fear of losing his job, he cannot put his should into his work
and cannot work with a high morale.

3. Sound promotion policy:

By pursuing a sound promotion policy the management can create a

feeling among its employees that the concern is on the look-out for ambitious and
talented persons-be they young or old-in the existing staff for the purpose of promotion
to superior position. This awareness of the opportunities for advancement available in the
concern certainly heightens the morale of workers.

4. Installation of grievances procedure:

The management can hope to convince the employees of its impartiality
and fairness through the establishment of a grievance procedure which can be made use
of by an aggrieved party, whosoever the may be.

The grievance procedure should provide for an internal Board of Appeal to attend the
employees' complaints against the decisions of the mangement.
5. Inspiring credos and mottos for workers:

The management can take a positive step towards boosting the morale
by inspiriting the workers through credos and mottos that give them a sense of
importance. In some concerns thus purpose is achieved by organizing exhibitions of
product mainly with the object of giving the workers a feeling of importance and pride
for having taken part in production of quality articles.

6. Keeping the workers well informed:

The management must maintain the channels of communication

through which information of interest to workers can be passed on to them. Some
progressive management provides regular company information courses for this
purpose. Bulletins containing the latest news about working if the concern also be of
great use for this purpose. In India, the Tata’s are reported to be making use of these
methods at their works at Jamshedpur.

7. Suggestion schemes:

To give the workers a sense of recognition and a feeling of participation

in the working of the concern, their suggestions should be invited and they should be
suitably rewarded if they prove advantageous.
8. Employee counseling:
The executives-in-charge of operating units should make it a point to sit
together with the workers and exchange ideas with them as well as listen to their complaints
and grievances. They should make it a practice to utilize such meetings to make suggestions
and give guidance on any practical difficulties faced by the workers at their work.
How managements can help building and improving the morale of their employees.

a) With the high consideration of their employees welfare oriented policies,

b) With the effective communication devices and systems, that is through a good
exchange of ideas, information and knowledge between individuals as they interact with
each other,

c) Through the furnishing of information about the company its background, present
organization, its products, how they are manufactured? Where they go? ,

d) Through information about the company’s policy and procedures, any changes in
the policy that affect the workers and their fellowmen,

e) Through information about any changes in the methods of production,

f) Information in advance about the new products,

g) Through information, as to how their jobs fit into the organizational schemes of
working, and

h) Through information about chances of employees’ advancement, which they are

ever eager to know.

Some very common types of activities on the part of managements though seem to
be very simple, but prove to be really effective in helping build and improve
employees’ morale,


1) Service recognition certificates

2) Company subsidized cafeteria

3) Movies
4) Festive occasion get-togethers and parties

5) Bulletin boards

6) Sports meets

7) Picnics and outings

8) Tournaments

9) Photo and other contests

10) Suggestion system

11) Educational programmes

12) Group health insurance

13) Touring of other plants

14) Company’s housing facilities and cooperative consumers stores

15) Provisions of library and reading rooms

16) In-plant music

17) Rest pauses

18) Grievances should be treated fairly and promptly

19) Promises made must be fulfilled.

The parameters of job satisfaction:

1. Job security
2. Organizational climate
3. Working hours
4. Grievance handling
5. Responsibility & accountability
6. Recognition
7. Transportation facilities
8. Salary & increments
9. Perks
10. Quarters
These are all the parameters to measure the employee satisfaction about the

11. Employee Morale Boosters:

Morale boosters can take the form of recognition, compensation, special perks or
simply terminating employees. Here are 11 low cost morale boosters.
Welcome Ideas:
Employee morale improves when staff feels they are valued. Share and implement
their innovations and ideas.
Keep Score:
Mount a large score board in the office to recognize top performers and to motivate
those on the bottom of the list.
The old management adage, inspect what you expect is true. Companies with a lack
of focus can confuse staff and lead to less morale.
Thank You Notes:
Send a special thank you letter to your staff’s family or spouse, praising their good
work and efforts.
Have a daily morning huddle to highlight tasks for the day and to cheer yesterday’s
Open Up:
Provide an open forum or one-on-one time to allow employees to express their
concerns and feelings can be an easy means to boost morale.
Have Fun:
Special events and outside work activities can take the pressure off the day-to-day
grind in the office.
Show Charity:
Get your staff involved in a bigger cause to help them see there is more to life than
Add Perks:
Use low cost perks such as a Foosball table in the lunch room.
Fire Staff:
Sometimes the root cause of low employee morale can be a staff member whose
negativity brings down the group. Even a top performer can bring down staff behind your
Keep tabs on the levels of morale in your business by regularly measuring employee
satisfaction. The backbone of business success resides in the productivity and output of your


