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Unit 1 Reading Guide:

Chapter 1:
1. What are the definitions of anatomy and physiology?
a. You should be able to compare/contrast the various specialties within each discipline
and provide at least one example of each.
2. Identify the major levels of organization in living organisms.
a. You should be able to put these in order from smallest (simplest) to largest (most
complex). You should also be able to provide an example of each.
3. Define homeostasis. What is a feedback loop?
a. You should also be able to identify the key components of a feedback loop and explain
how they work or what their function is.
4. Define negative and positive feedback and be able to provide an example of each (as it relates
to the human body).
5. You will need to know the anatomical terms that relate to the direction or sectioning of the
body.
a. You should be able to give the proper anatomical term if given the definition or vice
versa.
b. You should also be able to use these correctly in a sentence or scenario.
6. Identify the major body cavities, their subdivisions and the organs found in each cavity.
a. You will also need to be able to identify these during the lab practical.
7. Identify the four major abdominopelvic quadrants AND the nine smaller abdominopelvic
regions.
a. You will also need to be able to identify these during the lab practical.
b. You should also be able to identify major organs found in each quadrant and give an
example of clinical significance.
i. Example: fever & pain in the lower right quadrant could indicate appendicitis.

Chapter 2:
8. Define the terms atom and matter.
9. What are the three sub-atomic particles of an atom? Be sure to include their location &
charges.
10. Define the term energy. What are the two major types of energy (Be able to define and
provide examples of each type)?
11. Explain the difference between an atom, element, molecule & compound.
a. Is a molecule an element, compound or both?
12. Define the terms isotope and radioisotope.
13. How do atoms combine to form molecules and compounds?
a. What are valence electrons, what is the octet rule, what is a chemical bond?
14. What are the different types of chemical bonds? How do they form?
a. You should be able to provide an example of each.
15. What is chemical notation? How are chemical reactions depicted?
16. What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds? Why are they important?
17. What are some of the important chemical properties of water?
18. What is the pH scale?
a. What do the terms acid/acidic, neutral or base/basic mean? How are they identified
based pH value?
19. What is the role of buffers in body fluids?
20. Discuss the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and other
high-energy compounds. You should be able to give the basic chemical structure & smallest
“unit” or building block for each. Also, know examples of each energy source and each of the
building blocks.
21. Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism. Be able to provide an example of each.
22. What are enzymes & how do they work?
a. What factors can affect an enzyme’s functioning.
b. What does the term denatured mean?

Chapter 3:
23. What are the four main points of the cell theory?
24. Why do we need microscopes to see cells?
25. What are the three major structures of the cell and what are their functions?
26. What are the functions of the cell membrane?
a. What are the structures of the cell membrane that enable it to perform its functions?
27. What are the major organelles of a typical cell and what are their specific functions?
28. What is cellular diversity & how is it achieved (how do cells differentiate from each other?) You
should be able to define differentiation as well.
29. What is protein synthesis? What are the 2 major steps (transcription & translation)?
a. You should be able to briefly describe the process of transcription & translation.
30. What are chromosomes and what is their make-up and function?
31. What are the two types of nucleic acids? What are the differences between DNA & RNA
(structure, function & location)?
32. What are the two types of cell division?
a. Describe the processes of mitosis and explain the significance. You should know the
four phases of mitosis and explain what occurs at each phase.
33. What does selectively permeable mean?
a. What factor(s) can affect the permeability of the cell membrane?
34. What is the difference between passive and active transport?
35. What is diffusion? What are the three types of diffusion and what/how do they move particles
in and out of the cell?
36. What are some types of active transport?
37. What do the terms isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic mean? You should be able to predict what
happens to cells when placed in each solution.
38. What is histology?
39. What are the four major tissue types and their characteristics (such as structure & functions)?
a. You should also be able to give an example &/or location of each: epithelium,
connective
b. How do we classify epithelium and connective tissues?
40. What are examples of circulating, generalized and structural connective tissues? What are their
functions?
41. What are the types of epithelial membranes?
a. Be able to give locations and examples of each.
b. What is the 4th type of membrane (hint—it is found in joints)?
42. What are examples of connective tissue membranes?

Chapter 4:
43. Name and describe the MAJOR layers (epidermis and dermis) and the specific layers of the skin.
44. What are the main structural features of the epidermis and dermis?
a. Be sure to include the functional significance of each specific layer.
45. What is the subcutaneous (aka hypodermis) layer?
a. What is it made of and is it a true layer of the skin?
46. Give the name, locations and functions of accessory structures of the skin.
47. What are the main functions of the skin?
48. Name several pigments or factors that regulate skin color.
a. How do these vary among people of different populations or geographical regions?
49. How does the skin help the body maintain body temperature?
50. How does skin responds to injury & undergoes repair (See question #44 above).
51. What are some of the effects of aging on tissues & skin?

Chapter 5: The Skeletal System

1. List and/or describe the functions of the skeletal system.


2. Identify the structures associated with a typical long bone.
3. Differentiate between compact bone and spongy bone in terms of structure and location.
4. Differentiate between red marrow and yellow marrow in terms of function and location.
5. Name the three types of bone cells and describe the functions of each.
6. Discuss bone growth and development.
7. Be able to discuss the homeostatic mechanisms that are responsible for regulating calcium
regulation in bone (PTH versus Calcitonin, the cells they affect and how they affect blood calcium
levels).
8. Identify the various types of joints. You should be able to classify joints based on structure and
function. You should be able to provide examples of each.
9. Identify the structures and functions of a synovial joint.
10. Explain how the skeletal system changes with the aging process.