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History Exam Notes

Native American history
A. Pre-Columbian America
B. Diversity and Distribution of Indians at time of Columbus
C. Why Columbus sails west; Spanish treatment of Indians; early French, Spanish, and English
contact with Indians in North America
Columbus tried to find a route to India to trade. All contact with North Americans resulted in North
American death’s, except for the French, which traded with the Indians and didn’t settle on their
land other than trading posts.
D. Native American History, 1600 - 2000

Terms to know
Fremont -
Pequot War - Armed Conflict in 1634-1638 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies with Native
American allies (Narragansett and Mohegan tribes) against the Pequot tribe. The result was the elimination of the Pequot as a viable
polity in what is present day Southern New England. Most of the Pequot people were killed by the colonists or captured and sold into
slavery. Started because of some fur-trading.
Proclamation Line of 1763 - Issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain’s acquisition of French territory in
North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years’ War. The purpose was to organize Great Britain’s new
North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land
purchases on the western frontier.
Tippecanoe - November 7th 1811, Battle of Tippecanoe, Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indian Territory Vs.
Tecumseh and his American Indian Confederation. Harrison’s militia was victorius, but at a cost. Tecumseh Sustained
few losses and killed more than Harrison’s force did. This battle took place at the Confluence of the Tippecanoe and
Wabash Rivers during the war called Tecumseh’s war.
Paleo-Indians - The first peoples who entered, and inhabited the American continent during the glacial episodes.
Crossed the ice bridge(bering strait) from russia to alaska.
Forced Assimilation - A process by which members of an ethnic minority group lose cultural characteristics that
distinguish them from the dominant cultural group or take on the cultural characteristics of another group. SO, it
means that the Indians gave up many of their characteristics and adopted those of the new peoples coming into the
American continent. (taking on guns, farming, clothing, White man ways)
You moved onto your assigned land.
You Cut your hair
You adopt a last name
Go to Church
Have to wear modern clothing
Have to send your children to boarding schools.
California Gold Rush - began on January 24th, 1848 when gold was found by JAMES W MARSHALL at Sutter’s
mill in COLOMA, CALIFORNIA. News of the discovery brought 300,000 people to california from the rest of the
united states. With the new peoples arriving, they wiped nearly all the indians there, cause they viewed them as a
problem. Later on the americans started to make reservations.
Anasazi - Ancient Pueblo People. They were generally around the four corners area of the united states. some lived
in the Ohio River Valley.
King Philip’s War - 1675-1676. It was a battle between Native American inhabitants of present-day New england and
English colonists and their Native American Allies. METACOM is also known as KING PHILIP or METACOMET. IS A
WAR CHIEF. More than half of New England’s 90 towns were assaulted by Native Americans.
Tecumseh - Military Leader. was able to put together a pan-tribal resistance with Tenskwatawa. The resistance didn’t
work. While tecumseh was traveling to unite troops he was defeated at the battle of tippecanoe. He participated in
Tecumseh’s war, War of 1812.
Powhatan Tribe - Was a group of tribes controlled by Chief Powhatan, resulting over 30 distinct tribes underneath
him by the time the english settled Jamestown, Virginia. POCAHONTAS IS PART OF THIS TRIBE. The english tried
to buy friendship with the powhatan tribe after early confrontation that resulted in deaths. John Smith was captured by
this tribe.
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Ghost Dance - Created by a Paiute named Wovoka. In his dreams he saw songs, dances and ceremonies. The
dances became known as the Ghost Dance. Wovoka also preached that this will not happen in a non-violent way.
Hopewell - Replaced the Adena tribe at 100 BC - 400 AD. They used Obsidium to make spears.
Northwest Territories - Created in June 1870 when Hudson’s Bay Company transferred Rupert’s Land and North-
Western Territory to the government of Canada.
Tenskwatawa - Native American religious and political leader of the Shawnee Tribe. known as The Prophet or the
Shawnee Prophet. Brother of Tecumseh. Ultimately caused the battle of Tippecanoe cause he said he saw a vision
and told the forces under him at Prophetstown to attack the white man.
Wounded Knee - Massacre that happened near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
All started because a bunch of Sioux indians were engaging the Ghost Dance with weapons and were wearing shirts
that they thought were bulletproof. Soldiers came to disarm the indians, one indian (Black Coyote) didn’t want to give
up his weapon, and it resulted in a shot being fired, which then led to everyone opening fire, killing women men and
children, 250-350 indians were killed in this encounter.
Adena - Existed from 1000 BC to 200 BC, They built Dirt Mounds. later were placed by the hopewell tribe.
French and Indian War - Also called the 7 years war. The French and Indians vs. the English. The English Win. 1754
-1763. France Lost all their land cause of this war, From Louisiana to Southern Canada all along the mississippi river.
Cherokees - Settled in the Southeastern United States (Georgia, The Carolinas and Eastern Tennessee). They were
known as one of the Five Civilized Tribes because they adopted some of the white man ways in order to keep their
land. Later on they were forced from their Land by andrew jackson around 1837, Think TRAIL OF TEARS
Reservations - Established by the United States Government for the Indians. Land managed by a Native American
Tribe under the Government.
Andrew Jackson - Nicknamed Old Hickory. He was the First president associated with the American Frontier.s
Supported slavery and Indian Removal. Wanted to get land for the american colonists, made it his sole purpose to get
them free land during his run for presidency. Think Trail of Tears.
Pontiac - Chief Pontiac, Leader of the Ottawa tribe. Became famous for his role in Pontiac’s Rebellion (Indian
Struggle against the British military Occupation of the Great Lakes Region. He attacked fort detroit. later assassinated
by a peoria indian.
Battle of Fallen Timbers - In 1794, was in present day INDIANA. Americans won a decisive victory. Indians were
fored to give up some land during this battle and surrender in the Treaty of Greenville. This battle sets off a
continuance of land being surrendered by the indians.
Trail of Tears - The Indian Removal of the Cherokee tribe around the georgia area by Andrew Jackson.
Dawes Severalty Act - Takes reservations in nice area’s that you could actually grow things there and divide the
area’s up. Allotment. They privatized land in the reservation area’s. Government held those hunks of land and called it
“trust” So the land wasn’t entirely the indians until they could actually use it to the government’s standards.They were
told they would not receive any money or food unless:
You moved onto your assigned land.
You cut your hair
You adopt a last name
Go to church.
Have to wear modern clothing.
Send your children to school.
(this is all known as forced assimilation.)
Indian Reorganization Act - June 18, 1934, Also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, The Indian New
Deal. Was a U.S. Federal Legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans. Included the Reversal of the
Dawes Act. and in return gave the indians local self-government on a tribal basis. Restored some of their
assets(mainly LAnd).

English Background; Virginia and Maryland

King James gives permission to start the Virginia company in jamestown virginia. Setup a trading
post. most people die.
A. English Society, Politics at 1600
B. Settlement, early history of Virginia, Maryland

Terms to know
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Henry VIII - Known for his separation of the Roman Catholic Church. He was the supreme head of the church of
england, as well as king. he had six wives. and lots of daughters. beheaded two of his wives. also known as the
defender of faith.
James I - Starts the virginia/london company, actively pursued the East India Company.
London Company - English joint stock company established by ROYAL charter by James I . Also known as the
Virginia Company.
Bloody Mary - Mary I. Queen of England after her half brother Edward VI died, she restored england to Roman
Catholicism. She had around 300 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian Persecutions, earning the title
of bloody Mary.
Jamestown - Virginia Company settled there first.
House of Burgesses - An elected or appointed officially, of a municipality, or the representative of a borough in the
English House of commons. met in 1619 to talk about polish goods and trading.
Eilzabeth - Came to the throne (1558) after Mary, turned the Church of England back to anglican from catholic.
John Rolfe - Experimented with plants and came up with TOBACCO in 1612
Anglican - The church of england. The teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the
see of Canterbury.
Tobacco - Cash crop for the Virginia Company.
Puritan - Significant group of english protestants in the 16th and 17th century’s.
Indentured Servant - People could get their way payed and come work until they pay off how much it cost to come
over, and they would get 50 acre’s. Took about 7 years.
Calvinism - God determines where you are going in the next life. Created by John Calvin from Geneva with his own
Conversion - the adaption of a new religious identity.

