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Copyright@ American Bearing Manufacturers Association,Inc.

, 1 990

These materials have been prepared by the American


Bearing Manufacturers Association, Inc. However the
information contained in these materials has not been
independently verified by the American Bearing
Manufacturers Association or Information Handling
Services, Inc. Neither organization warrants or assumes
any liability for the accuracy or completeness of these
materials.

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AF'BMA L3 90 M 0873073 0000395 383

e!EiEi9
ANSVAFBMA
Std 11-1990
(Revision of
ANSVAFBMA
Std 11-1978)

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD


AFBMA STANDARD

LOAD RATINGS AND FATIGUE LIFE


ROLLER
FOR BEARINGS . .

Sponsor

The Anti-Friction Bearing


Manufacturers Association, Inc.

Approved July 17, 1990


American National Standards Institute, Inc.

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AFBMA 55 90 W 0871073 0000L9b 21T

American National Standard

Approvalof an AmericanNationalStandardrequiresverificationby ANSI thatthe


requirements fordue process, consensus,and other criteria for approval have
been met
by the standards developer.

Consensus is established when, in the judgmentof the ANSIBoard of Standards Review,


substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests.
Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily
unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a
concerned effort be made toward their resolution.

The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does
not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standardsor not, from
manufacturing, marketing, purchasing,or using products, processes,or procedures not
conforming to the standards.

The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no
circumstances give an interpretationof any American National Standard. Moreover, no
person shall have the rightor authority to issue an interpretation of an American National
Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for inter-
pretations shouldbe addressed to the secmtariat or sponsor whose name appears on the
title page of this standard.

CAUTION NOTICE This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn


at any time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that
action be taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years
from the date of approval. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive
current information on all standards by calling or writing the American NationalStan-
dards Institute.

Published by

The Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association, Inc.


1101 Connecticut Ave. N.W.,Suite 700
washingtoll, D.C. 20036
Copyright 1990 by The Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association, Inc.

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AFBMA 11 90 0873073 0000177 156

FOREWORD

(This Foreword is not a part of American National Standard, Load Ratings


and Fatigue Life for Roller Bearings.)

This revision of ANSVAFBMA Standard 11 has as its principal feature: The


utilization of the factor,,f which depends on the geometry of the bearing
components, the accuracyto which the various components are made and
contemporary, normally used material and its manufacturing quality.

This standard is in close conformity with IS0 76-1987 (Rolling bearings-


Static load ratings) and with I S 0 DIS 281-1989 (Rolling bearings-Dynamic
load ratings and rating life). Any significant differences, where they occur,
are indicated in this standard.

The principal difference between this standard and IS0 DIS 281 is the use
of the ,,f factor which combined the f, and b, factors used in I S 0 281.
Dynamic load ratings calculated for the same bearing should have the same
value, however, when following either this or the
IS0 Standard unless noted
otherwise in this standard.

The life adjustment factor for special bearing properties, a2, intended for
use with capacities calculated in accordance with previous revisions of this
Standard may not be valid for use with the current capacities. The present
fcm values incorporate material and processing improvements which were
previously adjusted by means of the a2 factor.

Copies of IS0 Standards concerning Rolhng Contact Bearings (Ball and


Roller Bearings) are available from the American National Standards Insti-
tute.

Suggestions for the improvement of this standard gained from its use will
be welcomed. Such suggestions should be sent to the American National
Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y., 10018.

The officers of Accredited Standards Committee B3 operating under Amer-


ican National Standards Institute Procedures and the organizations repre-
sented at the time this standard was submitted are as follows:

S. R. Ahlman,
Chairman G. T. Satterfield,
Secretary

Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association


Hydraulic Institute
National Machine Tool Builders Association
Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
US. Department of the Navy
U.S. Department of Defense, DISC

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AFBMA Standards
for
Ball and Roller Bearings
and Balls

1 -Terminology
4 -Tolerance Definitions and Gaging Practices
7 -Shaft and Housing Fits for Metric Radial Ball and Roller Bearings
(Except Tapered Roller Bearings) Conforming to Basic Boundary
Plans
8.1 "Ball and Roller Bearing Mounting Accessories, Metric Design
8.2 "Ball and Roller Bearing Mounting Accessories, Inch Design
9 "Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Ball Bearings
10 "Metal Balls
11 "Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Roller Bearings
I 2.1 "Instrument Ball Bearings, Metric Design
12.2 "Instrument Ball Bearings, Inch Design
13 "Rolling Bearing Vibration and Noise
14 "Housing for Bearings With Spherical Outside Surfaces
15 "Ball BearingsWithSphericalOutsideSurfacesandExtended
Inner Ring Width (Includes Eccentric Locking Collars)
16.1 -Airframe Ball, Roller and Needle Roller Bearings, Metric Design
16.2 -Airframe Ball, Roller and Needle Roller Bearings, Inch Design
17 "Needle Rollers, Metric Design
18.1 "Needle Roller Bearings-Radial, Metric Design
18.2 "Needle Roller Bearings-Radial, Inch Design
19 "Tapered Roller Bearings, Radial, Metric Design
20 "Radial Bearings of Ball, Cylindrical Roller and Spherical Roller
Types, Metric Design
21 .I -Thrust Needle Roller and Cage Assemblies and Thrust Washers,
Metric Design
21.2 -Thrust Needle Roller and Cage Assemblies and Thrust Washers,
Inch Design
22.2 -Spherical Plain Bearings, Joint Type, Inch Design
23.2 -Thrust Bearings of Tapered Roller Type, Inch Design
24.1 -Thrust Bearings of Ball, Cylindrical Roller and Spherical Roller
Types, Metric Design
24.2 -Thrust Bearings of Ball and Cylindrical Roller Types, Inch Design
An AFBMA Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the
consumer and the general public. The existence of an AFBMA Standard
does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the
Standard or not from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using
prod-
ucts, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standard. AFBMA
Standards are subject to revision or withdrawal at any time and users who
refer to an AFBMA Standard should satisfy themselves that they have the
latest information from the Association.

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~

AFBMA L L 90 W 0873073 O O O O L 9 9 T29 W

Load Ratings and Fatigue Life


For Ball Bearings
CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Purpose of Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Life Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Static Load Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2. Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

3. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.2 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.3 Static Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.4 Pitch Diameter of a RollerSet. D,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.5 Basic Rating Life. Llo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.6 Adjusted Rating Life. L, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.7 Basic Dynamic Radial Load Rating. C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.8 Basic Static Radial Load Rating. Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.9 Basic Dynamic Axial Load Rating. C, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.10 Basic Static Axial Load Rating. Coa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1 1 Dynamic Equivalent Radial Load. P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.12 Static Equivalent Radial Load. Po. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

a Dynamic 3.13 Equivalent Axial Load. P, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.14 Static Equivalent Axial Load. Po, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15 Roller Diameter. Dwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.16 Roller Length. Lw, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
4
4
4
3.17Nominal Contact Angle. OL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.18 Line Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.19 Point Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.20
Optimized Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.21 Conventional Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

4. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1
Bearing
Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1.2 Basic Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1.3 Double Row . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.1 Truncated- Contact Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.3 Bearing Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.4 Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.5 Ring Support and Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.6 Internal Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.7 High
Speed Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.8 Stress Concentrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

a
4.2.9 Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.1O Plastic Deformation inthe Contact Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.3 Operating Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

iii

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AFBMA lrlr 90 0873073 0000200 570