The pharmaceutical industry is the world’s largest industry due to worldwide

revenues of approximately US$2.8 trillion. Pharma industry has seeb major changes in the
recent years that place new demands on payers, providers and manufacturers. Customers now
demand the same choice and convenience from pharma industry that they find in other
segment. Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is poised for high consistent growth over the next
few years, driven by a multitude of factors. Top Indian Companies like Ranbaxy, DRL
CIPLA and Dabur have already established their presence. The pharmaceutical industry is a
knowledge driven industry and is heavily dependent on Research and Development for new
products and growth. However, basic research (discovering new molecules) is a time
consuming and expensive process and is thus, dominated by large global multinationals.
Indian companies have only recently entered the area. The Indian pharmaceutical industry
came into existence in 1901, when Bengal Chemical & Pharmaceutical Company started its
maiden operation in Calcutta. The next few decades saw the pharmaceutical industry moving
through several phases, largely in accordance with government policies. Commencing with
repackaging and preparation of formulations from imported bulk drugs, the Indian industry
has moved on to become a net foreign exchange earner, and has been able to underline its
presence in the global pharmaceutical arena as one of the top 35 drug producers worldwide.
Currently, there are more than 2,400 registered pharmaceutical producers in India. There are
24,000 licensed pharmaceutical companies. Of the 465 bulk drugs used in India,
approximately 425 are manufactured here. India has more drug-manufacturing facilities that
have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration than any country other than
the US. Indian generics companies supply 84% of the AIDS drugs that Doctors without
Borders uses to treat 60,000 patients in more than 30 countries . However total
pharmaceutical market is as follows:

Category Value Market Share%

Anti-Infective 16.4
Gastrointestinal 10.9
Cardiac 10.3
Respiratory 10.2
Vit./Minerals/Nutrient 9.6
Pain/Analgesics 9.5
Dermatologics 5.4
Gynaecology 5.3
Neuro psychiatry 5.3
Antidiabetics 4.4
Opthologicals 1.7
Others 11.0
Total 100.00

Pharma Marketing Process and its Challenges

While many pharmaceutical companies have successfully deployed a plethora of strategies to
target the various customer types, recent business and customer trends are creating new
challenges and opportunities for increasing profitability. In the pharmaceutical and healthcare
industries, a complex web of decision-makers determines the nature of the transaction
(prescription) for which direct customer of pharma industry (doctor) is responsible.
Essentially, the end-user (patient) consumes a product and pays the cost.
Use of medical representatives for marketing products to physicians and to exert some
influence over others in the hierarchy of decision makers has been a time-tested tradition.
Typically, sales force expense comprises an estimated 15 percent to 20 percent of annual
product revenues, the largest line item on the balance sheet. Despite this other expense, the
industry is still plagued with some very serious strategic and operational level issues.
From organizational perspective the most prominent performance related issues are enlisted
a) .Increased competition and shortened window of opportunity.
b). Low level of customer knowledge (Doctors, Retailers, Wholesalers).
c). Poor customer acquisition, development and retention strategies.
d). Varying customer perception.
e). The number and the quality of medical representatives
d). Very high territory development costs.
f). High training and re-training costs of sales personnel.
g).. Very high attrition rate of the sales personnel.
h). Busy doctors giving less time for sales calls.
i). Poor territory knowledge in terms of business value at medical representative level .
j). Unclear value of prescription from each doctor in the list of each sales person.
k). Unknown value of revenue from each retailer in the territory
l). virtually no mechanism of sales forecasting from field sales level, leading to huge
m). Absence of analysis on the amount of time invested on profitable and not-so profitable
customers and lack of time-share planning towards developing customer base for future
n). Manual and cumbersome administrative systems and processes designed which don't
facilitate optimal efficiency levels in sales teams
Pharmaceutical Company Business Strategies
What’s the secret behind these successes? For one, the company operates in niche
formulations (chronic) segments such as psychiatry, cardiovascular, gastroentology and
neurology. While most of the top Indian companies have focused on antibiotics and anti–
infectives (acute), Sun Pharma focused on therapeutic areas such as depression, hypertension
and cancer. The company has introduced the entire range of products and has gained
leadership position in each of these areas. Being a specialty company insulates Sun Pharma
from the industry growth. The first quarter results for FY02 explain this to some extent.
While the industry was affected to a large extent by a slowdown in the domestic formulations
market, Sun Pharma logged a growth of 26% in revenues. Over the years Sun has also used
the strategy of acquisitions and mergers to grow quickly. It acquired Knoll Pharma’s bulk
drug facility, Gujarat Lyka Organics, 51.5% in M. J. Pharma, merged TamilNadu Dadha
Pharma & Milmet Labs and acquired Natco’s brands. Post Merger with TamilNadu Dadha
Pharma the company gained presence in gynecology and oncology segments. One of the
constants of pharmaceutical company strategy over the past decade has been increasing scale.
Only by growing larger are companies able to afford the considerable costs of drug
development and distribution.