New England and Colonial Life

A. Settlement of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island
Mass was first to be settled and was settled during the rain of queen elizabeth. Conn. and Rhd isl.
were settled due to RELIGIOUS EXPANSION and break-off’s within the church. FUNDED BY
B. Settlement of Carolinas, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia
Proprietary colonies
C. Navigation Acts and Glorious Revolution
Navigation acts were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between
england and its colonies in 1651. Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of KING JAMES II in
D. Society, Politics, and Religion in Colonial America

Terms to know

Separatists - Smaller group, Came to america in 1620, landed on plymouth rock. They were on the mayflower.
Thanksgiving was formed by this.
Non-Separatists - Larger group, didn’t come to america until 1630, came over as a company. They wanted to reform
anglinism, and purify the doctorine.
Voting Rights - To vote you had to be 21, Male, Had to own land, and be a Puritan in good standing. (saint)
Roger Williams - Formed Rhode Island. He was in for baptism. Believed people shouldn’t have to be baptised until
they are properly educated.
Anne Hutchinson - Believed that having to pass a test to get in a church was stupid, God will reveal to you if you are
going to be accepted. Talked about personal revelation. Banished from Massachusetts, Went to Rhode Island.
English Civil War - 1640-1660, Calvinist vs. Anglican. James was replaced by Charles I, Parliament gets the upper
hand and chops off Charles head. Charles II obtains throne and restores monarchy.
Charles II - Restored Monarchy to England, Wanted to pay people back for helping him get to the throne. Started
giving people land over in America called the Proprietary Colonies. (New York, Georgia, Pennsylvania)
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Proprietary Colonies - New York, Georgia, Pennsylvania.

Great Awakening - A time of increased religious activity. Was a religious revitalization movement that swept the
American colonies in the 1730’s and 1740’s. It resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of
personal guilt and of their need of salvation by Christ. It had a major impact in reshaping the Congregational church,
the Presbyterian church, the Dutch reformed Church and others.
Congregational Church - Were called separatists in early great Britain. Protestant based church practicing
Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own
Jonathan Edwards - Was a preacher, theologian and missionary to Native Americans. Widely acknowledged to be
America’s most important and original philosophical theologian, and one of America’s greatest intellectuals. Played a
critical role in shaping the First Great Awakening. Wrote the book “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
Enlightenment - People started to look for logical/natural explanations to things. Scientists looked for rational
explanations (Explaining Gravity, Explaining the Stars, Seeing re-occurring themes in the world around us.
Ben Franklin - One of the founding father’s of the United States. He was the first American Ambassador to France,
and as he exemplified the emerging American nation. He was a successful newspaper editor and printer in
Philadelphia. He published “Poor Richard’s Almanack” and “the Pennsylvania Gazette. He became well known
internationally for his experiments in electricity.

War With France, Colonial Unrest

A. French Expansion
Most of French Expansion was due to trading amongst the Indians in North America.
B. French and Indian War, Results
Known as the “Seven Year War” from 1754 to 1763. It was the French and the Indians vs. the English
colonists and the British Empire.
C. English Regulation of the colonies
The English Empire across sea’s started to impose taxes on the colonies because they felt as if the colonists
didn’t participate as much as they wanted them to during the French and Indian War.
D. Colonial Response
Colonials started to get angry with each new year bringing new taxes, so they fought back and cryed “no
taxation without representation!” As each new tax was imposed, the colonists fought back and rallyed
against the new tax laws. Thus leading to the revolution.

Terms to know
Louis XIV - King of France in 1661. France is trading with the Indians in North America.
Fathers Marquette and Joliet - Rumors of way out in the west of a enormous river way out in the west. These two
men were the first to reach the mississippi. They traveled down the river only some of the way.
LaSalle - Had backing of the crown, and actually reaches New Orleans while exploring on the mississippi. Twenty
Years since They first started trading with the Indians. He received 400 men to settle at the mouth of the mississippi.
Set up a colony. They fail, and only 45 survived on the trip down, due to disease’s. The 45 that survived tried to travel
back but also died.

Key Fact : France Controlled the most out of North America, and it took them from 1660-1700 to get that land.
As a result of this, the Indians are trading with the French

Deerfield Massacre - Occurred during Queen Anne’s War in 1704, When French and Native American forces under
the command of Rouville attacked the English settlement just before dawn killing 56 colonists and capturing over a
100. They took the captives back to Quebec. Among the captives was John Williams, he later went on to write a
captivity narrative about his experience. Williams daughter Eunice, eight years old when captured. She became
thoroughly assimilated, at age 16 marrying a mohawk man.
Ft. Duquesne - A fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what
is now downtown Pennsylvania. It was made for local trading amongst the Indians. It was destroyed and replaced by
Fort Pitt in 1758. George Washington delivered a message to this fort in 1753 as a surveyor. The letter asked the
french to leave.
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George Washington - He led America’s Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War,
and later became the first president of the United States. He gained command experience during the French and
Indian War. The Second Continental Congress chose him in 1775 as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. He
forced the British out of Boston in 1776 due to a PEACE TREATY. Worked as a Surveyor in the Ohio Company during
the French and Indian War
Albany Congress - Also known as the “Albany Conference” was a meeting of representatives of seven of the British
North American Colonies in 1754 (Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode
Island. Representatives met daily to discuss better relations with the Indian Tribes and common defensive measures
against the French. This episode has achieved iconic status for presaging the formation of the United States.
Ben Franklin - One of the founding father’s of the United States. He was the first American Ambassador to France,
and as he exemplified the emerging American nation. He was a successful newspaper editor and printer in
Philadelphia. He published “Poor Richard’s Almanack” and “the Pennsylvania Gazette. He became well known
internationally for his experiments in electricity.
William Pitt - British Minister, Proposes and carry’s out a new strategy towards the war. He comes in and forces
people to join the army. He seizes supply’s from anywhere and anyone. HE FORCES colonists to help the british
people and let them live and work on their land. Resistance starts from the colonists. He backs off on the whole thing
and pays them for what he took. He again turns over the authority back over to the colonists. He does let people know
that the English Empire is trying to win this war. Quebec falls to the british in 1759.
French and Indian War - Winning this war puts the British Empire in double the debt from before. England has a lot
more territory. (revise) The English felt as if the colonists didn’t help as much as they should. So they started taxing.
Peace of Paris, 1793 - Treaty that ends the war. Land division happens. France kept only a few islands in the
Caribbean. Britain acquired Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River. From Spain, France’s ally in
the war, Britain acquired Florida. To make up for the loss of Florida, France gave Spain the vast land between the
Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains.
John Adams - was an American politician philosopher and the second President of the United States(1791-1801),
after being the first Vice President of the United states for two terms. He was one of the most influential Founding
Fathers of the United States.
Sugar Act - 1764 Sugar being imported to American colonies, americans had to pay a tax on that. Merchants say
they will stop importing sugar and having to pay england. Non-importation.
Stamp Act - 1765 Taxed all printed documents. Married certificates, Newspaper, playing cards, anything that is
printed. A lot of people thought that the poor was being singled out on this act. Enough Cry’s get the act repealed in
1766. Stamp act is replaced the next year with...
Townshend Duties - English tried to select things that were pre-dominately used by the upperclass. the things were
glass silk, lead, paint, tea. Threats of violence ensue and uproar. The England says they will not back down, so they
sent over soldiers to protect the english officials imposing the tax. A snowball fight starts and some threats were made
and the boston massacre took place. Everything was repealed except for tea on the same day as the massacre took
Tea Act, Tea Party - British East India Company, in the 1700s is in financial problems. The government decides they
need to step in and help this company. They allow the british east india company to sell direct tea to americans
without having to pay the Townshend taxes on the tea. As a result BEIC, Colonists can buy tea without having to
paxes on the tea. The colonists end up dumping all the tea in to the Boston harbor because it violated principle.
Intolerable Acts - 1774 Included 1. Closing the Boston Port. 2. Requiring the colonists to quarter the soldiers. 3.
Administrative of justice: If a british official is accused of a crime in america, he is sent to england to be tried.
Colonists respond with
First Continental Congress - The Colonies all send delegates to Philidelphia to figure out how to deal with the
English. Loyal citizens. England is violating their rights. Their basic sentiment, they felt as if their rights were being
violated. Stop importing goods that the english is taxing. They decide among themselves to setup a defensive and
prepare for an all out attack. Lets meet again.
England’s response to this is that they send 3 generals and a whole bunch of troops to america.
As colonists you can only trade with england.
Don’t you ever meet again as a congress.