5. Radial Roller Bearings . . . . . . ...................... 6


5.1 BasicDynamicRadialLoadRating ..................... 6
5.1.1 BearingCombinations . . . . ...................... 6
5.2 Dynamic Equivalent RadialLoad ...................... 6 .
5.2.1 Bearing Combinations . . . . ...................... 9
5.3 Basic Rating Life . . . . . . . . ...................... 9
5.4 Basic Static Radial Load Rating ...................... 9
5.4.1 Bearing Combinations . . . . ...................... 9
5.5 Static Equivalent RadialLoad . . ...................... 9
5.5.1 Bearing Combinations . . . . ...................... 10
6. Thrust
Roller Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 10
6.1 BasicDynamic Axial Load Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 10
6.1 .1 Single Row Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 10
6.1.2 Bearings with Twoor More Rowsof Rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.1.3 BearingDynamic Equivalent Axial Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.2 Dynamic Equivalent Axial Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 11
6.3 Basic Rating Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.4 Basic Static Axial Load Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 14
6.5 Static Equivalent Axial Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 14
7. Adjusted
Rating
Life ............................. 14
7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.2 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.3 Life Adjustment Factor for Reliability a, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.4 Life Adjustment Factor for SpecialBearingProperties. a2 . . . . . . . . . 15
7.5 Life Adjustment Factor for OperatingConditions. a3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

LIST OF TABLES
Table
No . Title Page
RADIAL ROLLER BEARINGS
1. Values off., . . . . ............................... 7
2. ValuesofXandY . ............................... 9
3. Values of X, and Y, ............................... 10
THRUST ROLLER BEARINGS

4. Values of fcm for cylindrical roller bearings. tapered roller bearings


andneedle roller bearings with machinerings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. Values of fcm for drawn cup needle roller bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6. Values of fc, for spherical roller bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7. Values of X and Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8. Life Adjustment Factors for Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

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AFBMA 33 90 0873073 00002OL 407

Load Ratings and Fatigue Life


for Roller Bearings

1. INTRODUCTION turing practiceand basically of conven-


tional design as regards the shape of roll-
1.1 Purpose of Standard ing contact surfaces.
Roller bearing performance is a function
of many variables. These include the bear- 1.2 Life Criterion
ing design, the characteristics of the ma- Even if roller bearings are properly
terial from which the bearings are made, mounted, adequately lubricated, protected
the way in which they are manufactured, from foreign matter, and are not subjected
as well as many variables associated with to extreme operating conditions, they can
their application. The only sure way to es- ultimately fatigue. Under ideal conditions,
tablish the satisfactory operation of a bear- the repeated stresses developed in the
ing selected for a specific applicationis by contact areas between the roller and the
actual performance in the application. As raceways eventually can result in fatigue of
this is often impractical, another basis is the material which manifests itself as spall-
required to estimate the suitability of a par- ing of the load carrying surfaces. In most
ticular bearing for a given application. This applications the fatigue life is the maximum
is the purpose of this standard. useful life of a bearing. This fatigue is the
This standard specifies the method of criterion of life used as the basis for the first
calculating the basic dynamic load rating part of this standard.
of rolling bearings within the size ranges Fatigue life calculated in accordance
shown in the relevant ANSVAFBMA stan- with this standard does not represent the
dards, manufactured from contemporary, maximum that can beattained by applying
commonly used, good quality hardened all known technology to roller bearing de-
steel in accordance with good manufac- sign and application. Neither does it rep-
turing practiceand basically of conven- resentthe minimum that should be ex-
tional design as regards the shape of roll- pected of a bearing made by a producer
ing contact surfaces. lacking skill and experience in the design
This standard also specifies the method and manufacture of roller bearings, even
of calculating the basic rating life, which is though the bearing meets the geometric
the life associated with 90% reliability, with parameters given below. The calculated fa-
commonly used material and manufactur- tigue life represents the performance nor-
ing quality, and with conventional operating mally expected from high quality bearings
conditions. In addition, it specifies the made by reputable manufacturers. Manu-
method of calculating adjusted rating life, facturers can supply longer lived bearings
in which various reliabilities, special bear- by the application of advanced materials
ing properties and specific operating con- and manufacturing processes. The present
ditions are taken into account by means of standard has evolved as a meansfor bear-
life adjustment factors. ing users to specify a reasonable standard
of performance for the bearing they wish
Furthermore, this standard specifies the to purchase.
method of calculating the basic static load
rating and the static equivalent load for 1.3 Static Load Criterion
roller bearings within the size ranges shown
in the relevantANSVAFBMA Standards, A static load is a load acting on a non-
manufactured from good quality hardened rotating bearing. Permanent deformations
steel, in accordance with good manufac- appear in rollers andracewaysundera

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static load of moderate magnitude and in- C, =basic static axial load rating, newtons
crease gradually with increasing load. (pounds)
It is often impractical to establish whether Dpw=pitch diameter of rollerset, milli-
the deformations appearing in a bearing in metres (inches)
a specific application are permissible by D., = roller diameter applicable in the cal-
testing the bearing in that application. culation of load ratings, millimetres
Other methods are therefore required to es- (inches)
tablish the suitability of the bearing se-
lected. Fr =bearing radial load = radial com-
Experience shows that a total permanent ponent of the actual bearing load,
newtons (pounds)
deformation of 0.0001 of the rolling element
diameter, at the center of the most heavily F, = bearing axial load = axial component
loaded roIIer/raceway contact, can be tol- of the actual bearing load, newtons
erated in most bearing applicationswithout (pounds)
the subsequentbearing operation being L, =basic rating life, in million revolutions
impaired. The basic static load rating is,
therefore, given a magnitude suchthat ap- L, =adjusted rating life, in million revolu-
proximately this deformation occurs when tions
the static equivalent load is equal to the L,v, =roller length applicable in the calcu-
load rating. lation of load ratings, millimetres
Tests indicate that a load of the magni- (inches)
tude in question may be consideredto cor- Pr =dynamic equivalent radial load, new-
respond to a calculated contact stress of tons (pounds)
- 4000 MPa (580,000 psi) for all roller P, =static equivalent radial load, newtons
bearings (pounds)
at the center of the most heavily loaded P, =dynamic equivalent axial load, new-
rolling element/raceway contact. The for- tons (pounds)
mulae andfactors for the calculation of the
basic static load ratings are based onthese P, =static equivalent axial load, newtons
contact stresses. (pounds)
The permissible static equivalent load X =dynamic radial load factor
may be smaller than, equal to or greater X, =static radial load factor
than the basic static load rating, depending
on the requirements for smoothness of op- Y =dynamic axial load factor
eration and friction, as well as on actual Y, =static axial load factor
contact surface geometry. Bearing users
without previous experience of these con- Z = number of rolling elements in a single
ditions should consult the bearing manu- row bearing; number of rolling ele-
facturers. ments per row of a multi-row bearing
with the same number of rolling ele-
ments per row
2. SYMBOLS
al = life adjustment factor for reliability
C, =basic dynamic radial load rating, a2 =life adjustment factor for special bear-
newtons (pounds) ing properties
Cor =basic static radial load rating, new- a3 =life adjustment factor for operating
tons (pounds) conditions
C, =basic dynamic axial load rating, new- e = limit value of FJFr for the applicability
tons (pounds) of different values of factors X and Y

2
i

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AFBMA L 3 90 m 0873073 0000203 28T