Company Overview:
TTK- the three letters that stand for quality consumer products at affordable prices. A
reputation built across eight decades. An organization that started out as an indenting agency
and grew to what it is today with path-breaking marketing ideas. Those core values that
created TTK into a force to be reckoned with continue to define the framework of the TTK
Group even today.

Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachari better known as TTK gave up law, joining with A R
Doraisami Iyengar who was running a consumer goods firm in Chennai. The firm represented
Levers Brothers. When Iyengar died in 1928, TTK was awarded the Levers Brothers agency.
TT Krishnamachari & Co. was set up in the same year to handle the business and the rest is
Today TTK is a totally integrated manufacturing and marketing Group. While maintaining
leadership in specific product categories in India, the TTK Group reaches out to the world
with its core products - kitchenware, pharmaceuticals, condoms, medical devices, food
products etc.
TTK Healthcare Ltd., a part of the TTK Group was incorporated in 1958 and went public in
TTK Healthcare is committed to providing customers with innovative "value for money"
solutions and improving their quality of life.

The Company's brand wagon consists of products that are sought after by a wide range of
customers. The Woodward's Gripe Water brand is the market leader in the baby care
category. The Eva range of personal care products (Talc, Deodorant, Skincare) bring together
the gentle touch of nature, backed by TTK's extensive research.

TTK Healthcare has an All India Sales and Distribution network for marketing not only their
own products, but also the KIWI Brand (Shoecare), Brylcreem (Haircare) and Kohinoor and
Durex brands (Contraceptives). The Company also specializes in sales and distribution in
India as a joint venture partner. It has a successful tie up with Sara Lee Household and
Bodycare Pvt. Ltd. and TTK-LIG Ltd. The Company's distribution network comprises of
2800 redistribution stockists who cover both the urban and rural consumers.

TTK Healthcare has three Strategic Business Units

• Pharmaceuticals Division
• Consumer Products Division
• Biomedical Devices Division

TTK Healthcare's Pharmaceuticals Division has many breakthrough herbal and allopathic
formulations, across various therapeutic segments. The range includes calcium supplements,
haematinics, cervical dilators, thrombolytic agents, rejuvenators, multimineral supplements,
liver correctives and pain management products.

Besides being the first Pharmaceutical Company in India to be awarded the ISO certification
by BIS, TTK Healthcare was also the first to launch technology-driven life-saving products
like Urokinase and Dopamine. The Company has also developed medicines like Lactare
based on Ayurveda - the ancient traditional system of medicine.

The Company's products are marketed by a well-trained sales force, who form an ideal
interface between the medical fraternity and the Company's pharmaceutical division. TTK
Healthcare's products are trusted and prescribed by a wide segment of healthcare
professionals in India. Almost 90,000 doctors are met every month by personnel from the
Ethical Products Division(EPD).

The Animal Welfare Division(AWD) caters to the requirements of veterinarians, hatcheries,

poultry farms and dairy farms through a variety of herbal and allopathic formulations. The
division's product range includes feed supplements, liver correctives, calcium and
phosphorous supplements, fertility inducers, anthelmintics, antispasmodic & cervical dilators,
antihistamines, trace minerals & vitamin-A supplements, antibiotics, ectoparasiticide,
cocktail enzymes etc. The AWD has an extensive, well-trained sales force that is in touch
with nearly 9000 Veterinarians across the country, and reaches out to the customer through a
nation-wide network of 450 stockists.