1700s - French and English Conflicts.

1748 - french forts were being made in the ohio river valley
Washington’s failed attack on fort ducan was the begginning of the french indian war.
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Research Albany Congress 1754 -too much distrust between the congressman
1758 the fighting is over on the american soil
on american soil 5 years, first 4 years the english are losing. 1758, new british prime minister
on other soil across seas 4 years.
1754 - 1763

Things that the British forced the American colonists to pay for the war.
26 shillings per head per year in England. 1 shilling per person in the Colonies. ‘You cannot tax an
englishman, without his consent to the tax.
I. Revolutionary War and Articles of Confederation.
A. Lexington and Concord.
A. We stock piled weapons at Concord. Sam Adams and John Hancock
B. Why do colonists wait so long after lexington and concord to issue Declaration of
Independence? why do they finally decide to declare independence?
A -Loyalty.
-Ties (Economic, Family, etc.)
(British Empire had a total amount of 30,000 troops in the colonies and
reinforcements in Britain. British also had the Greatest Navy at the time.)
(American Colonies had at most 17,000 troops in the colonies.)
Because the colonists were tired of paying unjust taxes, not having any rights, or

C. Course of the War

A. Began in 1775, Started at the battles of Lexington and Concord. The British wanted
to capture our weapons cache in Concord. and capture John Adams and Sam
Adams in Lexington.
B. The last battle was at yorktown in 1781, treaty of paris was in 1783

D.Articles of Confederation.
As early as 1777, the Continental Congress were starting to try and develop a
government for if they do win the war.
This was called the Articles of Confederation.
1781 the Articles of Confederation are ratified.
They didn’t want to create a government that could abuse its power.

Why they were afraid to make a strong national government:

- Didn’t want to repeat England
- Don’t trust each other
- Was the idea that the colonies were too big geographically to govern.
- They wanted to have 13 little countries to join in a confederation. (like a league of nations)

So they basically wanted all the power to be in the states and have a strong state government and a weak
central government.

Articles of Confederation
-No executive branch of government (No president of the country or king)
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-No Judicial Branch (no supreme court

-Will have a legislature. One Legislature. A Unicameral Legislature. Only one house.
-When the Legislature gets together, Each state only has one vote.
-In order to make a law, they have to get two-thirds majority. Laws affect every state.
-If your going to amend the Articles of Confederation, it will require all the states to agree on it.
-This one house legislature did not have the authority to tax the states.
-This Congress (Legislature) did not have the authority to regulate trade.
-The delegates that were elected to this legislature are elected to this position every year.
-Congress weren’t able to hold a draft.

The things congress could do:

-Conduct Wars.
-Foreign Relations.
-Borrow and Issue Money.

Terms to know:
John Hancock - was in lexington, posting things in the papers. British wanted to pick him and sam
adams up on the way to concord to destroy the weapons cache.
Thomas Paine - Wrote common sense in January 1776.
Thomas Jefferson - Wrote the declaration of independence. Served as a delegate to the second
continental congress. Appointed to a five man committee to prepare declaration, he was picked to write
the first draft.
Boston - British sent troops to boston to close our port, because we dumped the tea.
Sam Adams - Boston Leader in the movement that became the american revolution. Against the British
parliament. Devised a committee of correspondents to help coordinate resistance to what he saw as the
British Government’s attempts to violate the British constitution. He drafted the articles of confederation.
“Common Sense” - Written by Thomas Paine. First published during the American Revolution.
Presented American colonists with a powerful argument against british rule.
Saratoga - British are occupying Montreal and New York. They decide they want to try and separate
the colonies by connecting and making a line from New York and Montreal. They are trying to
split off New England away from the rest of the colonies.
The British General coming down from Montreal was John Burgoyne.
Burgoyne gets as far as Saratoga and winter starts coming on. He ends up having to surrender
to the American force because they ran out of supplies on October 17th, 1777. This led to
France being brought into the war.

New York City - 1776 - General Howe try’d to capture New york city. The British drove G.Washington
back to brooklyn heights and the British reigned victorious in the biggest battle of the whole revolution.
Howe took over new york city after a failed peace conference.

( Lexington - Concord ) - First military engagements in the American revolutionary war. British army try’d
to do a surprise attack on Concord, because there was supplies gathered there. Patriot Colonials were
notified weeks before the attack and moved the supplies elsewhere. the British also wanted to pickup
John Adams and John Hancock in Lexington, because they were posting things in the papers. First
shot was fired in LEXINGTON.

B.Franklin - has been trying for months to try and get The French to help them in this war. They have
been very hesitant up until the Americans take Burgoyne in SERATOGA.

France - Joined after we took Burgoyne and his troops at SERATOGA.

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G. Washington - Was the Commander in Chief in the Continental Army. He forced the British out of
boston in 1776, but in 1777 he was defeated and nearly captured in NEW YORK CITY.

Yorktown -
General Cornwallis, One of the generals down south causing problems. Has the biggest army.
Cornwallis’s force is in Virginia. He starts to run out of supplies, so he tells his men that it is no
problem, all they have to do is make it to the coast and they can get restocked by the navy.
They head out onto the Yorktown Peninsula in hopes to get restocked. Washington and the
French head in and block off the force and keep them stuck on the Yorktown Peninsula.
The French come in and intercept the British navy. The French are able to drive the British
navy away. This results in Cornwallis surrendering to the Colonists and the French.
Yorktown is the beginning of the end of the war.

Delaware River -
December, Washington and his troops are running for their lives from New York towards Penn.
so they go through New Jersey with the British hot on their tail, then cross the Delaware River
and the British stop their pursuit.
The British ended up stopping in Trenton and Princeton in New Jersey. The Colonists were
just on the opposite side of the Delaware River.
Washington and his men end up crossing the Delaware River early in the morning to make a
surprise attack on Trenton and Princeton. Washington ended up capturing many soldiers and
both cities.
Washington and his men then goto Morristown afterwards.

Unicameral Legislature - is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

II. Constitution
A. Problems facing the new nation, and the inability of Articles of Confederation to meet
those problems.
War debts, Loyalists, and a negative balance of trade were some problems.
the Articles of Confederation had no way of making any money for the country as a
whole, so it was not effective and was later trashed.
B. Constitutional Convention.
a gathering for the purpose of writing a new Constitution.
C. Accomplishments of First Congress.
Accomplishment # 1
Keep their promise to new york and england, 1789. First congress of the united states of
america passes the bill of rights.

Accomplishment # 2
they pass the judiciary act of 1789. there will be a supreme court in the land. 6 original
justice’s. In general the court would be an appellate court.
Supreme court would be the body or group whether or not a law, that congress passed,
whether or not that law is constitutional.