,,f = a factor which depends on the ge- and manufacturing quality, and under con-
ometry of the bearingcomponents, ventional operating conditions.
the accuracy to which the various 3.6 Adjusted Rating Life, L,,
components are made and contem-
porary, normally used material and its The rating life obtained by adjustment of
manufacturing quality .the basic rating life for a desired reliability
level, special bearing properties and spe-
i =number of rows of rollers in a bearing cific operating conditions.
OL =nominal contact angle of the bearing, 3.7 Basic Dynamic Radial Load
degrees Rating, Cr
3.DEFINITIONS That constant stationary radial load
which a rolling bearing could theoretically
For the purposes of this Standard, the endure for a basic rating life of one million
definitions given in ANSVAFBMA Standard revolutions.
1 together with the following apply.
3.8 Basic Static Radial Load Rating, C,,
3.1 Life
Static radial load which corresponds to
Foran individual rolling bearing, the a calculated contactstress at the center of
number of revolutions which one of the the most heavily loaded rolling element/
bearing rings (or washers) makes in rela- raceway contact of
tion to the other ring (or washer) before the
- 4000 MPa (580,000 psi).
first evidence of fatigue develops in the ma-
terial of one of the rings (or washers) or NOTE: For this contact stress, a total per-
rolling elements. manent deformation of rolling element and
3.2 Reliability (in the context of bearing racewayoccurswhich is approximately
life) 0.0001 of the rolling element diamater.
For a groupof apparently identical rolling 3.9 Basic Dynamic Axial Load Rating, C,
bearings, operating under the same c m - That constant centric axial load which a
ditions, thë percentage of the group that is rolling bearing could theoretically endure
expected to attain or exceed a specified for a basic rating life of one million revo-
life. lutions.
The reliability of an individual rolling 3.10 Basic Static Axial Load Rating, C,,
bearing is the probability that the bearing
will attain or exceed a specified life. Static centric axial load which corre-
sponds to a calculated contact stressat
3.3StaticLoad the center of the most heavily loaded rolling
The load acting on a bearing when the element/raceway contact of
speed of rotation of its rings in relation to - 4000 MPa (580,000 psi) for thrust
each other is zero. roller bearings.
3.4 Pitch Diameter of a Roller Set, D,, NOTE: For this contact stress, a total per-
The diameter of the circle intersecting the manent deformation of rolling element and
roller axesat the middle of the rollers in one racewayoccurswhich is approximately
row in a bearing. 0.0001 of the rolling element diameter.
3.5 Basic Rating Life, L,, 3.1 1 Dynamic Equivalent Radial
Foran individual rolling bearing, or a Load, Por
group of apparently identical rolling bear- That constant stationary radial load
ings operating under the same conditions, under the influence of which a rolling bear-
the life associated with 90% reliability, with ing would havethe same life as itwill attain
contemporary, commonlyused material under the actual load conditions.

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AFBMA 11 70 0873073 00002011 l l r b

3.12 Static Equivalent Radial Load, P,, 3.18 Line Contact


Static radial load which would causethe “Line contact” refers to rollers and race-
same contact stress at the center of the ways so formed that undernoloadand
most heavily loaded rolling element/race- when in good alignment they contact along
way contact as thatwhich occurs under the the full length of their basic form.
actual load conditions. 3.19 Point Contact
3.13 Dynamic Equivalent Axial Load, P, “Point contact” refers to rollers and race-
That constant centric axial load underthe ways so formed that undernoloadand
influence of which a rolling bearing would when in good alignment they contact at a
have the same life as it will attain under the point located approximately at the middle
actual load conditions. of the rollers.
3.20 Optimized Contact
3.14 Static Equivalent Axial Load, P,,
“Optimized contact” refers to such de-
Static centric axial loadwhichwould sign of the basic form of the rollers and/or
cause the same contact stress at the center ring raceways that under a bearing load
of the most heavily loaded rolling element/ somewhere in the range of 25% to 50% of
raceway contact asthat whichoccurs the basic dynamic radial load rating C,, the
under the actual load conditions. material stress is substantially uniform
3.15RollerDiameterApplicable in the along the entire effective length of the con-
Calculation of Load Ratings, D, tact at the most heavily loaded roller. Ide-
ally, roller bearings are designed to ap-
The diameter at the middle of the roller. proach optimized contact.
NOTE: For a tapered roller this is equal to 3.21 Conventional Operating Condi-
the mean value of the diameters at the the- tions
oretically sharp corners at the large end
and at the small end of the roller. Conditions which may be assumed to
prevail for a bearing which is properly
For an asymmetrical convex roller this is mounted and protected from foreign mat-
an approximation of the diameter at the ter, normally lubricated, conventionally
point of contact between the roller and the loaded, not exposed to extreme tempera-
ribless raceway at zero load. ture and not run at low or high speed.
3.16 Roller Length Applicable inthe Cal-
culation of Load Ratings, Lw, 4. SCOPE
The theoretical maximum length of con- 4.1 BearingTypes
tact betweena roller and that raceway 4.1 .I General. Roller bearings covered
where the contact is shortest. by this standard are presumed to be within
NOTE: This is normally taken to be either the size ranges shown in the ANSVAFBMA
the distance between the theoretically dimensional standards, manufactured of
sharp corners of the roller minus the roller good quality hardened steel in accordance
chamfers or the raceway width excluding with good manufacturing practice and bas-
the grinding undercuts, whichever is the ically of conventional design as regards the
smaller. shape of rolling contact surfaces. Since
small differences in relative shape of con-
3.17 Nominal Contact Angle, a tacting surfaces may account for distinct
The angle between a plane perpendic- differences in loadcarrying ability, this
ular to the bearing axis and the nominal line standard does not attempt to cover all de-
of action of the resultant of the forces trans- sign variations, ratherit applies to basic
mitted by a bearing ring to a rolling ele- roller bearing designs.
ment. 4.1.2 Basic Types. This standard ap-

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AFBMA 2 2 90 Y 0 8 7 2 0 7 3 0000205 052

plies to cylindrical, spherical, and tapered than the rolling contact surfaces composite
roller bearings, self-aligning radial roller roughness at the operating temperature.
bearings and to needle roller bearings.
4.2.5 Ring Support and Alignment. Basic
4.1.3 Double Row. Double row radial rating life calculated according to this stan-
roller bearings and double direction thrust dard assumes that the bearing inner and
roller bearings, as specified by this stan- outer rings are rigidly supported, and that
dard, are presumed to be symmetrical. the inner and outer ring axes are properly
aligned. Bearing rings (or washers) must
4.2Limitations be mounted so that any deformation of
rings as a result of mounting compliance
4.2.1 Truncated Contact Area. This stan- is small compared to contact deformation
dard may not be safely applied to roller under the applied load.
bearings subjected to loading which
causes the contact area of the roller with 4.2.6 Internal Clearance. Radial roller
the raceway to be truncated by the edge bearing basic rating life calculated accord-
of the raceway or roller. This limitation de- ing to this standard is based on the as-
pends strongly on details of bearing design sumption that only a nominal internal clear-
which are not standardized. anceoccurs in the mountedbearing at
operating speed, load and temperature.
4.2.2 Materials. This standard appliesto
roller bearings made from hardened, good 4.2.7 High Speed Effects. Basic rating
quality bearing steel. While a complete me- life calculated according to this standard
tallurgical description is beyond the scope does not account for high speed effects
of this standard, typical cleanliness and such asroller centrifugal forces andgy-
material composition specifications for roscopic moments. These effects tend to
bearing quality steel are given in ASTM A diminish fatigue life. Analytical evaluation
295 andA 485 for through hardening of these effects frequently requires the use
steels, and in ASTM A 534 for carburizing of high speed digital computation devices
steels. Typical hardness levels range from and hence, cannot be included herein.
HRC 58 to 64 for rings or washers and HRC 4.2.8 Stress Concentrations. A roller
60 to 65 for rollers. bearing must be expected to have a basic
4.2.3 Bearing Types.The ,,f factors load rating less than that obtained using a
specified in basic load rating formulae are value off,, taken from Table 1 if, under load
valid only for those roller bearing configu- a stress concentration is present in some
rations specified in section 4.1 above. This part of the roller-raceway contact.Such
standard is not applicable to designs stress concentrations occur in the center
where the rolling elements operate directly of nominal point contacts, at the contact
on a shaft or housing surface, unless that extremities for line contacts and at inade-
surface is equivalent in all respects to the quately blended junctions of a rolling sur-
bearing ring (or washer) raceway itre- face profile. Stress concentrations can also
places. occur if the rollers arenot accurately
guided such as in bearings without cages
4.2.4 Lubrication. Basic rating life cal- and bearings not having rigid integral
culated according to this standard is based flanges. Values of ,,f given in Tables 1 , 4,
on the assumption that the bearing is ad- 5 and 6 are based upon bearings manu-
equately lubricated. Determination of ad- factured to achieve optimized contact. For
equate lubrication depends uponthe bear- no bearing type or execution will the factor
ing application. An adequate amount of an ,,f be greater than that obtained in Table
appropriate type of lubricant is essential to 1, 4, 5 or 6 as appropriate.
achieving expected performance. The lu-
bricant must be free of excessive contam- 4.2.9 Tolerances. This standard applies
inants and of a viscosity level that will pro- to cylindricaland spherical radial roller
videa film thickness somewhat greater bearings and self-aligning radial roller

