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~~ ''''''!'''".-=::''- s: _..,.-...-- -- - -="1. __ =-=_~~' .... '-': - _.I-~J·-:~~I.·r ~~~ "'4'~ .

-:-- -'~-=::-~{'~_1


-- -


The Indicative expresses tccts and actual situations.


1. Present: Describes (1) action happening at the moment; (2) habitual action:

• Hablo con Ana frecuentemente. (I talk I am talking I do talk to Ana frequently.)

2. Imperfect: Describes ongoing or habitual past action:

I • HalJlabas can Ana caoa dia. (You talked I used to talk to Ana every day.)

3. Preterite: Describes past action that is finished or complete: • Juan haIJ16 con Ana aver. (Juan talked to Ana yesterday.)

14. Future: Describes action that will take place in the future:

• LOS abcgados hablaran con Ana manana, (The lawyers will talk to Ana tomorrow.)

5. Conditional: Similar to English "would" or "could":

• Hablarlamos con Ana, perc no esta (We would talk to Ana, but she's not here.)


The perfect tenses are formed by using the verb haher, conjugated in the appropriate tense, along with the past participle of the verb of action. Haber is conjugated in the table below.

1. Present perfect: uescrtbes (1) action that Degan in the past and continues in the present; (2) action that took place in the past out somehow bears on the present:

• He hablado con Ana rnucnas veces. (I have talked to Ana many times.)

2. Past perfect (pluperfect): oescrlbes past action that was completed Defore another action took place:

• Ella nabia nabtado con Aria antes (fel exarnen. (She had talked to Ana before the test.)

3. Preterite perfect: Rarely used except in literature; describes action completed just before another past action occurs, often with apenas (hardly, barely):

• Apel1as hube nanlado con Ana cuenco sano. (I had barely talked to Ana when she left.)

4. Future perfect: Describes action that will have taken place before a future event or action: • Hatiras hablado con Ana manana. (You will have talked to Ana by tornorrow.)

5. Conditional perfect: Describes action that would have been completed in the past:

Yo habna hablado coo AM, pew tenia mleoo. (I would have talked to Ana, but I was scared)


to hcve Ihelping verbl

~ JIQfflCfplel hobiendCl paat portlcfpl&: habJdo

5 n ular


51 ulll'r


____ -+C=o~n~d~n~io~n~a~l __j

I habria , hobrlos I habria

he hemos
has hobeis
ha han
habia hablamos
habias habiais
habia habian
hube hubimos
hubiste hubisteis
hubo hubieron
hobre habremos
hobros hobrels
habra hebron habriomos hobrlois habrian


hoya hayomos

hayas hovels

haya hoven.


hubierornos hubierais hubieran

hubiera hubieras hubiera ---------------------------t.I~m~p-er~a~fl~ve~--------------------~


habed I no hay6is hayan

he I no hoyos haya


The present progressive tense describes action that is taking place exactly at the time of expression. It is formed by using the verb "star, conjugated in the present tense, along with the present participle (gerundio) of the verb of action.

• E:stoy nebrancc con Ana ahorlta (I am talking to Ana right now.)

I ~!'!~~~cti~e~!~!~s a~o~s~~ are uncertctn. doubtful. possible, or clewed



1. Present subjunctive: Used after clauses that express wish, hope, doubt, necessity, possibility, intent, and so on, For more information, consult the Spanish Grammar SparkChart. sspero Que habtes con Ana May (I hope you talk to Ana today.)

• NO creo que hablemos con Me bastante, (I don't think we talk to Ana enough.) ouco que Ana hable elocllentemente. (I doubt that Ana talks eloquently.)

NO voy a salir sin que nantes con Ana, (I'm not going to leave unless you talk to Ana.)

2. Imperfect SUbjunctive: Used like the present subunctive but when the main verb is in the preterite, imperfect, or conditional tense:

JlIan lnstsuo que yo hahlara can Ana. (Juan insisted that I talk to Ana.)

• Note: There are two forms of the imperfect subjunctive: one with -ra endings (hablara) and one with -se endings (habl€se), They mean the same thing. Aside from regional exceptions, the -ra form is used far more frequently, so the -se form is not included on this chart.



1. Present perfect SUbjunctive: Used like the present subjunctive but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause is viewed as completed:

• NO creo que hayas hablado con Ana. (I don't think you have talked to Ana.)

2. Past perfect SUbjunctive (pluperfect subjunctive): Used like the imperfect subjunctive but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause was completed before another action took place:

'. No creta que hubleras nabtaco con Ana (I didn't think you had talked to Ana.)