D. Development of political parties.

all started with Jefferson and Hamilton’s different ideas.
Hamilton felt that you were smarter to follow the wealthy (the opinion of a wealthy
person is better than the common man) Federalist
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Jefferson was just the opposite. (trusted in the common man) Republican

Terms to know:
War Debt -
The articles of confederation were not strong enough.
The money problems were:
- War debt.
- Negative Balance in trade.
- British wanted compensation.
- Money
- The States were in debt from the war.
- Depression hits right after the war.
- Happened because they were importing more than they were exporting.
Causing a negative balance.
- A lot of people remained loyal to England, they were called Loyalists.
- Left property in america when they left to go back to England.
- The People then took over the land and sold it in auctions to gain funds
for the government.
- The British wanted that land and wanted to be compensated.

Virginia Plan - Proposal by virginia delegates, drafted by JAMES MADISON. Benefit large states with
large populations. They proposed a two house legislature and the representatives will be elected
according to population
(for ever certain amount, they will get 1 representative and 1 senator)

Concessions to South -
-Congress will not have the authority to tax agricultural exports.
-Congress will not mess the slave trade for a full twenty years after the constitution is ratified.

John Jay - PRESIDENT of the Continental Congress. He was against slavery, his first two attempts at
to pass laws of emancipation in the state of new york failed, but his third succeeded in 1799.

Electoral College - Set of representatives selected to elect a candidate to a particular office. The
Constitution gives each state a number of electoral votes equal to the number of representatives and
senators it has. Therefore, every state has at least three electoral votes because even the smallest states
have one representative and two senators.

Virginia and New York - Neither virginia nor New york signed on when the constitution was done in 1787.
They were concerned about there not being any rights for individuals. WHEN Alexander Hamilton, James
Madison, and John Jay described some of the virtues of the constitution in the ‘federalist papers’ and
promised that there will be a bill of rights, New York signed on.
Senate - One (1) house has 2 votes like every other state meaning equal!
Negative Balance of Trade - Importing more than they were exporting.

New Jersey Plan -

They said they wanted to amend things, they wanted to keep the congress the same ( each state only has
1 vote )
“All that we need to do is give the congress the ability to tax and regulate trade.”

Franklin came in and said lets Compromise.

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Two House legislature

House of Representatives - One house elected by population (Virginia and New York)
Senate - One house has 2 votes like every other state, meaning, EQUAL! (New Jersey Plan)

Ratification - Needed nine out of the 13 states to sign on for the constitution to become active. States
that didn’t sign on were Virginia and New York.

James Madison - One of the founding fathers of our country. Took part in writing the Federalist Papers,
Which are a series of 85 articles or essays advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution.

Ben Franklin - One of the founding fathers in the Constitution.

Federalist Party - The Federalist party was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, the era
of the First Party System, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. The Federalists controlled the federal
government until 1801. The party was formed by Alexander Hamilton, who, during George Washington's
first term, built a network of supporters, largely urban bankers and businessmen, to support his fiscal
policies. These supporters grew into the Federalist Party committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic
government. HAMILTON was for federalists.

House of Representatives - One house elected by population . The House of representatives takes the
top three votes and sends it towards a certain individual.

Barbary Pirates - Started seizing american vessels off the coast of Morocco/Northern coast of North
africa. These pirates directly led to the formation of the United States Navy.

Great Compromise - Known as the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. Virginia Plan (later became
known as the house of representatives.). and the New Jersey Plan (Later became known as the Senate.)
Ben Franklin formed the compromise between the two, having a little bit of both so that each side was

Federalist Papers - a series of 85 articles or essays advocating the ratification of the United States

Checks on Presidential Power - The congress can impeach the pres and also overrides the veto,
meaning if the president says no to a law that congress wants done, they can say yes, we are making that
law. The congress also controls the budget and approves the President's choice for the judges of the
supreme court.

Bill of Rights - a list of the most important rights of the citizens of a country. The purpose of these bills is
to protect those rights against infringement by the government. First introduced by James Madison to the
First continental Congress in 1789.

Republican Party - Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854. The Republican Party is pro-life
Jefferson was for this, Trusted in the common man.

Shay’s Rebellion - An armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. The
rebellion is named after Daniel Shays, a veteran of the American REvolution who led the rebels, known as
the “shaysites” or “regulators” most of Shays’ compatriots were poor farmers angered by crushing debt
and taxes.
Sovereignty - the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographical area, such as a
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Alexander Hamilton - Personal assistant to G.Washington during the revolutionary war. Hamilton was a
federalist. He was the first delegate to be chosen for the constitutional convention. Hamilton felt that you
were smarter to follow the wealthy (the opinion of a wealthy person is better than the common man)
Judiciary Act - System of courts that interprets the name of the law in sovereign states. So pretty much it
doesn’t make or enforce the law, just interprets the law. “The judicial court in the United states, shall be
vested in one supreme court.”
Thomas Jefferson - Third President of the United States. The Virginia state legislature appointed
Jefferson to the Congress of the Confederation in 1783. He became a Minister to France in 1785.

III. Foreign Affairs, Industrialization

A. Lingering Problems with England (compensation for Tories, Soldiers in Northwest)

British wanted compensation for the land their people left there when they left the states,
Which the American government sold for mo money!

Soldiers were arming the indians indians in the northwest.

B. Jay’s Treaty - Why it was needed, and what it did.
John Jay was sent to England to figure out what were going to do during this war.
Jay’s Treaty England says they will move their soldiers out of the forts, and stop seizing
the boats IF americans stopped carrying the trade products.
The americans said they would compensate england.

NEEDED because we needed to make money off trading.

C. War of 1812 - causes, principle events and battles.

War of 1812 started because of an outgrowth of the war between England and France.
Know the battle of Washington D.C, Battle of Trafalgar, Battle of New Orleans, Ft.
McHenry, Jefferson’s Embargo, Non-intercourse Act. All Below!

D. Monroe Doctrine.
a United States policy that was introduced on December 2, 1823, which stated that
further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the
Americas would be viewed, by the United States of America, as acts of aggression
requiring US intervention.

Terms to know:
Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation - The Proclamation of Neutrality was a formal announcement
issued by United States President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the nation neutral in
the conflict between France and Great Britain. It threatened legal proceedings against any American
providing assistance to warring countries. The Proclamation led to the Neutrality Act of 1794.

Battle of Trafalgar - was a sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of
the French Navy and Spanish Navy, during the war of the Third Coalition (August-December 1805) of the
Napoleonic Wars. (1803-1815). The battle was the most decisive British naval victory of the war. British
fleet lost NO vessels, whereas the French - Spanish Fleet lost twenty-two ships.

Jefferson’s Embargo - Jefferson becomes president, Starts up the embargo.

1807 - 1809
USA stops trading with EVERYONE.
During this time, a majority of american people did not like this decision.
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Francis Scott Key - Wrote the lyrics to the national anthem “star-spangled banner”

Continental System - was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. It was a large-scale embargo against
British trade, inaugurated on November 21, 1806. This embargo ended in 1814 after Napoleon's first
Napoleon - 1804 Napoleon comes to power in France. He is a dictator.
He begins the Napoleonic Wars. Which are just a series of wars against France.

Andrew Jackson - commanded the american forces.

French Revolution - Began in 1789, started due to possibly the combination of bad harvests and rising
food prices was further aggravated b inadequate transportation system which hindered the shipment of
bulk foods from rural areas to large population centers. Another cause may have been France's near
bankruptcy as a result of the many wars fought by previous rulers, as well as the financial strain caused
by French participation in the American Revolutionary War.

Impressment - Impressment, colloquially, "the Press", was the act of compelling men in to a navy by
force and without notice. It was used by the Royal Navy, beginning in 1664 and during the 18th and early
19th centuries, in wartime, as a means of crewing warships

Washington D.C. - On August 24–25, 1814, in a raid known as the Burning of Washington, British forces
invaded the capital during the War of 1812, following the sacking and burning of York

Battle of New Orleans - took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812.
[7][8] American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army
intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
Often referred to the greatest land victory during the war of 1812.
Jay’s Treaty -
John Jay was sent to England to figure out what were going to do during this war.
Jay’s Treaty England says they will move their soldiers out of the forts, and stop seizing the
boats IF americans stopped carrying the trade products.
The americans said they would compensate england.
Non-Intercourse Act -
Jefferson replaces the trade with an idea..
USA will trade with everyone except for england and france.
the Non-Intercourse act

Ft. McHenry - Successfully defended the Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British Navy in the
Chesapeake Bay. It was during this battle that FRANCIS SCOTT KEY wrote the National Anthem.