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bearings madeto RBEC 1 level of precision ent in some part of the roller/raceway con-
or better commensurate with ANSVAFBMA tact. Such stress concentrations must be
Standard 20, to tapered radial roller bear- expected, for example, at the center of
ings covered by ANSVAFBMA Standards nominal point contacts, at the extremities
19.1 and 19.2, to needle radial roller bear- of line contacts, in bearings where the roll-
ings covered by ANSVAFBMA Standards ers are not accurately guided and in bear-
18.1 and 18.2,to thrust needle roller bear- ings with rollers longer than 2.5 times the
ings covered by ANSVAFBMA Standards roller diameter.
21 . I and 21.2, tapered roller thrust bear- 5.1 .I Bearing Combinations
ingscovered by ANSVAFBMA Standard
23.2, and to cylindrical and spherical roller 5.1 .I .I When calculating the basicra-
thrust bearings covered by ANSVAFBMA dial load rating for two similar single row
Standards 24.1 and 24.2. roller bearingsmountedside-by-side on
the same shaft such that they operate as a
4.2.10 Plastic Deformation inthe Con- unit (pairedmounting),in“back-to-back”
tact Area. If P, > 0.5Crl then plastic defor- or “face-to- face” arrangement, the pair is
mation may occur in the contactarea. The considered as one double row angular
user should consult the bearing manufac- contact bearing.
turer for recommendations and evaluation
of equivalent load and life. 5.1.1.2 If, for some technical reason,
4.3 Operating Parameters. the bearing arrangement is regarded as
two bearings which are replaceable inde-
Calculations according to this standard pendently of each other, then 5.1. I .idoes
do not yield satisfactory results for bearings not apply.
subjectedtosuchapplicationconditions 5.1.1.3 The basic radial load rating for
which cause deviations from a normal load two or more similar single row roller bear-
distribution in the bearing, for example mis- ingsmountedside-by-side on the same
alignment, housing or shaft deflection, roll- shaft such that they operate as a unit
ing element centrifugal forcesor other high (paired or stack mounting) in “tandem” ar-
speed effects, and preload or extra large
clearance in radial bearings. Where there rangement, properly manufactured and
mounted for equal load distribution, is the
is reason to assume that such conditions number of bearings to the power of 7/9,
prevail, the user should consult the bearing times the rating of one single row bearing.
manufacturer for recommendations and
evaluation of equivalent load and life. 5.1.1.4 If, for some technical reason,
the bearing arrangement is regarded as a
5. RADIAL ROLLER BEARINGS number of single row bearings which are
5.1 Basic Dynamic Radial Load Rating replaceableindependent of each other,
then 5.1.i .3does not apply.
The basic dynamic radial loadrating, Cr,
for a radial roller bearing is: 5.2 Dynamic Equivalent Radial Load
The dynamic equivalent radial load, Pr,
C, = fcm(iLv,e COS^) 719Z314 D
,, 29/27 for radial roller bearings, under constant
Values of fcm are obtained from the ap- radial and axial loads, is given by
propriate columnof Table 1. They are max-
imum values, only applicable toroller bear- Pr = XF,+ YF,
ings in which, under a bearing load, the Values of X and Y are given in Table 2.
material stress is substantially uniform The dynamic equivalent radial load for
along the most heavily loaded roller/race- radial roller bearings with cx = O’, and sub-
way contact. jected to radial load only, is given by
Smaller values of fc, than those given in Pr = Fr
table I should be used if, under load, an
accentuated stress concentration is pres- NOTE: The ability of radial roller bearings

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TABLE 1. Part 1 - Metric Values for ,,f for Radial
Cvlindrical Roller Bearinas.
?apered Roller Bearings ' Drawn Cup
D,COSOL~) and Needle Roller Bearings Needle Roller Spherical
D, with Machined Rinas Bearings- Roller Bearings
0.01 57.31O 52.100 59.915
0.02 66.880 60.800 69.920
0.03 73.1 50 66.500 76.475
0.04 77.770 70.700 81.305
0.05 81.510 74.1O0 85.21 5

0.06 84.590 76.900 88.435


0.07 87.120 79.200 91 .O80
0.08 89.210 81.1O0 93.265
0.09 91 .O80 82.800 95.220
0.1 o 92.620 84.200 96.830

0.1 1 93.830 85.300 98.095


0.1 2 95.040 86.400 99.360
0.1 3 95.81 O 87.1O0 100.165
0.14 96.470 87.700 100.855
0.15 97.020 88.200 1 01.430

0.16 97.350 88.500 1 01.775


0.1 7 97.570 88.700 102.005
0.18 97.680 88.800 102.120
0.1 9 97.680 88.800 102.120
0.20 97.570 88.700 102.005

0.21 97.350 88.500 101.775


0.22 97.020 88.200 101.430
0.23 96.580 87.800 100.970
0.24 96.250 87.500 100.625
0.25 95.590 86.900 99.935

0.26 95.040 86.400 99.360


0.27 94.380 85.800 98.670
0.28 93.720 85.200 97.980
0.29 92.840 84.400 97.060
0.30 92.070 83.700 96.255

0.31 91.300 83.000 95.450


0.32 90.420 82.200 94.530
0.33 89.430 81.300 93.495
0.34 88.440 80.400 92.460
0.35 87.450 79.500 91.425

0.36 86.460 78.600 90.390


0.37 85.360 77.600 89.240
0.38 84.370 76.700 88.205
0.39 83.270 75.700 87.055
0.40 82.060 74.600 85.790

0.41 80.960 73.600 84.640


0.42 79.750 72.500 83.375
0.43 78.540 71.400 82.1 1
O
0.44 77.330 70.300 80.845
0.45 76.120 69.200 79.580

0.46 74.91O 68.100 78.315


0.47 73.700 67.000 77.050
0.48 72.380 65.800 75.670
0.49 71.O60 64.600 74.290
0.50 69.850 63.500 73.025
' Use to obtain C, in newtons when D,, and D,, are given in millimetres.
D cosa
Values of fc, for intermediate valuesof Lare obtained by linear interpolation.
D
,,