The Imperafive expresses dlreci orders or commands.

,Habla con Ana inmedlatamente! (Talk to Ana immediately!)

.' j No hables 'con Mal Estil de mal humor. (Don't talk to Ana! She's in a bad mood.)

Note: All conjugations are presented as follows: yo

lu el/ellc/Ud.

nosolros/nosotros vosotros/vosotros ellos/elias/Uds.


Regular -rrr verbs like habfQr are corquqotedcs follows, Many -or verbs ore regular,

pre"nt portiolple, hllblondo

pcl$I pdrtidpla: hoblodo


to speak, 10 lalk


Sin ular

Sin ular


habloriamos hablariais hablorian

PrOil!le"~.t _

hablo hablamos

hqblos habl6is

habla hablan

"'C'm-p-e-rf-:-e-c7t-------- ---_~=--_= Present subjunctive -

hablaba habl6bamos hoble hablemos

hablabas hoblobais hables hoblels

hablaba habloban hable hablen

--;PO'r-et:-e-r"ife--------------- Imperfect subjunctive

hoble hablamos hablaro

hablasle hablaslels habloras

habl6 habloron hablora



hablaria hablarias habloria

hoblorornos hablarais hoblaron

----------_-_-_-_-_·-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-+lc~lm~pe~r:aC7.ti~ve~--------- ,--------

hoblcre hablar6s hablar6

habla I no hables hable


hablod I no hobleis hablen

hablaremos hobloreis hoblor6n


Regular -€If verbs like comer are conjugaled as follows. Severol other common, fully regulor -er verbs ore listed aflerward. Alwoys be coreful conjugaling -er verbs, because many ore irregulor in one or more lenses or hove irregular parliciples

P_ pcntlclple: camie~do

past participle: comldc



to eat


Sin ular Plural
comeria comeriamos
cornerlos comeriais
comeria comerian
Present subjunctive
coma comamos
comas cornets
coma cornen Or


corned / no corners coman


Imperfect subjunctive ----'

comiera comieras comiero


cornierornos comierais comieran

come / no comas leoma

aprender 110 learn I

Ibarrer Ito sweepl

Ibeber Ito drlnkl comprender Ito undersland) correr (to run)

d'eber 110 ows)

depender 110 depend I esconder 110 hide, to conceall meter Ito put inl

responder (to respond, to answer)

sorprender (10 surprise) suceder Ito hoppenl temer Ito fearl

roser 110 coughl

vender 110 selll


Regular -Ir verbs like vivir are coniug.oled os follows. Several other common,

fully regular -Jr verbs. ore lis led otterword. Always be coretut coniWloting -ir verbs, becouss many ore lrrequlor in one or more lenses or have irre~ular parliciples.

p_nt participle: viviendo

ptl$t participle: vivido


10 live


Plural Sin ular Plural
Conditional -.--- .. ~.--
vivimos viviria viviriamos
vivis vivirias vlviriois
viven vivirlo vivirian
Present subjunctive
viviamos viva vivamos
viviais vivos vlvols
vivian viva vivan
Imperfect subiunctive
vlvimos viviera vlvierornos
vivisteis vivieras vivierais
vivieron viviera vivieran
Imeerative Present __

vivo vives vive

Imperfect~ ___

vlvlo vlvlos vivia pre~t~e~rit~e~------------------------~·




-Fu-tu-re----------------------r.---~--------------------~ vivire vlviros vlvlro



vivid / no vlvois vivan

I ~e I no vivos viva

vlvlreis viviron

aburrlr Ito bore]

afiadir Ito add. to increasel aplaudir Ito applaud I asistir 110 Offend)

combatir Ito comball confundir 110 confusel consumir (10 consume) deddir Ito decide)

discutir 110 discuss)

exhiblr 110 exhibit, 10 show] existir 110 exisl)

insistir [to insist) interrumpir 110 interrupll ocurrir (to occur)

partir Ito divide, to split) permitir Ito permit, 10 ollowl

persistir 110 persist I prohiblr Ito prohibit) recibir Ito receive I sacudir 110 shake)

subir Ito go up. 10 gel, on) sufrir 1,10 suHer. to endure] unlr Ito unite. to [oln)