Monroe Doctrine - a United States policy that was introduced on December 2, 1823, which stated that
further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be
viewed, by the United States of America, as acts of aggression requiring US intervention.

IV. Revival, Reform, the West.

A. Second Great Awakening
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The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement during the early 19th century in
the United States, which expressed Arminian theology by which every person could be saved
through revivals
B. Reforms (Temperance Crusade, Peace Crusade, Education, Feminism, etc.)
Temperance Crusade - Temper the use of alcohol, end the abuse of alcohol. Lots of women
involved. First half of the 19th century. Leader - Lyman Beecher

Peace Crusade - People dedicated to ending wars forever. Hoped to make a ‘UN’ type of thing.
Movement ends up falling apart when it splits into moderate crusaders and radical crusaders.
Moderate said Defensive wars were ok and justifiable. Radical did not want no war ever.
Leader - William Ladd

Education reform - Pushing for public schools. (during this time, most schooling was private.)
Horace Mann, wanted to get away from classic education (Latin, Greek, memorizing things that
you don’t understand). Promoted living languages, United States History, Social Values
(Punctuality, Respect for their elders, Morality). Much more successful than the peace crusade.
Leader - Horace Mann

Feminism - Women feeling they are enslaved to their husbands or the society. AN
OUTGROWTH OF ABOLITIONISM. They are making the case that Men and Women are equal.
More for Suffrage (Voting).
Meeting held at Seneca Falls, they draft a document (Declaration of Sentiments and
Resolutions 1848)
Leader - Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Prison Reform and Insane Asylum Reform - No efforts to try and reform them to society.
Dorothea Dix pushed for giving people a chance at changing and reforming back to a normal
sane state. Rehibilitate criminals and treat Insane people(s)
1830s and 1840s.
Leader - Dorothea Dix

Transcendentalism - Boiled life down to two things: Reason and Understanding. They felt
Reason was the highest , You grasp truth and beauty through your reasoning. Understanding is
bad, The narrow artificial socially constructed thinking, understand is what was imposed on your
from the outside. What you wanted to do is break away from understanding and use your reason.
Wanted to commune with the spiritual force of nature the ‘oversoul’ and grasp it through your
Leader : Ralph Waldo Emerson

Abolitionism is a movement to end human slavery.

Led by William Lloyd Garrison
C. Western Expansion.

Terms to know:
Camp Meetings - Extended Prayer meetings for christians.

Unitarians - A nontrinitarian Christian theology which holds that God is only one Person.

Society of the Public Universal Friend - Founded by Jemima Wilkinson.

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Joseph Smith, Mormons Temperance Crusade - Part of the second great awakening.

Ideal Societies Feminism -

Women feeling they are enslaved to their husbands or the society. AN OUTGROWTH OF
ABOLITIONISM. They are making the case that Men and Women are equal. More for Suffrage (Voting).
Meeting held at Seneca Falls, they draft a document (Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Leader - Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Seneca Falls, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions - Meeting held at Seneca Falls, they draft a
document (Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions 1848) FEMINISM.

Henry David Thoreau - leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection
upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual
resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state.

California, Nevada, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico - Land acquired during the mexican war.

Compromise of 1850 - The Compromise of 1850 was an intricate package of five bills, passed in
September 1850, defusing a four year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free
states of the North that arose following the Mexican-American War (1846–1848).

Lyman Beecher - Leader of the Temperance Crusade.

George Ripley - An American social reformer, Unitarian Minister, and Journalist associated with

Presbyterians - Theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures,
and the necessity of grace through faith and christ.

Universalists - refers to religious, theological, and philosophical concepts with universal application or
applicability. It is a term used to identify particular doctrines considering all people in their formation. In
religion and theology, “universalim” is a principle that asserts that all people are under the consideration
and love of god, and that theological concepts (doctrines) which conform to his concept are in fact more in
accord with the divine concepts.

Abolitionism -
Abolitionism is a movement to end human slavery.
Led by William Lloyd Garrison

Ralph Waldo Emerson - Leader of the Transcendentalism reform.

Louisiana Purchase (1803) - Purchasing everything west of the Mississippi River. Jefferson was the
president of the United States. Bought from France.

Mexican War - Conflict that lasted from 1846-1848, we gained texas, california, nevada, colorado,
arizona, and new mexico and MEXICO agreed to make their border the rio grande.

Trek West - Oregon was the first place americans started to travel too in 1840. Most death’s were
because of Cholera
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William Ladd - Leader of the Peace Crusade

Baptists - a group of Christian denominations, churches, and individuals who subscribe to a theology of
believer's baptism (as opposed to infant baptism), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the
rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local church.

Shakers - “The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing.” Religious sext originally
thought to be a development of the protestant quakers. Founded upon the teachings of Ann Lee, the
group was known for their emphasis on social equality and rejection of sexual relations, which led to their
decline in numbers.. (haha)

Jemima Wilkinson - The first American-born woman to found a religious movement Society of the
Public Universal Friend

Peace Crusade Education -

People dedicated to ending wars forever. Hoped to make a ‘UN’ type of thing. Movement ends
up falling apart when it splits into moderate crusaders and radical crusaders. Moderate said
Defensive wars were ok and justifiable. Radical did not want no war ever.

Transcendentalists - REFER TO PAGE BEFORE :‘Transcendentalism’:

Thomas Jefferson - Think Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark expedition. Both of these were
during his presidency.

Fur Trade - (1810-1811) Fur trade starts to begin in the west. Whites are now doing the trapping instead of
indians. Company’s of white men would capture and then take their furs to the trading posts. Beaver was
the animal of choice, used for hats. The height of the fur trade wish the 1820s and 1830s. about the 1840s
it ended. 1825 - 1840. Beavers were no longer able trappable so the beaver hats went out of style.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - The treaty that was held at Mexico City to end the Mexican-American war
in 1848. Also decided to make Rio Grande the National border to mexico. Refer to Texas, California,
Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico.

Horace Mann - Leader in the EDUCATION REFORM.

Dorothea Dix - Leader in the Prison Reform and Insane Asylum Reform

Free Will-Calvinism - Basically saying that since in Calvinism (god has chosen our actions before we
chose them) we have no free will to do anything we please, also meaning that the evil or sinful choices we
make were directly god’s choices. So it’s kind of a double negative. This shit is stupid.

Methodists - In terms of "Religion," Methodists are, indeed, Christians ... the same as Baptists,
Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Presbyterians, and many other "denominations" of the
Christian Faith. Methodism was founded by a minister ("priest") of the Church of England named John
Wesley, who adopted a set of "methods" or disciplines by which Christians can improve their living of he
Christian Faith. Principle among these disciplines in "Methodism" is the participation in, and receiving of,
the "Means of Grace" in the form of the Sacraments (Baptism and Holy Communion), as well as in Prayer,
the reading of Scripture, fellowship with other Christians, forgiveness, healing, etc.

Mother Ann Lee - Founder of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, or Shakers.

Denominationalism - The division of one religion into separate groups.

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Texas -
Mexico invited americans into mexico (texas) to settle in mexican territory. Gave americans the
ability to choose their own rights etc.
People brought their slaves into texas even though it was illegal.
by the mid 1830s, thousands of americans were in texas.. so they mexican government started to
get nervous and start passing some laws to control the american population in texas.
Americans say no, and there was a war.
Alamo was in 1836. Ultimately the americans beat the mexican government.
in 1836 the americans petitioned the united states to be admitted as a state . (asked congress to
accept texas as a state) Andrew Jackson was the president during this time.