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TABLE 1. Part 2 - Inch Values for f, :,-,, for Radial Roller Bearings')

TI
Cylindrical Roller Bearings,
Tapered Roller Bearings Drawn Cup
D,cos~Y*) and Needle Roller Bearings Needle Roller Spherical
D,, with Machined Rings Bearings Roller Bearings
0.01 51 49 4681 5383
0.02 6009 5463 6282
0.03 6573 5975 6871
0.04 6987 6352 7305
0.05 7324 6658 7657

0.06 7600 6909 7945


0.07 7828 71 I6 81 83
0.08 8016 7287 8380
0.09 81 84 7440 8556
0.1o 8322 7565 8700

0.11 8431 7665 8814


0.12 8539 7763 8927
0.13 8609 7826 9000
0.14 8668 7880 9062
0.15 8718 7925 91 14

0.16 8747 7952 91 45


0.17 8767 7970 91 66
0.18 8778 7979 91 76
0.19 8778 7979 91 76
0.20 8767 7970 91 66

0.21 8747 7952 91 45


0.22 8718 7925 91 I4
0.23 8678 7889 9073
0.24 8648 7862 9041
0.25 8589 7808 8980

0.26 8539 7763 8927


0.27 8480 7709 8865
0.28 8421 7655 8803
0.29 8342 7584 8721
0.30 8273 7521 8649

0.31 8204 7458 8577


0.32 81 25 7386 8494
0.33 8036 7305 8401
0.34 7946 7224 8308
0.35 7857 71 43 8214

0.36 7768 7062 8121


0.37 7669 6972 8018
0.38 7580 6891 7925
0.39 7482 6802 7822
0.40 7373 6703 7708

0.41 7274 6613 7605


0.42 71 65 6514 7491
0.43 7057 6415 7377
0.44 6948 6316 7263
0.45 6840 6218 71 51

0.46 6731 61 19 7037


0.47 6622 6020 6923
0.48 6503 5912 6799
0.49 6384 5804 6675
0.50 6276 5705 6561
' Use to obtain C, in pounds when D,. and D,, are given in inc S.
DWcosa
Values of fcmfor intermediate valuesof - are obtained by linear interpolation.
D,

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AFBMA 31 70 W 0873073 O000207 7TB =
TABLE 2 . Values of X and Y for Radial arrangement, using the values of X and Y
Roller Bearings indicated in 5.2.1.
s < e
F,
s > e
F,
5.3.2 The life formula gives satisfactory
Bearing Type X Y X Y e
results for a broad range of bearing loads,
However, extra-heavy loads may cause
Single row, (Y # O” 1 O 0.4 0.4cota
1.5tana
Double row, (Y # O” 1 0.45cota 0.67 0.67cota1.5tana detrimental plastic deformations at the roll-
ingelement/raceway contacts. The user
should therefore consult the bearing man-
with CY = O” to support axial loads varies ufacturer to establish the applicability of the
considerably with bearing design and ex- life formula in cases where P, exceeds
ecution. The bearing user should therefore 0.5 Cr.
consult the bearing manufacturer for rec-
ommendations regarding the evaluation of
equivalent load and life in cases where 5.4 Basic Static Radial Load Rating
bearings with CY = O” are subjected to axial
load. The basic static radial load rating for ra-
dial roller bearings is given by the formula
5.2.1 Bearing Combinations
D
,, COS^
5.2.1.1 When calculating the equiva-
lent radial load for two similar single row
c, = 44
(
1 -
,D
, ) iZL,D,cosa (metric)

roller bearings mounted side-by-side on D cosa .


the same shaft such that they operate as a
C,, = 6430 1 -
( L ~ZL,D,cosa
,D
, ) (inch)

unit (paired mounting) in “back-to-back” or


“face-to- face” arrangement, and which, 5.4.1 Bearing Combinations
according to 5.1.I .I , is considered as one
double row roller bearing, the values of X 5.4.1.1 The basic static radial load
and Y for double row bearings given in rating for two similar single-row roller bear-
Table 2 should be used. ings mountedside by sideon the same
shaft such that they operate as a unit
5.2.1.2 When calculating the equiva- (paired mounting) in “back-to-back” or
lent radial load for two or more similar single “face-to-face” arrangement is twice the rat-
rowroller bearings mounted side-by-side ing of one single row bearing.
on the same shaft such that they operate 5.4.1.2 The basic static radial load
as a unit (paired or stack mounting) in “tan- rating for two or more similar single-row
dem” arrangement, the values of X and Y roller bearings mounted sideby side onthe
for a single row bearing given in Table 2
shall be used. same shaft such that they operate as a unit
(paired or stack mounting) in “tandem” ar-
5.3 Basic Rating Life rangement, properly manufactured and
5.3.1 The basic rating life, ,L,I for a ra- mounted for equal load distribution, is the
dial roller bearing is given by number of bearings times the rating of one
single-row bearing.

5.5 Static Equivalent Radial Load


The values of Cr and P, are calculated in
accordance with 5.1 and 5.2. The static equivalent radial load for roller
bearings is the greater of the two values
This life formula is also used for the eval- given by the formulae
uation of the life of two or more single row
bearings operating as a unit, as referred to P, = X,Fr Y,F, +
in 5.1.1. In this case, the load rating C, is
calculated for the completebearing ar- Fr Por =
rangementand the equivalent load P, is where the values of factors X, and Y, are
calculated for the total loads acting on the given in Table 3,

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TABLE 3. Values for Factors X, and Y, for for (X we 314
Z7/9
= 90": C, = fc,LweD 29127
Radial Roller Bearings with 01 # O"
Bearing Type X0 Y O
for (X # 90":
Single-row 0.5 0.22cotu C, = fC,(Lw,COSa) Z Dbve.
29/27tan01
7/9 314
Double-row 1 0.44cOtu
where
Z is the number of rollers carrying load
The static equivalent radial load for radial in one direction.
roller bearings with CY = O', and subjected 6.1.1.2 If several rollers, on the same
to radial load only, is given by the formula side of the bearing axis, are located with
Por =Fr their axes coinciding, these rollers are con-
sidered as one roller with a length Lw, equal
NOTE: The ability of radial roller bearings to the sum of the lengths of the several
with CY = O" to support axial loads varies rollers.
considerably with bearing design and ex-
ecution. The bearing user should therefore Values of fcm are given in Tables 4, 5 and
consult the bearing manufacturer for rec- 6. They are maximum values, only appli-
ommendations regarding the evaluation of cable to roller bearings in which, under a
equivalent load in cases where bearings bearing load, the material stress is sub-
with CY = O" are subjected to axial load. stantially uniform along the most heavily
loaded roller/raceway contact.
5.5.1 Bearing Combinations
Smaller values of fc, than those given in
5.5.1.1 When calculating the static Tables 4,5 and 6 should be used if, under
equivalent radial load for two similar single- load, an accentuated stress concentration
row roller bearings mounted side by side is present in some part of the roller/raceway
on the same shaft such that they operate contact. Such stress concentrations must
as a unit (paired mounting) in "back-to- be expected, for example, at the center of
back" or "face-to-face" arrangement, the nominal point contacts, at the extremities
X, and Y, values for a double-row bearing of line contacts, in bearings where the roll-
and the F, and F a values for the total loads ers are not accurately guided and in bear-
on the arrangement shall be used. ings with rollers longer than 2.5 times the
5.5.1.2 When calculating the static roller diameter.
equivalent radial load for two or more sim- Smaller values of fcm should also be con-
ilar single-row roller bearings mounted side sidered for thrust roller bearings in which
by side on the same shaft such that they the geometry causes excessive slip in the
operate as a unit (paired or stack mounting) roller/raceway contact areas, for example
in "tandem" arrangement, the X, and Y, bearings with cylindrical rollers which are
values for a single-row bearing and the F, long in relation to the pitch diameter of the
and F, values for the total loads on the ar- roller set.
rangement shall be used.
6.1.2 Bearings with Two or More Rows
6. THRUST ROLLER BEARINGS of Rollers.The basicdynamic axial load
rating for thrust roller bearings with two or
6.1 Basic Dynamic Axial Load Rating more rowsof similar rollers carrying load in
6.1.1 Single Row Bearings the same direction is given by
6.1.1.1 A thrust roller bearing is con-