These to bl es sn ow the corq ug otlons 0 r so m e comrn 0 n i rregu lor S po n IS h verbs. Th rs is not 0 n ex he U stlve lis I Verbs typ i co II y use d rell ex i vely I e.g .. divennse, senlir5S I are in purple, For more information aboul use of rellsxlve verbs, see Ihe box on the next page. If you con't find the verb you're looking for. check the additional verbs list on the lcsl page, which lists many verbs conjuqcted in Ihe same way CIS other verbs on Ihis chort,

aIIIIr II 0 regIIIar"'"lrverb .Ide frOm lis ~1I@t pOI1IQ~ ab1erlo


loop .. n


to walk

,..mt participle: andondo pod par1Iclple: andado

SIn uIor PI""" I",

Present Conditlbndl


ando andamos andaria andariamos

andas ondols andorias andariais

ondo andan andaria ondarian

~!_-",-,!!-e-rf~e-c~t---- ~-----I.cP~r-es-ent~-su~~u-nctIve~~-

andaba and6bamos ande

andabas andabais andes

andaba andaban onde


Preterite .__ Imperfect subjunctive

anduve anduvimos onduviera

anduvisfe onduvisteis anduvieros

anduvo anduvieron anduviera

_.F_..U""Ctu ... r ... e._ t'I .... mperative

ondore encores ondoro

ondemos ondeis anden

onduvierornos onduvierais anduvieran

andaremos ondcrels ondoron


andad I no ondeis anden

anda I no andes ande



~nt part;cip"': condudendo pact participle, concIucldo

.SIn ular Plural SIn ulor


.:_Pc.:re:.:sc::e.:cn.:_t . -t-'Cc::0.:cn"'ditiooon"'aool ----'