Jackson first said no

several presidencies say no also
so texas says they are gonna form their own government and country. (the lonestar republic)
1836 - 1845 texas was its own country.
John Tyler is the one who initiated the acceptance of texas
James K Pull. who accepts.
The reason WHY they didn’t accept texas was because of slavery.

Oregon - First place people started to head because they wanted crops and beautiful farm land. Part of

Elizabeth Cady Stanton - an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early

John Humphrey Noyes - American Utopian Socialist. Founded the Oneida Community in 1848, believed
in “free love”, and no marriage.

William Clark - The explorer that explored the land we bought in the louisiana purchase. Followed the
Missouri River.

Meriwether Lewis - The explorer that explored the land we bought in the louisiana purchase. Followed
the Missouri River. Guided by Sacagawea

Sacagawea - Shoshone women who helped guide lewis and clark, Acting as an interpreter and a guide.



IX. Slavery and a Divided Country

A. Beginnings of Slavery: African Background; Introduction to America.
First Country to start with the slave trade was the SWEDISH, then the Dutch came in and
pretty much took over.
Point 1
Slavery is the idea of someone serving someone else without them having a choice.
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First step/First contact:

700 AD is where you first get Africans getting enslaved by Europeans.
This was happening around the Mediterranean. Started here.

Next step
was having ocean going boats to go down to pick up africans on the coast
1400’s and 1500’s
(Launched off portugal)

First Mention of Africans in America was in Jamestown, Virginia.

Slavery Began as early as 1625

January 1st of 1808, The Slave trade was marked as illegal.

People were smuggling in africans as late as 1850.

Between 1619 and 1807 - Close to 200 Years.

10,000,000 Were brought over to the whole americas.
600,000 Slaves were brought from Africa to North America.
The vast majority of Africans that were brought over moved south towards brazil.
If a slave lived in the caribbean, his life expectancy was 10 years in the caribbean.

B. Slavery in North <VS> Slavery in South during colonial era

Slavery in the North was more urbanized, whereas in the south it was more in the farms
and on the land. The south had more slaves per owner than in the north.

C. Southern Culture, Southern slavery in 1800s

Slavery was originally alive in the south because of tobacco, but then the cotton-gin was
introduced and it made slavery more useful and valuable.
D. Abolitionism; Free-soilers
Free-soilers were considered people that were against slavery and also part of the whig
and democratic party’s. There main purpose was to cease slavery in western expansion.
Pre-dominantly in the north. Describes your average Northerner. Someone who believes
as the country spreads west, we keep the states free. wanted to contain slavery.

Terms to Know:
Bacon’s Rebellion - Thousands of virginians rose up against the virginian governor William Berkeley’s
friendly policies towards the native americans. Berkeley refused to retaliate after a series of indian attacks
which led people to rebel out and attack back at the indians and ultimately chase Berkeley out of
Jamestown, Virginia and torch the capital.
Planter Class - People that owned slaves and planted and managed crops.
Yeoman Farmer - The farmer's industry calls him to till the soil, from which he receives God's special
Underclass (poor white trash) - THIS SHIT IS EASY COME ON
Abolitionism (and its different varieties) -
Revolutionaries - For Encouraging slave revolts in the south.
Immediatists - Needed to happen immediately, but with no bloodshed. Felt as if they just sat
down with the southerners and talked to them they could get them to change their ideas. Pretty
much just Morale Persuasion.
Gradualists - Lets be real, only way to accomplish this is political means. Here is what they
First law they wanted to pass was to stop the interstate slave trade. Couldn’t Sell across states.
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Second Law, as the country moves west, don’t let new states have slavery.

“Free Soilers” - Describes your average Northerner. Someone who believes as the country
spreads west, we keep the states free. wanted to contain slavery.

Nat Turner Revolt -

1831, you have a group of slaves in Virginia who try to revolt. Led by a Slave Preacher,
Nat Turner
Nat Turner - Tried to start a revolt for the slaves. Revolted and ended up killing around 60 whites.
Whites ended up joining together and killing the slaves that killed the whites. All of the slaves
(including Nat Turner) ended up being killed and having some of their heads cut off and stuck on

As Abolitionism takes off, the south gets a bit defensive and feels as if they are under attack.
Southerners started acting out, posting things and trying to convince others why slavery was

George Fitzhugh - practiced law and was a planter for years, but attracted both his fame and infamy
when he published two sociological tracts for the South. He was a leading pro-slavery intellectual and
spoke for many of the Southern plantation owners. Before printing books, Fitzhugh tried his hand at a
pamphlet titled “Slavery Justified”. His first book, Sociology for the South was not as widely known as his
second book, Cannibals All!

Free - Soilers - Describes your average Northerner. Someone who believes as the country spreads west,
we keep the states free. wanted to contain slavery.

X. Road to, through, and following Civil War

A. Compromise of 1850.
The Compromise of 1850 was an intricate package of five bills, passed in
September 1850, defusing a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the
South and the free states of the North that arose following the Mexican-American War (1846–
1848). The compromise, drafted by Whig Henry Clay and brokered by Democrat Stephen
Douglas avoided secession or civil war at the time and quieted sectional conflict for four
B. Kansas - Nebrraska Act, 1854; Birth of Republican Party.
C. Election of 1860.
D. Civil War: North Advantages, South Advantages.
E. Reconstruction.

Terms to know:
Compromise of 1850 -
The Compromise of 1850 was an intricate package of five bills, passed in
September 1850, defusing a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the
South and the free states of the North that arose following the Mexican-American War
(1846–1848). The compromise, drafted by Whig Henry Clay and brokered by Democrat
Stephen Douglas avoided secession or civil war at the time and quieted sectional
conflict for four years.
Kansas - Nebraska Act -
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Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri
Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they allowed
slavery within their boundaries.

Missouri Compromise, 1820 -

Missouri comes in as a slave state in 1820.
BUT the north says it will offset the slave-to-no-slave ratio in state’s
SO Maine gets brought in as a free state.

Popular Sovereignty - Belief that the people created the state and they are the source of the political
power too. Only a concept, not political reality.
Stephen A. Douglas -
Democrat, Beat Abe Lincoln in a seat for senate. But later lost to Lincoln for the battle for
He was largely responsible for the compromise of 1850.
He believed that the state’s had the right to choose if that area would be a slave state, or
a free state. He writes the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Republican Party - This party was created from the Kansas-Nebraska Act because it ultimately
destroyed the whig party: “The party was ultimately destroyed by the question of whether to allow
the expansion of slavery to the territories.”
Founded in northern states in 1854 by anti-slavery activists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free
Soilers, the Republican Party quickly became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic
Party. It first came to power in 1860 with the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency and
oversaw the American Civil War and Reconstruction.
GOP - Grand Old Party

Abraham Lincoln - was a whig, and turned into one of the Founding Fathers of the REPUBLICAN
party. He lead the country through one of america’s greatest crisis: the civil war. He preserved
the union and ended slavery. Became president and focused on the war effort and wrote the
Emancipation Proclamation and promoted the 13th amendment to the constitution. Assassinated
in 1865.
Whigs - the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his
Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the
presidency, and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism. This name was
chosen to echo the American Whigs of 1776, who fought for independence, and because "Whig"
was then a widely recognized label of choice for people who saw themselves as opposing
30% of Democrats lived in the north. 50% of Whigs lived in the north
70% of Democrats lived in the south. 50% of Whigs lived in the south.

Copperheads - Vocal group of democrats who oppose the american civil war.
Emancipation - a broad term used to describe various efforts to obtain political rights or equality, often
for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally in discussion of such matters.
Trent Affair - The south sent two diplomats to go talk with britain and europe about aiding them or
helping hem in the cause of the civil war, but a northern ship intercepted their ship and took the
diplomats, britain demanded an apology, so lincoln apologized and let the diplomats go.
Reconstruction - Following the civil war, the North tried to reestablish a government of some sort in the
south without the south going back to their old ways.
Andrew Johnson - replaces Lincoln.
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Johnson tries to come up with a compromise between lincoln’s plan and the wade davis plan, he
likes the idea of having a majority of voters. He brought in the 13th-14th-15th amendment’s. He is
known to be the worst president.
Carpet -Baggers - People who were trying to take advantage of the south during its reconstruction. They
also moved to the south during the reconstruction era and got a bad rep YO! YO!