+ (e)
sidered as a single row bearing only if all
rollers carrying load in the same direction
contact the same washer raceway area. x [(2) +
912 912

, , .

The basic dynamic axial load rating, C a ,


for single row, single or double direction
thrust roller bearings is
. . I + (e)
]
9/2
-2j9

10

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AFBMA 33 90 0873073 O000233 356

TABLE 4. Part 1 - Metric Values for ,,f TABLE 4. Part 2 - Inch Values for ,,f for
;I)
- for TaDered Roller Bearina: - TEipered Roller Bearinas')
-
Dwe21

D,, Y = 90'
3,coso12
DPW
I
= 5Oo31 x = 6 5 O 4 1 Y = BOo5
Dw2
D,, 01= 90
)w,coso12
DPW
= SOo3: K = 65-: '
"
cy = 80"':
0.01 1 15.94 0.01 120.67 117.81 116.16 0.01 10400 0.01 10824 10568 10420
0.02 135.19 0.02 140.58 137.17 135.30 0.02 12127 0.02 1261O 12304 12136
0.03 147.95 0.03 153.45 149.82 147.73 0.03 13271 0.03 13764 13439 13251
0.04 157.74 0.04 163.13 159.17 157.08 0.04 141 49 0.04 14633 14278 14090
0.05 165.77 0.05 170.72 166.65 164.34 0.05 14870 0.05 15314 14949 14741
0.06 172.59 0.06 176.99 172.70 170.39 0.06 15481 0.06 15876 15491 15284
0.07 178.64 0.07 182.16 177.76 175.34 0.07 16024 0.07 16340 15945 15728
0.08 183.92 0.08 186.45 182.05 179.52 0.08 I6498 0.08 16725 16330 16103
0.09 188.87 0.09 190.08 185.57 183.04 0.09 16942 0.09 17050 16646 16419
0.10 193.27 0.1o 193.05 188.54 185.90 0.10 17336 0.1o 17317 16912 16675
0.11 197.45 0.11 195.58 190.96 188.32 0.11 1771 1 0.11 17544 171 29 16892
0.12 201.30 0.12 197.67 192.94 190.30 0.12 18057 0.12 17731 17307 17070
0.13 204.93 0.13 199.21 194.48 191.84 0.13 18382 0.13 17869 17445 17208
0.14 208.34 0.14 200.53 195.69 193.05 0.14 18688 0.14 17988 17553 17317
0.15 21 1.53 0.15 201.41 196.68 193.93 0.15 18974 0.15 18066 17642 17396
0.16 214.61 0.16 202.07 197.23 - 0.16 I9251 0.16 18126 17692 -
0.17 21 7.47 0.17 202.40 197.56 - 0.17 19507 0.17 181 55 17721 -
0.18 220.33 0.18 202.51 197.67 - 0.18 19764 0.18 18165 17731 -
0.19 222.97 0.19 202.40 197.56 - 0.19 20000 0.19 18155 17721 -
0.20 225.50 0.20 202.07 197.23 - 0.20 20227 0.20 18126 17692 -
0.21 227.92 0.21 201.52 - - 0.21 20444 0.21 18076 - -
0.22 230.34 0.22 200.86 - - 0.22 20661 0.22 18017 - -
0.23 232.65 0.23 199.98 - - 0.23 20869 0.23 17938 - -
0.24 234.85 0.24 198.99 - - 0.24 21 066 0.24 17849 - -
0.25 236.94 0.25 197.78 - - 0.25 21 254 0.25 17741 - -

0.26 239.03 0.26 196.57 - - 0.26 21441 0.26 17632 - -


0.27 241 .O1 0.27 - - - 0.27 21 961 0.27 " - -
0.28 242.99 0.28 - - - 0.28 21 796 0.28 -_ - -
0.29 244.97 0.29 - - - 0.29 21974 0.29 " - -
-
0.30L246.73 0.30 - - - 0.30 221 32 0.30 -_ - -
' Use to obtz C, in newtons when D
, and D
,, are ' Use to obtain C, in pounds when we and D
,, are given
in millimetres. in inches.
D,COS
D~, DC
, OS(YD,
Values of fm for intermediate values- of or ~ are * Values of,,f for intermediate valuesof -or ~
are
D
,, D
, D
, ,D
,
obtained by linear interpolation. obtained by linear interpolation.
Applicable for 45" < a < 60". Applicablefor 45" (Y < 60".
Applicablefor 60" 5 (Y 75". Applicable for 60" Ia < 75".
Applicablefor 75" I(Y 90". Applicable for 75" 5 (Y < 90".

The load ratings Cal, Ca*, . . . , C,, for the


rows with Z,, Z2, . . ., Zn rollers of lengths
Lvdel,Lvne2, . . . , ,,L
,, are calculated from the number of bearings to the power of 7/9,
appropriatesingle row bearing formula times the rating of one bearing.
given in 6.1. I . 6.1.3.2 If, for some technical reason,
6.1.3 Bearing Combinations the bearing arrangement is regarded as a
number of single direction bearings which
6.1.3.1 The basic axial load rating for are replaceableindependently of each
two or more similar single direction thrust other, then 6.1.3.1 does not apply.
roller bearingsmountedside-by-sideon
the same shaft such that they operate as a 6.2 Dynamic Equivalent Axial Load
unit (paired or stack mounting) in "tandem" The dynamic equivalent axial load, P, for
arrangement, properlymanufacturedand thrust roller bearings with OL = go", under
mounted for equal load distribution, is the constant radial and axial loads, is given by

11

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TABLE 5. Part 1 - Metric Values for f, TABLE 5. Part 2 - Inch Values for ,,f for
for Cvlindrical Roller Bearinas and Cylindrical Roller Bearings and Needle
-- N et3dle Roller Bearing$) - Roller Bearings')

-Dpw
-
IDw?)