conduzco conducimos conducirlo conduciriamos

conduces conducts conducirias conduciriais

conduce conducen conduciria conducirian

~~~_p~e~rl~e~ct~--~ __ --_-.~-----~----------==~~p~res~~e~n~t~su~b~l~u~n~ct~iv~e~==- ~~~~~____'

conducia condudamos conduzco

condudas condudais conduzcas

conduclc condudan conduzcc

conduzcornos conduzccls conduzcon

Preterite -t_..lm_..perfect subjunctive ....l

conduje condujimos condujera condujerornos

condujiste condujisteis condujeras condujerais

condujo conduieron condujera condujeran

=--.F_:u=iu.::--'-'re::_·======-_-_~_-_-_-~_-_~_-_· +t:mpera!ive--- ----------- --

conducire conduciros conduciro

conduciremos conducirels condudron


conduce / no conduzcos condudd / no condozcois

conduzco conduzcon


10 know, to become acquo Inted will!

present participle: conociendo past partiCiple: (onoddo

Sin ular

conoceriamos conocertots


SIn ular




conoceria conocerios

conozco conocemos

conoces conocets

conoce eonocen conoceria conocerian

imperlec'--- ----------+presilritsublUnctlYe----·-----~

conocia conociomos conozco conozcornos

conodas conociais conozcos conozcois

canocia conodon conozco conozcan

-Pr-e-te-r-it-e-'--··--_-- __ ·~ ~__ Ilm~rfect subjunctive -~-....".-",...--~

conoci conocimos conociera conoclerornos

conociste conocisteis conocieras conocierais

conocio conocieron conociero conocleran

Future Imperative

conocere conoceros conocero

canace rem as conocere!s conocer6n


conoce / no conozcos conoced / no conozc6is

conozco conozcon


10 build. 10 construct

pl'8S8nt participle: construvando past participle: construldo

$Jngula, Plural 51 ular


Present Conditional

construyo construimos construirio

construyes conslruis construirias

construye construven construirio


construia construiamos construyo

construias construiais construyas

construia conslruion construyo

conslruiriomos construlrlols construirion

conslruyomos construy6is construyon

Preterite Imperfect sub luncfive

construi conslruimos construyera

construiste construisteis eonstruyeras

construyo conslruyeron construyera

construverornos conslruyerais conslruyeron

Future Imperatlve"-- _

construire construiros construir6

construiremos construlreis construir6n

construyamos construye I no construyas construid I no construy6is

construya construyan

creemos creels creen

creeriamos creeriais creerian

creia creias creio

creiamos crelols creian

creamos erects crean

creimos creisteis creyeron

crei creiste crey6

creyerornos creyerais creyeran

creere creeros creer6

creeremos creereis crearon

cree / no creos crea


creed / no cre6is creon

Sin IGr Plural SIn


Present Conditional

doy damos doria dariomos

das dais darias doria is

do dan doria dorton


daba d6bamos de demos

dabas dabais des deis

daba daban de den

'~P~r-e~~t~e~r~ioot~e~~~~~~~~~~: ~ ~I~m!perfectsubjcu~n~ct~iv~e~ __

di dimas diera

diste disteis dieras

dio dieron djero

~------ ~-------+,---~-------. -----

Future .~_~ __ l-"Imperative

dore dorcs dor6

diercmos dierais dieran

daremos doreis dar6n


dad I no deis den

z .. u

'" e-



do I no des de


to SOY. to tell

p-n participle: dlclendo past pattldple: dlcho

51 ular


Present digo di'ces dice

decimos deds dicen

diria dirias diria

diriomos diriois dirian

Imperfec[_:__ "_~ +pc.re"s"eoonc-t-'s~j~u'-'nc"tI"'ve'-=----- ----'

deda deciamos \ diga digamos

dedas dedaisl digas dig6is

~d~e-c~ia~----------d-e-c-ia-n------~---jdiga ~~~---d~ig~a-n-----------

Preterite Tlniperfect subjunctive

dije dijimos I dijera

dijiste dijisteis diierns

dijo dijeron dijera


dire diros dir6


dijeramos dijerais dijeran

diremos direis dir6n

di I no digas diga


decid I no dig6is digan


10 umcse, 1<> dlstrect Ito have a good urne}

...-nt participle: dlvlrtlando past participle: dlVer1ldo