The Consumer Products Division (CPD) markets and distributes Woodward's Gripe Water
- the undisputed market leader in the baby care category - and the recently introduced
Woodward's Baby Soap.

The Division also markets the Eva range of deodorants and talcum powders in a variety of
fragrances such as fresh, doll, dreams, sweet, zing, chic and wow.
Backed by the expertise of TTK's Research, the CPD has introduced many variations in the
packaging and has also forayed into the skincare segment with a new range of moisturizers.

Besides handling the national distribution of Durex and Kohinoor condoms, the Division also
distributes Brylcreem Haircare and Toiletry Products and Kiwi's shoe care range.

The TTK Heart Valve Division manufactures and distributes India's first indigenous heart
valve prosthesis - the tilting-disc TTK Chitra Heart Valve. The only Indian-made heart valve,
it is also the most price-friendly and so far nearly 18,000 Chitra valves have been
successfully implanted in patients. Initially conceived in 1978, the heart valve being a critical
implant, went through the most painstaking development for 12 years at the prestigious Sree
Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Trivandrum, India
- an autonomous institute under the Department of Science and Technology, Government of

The Heart Valve Division also manufactures and markets Clinimesh - a versatile prosthesis
for surgical reconstruction of thoracic and abdominal wall defects, Clinistern - stainless steel
needled suture for sternum closure and Clinipatch - a versatile prosthesis for surgical
reconstruction of septal wall defects.


Mr T T Jagannathan - Chairman

Mr T T Raghunathan - Executive Vice Chairman

Mr R K Tulshan - Director

Dr K R Srimurthy - Director

Mr B N Bhagwat - Director

Mr J Srinivasan- Director

Mr R Srinivasan- Director

Mr K Vaidyanathan – Director

Mr K Shankaran – Director

Ahmedabad Ambala Bangalore Bhiwandi

Chandigarh Chennai Cuttack Dehradun
Ernakulam Guwahati Ghaziabad Hubli
Hyderabad Indore Jaipur Kolkata
Lucknow Madurai Meerut Mumbai
Nagpur New Delhi Patna Pune
Raipur Ranchi Siliguri Varanasi

Ever since its early beginnings as an indenting agency 76 years ago, TTK has been known for
its strong distribution and marketing network. The Group's leading brands owe a great deal to
the well-organized dealer and stockist network that TTK & Co., TTK Prestige and TTK
Healthcare have developed over the years, thereby making the TTK products readily
available in 3,20,000 outlets in India's cities, towns and villages. The Group's distribution
strength includes 10,000 direct dealers stocking its consumer durables and more than 2,800
distributors stocking TTK Healthcare's Consumer Products range.

The Company is continuously on the lookout for Joint Venture and Third Party distribution
opportunities so as to leverage its extensive distribution network.

Prof. (James & Jonathan, 1984) stress and low morale found that "Stress is experienced by
almost every one of us. The reasons can be numerous ranging from family tensions, problems
at school or anxieties at the workplace. The perception of stress is usually misunderstood
because of its complexity. Stress has been defined in a number of ways. However, the basics
of most of these definitions are the same.
Prof.herpert (1989) employee morale and motivation his study found that the supply chain
managers continue to seek innovative ways to improve efficiency, there are few changes that
would impact the overall supply chain as much as improving employee morale and employee
motivation. While improving employee morale and motivation might be more challenging
during an economic downturn, there remain numerous low-cost avenues available to all
managers. This paper addresses methods for improving employee morale and employee
motivation in order to increase productivity

Pet rick, Joseph A., Manning, George E. (Year: 1990) their study how to manage morale:
Managers can enhance the morale of their subordinates and improve production by assessing
job elements that include the job itself, management practices, and economic rewards.

The areas of improving employee morale include: the sense of importance employee have in
their jobs, including employee attitudes toward their jobs and job importance; management's
concern for employee welfare, including employee attitudes toward management practices
and management fairness; and fairness and individualization of economic rewards, including
attitudes toward economic rewards and wages.

Jacobs, Dorri (1990) their study on Maintaining morale during and after downsizing:

Employee morale may be adversely affected by the layoffs and changes brought about by a
corporate restructuring. Even employees who are not laid off may become demoralized
because they feel insecure about their jobs. Supervisors can help to improve employee morale
in these situations by meeting regularly with the employees and allowing them to express
their feelings. Supervisors should approach the problem in a way that makes the employees
feel that they can control their situations. The supervisors should work to improve
communication in both directions. Supervisors can set the tone in their departments by being
patient and focusing on positive accomplishments.