I0.01
1 = 90'
105.4
),cosa2
D,
0.01
c = 50'31
109.7
T
7-1 = 65""
107.1
I = 80")
105.6
-
D",
D, CY = gog
-
0.01 9454
~,cosa2]l
D,
0.01
a
9840
Y = 65-
9607 9472
l0.02 122.9 0.02 127.8 124.7 123.0 0.02 1 1024 0.02 11464 11186 11033
0.03 134.5 0.03 139.5 136.2 134.3 0.03 12065 0.03 12513 12217 12047
0.04 143.4 0.04 148.3 144.7 142.8 0.04 12863 0.04 13303 12980 12809
0.05 150.7 0.05 155.2 151.5 149.4 0.05 1351 8 0.05 13921 13590 13401

0.06 156.9 0.06 160.9 157.0 154.9 0.06 14074 0.06 14433 14083 13895
0.07 162.4 0.07 165.6 161.6 159.4 0.07 14567 0.07 14854 14496 14298
0.08 167.2 0.08 169.5 165.5 163.2 0.08 14998 0.08 15204 14845 14639
0.09 171.7 0.09 172.8 168.7 166.4 0.09 15401 0.09 15500 15132 14926
0.10 175.7 0.1 o 175.5 171.4 169.0 0.1 o 15760 0.1 o 15742 15375 151 59

0.1 1 179.5 0.1 1 177.8 173.6 171.2 0.1 1 161O1 0.1 1 15949 15572 15357
0.1 2 183.0 0.1 2 179.7 175.4 173.0 0.1 2 1641 5 0.1 2 16119 5733 15518
0.1 3 186.3 0.1 3 181.1 i76.8 174.4 0.1 3 1671 1 0.1 3 16245 5859 15644
0.14 189.4 0.1 4 182.3 177.9 175.5 0.1 4 16989 0.1 4 16352 5958 15742
0.1 5 192.3 0.1 5 183.1 178.8 176.3 0.1 5 17249 0.15 16424 6038 1581 4

0.1 6 195.1 0.1 6 183.7 179.3 - 0.1 6 17500 0.1 6 16478 16083
0.1 7 197.7 0.1 7 184.0 179.6 0.17 17734 0.1 7 16505 16110 -
0.1 8 200.3 0.1 8 184.1 179.7 - 0.18 17967 0.1 8 1651 4 161 19 -
0.19 202.7 0.1 9 184.0 179.6 - 0.1 9 18182 0.19 16505 16110 -
0.20 205.0 0.20 183.7 179.3 0.20I 18389 0.20 16478 16083 -
0.21 207.2 0.21 183.2 - 0.21 18586 0.21 16433 -
- - -
0.22
0.23
209.4
21 1.5
0.22
0.23
182.6
181.8 -
-
-
-
0.22
0.23
18783
18972
0.22
0.23
16379
16307 -
-
0.24 213.5 0.24 180.9 0.24 191 51 0.24 16227
0.25 215.4 0.25 179.8 I
0.25 19321 0.25 161 28 -
0.26 21 7.3 0.26 178.7 - - 0.26, 19492 0.26 16029 -
0.27 21 9.1 - - - - 0.27 19653 - - -
0.28 220.9 - - - 0.28 19815 - - -
0.29 222.7 - - - - 0.29 19976 - - -
0.30 224.3 - - - - 0.30 201 20 - - - -
"

.
L

' Use to obt; C, in ne ons whel and C ' Use to obtz C. in pounds when Iwe
and I:
in millimetres. in inches.
D
, Dwecosa
Values offm for intermediate values
D
,
of
D
,
D
,
D,COS~
-or - are Values off,, for intermediate values
D,
of
D
,
or - - are
obtained by linear interpolation. obtained by linear interpolation.
Applicable for 45" c a c 60". Applicable for 45" c a c 60'.
Applicable for 60" 5 a € 75". ' Applicable for 60" 5 a c 75".
Applicable for 75" 5 (Y c 90". Applicable for 75" s (Y -ZZ 90".

P, = X F, Y F, +
Values of X and Y are given in Table 7.
Thrust roller bearings with a = 90" can The values of C, and P, are calculated in
support axial loads only. The dynamic accordance with 6.1 and 6.2.
equivalent axial load for this type of bearing This life formula is also used for the eval-
is given by uation of the life of two or more single di-
P, = F, rection thrust roller bearings operating as
a unit, as referred to in 6.1.3. In this case,
6.3 Basic Rating Life the load rating C, is calculated for the com-
6.3.1 The basic rating life, Llo, for a plete bearing arrangement and the equiv-
thrust roller bearing is given by alent load P, is calculated for the total loads

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AFBMA 11 90 m 0873073 0000213 129 m

TABLE 6. 'art 1 - Metric Values for,,f TABLE 6. Part 2 - 1nch.Values for,,f for
-- for 2 lherical Roller Bearings')
- - Spherical Roller
- Bearings')
Dm*)
-
D, o! = 9 0
),,cos(Y2)
D, y = SOo3) y = 65"" y =
D-2'
-
D,, Y = 90"
),,coso!2)
D, y
-c
= 50°3)
I
0.01 121.210 0.01 126.1 55123.165 121.440 0.01 10873 0.01 1'1316 11048 10893
0.02 141.335 0.02 146.970 143.405 141.450 0.02 12678 0.02 13183 12863 12688
0.03 154.675 0.03 160.425 156.630 154.445 0.03 13874 0.03 14390 14050 13854
0.04 164.91O 0.04 170.545 166.405 164.220 0.04 14792 0.04 15298 14927 14731
0.05 173.305 0.05 178.480 174.225 171.81O 0.05 15545 0.05 16010 15628 1541 1

0.06 180.435 0.06 185.035 180.550 178.1 35 0.06 161 85 0.06 16598 161 95 15979
0.07 186.760 0.07 190.440 185.840 183.31O 0.07 16752 0.07 17082 16670 16443
0.08 192.280 0.08 194.925 190.325 187.680 0.08 17248 0.08 7485 7072 116835
0.09 197.455 0.09 198.720 194.005 191.360 0.09 17712 0.09 7825 7402 1 71 65
0.1o 202.055 0.1o 201.825 197.110 194.350 0.10 18124 0.10 81 04 7681 1 7433

0.11 206.425 0.11 204.470 199.640 196.880 0.11 18516 0.11 1 8341 1 7908 17660
0.12 21 0.4500.12 206.655 201.710 198.950 0.12 18877 0.12 18537 1'8093 1 7846
0.13 214.245 0.13 208.265 203.320 200.560 0.13 19218 0.13 1 8681 1 8238 1 7990
0.14 21 7O.81 0.14 209.645 204.585 201.825 0.14 19538 0.14 1 8774 1 8351 1'8104
0.15 221.1 450.15 21 0.565205.620 202.745 0.15 19837 0.15 18888 18444 18186

0.16 224.365 0.16 21 1.255206.1 95 - 0.16 201 26 0.16 18950 18496


0.17 227.355 0.17 21 1.600206.540 - 0.17 20394 0.17 18981 18527
0.18 230.345 0.18 21 1.715206.655 - 0.18 20662 0.18 18991 18537
0.19I 233.105 0.19 21 1.600206.540 - 0.19 2091O 0.19 18981 18527
0.20l 235.750 0.20 21 1.255206.195 - 0.20 21 148 0.20 18950 18496

0.21 238.280 0.21 210.680 - - 0.21 21 374 0.21 18898


0.22 240.81O 0.22 209.990 - - 0.22 21 601 0.22 18836
0.23 243.225 0.23 209.070 - - 0.23 21817 0.23 18754
0.24 245.525 0.24 208.035 - - 0.24 22024 0.24 18661
0.25, 247.71O 0.25 206.770 - - 0.25 22220 0.25 18547