Scalawags - Nick name for southern whites who supported the reconstruction of the south after the civil
Lincoln’s 10% Plan - When 10% of the voters in a southern state (white males that were 21 or older) are
willing to take an oath to allegiance to the United states, then those 10% can start setting up a
state government. (imposing a state constitution)
Educated ex slaves and former slaves that fought for the union be given the right to vote.
[He wanted to get blacks involved]

Wade - Davis Bill -

The federal government should apoint a governor for a state. Then when a majority of voters
take an oath of alegence, then the governor will go about writing the state constitution. Only those
southerners that never bore arms during the war can participate in politics. When the governor
write up the state constitution, it has to outlaw slavery.
[End of slavery is part of the state constitution]

Radical Reconstruction - It is the response to Andrew Johnson not taking any action.
They weren’t going to allow any confederate states into congress.
They divided the south into military sectors
Old confederate leaders CANNOT vote.

Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction -

if you are a confederate leader, you can not participate in politics, unless the president pardons
Disenfranchise former confederate leaders.

1865 - Johnson’s Proposal Works for some time.

The problem is Johnson pardoned everyone.

SO all the confederate leaders start getting into political parties.

Each southern state starts passing laws called black codes.
Laws that basically made a mockery of the 13th amendment.

Black Codes - To limit the basic rights of BLACK PEOPLES

Such as - Blacks must have a annual labor form on you at all times, and have a contract that
connected you to a white boss.s
If you did not have an annual labor contract, you would be arrested and sent to prison, you would
be sentence to labor.
Blacks could only own a certain amount of land.

13th Amendment -adopted in 1865, abolished and continued to prohibit slavery and servitude. First of
the Reconstruction Amendments.
14th Amendment - adopted in 1868 as one of the Reconstruction Amendments, gives former slaves Civil
Rights but does not give them the right to vote.
15th Amendment - ratified in 1870, prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen
the right to vote by his race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
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XI. Industrialization, Urbanization, Immigration

A. Industrialization: 18th, 19th, and 20th Century trends
B. Urbanization: Colonial Era; Industrial Age; 1920 - Present
C. Immigration: Colonial; 1790 - 1840 - Mass Immigration (four periods) and U.S. Reactions

Terms to know
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) - signed by Chester A. Arthur in 1882, a federal law that allowed the U.S.
to suspend immigration, congress acted quickly to get suspension of Chinese immigration, the ban was
meant to last 10 years.
Quota Law - Had ben proposed several times but never made it through until 1921. Restricted
immigration into its country; this act imposed a quota that limited the number of immigrants allowed from
any country annually to 3%.
Immigration Act, 1965 - abolished the National Origins Formula ( restricting immigration because of the
exceeding population.) Annual limitation of 300,000 visas was established for immigrants.

XII. Changing Role of Government

A. Herbert Hoover’s approach to the Depression
B. FDR and the First and Second New Deals
C. Legacy of the New Deal
D. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Great Society

Terms to know
First New Deal - a series of economic programs passed by the U.S. Congress during the first
term of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States, from 1933 to 1938. The
programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3
Rs": relief, recovery and reform.
Second New Deal -
Three major goals: improved use of national resources, security against old age, unemployment
and illness, and slum clearance, as well as a national welfare program (the WPA) to replace state
relief efforts.
The most important programs included Social Security, the National Labor Relations Act
("Wagner Act"), the Banking Act, rural electrification, and breaking up utility holding companies.
Civilian Conservation Corps - Public work relief program for the ages of 18 to 25. As a part of the NEW
DEAL, provide relief for unemployed youth, became the most popular new deal program for the
general public. Provided unskilled manual labor.
Eleanor Roosevelt - FIRST MOFUCKIN LADY -Supported new policy’s, became an advocate of civil
rights after her husbands death. One of the co - founders of freedom house. Found the Un
association in 1943.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration - Restricted agricultural production in the new deal era by
paying farmers to reduce crop area. its purpose was to reduce the crop surplus to effectively raise
the value of the crops. The company was established after this act was formed.
National Recovery Administration - Franklin Roosevelt appointed hugh s johnson a s a person to
administer the nation recovery association. This involved organizing thousands of business’s
under fair trade codes drawn up by trade associations and industry’s. To develop and
administer a control system that controls industrial pricing, production, trade practices,
and labour relations, there by promoting economical recovery.
Works Project Administration - One of the most prominent of the New Deal agencies, the Works
Progress Administration (WPA) was established in 1935 as an ambitious and wide‐ranging
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federal jobs program. Harry Hopkins, an advocate of federally funded employment for the jobless,
was appointed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1934.
Great Society - a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the
initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Two main goals of the Great Society social
reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending
programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation
were launched during this period. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the
New Deal domestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Civil Rights Acts of 1964, 1968 - was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that
outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women, including racial
segregation. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial
segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public.
Voting Rights Act, 1965 - Act prohibits states from opposing any voting qualification or pre requisite to
voting or standard practice or procedure to deny or abridge the right of any citizen the right to
vote an account of race or color. Specifically it outlawed people to have to take a literacy test to
War on Poverty - he name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson
during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964. This legislation was proposed by Johnson in
response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States
Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity
(OEO) to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty.
Job Corp - Program administered by the united states department of labour that offers free of charge
education and vocational training in use of people ages 16-24.
Head Start - a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides
comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income
children and their families.
Food Stamps - a federal-assistance program that provides assistance to low- and no-income people
and families living in the U.S. Though the program is administered by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, benefits are distributed by the individual U.S. states.
The idea for the first FSP has been credited to various people, most notably U.S. Secretary of
Agriculture Henry Wallace and the program's first administrator, Milo Perkins.
Housing and Urban Development - increase home ownership support community development and
increase access to affordable housing, free from discrimination.
Education Legislation -
Social Security -
The original Social Security Act[1] (1935) and the current version of the Act, as amended[2] encompass
several social welfare and social insurance programs. The larger and better known programs are:

• Federal Old-Age (Retirement), Survivors, and Disability Insurance

• Unemployment benefits
• Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
• Health Insurance for Aged and Disabled (Medicare)
• Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs (Medicaid)
• State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
• Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
Social Security is a social insurance program that is funded through dedicated payroll taxes called Federal
Insurance Contributions Act (FICA).
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Medicare - Social Insurance administered by the United states government providing health insurance
coverage to people who are age 65 and older, or who meet special criteria. need to be a resident
for 5 years to be eligible.
Medicaid - Eligible individuals and families with low to no income, Aids money to people that are poor or
people that are disabled n shit. get some.
Consumer Protection - laws are designed to insure fair trade competition and the free flow of truth-full
information in the marketplace, form of government regulation which aim to protect the interest of
consumers against fraud and shit and fair practices.

XIII. U.S. in Foreign affairs; Civil Rights 1914 - 1918 Treaty of Paris.
A. World War I: Causes; U.S. entry into war
*Arch Duke Ferdinand - He was going to be the next king for Hungry. A serbian man
kill’s the Duke. Hungry declares war on Serbia, so Russia backs Serbia, which
then leads to Germany getting in and backing Hungry, then you have a....
*Unrestricted submarine warfare: the germans sunk the Lusitania which was carrying
innocent civilians (along with supplies and weapons for great britain)
The Zimmerman note: an encoded telegram sent from Germany to Mexico. It
stated that if Mexico invaded the US they would get back some of their land.
fortunately Britain, our ally intercepted the message and cracked the code in
time to warn us
Economic issues: the US had invested over $2.6 billion in the war. If the allied
powers lost we weren't ever going to get that money back. (not that we got it
back anyway)
Russian revolution: the Russians withdrew from the war because they were
having a revolution in their own country. They also signed a peace treaty
with Germany. This allowed the US to make it a fight against Communism, and
make it a "war for Democracy."