Employees should be given time to adapt to changes, and the supervisor should make plans
for the periods before, during, and after the transitions.
Prof. (Bruckner, Konovsky, Cooper-Schneider, Folger, Martin, & Bies, 1994)

Boosting employee morale after downsizing ,The study found that the "Companies who
downsize through attrition and buyouts, those companies that work to help downsized
employees find new jobs, and companies that are willing to provide outplacement services to
those individuals often end up in positions that are much better than companies that simply
fire workers due to downsizing have a much greater chance of retaining a lot of the loyalty
originally given to them by the workers that survived the downsizing.

(1995 and 2002) in five Russian cities Worker morale in Russia:

In this survey Among the workers participating in our study, expectation receiving a desired
reward contributes to high , with expected monetary rewards having a larger influence than
expected non-monetary rewards, but praise for a job well done and a feeling accomplishment
also contribute positively to morale. There is a significant correlation between positive
attitudes toward work and morale, and a positive correlation between performance
assessment and morale. Demographic characteristics (age and gender) have no discernable
influence on morale when controls are included for work experience.

Prof.dallis Perry Thomas a. Mahoney (2001) In-plant Communications and Employee


Research reported an assumption which apparently underlies much of the importance

ascribed to employee communications is that good communications bring about high morale.
One aspect of this assumption is examined in the present article. Measures of employee
knowledge of information given them by their companies were compared with measures of
morale for the same employees. Negligible correlations were found between information and
attitude scores. It is concluded that there is no significant relationship between employees'
attitudes toward the company and their knowledge about the company as measured by tools
used in this study.

Prof.richard belenker (2003) his study found that the employee morale in corporate
America’s great way to help upper-level management discover employee problems is through
an employee satisfaction survey. A well-orchestrated employee survey can lead to high return
rates and help uncover hidden many workplace problems. However in order to receive
helpful information from these surveys they must: (1) establish clear goals and objectives, (2)
ask the right questions the right way, (3) collect data the right way at the right time, and (4)
ensure confidentiality.

The most important thing is that management must take clear follow-up actions. After
reviewing and collecting the data have a group meeting informing the employees on the
findings of the survey, how management intends to go about addressing the issues, ask for
feedback, and implement the necessary changes."

Prof.dale Yoder and Herbert (2006) absenteeism and employee morale their study found that
“Absenteeism due to low morale or job dissatisfaction usually begins with a psychological
withdrawal (Noël et al, 2006). This means that although the employee may be there
physically, their mind is somewhere else. Psychological withdrawal can take many forms. An
employee may display very low levels of job involvement. At this point the employee has
disengaged and no longer considers their work important. There may also be a total
disconnect from the company as a whole. The employee now has a low level of
organizational commitment. When commitment is gone, absenteeism is on the rise.

Morale in an uncertain environment ,This study explains that Johnson Control Interiors is
experiencing significant organizational change, which is directly affecting many of the
processes that occur within the company.

"Previous research has suggested some conclusions about the significance of a survey-based
study used to probe management and issues surrounding downsizing, poor morale, change in
the organizational environment, and job insecurity. The reality is that no amount of original
research occurs in an academic vacuum. These previous studies contributed to this study by
delineating known areas of questioning, as well as emphasizing the importance of the issues
and providing outlined research and results."

Author: Patrick, Joseph A., Manning, George E.

Publisher: Crain Communications, Inc.

Publication Name: Personnel Journal.

Subject: Human resources and labor relations

ISSN: 0031-5745

Year: 1990

Author: Jacobs, Dorri

Publisher: American Management Association

Publication Name: Management Solutions

Subject: Human resources and labor relations

ISSN: 0889-0226

Year: 1988

The researcher had framed the following are the objectives of the study.

 To study the functions and Structure of the Organization.

 To analyze the employees morale in this organization.

 To analyze the working environment facilities of the 0rganization.


The quest for social security and freedom for want and distress had been the
consistent urge of man through the ages. This urge has assumed several forms according to
the needs of the people and their level of social consciousness. So the employees’ morale
played a major role.