51nllulQr Plural 51 ular Plural

~3ent -----------r.C~o~n~d~I60~n~Q~~--------~~~--------~

divierto divertimos divertirlo diverliriamos

diviertes divertis divertirias divertirlois

divierte divierten divertiria diverlirTon

Imperfect ---------~~---I-present subl,_'u"'"c:ct:civ"e=-- _

divertlo divertiamos divierto divirtamos

divertias divertiois diviertos divirtcis

divertia divert1an diviertan



dlvertl divertimos divirtierornos

divertiste divertisteis divirtierals

dlvlrtio divirfieron divirlieran

.F~ut~u=re~----------- --------t~~~~------------- ~-------

divertire divertircs divertir6

diverliremos divertireis divertiron


divierte / no diviertas divertid / no divirtois

divierto divierton



to sleep



Sill tar



duermo duermes duerme

dormimos dormis duermen

dormiria dormirios -dorrnirlo

dormiriamos dormiriais dorrnirlon


Present subjunctive

duerma duermas duerma I~rlec~t-s-u~bl~u=n~ct~iv~e-----------=--~

dormia dormias dormia Preterlte- --------.----~--.-...,.-

dormi dormiste durmi6

dormiamos dormiols dormian

durmamos durm6is duerman

dormimos dormisteis durmieron

durmierornos durmierais durmieron


dormid / no durrnois duerman

entendemos entendels entienden

entenderiamos entenderiais entenderian

entendiomos entendiois enlendian

entendamos entendois entiendan

.enlendimos enlendisleis entendieron

entendlercrnos entendierois entendieran

entendere entenderos entender6

entenderemos entendereis entender6n


entiende I no entiendas entended / no entendais

entienda entiendan


to write

ascrIbIr II a regular -ir verb adde from Its Irmgular part parffi:lpIa: escrilo


to be

preunt partldpla: esIondo

part participle: eslado

SI ula.



estoy estamos estcrto

estes estols eslarias

esto eston estcrlo

Imp~e~rl·&c~I-------------------------+.~Pr-e-s-e-nt~s-u~b~j-un-ct~ .. ~I.~e-------------------

esfaba estobornos este

esfabas estabais estes

esloba eslaban este

cp~r~et~e~.~~e=- ~ -rI=mperlectsubjcu~n=ct~I.~e~ ~

estuve estuvimos estuviera

estuviste esluvisteis estuvieras

esluvo estuvieron estuviera


estariamos estorlois estarian

estemos esters esten

estuvlerornos estuvierais estuvieran

esters estoros estero

estaremos estcrels estorcn

esto / no estes este


estad. / no esteis esten


to do, 10 make

pmsent parflclple: hacienda past partlcipl.: heche

SI ula. Plural Slil ula.


Present Conditional

hogo hacemos haria

haees hccels horios

haee haeen haria

hariamos haria is harian

-,I.:.:m"p,-,ec:.rl~e,-,cc:.t -r! P:..:rc:e=se=n:.::tc..:subjunctiv..:e'--- ~~ ....

hocio hociamos I hag a hagamos

hadas hociois hag as hoqois

~;:~:rite . ~:_ci_o_n __ ~~~=~~~;~:!:rlect S:-:ub~l;:"u::-nc~ti""·v::e--ha....:ga-n-----------

hiee hieimos hiciera

hiciste hicisteis hicieras

hizo hkieron hlderc


hare heros hera


hloeromos hicierais hlclercn

haremos horels heron

haz / no hogos haga


hoced / no hcqcis hogan

vamos / no vayamos id / no vayais


Preterite Imperfect subjunctive

jugu,; jugamos jugara jugoramos

jugasle jugasleis jugaras jugarais

juga jugaron +.ju_:goo._"'.,-,,.- __:_ju...:g'-aran -r-;

Future Imperative . 0 ~

jugar,; jugaremos juguemos

jugaros [uqorels juega / no juegues jug ad / no jugueis

jugara jugaran juegue jueguen


Iriamos iriois irian





vamos vais van



'Present sub unctive

iba ibas iba

ibamos ibais iban

vaya vayas vaya

vayamos voyols vayon



Imperlect sub unctive luera



lui fuiste fue Future

luimos fuisteis fueron

fuefOmos fuerais fueran


ire ires ira

iremos ireis iran

ve / no voyos vaya


10 play fa sport or go m "I



juego juegas juega

jugomos juga is juegan

jugario jugarias jugaria

jugariamos jugariais jugarian

_Im=..ce~rl-'e~ct'- +present subjunctive

lugaba jug6bamos juegue

jugabas jugobais juegues

jugoba jugaban juegue

juguemos jugu,;is jueguen


10 die