0.26I 249.895 0.26 205.505 - - 0.26 22416 0.26


0.27 251.965 - - - - 0.27 22601 -
0.28 254.035 - - - - 0.28 22787 -
0.29l 256.105 - - - - 0.29 22973 -
0.30 257.945
-
- - - - 231 38 - I
' Use to obt? I C, in ne :oris whel L e and C I C, in pounds when )we and D, are given
in millimetres. in inches.
D, D,,cos~ D, D,.cos~
Values of f, for intermediate valuesof ror Tare Values of fc, for intermediate valuesof -or ~ are
v,, U, D, D,
obtained by linear interpolation. obtained by linear interpolation.
Aoolicable for 45" < a < 60". Applicable for 45" < a < 60".
Applicable for 60" 5 a < 75". Applicablefor 60"5 a 75".
Applicablefor 75" 5 a 90". Applicable for 75"c: a < 90".

acting on the arrangement, using the val-


TABLE 7. Values of X and Y for Thrust ues of X and Y given for single direction

1 1')I I i I
Roller Bearinas bearings in 6.2.
6.3.2 The life formula gives satisfactory
results for a broad range of bearing loads.
",';I~TYP~ :)i X Y e However, extra-heavy loads may cause
Single
direction, detrimental plastic deformations at the
tana 1 1.5tana
Double direction, rollerlraceway contacts. Theuser should
a # 90" 1.5tana 0.67 tana 1 1.5tana therefore consult the bearing manufacturer
F, to establish the applicability of the life for-
- eisunsuitableforsingledirectionbearings.
mula in cases where P, exceeds 0.5 C,.
F,

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6.4 Basic Static Axial Load Rating such that they operate as a unit (paired or
stack mounting) in “tandem” arrangement,
The basic static axial load rating for sin- the F, and F, values forthe total loads acting
gle-or double-direction thrust roller bear- on the arrangement shall be used,
ings is given by the formula

c, = 220 (
1--
a
)D
$
: ZL,D,sn
ia (metric)

D COS& 7. ADJUSTED RATING LIFE


(
D,* )
C, = 32150 1 - wo ZL,D,sn
ia (inch)
7.1 General
where Z is the number of rollers carrying It is often satisfactory to use the basic
load in one direction. rating life, L,, as a criterion of bearing per-
formance. This life is associated with 90%
In cases where rollers have different reliability, with contemporary, commonly
lengths, ZL, is taken as the sum of the used material and manufacturing quality,
lengths, defined in 3.16, of all the rollers andunder conventional operating condi-
carrying load in one direction. tions.
6.4.1 Bearing Combinations. The basic However, for many applications it may
static axial load rating for two or more sim- be desirable to calculate the life for a dif-
ilar single-direction thrust roller bearings ferent reliability and/or for special bearing
mounted side by side on the same shaft properties and operating conditions which
such that they operate as a unit (paired or deviate from the conventional in such away
stack mounting) in “tandem” arrangement, that it is justified to take their influence into
properly manufacturedandmounted for special consideration.
equal load distribution, is the number of
bearings times the rating of one single-di- The adusted rating life, Lna, ¡.e. the basic
rection bearing. rating life adjusted for a reliability of (100-
n)%, for special bearing properties and for
specific operating conditions, is given by
6.5 Static Equivalent Axial Load
The static equivalent axial load for thrust Ln, = ala2a3LlO
roller bearings with CY # 90” is given by the Values of a, are given in Table 8. Values of
formula a2and a3 arediscussed in 7.4 and7.5. The
value of L,, is calculated in accordance
Po, = 2.3Frtana Fa + with 5.3 and 6.3.
This formula is valid for all ratios of radial 7.2 Limitations
load to axial load in the case of double- In addition to the required fatigue life,
direction bearings. For single-direction other factors, such as maximum permissi-
bearings, it is valid where FJFa < 0.44 cota
and gives satisfactory but less conserva- ble bearing deflection and minimum shaft
tive values of Po, for FJFa UP to 0.67 Cota. and housing strength, should be given due
consideration when selecting the size of
Thrust roller bearings with OL = 90” can bearings for a given application. Particular
support axial loads only. The static equiv- discretion shall be exercised when using
alent axial load for this type of bearing is adjusted rating life values which are based
given by the formula on values of a2 and a3 greater than 1.
Poa = Fa 7.3 Life Adjustment Factor for Reliabil-
ity, al
6.5.1 Bearing Combinations. When cal- Reliability is defined in 3.2. The adjusted
culating the static equivalent axial load for rating life is calculated in accordance with
two or more similar thrust roller bearings 7.1, Values of the life adjustment factor a,
mounted side by side on the same shaft are given in Table 8.

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AFBMA 11 90 0871073 0000215 TT1

TABLE 8. Life Adjustment Factor for 7.5 Life Adjustment Factor For Operat-
Reliabilitv, a, ing Conditions, a3
Reliability
% L., al 7.5.1 Of 'the operating conditions di-
90 L, 1
rectly influencing bearing life, the direction
95 L5 0.62 and magnitude of the load are considered
96 L4 0.53 in the calculation of the equivalent load,
97 L3 0.44 (5.2, 5.5, 6.2 and 6.5), and deviations from
98 L* 0.33 normal load distribution are discussed in
99 L1 0.21
1.3.
Operating conditions which remain to be
7.4 Life Adjustment Factor For Special taken into account here include the ade-
Bearing Properties, a2 quacy of the lubrication (at the operating
7.4.1 Abearingmayacquirespecial speed and temperature), presence of for-
properties, as regards life, by the use of a eign matter, conditions causing changesin
special type and quality of material and/or material properties (for example high tem-
special manufacturing processes and/or perature causing reduced hardness) and
special design. Such speciallife properties mounting conditions. The influence on
are taken into account by the application bearing life of such conditions may be
of the life adjustment factor a2. taken into account by the introduction of a
life adjustment factor a3.
The present state of knowledge doesnot
make it possible to define relationships be- 7.5.2 The calculation of basic rating life
tween the values of a2 and quantifiable in this standard assumes that the lubrica-
characteristics of the material or bearing tion is normal, ¡.e. that the lubricant film in
raceway geometry, for example. The val- the rolling element/raceway contactshas a
ues of a2 have therefore to be based on thickness which is equal toor slightly
experience, and may usually be obtained greater than the composite roughness of
from the manufacturer of the bearing. the contact surfaces. Where this require-
ment is fulfilled, a3 is equal to 1 , provided
7.4.2 The use of a certain steel analysis a lower value does not apply, for example
and/or process as such is not sufficient jus- because of a changein material properties
tification for the use of an a2 value other caused by the operating conditions.
than 1. Valuesof a2 greater than 1 may,
however be applicable to bearings made 7.5.3 Values of a3 less than 1 should be
of steel of particularly low impurity content considered, for example where the kine-
orof special analysis. However, if a re- matic viscosity of the lubricant, at the op-
duced life is expected because of a hard- erating temperature, is less than 13 mm2/
ness reduction causedby special heat s') for roller bearings and/or where the ro-
treatment, this should be considered by the tational speed is exceptionally low (¡.e. D,,
selection of a correspondingly reduced a2 in mm times revolutions per minute is less
value. than 10,000).
7.4.3 A special design involving an in- Values of a3 greater than 1 may be consid-
creased or reduced uniformity of the stress ered only where the lubrication conditions
in the contactsbetween rolling elements are so favourable that the probability of fail-
and raceways should also be considered ure caused by surface distress is greatly
in the selection of the value of a2. reduced.
7.4.4 It may not be assumed that the Manufacturers of bearings are expected
use of a specialmaterial, process or design to supply recommendations regarding ap-
will overcome a deficiency in lubrication. propriate valuesofa3 to be used in the
Values of a2greater than 1 should therefore calculation of adjusted rating life in accor-
normally not be applied if a3 is less than 1 dance with 7.1.
because of such deficiency. ' 1 mm% = IcSt

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