B. World War II: Causes; U.S. entry into war

Mid 1930s - You see Germany and Italy in Europe, and Japan in the asia, start to expand
and start attaining more land for themselves. United States tries to maintain neutrality.
Americans are not allowed to travel on boats or conveyance that could anyway be
involved in the war effort by any means. US will not provide any loans for any country at
war. US will not sell munitions to any country that is in war. Merchant ships will stay out of
war zones. Neutrality Legislation
Roosevelt started the first PEACETIME draft ever before we were involved in this war.

Japan was expanding into indonesian french countries, so we cut off their oil supply,
since we are their main supplier.
Japan gets angry and responds with ..
If you don’t know this by now you have failed.

C. Vietnam: Causes; U.S. entry into war

this shit went down through a few different presidencies ranging for over 15 years (1950 -
1965) Slowly but surely USA got involved into the war, first o help the french in reclaiming
their lost land dude to vietnamese nationalists. Then instead of letting them form a
government of there own they decided to try and end theres and it didn’t go over to well.
D. Civil Rights: Expanding Definition
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Terms to know:
**Triple Alliance (Central Powers) - Germany - Austria - Hungry - Italy - each promising their support
of an event of an attack of another of the great powers.
**Triple Entente (The Allies) - Great Britain - France - Russia - the name given to the alliance between
the UK, the french third republic, and russia after the signing of the anglo russian entity in 1907. It
was just the opposite of the Triple alliance.
Central Powers - one of the two sides that participated in the first World War, Also know as the Triple
Alliance. Made up of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Ottoman, Kingdom of Bulgaria.
Allies - A group of nations that join together for a common purpose. (WWI: UK, France, Russia)(WWII:
France, UK, Poland. [THE BIG THREE: Russia, U.S.A., British Empire])
Lusitania - Unrestricted submarine warfare: the germans sunk the Lusitania which was carrying innocent
civilians (along with supplies and weapons for great britain). Involuntarily led to the involvement of
the USA in this war.
Woodrow Wilson - Declared war in 1917, (World War I Bitch) Begun the United States first draft since
the Civil War. Raised Billions of dollars in war funding in liberty bonds. Setup the war industry’s
ward (which is too coordinate the purchase of war supplies). Promoted labor union growth. In the
late stages of the war he took personal control over negotiations with germany including the
armistice (treaty to stop fighting). Created the League of Nations and shaped the tree of
Bersailles. (The United States Never JOINED the United Nations)

Selective Service Act - passed by the Congress of the United States on May 18, 1917. It was envisioned
in December 1916 and brought to President Woodrow Wilson's attention shortly after the break in
relations with Germany in February 1917. The Act itself was drafted by then-Captain (later
Brigadier General) Hugh Johnson after the United States entered World War I by declaring war
on Germany. It authorized the federal government to raise a national army numbering in the
hundreds of thousands with which to fight a modern war. The Act was canceled with the end
of the war on November, 1918.

League of Nations - Founded as a result of the treaty of Bersailles. The leagues primary goals were to
prevent war through collevtive security, disarmament, and settling international disputes through
negotiation and arbitration. (UNITED STATES NEVER JOINED THIS)

Neutrality Legislation - United States tries to maintain neutrality before world war II begins..
-Americans are not allowed to travel on boats or conveyance that could anyway be
involved in the war effort by any means.
-US will not provide any loans for any country at war.
-US will not sell munitions to any country that is in war.
-Merchant ships will stay out of war zones.

Pearl Harbor - Japanese bombed this harbor on December 7th, 1941. This led to our involvement in
World War II.

Cold War - The Cold War (1947–1991) was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension,
proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945), primarily between
the Soviet Union and its satellite states, and the powers of the Western world, particularly the
United States, with the People's Republic of China launching its own independent campaign
against the US.
United Nations - Founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations to stop wars
between countries. international organization who stated aims or facilitating in international law,
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international security, economical development, social progress, human rights, and achievement
of world peace.
Arms Race - Competition of two formal parties in order to out due each other with weapons. Each party
competes to make a large amount of weapons, the greater armies or superior military technology
to win the race.
Ho Chi Minh - was a Vietnamese Marxist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of
the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. He formed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and led the
Viet Cong during the Vietnam War until his death.
Vietminh ( Vietnam ) - After World War II, France lost its control over this country. France came and said
to give the country back. was a national independent movement founded in south china on May 19,
1941. Tried to get independence from the french empire.

Containment - to contain the spread of communism. We think that if Communism expands, Communism
will never be able to be defeated in the future.

France gets defeated by Vietnam

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - A joint resolution which the United States Congress passed on August 7,
1964 in response to a sea battle between North Vietnamese Navy’s Torpedo Squadron 135 and
the Destroyer USS Maddox on August 2. This led to US going to war without having a formal
declaration of war by congress, for the use of conventional military force in southeast asia.
1973 - We pull out of vietnam, Siegon falls once we leave. America goes into inflation. 58,000
troops lost their lives.

Civil, political, and Social Rights - Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples’ phyical integrity and
safety; protection from discrimination on grounds such as physical or mental disability, gender,
religion, race, national origin, age, or sexual orientation.
Political include natural justice and law rights of the accused including the right to a fair trial due
process and the right too seek legal remedy.

13th Amendment -adopted in 1865, abolished and continued to prohibit slavery and servitude. First of
the Reconstruction Amendments.
14th Amendment - adopted in 1868 as one of the Reconstruction Amendments, gives former slaves Civil
Rights but does not give them the right to vote.
15th Amendment - ratified in 1870, prohibits each government in the United States from denying a
citizen the right to vote by his race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
19th Amendment - prohibits each state and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to
vote based on that citizen’s sex. Gave women the right to vote.

Plessy V. Ferguson - Landmark supreme court decision in the upholding the constitutionality of state
laws requiring racial segregation and private business’s under the doctrine of separate but equal.
Plessy refused to get off a railroad car that was not supposed to be used by blacks.
Segregation is constitutional is what all this means..
Segregation - Separation of different groups of people by their race or sex in every day life.
Discrimination - Prejudicial treatment of an individual based solely on their membership voluntarily or
involuntarily of a certain individual. Excluding members from one group to another group.
Rosa Parks (1955) - African American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress later called “the first
lady of civil rights”, and “the mother of the freedom movement”. On december 1 1955 in
montgomery, Alabama, Parks, age 42, refused to obey bus driver James Blake’s order that she
give up her seat to make room for a white passenger. this starts a whole movement all over the
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Martin Luther King, jr - Prominent leader in the african american civil rights movement. He used non
violent methods. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference. Got the Nobel Peace Prize because he wanted to end the
racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience

Fair Employment Practice Committee - Roosevelt did this in the new deal. there shall be no
discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of
race ,creed, color, or national origin. (DURING WAR TIME HIRENY)

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) - a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that
declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students

Little Rock - a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School
in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from
entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and then attended
after the intervention of President Eisenhower, is considered to be one of the most important
evens in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. On their first day of school, troops from the
Arkansas National Guard would not let them enter the school and they were followed by mobs
making threats to lynch. Went into the Historic Brown v. Board of Education. Later decided that
segregated schools are to be unconstitutional.

These acts followed rosa parks, and martin luther king, so meaning the happened after!
Civil Rights Act of 1954 - Ending Segregation in public accommodations
Civil Rights Act of 1968 - Ending discrimination in housing

Eleanor Roosevelt - One of our greatest first lady’s. She was the first to take advantage of her position
for a cause. Largely because of her influence that blacks and women kind of embrace the democratic
party. She was a voice for the blacks and women peoples. She starts the this kind of tradition for first