pNSIInt jK!I1IcIpIa: murlendo past partklpla: mI/MIO

SIn ula, PI"'lOJ Slrlill1a, Plllror




muere Imperlect-·· .



moria Preterit.l"--

morimos moris mueren


morlria moririos moririo

morirfamos moririois

_________ ~_1-.p-.re ... s.,.e..,.nt subjunctive

muero muramos

mueros rnurcis

muero mueron

moriamos morlois marion

Imperlect subjunctivAl

mori moriste muri6

morimos moristeis murieron

muriera murlerornos

murieras murierois

m_urjera murieran


morid I no rnurois mueran


marin? montes monro

moriremos rnorireis morircn



fNUIInt partkiple: mcstrunda pad partk;lple: mostrada


51 uta.



muestro mostromos mosfrorio moslroriomos

muestras mostr6is moslrarios mostrariois

muestro muestran mostroria moslrarian

Imperfect _. __ .. __ " Present subJunctive ---

mostraba mostr6bomos muestre moslremos

mostrobos mostrobais muestres mostrels

mostrobo rnosjrobon muestre mueslren

preteri'O-te------------------------~+.lm---e-rl~ec--.,.t -su·b~l-u-nc-,t,,-iv-e-----------------

mostre mostroste mostr6

most rom os mostrosteis mostraron

mostr6romos mostrorais mostroron


rnostrcrs mostroros mostror6

mostraremos mostrcreis rnostroron


rnuestro / no muestres mostrod / no rnostrels




to keep the stress on the correct syllable. In negative commands, put tile pronoun before the verb:

• iSllmta,!el (Sit downl)

• iNO te slentes: {Don't sit down!)

4. Present progressive: Either attach the pronoun to the end of the present participle (wiVh accent mark) or put it before the helping verb .

,Est<JY vistiend<Jme. (I am getting dressed.)

• Me estov vistlendo .. (I am getting dressed.)

levantarse 110 gel upl lIamarse 110 be called/namedl olvldcrse 110 forgeli

ponerse (to pol om, Iclolhesll preocuparse 110 worryl quedarse 110 sloy, 10 remainl quitarse 110 toke off ldothesll sentarse '110 sit down] sentirse 110 feellwell. unwelill vestlrse 110 gel dressed)

1. Definition: Reflexive verbs are verbs used in a way such that the subject and the direct object are the same.

2. Form: Use the appropriate reflexive pronoun (me, te, se, nos, os, or se) fcllowed by the verb in conjugated form:

Me afeito ceca dia. (I shave every day.)

• i.Ta d'espierta5 a las seis? (Do you wake up at six?)

• Nos divertlmos mucho. (We had a really good time.)

3. Imperatives: In affirmative commands, attach the pronoun to the end of the verb and add an accent mark

Some common' reflexive verbs:

banarse (to balhe)

callarse (to be quiel) cansarse 110 gellired) casarse (to gel married) despertarse 110 woke up) divertirse (to have a good lime) enojorse (to gel angry) equlvocarse (to be wrong) irse 110 go away)

lavarse Ito wosh)



to move Iphvslcally)



!re~e_n_t ""'_-II-"Conditional

pienso pensomos pensario

piensas pensois pensarias

piensa .,;p .. iens_a_n_--.=== .. ~pensariO

Tmp~e~ct _ Present subjunctive

pensaba pensobornos piense pensemos

pensabas pensabais pienses penseis

pensaba pensaban piense piensen

j,eterite Impe!fe:-ct::;_:":s"'_~:;:I>_"'iu"'n:-:c7..ti"'ve""';------=----C

pensaro pensaros pensaro

muevo movemos moveria moveriamos

mueves movers i mover!as moveriais

mueve mueven : rnoveno moverian

r:11-m-p-e-rf i: 'e;c7t,:_-_-~_-_-~_~_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_--+f,p_or-::es=:e"'n"t_:sc::u=ii"ju::n::c:::ti-'-ve=- ~ ~"___"

movie moviamos i muevo movamos

movies movfois i muevos mov6is

movie movian i mueva muevan

preterite - -------=-==(i!"_pertect subiunctiv_::e:__ ~~~J ..

rnovi movimos i mo:viera rnovierornos pense

moviste movisteis movieros movierais pensaste

-~~~~.:=~:=-_ mOviero_"_ -tI-"'-:;;;iic:,ve=-- m_ov_ie_r_o_n 1-' ~:~~-:-e~----

I - movomos pensore pensaremos pensemos

mueve / no rnuevos moved / no mov6is pensar6s pensoreis plenso / no pienses pensad / no penseis

rnuevo muevan pensar6 pensorcn piense piensen