From the above background, it has been decided to understand the employees’ morale
which was the most important to the employees. Moreover the study is also helpful to know
as to how the employees morale were beneficial to both the employees and employers and
to what extend the employees were agree with the benefits under social legislative too.

1. This study helps the organization to know more about the opinion of the employees
regarding the morale in the organization.
2. This study helps to know the morale of the employees in each department of the
The methodology of research indicates the general pattern of organizing the procedure
for gathering valid and reliable date for the purpose of investigation the methodology of this
study includes the description of research design sample size sampling technique
development and description of the analytical tool dated collection procedure and method of

The validity of a research depends on the systematic method of calculating the data
and analyzing them in a sequential order. In the present study extensive uses of both primary
and secondary data were calculated systematically.

For collecting primary data a interview schedule and questionnaire method was used in the
study. The Level of morale of the respondents in the study area more collected from 80
sample respondent for their people a well structured questioner was used and necessary data
were collective.

Research Design:-

The research design is purely the framework or plans for a study that guides the
collection and analysis of data.

It is a strategy specifying which approach will be used or gathering and analyzing the

The research design used here is Descriptive research.

Types of data collection:

 Primary data:

The primary data is collected using questionnaire and direct interview method.

 Secondary data:

The secondary data was collected from the books and websites
Type of sampling:

The type of sampling used probability sampling.

Sampling Technique:

The sampling technique is Simple Random Sampling

Sampling Size:

The sampling size is 80respondents

Tools for analysis:

Percentage analysis and weighted average method used for analysis

Period of Study:

The researcher done this study from June 2010 to July 2010

Tools used for Data Analysis:

Percentage Analysis:

No. of respondents

Percentage (%) = × 100

Total respondents

Weighted Average Method:

XW = ∑XW / ∑W

XW = Weighted Average Method.

X = Variable values

W = Weight attached to the Variable X.

Chi – Square test:

∑ (Oij – Eij)2

χ2 =


i - Row

j - Column

O - Observed frequency

E - Expected frequency


Expected frequency =

Degree of freedom = (c-1) (r-1)


1. The respondent’s responses to the questions might be based due to fear towards the






1. Name :

2. Age : a) Below 25 b) 26-35 c) 36-45 d) above 45

3. Gender : a) Male b) Female

4. Marital Status : a) Married b) Unmarried

5. Educational qualification: a) SSLC b) HSC c) Under Graduate

d) Postgraduate E) Others

6. Monthly income : a) Below4000 b) 4001-8000 c) 8001-12000

d) Above12001

7. How long you have been working here?

a) Below 6 months b)1-3yrs c) 3-5yrs d) Above5yrs


8. How satisfied are you with the present job?

a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

d) dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied

9. Your level of satisfaction with benefits given by the organizations.

a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

d) dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied

10. What do you feel about your working environment facilities provided by the


a) Excellent b) Good c) Fair d) Bad e) Worst

11. How do you feel about your relationship with your superiors and co-


a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

d) dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied

12. Do you have the independence to express your views or ideas to superiors?
a) Strongly agree b) agree c) no opinion d) disagree e) Strongly disagree

13. The policies and administration practices followed by the company was?

a) Excellent b) Good c) Fair d) Bad e) Worst

14. How do you feel about your workload given by the company?

a) Excellent b) Good c) Fair d) Bad e) Worst

15. What you feel about your leave facilities provided by the management?

a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

d) dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied

16. My job is challenging enough?

a) Strongly agree b) agree c) no opinion d) disagree e) Strongly disagree

17. Does the job provide opportunities to update your knowledge and skills?

a) Strongly agree b) agree c) no opinion d) disagree e) Strongly disagree

18. How do you feel about the company performance appraisal system?

a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

d) dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied

19. Does the company take your suggestion for the improvement of the


a) Strongly agree b) agree c) no opinion d) disagree e) Strongly disagree

20. Your opinion about the incentives, increment and bonus given by the company?

a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

d) dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied.

21. The medical facilities provided by the company?

a) Excellent b) Good c) Fair d) Bad e) Worst

22. The safety measures followed by the company were?

a) Excellent b) Good c) Fair d) Bad e) Worst

23. Are you comfortable with the welfare facilities provide by the company?

a) Strongly agree b) agree c) no opinion d) disagree e) Strongly disagree

24. Incase if you get the chance to work for another company? Do you shift?

a) Yes b) No