~~~~~~~~====~==~ pI'fIQnt participle: pIKIlendo

pastparliclple: podido

movere mover6s movere

moveremos rnovereis mover6n


to offer

.,...nt pclrtldpl.: olredendo past parHclplll: alreddo

ISjnI!Ula"'r ---'-Pl::tI"-'ra::I +sl~a,o:r=------'-Pl_:_:u::..:ra=t----____!

Present .. __ ._ ~itional ~~

ofrezco ofrecemos ofrecerio

ofreces ofreceis ofrece'rfas

ofrece ofracen ofrecerlo

.!!!>_pertect P'esents;,-bj,-=u_::n=cI:_:lv"'e=--- _

of redo of red amos ofrezca

ofrecfos ofreciais ofrezcas

ofrecio ofrecton ofrezca

Preterite Imperfect subjun.._ct~jv~e:_~ ...

ofreci ofrecimos ofreciera

ofrecisfe ofrecisfeis ofrecieras

ofreci6 ofrecieron ofreciera

~ture Im---erative-

ofrecere otrscercs otrcccro

ofreceriamos ofreceriais ofrecerian

ofrezcomos olrezccis ofrezcon

ofreciercrnos ofrecierois ofrecieron

ofreceremos ofrecereis ofreccron

ofrece I no ofrezcos ofrezco


ofreced I no otrezcois ofrezcan


to hear

prHIIrd pclrtlclpl.: ovando PQIf pwtIdplll: oldo


SIngulo, Plural Si ular

Present Conditional

oigo oimos oirlo oiriamos

ayes ois oirios olriois

aye oyen oirio oirion

~pertec~t==========::::::==::::::~~lp~re~~s~e~n~t=:su~b2-j-::u~'o=:·~e~ _

aiga aigas oiga

-Pr-ete-rite-- -------tc1m=pertect subjunctive

01 oimas avera

oiste aisteis overos

oyo oyeron avera

jFiJture--n ---_:_-------j Im-pe.atiV"---

eire oiros ouo


oiornos clois olon

oigamos oigois oigan



oyerornos oyerais oyeron

oiremos olreis oiron

oye I no oigos oigo


oid I no oigois oigon



Pf8Hnt partldple: oIIendo PQIf pgrtldplll: Olldo

~ul~:~,-- __ ---:Pc:I::::ural=-----t:S~I~ula' Plural

~~ent Candriion~o·I------~~~--------~

huelo olemos olerio olericrnos

hueles oleis [olerlos oleriois

I~irl,,-e:::c:_:_t hu_e_'e_n I;~.;~~ntsuiiiu,;ctive- _o_l_er_io_n _

~::~s ~:~~,~os I ~~::~s ~:~~os

:~:terlte_ . __ ~~i~~~ 1~~:rfect~~unc~'1e__::la:__ ~_

oll olirnos i aliera olierornos

oBste olisteis i olieras olierois

olio olieron ! oliera olieron

~:;i: -- ~:~;~~os -9-~,:r~~::u~~as----;;-CO,6iS- '=

olero oleron lhuelo huelan


to a.klar

Sin ula, Plural

.!'Jasenl_ n. _

pido pedimos pediria pediriomos

pides pedis pedirios pediriais

pide plden pedirio === __ pediri~_n _

TnlferleCt"'"-~--~------~·· - presenfSubluncflye._ ~ __ _j

pedio pediomos pida pidomos

pedias pediois pidas pid6is

pedia pedion pida pidon

Preterl"'te------ ------+lmpe-=rf"ec::c'C't-=-su"b"'j"'u=n"'ct"'iv"'eC' --------

pedl pedimos pidiero pidierornos

pediste pedlsteis pidieras pidierois

pidio pidlerofl pidiero pidier_a_n _

;~;:~;s-----~---'--~-~~-:~~~'-~----I:~::e~~~:~:~s-=~~~~~~~o pid6is

pedtro pedir6n pido p_id_a_n _

pensamos pensosfeis pensoron

pensariamos pensariais pensotlon

____ ::::::::oJ

pensorcrnos pensarois pensmon


10 be able to

Sin ulor Plul'Ol Sin uta,

Present Conditional

puedo podemos podrio podriomos

puedes podels podrias podriois

puede pueden podrio pod dan

Tmpeffe-c-;-t-~---------- Present sublun"'c"'ti_::v"e'- ,

podia podiomos puedo

podios podiais puedos

podia podion puedo

prete'-rl"-te'____~ +I"'m~erlect_s_uI>lunctive'____ '

pude pudimos pudiero

pudiste pudisteis pudleros

pudo pudieron pudiero

________ r:-I"m.perative

ponia ponias pania

poniomos ponidis ponion

pusimos pusisteis pusieran


podomos podois puedon

pudierornos pudierais pudieran


poded I no pod6is puedan

pondriomos pondriois pandrion

pong amos ponqots pongon

pusierornos pusierois pusieron

pondremos pondreis pond ron

pon I no pongos pongo


po ned I no ponqois pongon

present pattielpIe: prefirkmdo post PQrtIdpIe: prelerJdo


Sin uta,

prefiero preferimos preferirio

prefieres preferis preferirios

prefiere _~~~,.;.p_refiere_n_____ preferiric

Impeasci .. Presenti"f~.--'-n-:_:c_::ti_:_iie=--_~_~ __ ~ _ _;

prelerlo preferiomos ! prefiero

preferios preferiois i prefieros

preferfo preferion ! prefiero

Prete.lte----- limperlecfsub!unctlve

preferi preferimos I prefiriera prefirierornos

preferiste preferisteis prefirieros prefirierais

prefiri6 prefirieron prefiriera prefirieran

_Fu_tu_r .. ------ ,~--- impercitlvec_·· ~~


prelerire preteriros preferir6

prefiere I no prefieras prefiera

preferiremos preferireis preferirnn


to want, to wish

~ partklplll: queriendo past pgrtfclpie: querldo


prefeririamos prefeririais preferirion

prefiramas preflrols prefieran


preferid I no prefircis prefieron


P~,enl _

quiero queremos querrio

quieres quereis querrios

quiere quieren querrio

l,,!pertect ~ ------+p"'r·esentsubjunctive

querio queriomos quiero queramos

querios queriois quieros querois

queria querion quiera quieron

- Preterite -_-_~--_-=--:.-_- _- _-~~=-+Iinpertect subjunctive ----,


Srn ular


Sin uta. Pltll"tII



quiso Futur-e----

qulsirnos quisisteis quisieron

querre querremos

querros querrels quiere I no quieros

_q_:_u_e_tr_6 ~q_ue_r_r6_n . Lq_:_u_ie_ffi

querriomos querriois querrion

quislerurnos quisierois quisieron


quered I no quer6is

quleron _










'0 re<llize (a goal er taskl, 10 fulfill

pruent participle: MOlllOI1do po$I parflcipla: reonzQdo

Singular Plural Sin ular


l!'resenl -tConditional ~_

realizo realizamos reolizorlo

realizes realiz6is realizarias

reolizo realizan realizaria

reolfzortomos reolizoriois realizarian

Imperfed Present subju=-n"-c::_:t_::iv"e'--- --'

reallzaba realiz6bamos realice

realizabas realizabais realices

realizaba realizaban realice

~r~e ' Impe_rf~~u-lljlJnetive __ ~ ~_ ....

reolice reolizamos reallzara realiz6ramos

realizaste reolizostels realizaras recllzorots

realiz6 reolizaron realizara realizaran

J'.,:,ture ImperatO-iye~~~-~-~~.....,

reclizore realizar6s realizar6

realicemos reoliceis realicen

realizaremos reolizoreis realizar6n


realizad / no reolfcets realicen

realize / no realices realice


10 gathe •• to pick up

pN58nI partldpla: recoglendo po$I partlclpl,,: re<:ogldo

5111 ulor Plurul Singular


presen~t~ _fC~ondm~o~n~O~I~------------ .. ~----~

reco]o recogemos recogeria

recoges recoqeis recogerias

recoqa recogen recogeria

Imperfect Present sublu."n"'ct::iv::e:_ __:

recogia recogiomos reco]o recojamos

recogias recogiais recojcs recoj6is

recogia=c- r_ec_o,;:g:"io~n~----+.-'e-c-0-'cio ===_'_e_co_:_io_n ----;

- Preterile Imperfect subiunctiye

recogi recogimos recogiera recoqferornos

recogiste recogisteis recoqrercs recogierais

recogi6 recogieron recogiera recogieran

Future Imperatiy=e------...--=------- ...

recogerfamos recogeriais recogerfon

recogere recoger6s recogero

recoge I no rscojos recojo


recoged / no recoj6is recojan

recogeremos recoqereis rscoqeron


to laugh

presi8lll p<lrtlc;lpl", ,Iendo palt portlclpla; felda

51 1,11".


Sin ular



, Conditional

reimos reirlo

reis reirics

rie rien reirio

~!'erf:;;e::-c"t,----------------lpresent sub·unctic::ye~------ ..... -..,



reiriamos reiriais reirian



reiamos reiais reion

riamos ria is rian


reia Pre-ct-e""'ri~te-------






Imperfect subjunctlye

reimos refsteis rieron

nero rieras riera

rierornos rierais neron


rein? reiros reiro

reiremos reireis relron

fie / no rias rfa


reid / no rto!s non


to break

ftlmpar Is a regLllqr ..., verb oslde from lis Irrqula. post participle: rOio


10 know

Pf8t8nt pcrrtlclpla; sabiendo p<l1t partlclpl", sabldo

Sin ular Plural SIn ular

Present Conditional


se sabemos sabrfa

sabes sobers sabrias

so be saben sabria

-Imperfect Preserl,SUbjUOciiye

sabia sabfamos sepa sepamos

soblos sabfais sepas sepots

sabia sabian sepa sepan


supe supimos supiera

supiste suplsteis supieras

supo supieron supiera

I Future l:percitlVe

sabriamos sabriais sabrian

supiercrnos supierais supieran

sabre sabremos

sabras sobreis sabe / no sepas

sabra sobron sepa


sabed / no sepcis sepan


1. Notice the similarities between the following tenses:

a, Future and conditional: Both are formed by adding verb endings to the infinitive form. Only a few verbs are irregular.

b. Preterite and imperfect SUbjunctive:

The imperfect subjunctive is based on the third person plural (elias) form of the preterite.

c. Present and present subjunctive:

The present subjunctive is based on the yo form of the present indicative.

2. Verbs that end in -car, -gar, and -zar have the following spelling changes in the yo form of the preterite and in all forms of the present subjunctive:

• -c~r changes c -0> qu (see tccan

• -gar changes g -0> gu, (see Jugal)

• -zar changes 7. -0> c (see reaszar)

3. Compound verbs are conjugated like the root verb:

cornooner (see oonen snvolver (see volver)

• cbtensr (see tener) etc.

p_ fI"Irtlciple: soJle)1do JICIIt pc..-licipie; solldQ


10 leo"",,


,Singular !;.~resent


salgo salimos saldrfa saldriamos

sales salis saldrias saldriais

sale solen saldria saldrian

..!!!'-1l,,_rfect'--- ~_i~es"nt~bJ-u.;ctiye--~-~-----,

sana soliornos j salga salgamos

solios saliais salgas solqois

solio saHan i salga sclqon

~eteri·t~e---------Ilmperf.-ec-:-t-su,.,.bju-nct..,.,iy-e'_"';---~' .... ,

soli solimos saliera

saliste salisteis salieras

solio salieron saliera

FutUre -im-p-e-ra""'t'iy-:e--------------:

soliercrnos salierais salieran

sal/no salgas solgo


solid / no solqois saigon

soldre sotdrus soldro

saldremos scldreis saldr6n


to follow

pretent partldphl, slgvlen<lo p<lrf p<lrtldpla: aeguido

Plural Sin ular Plural


Sin ufor


sigo seguimos seguria

sigues seguis seguirfas

sigue siguen seguiria

seguiriomos seguiriais seguirian

Imperfect Present subjunctive

seguia segufamos , siga

seguias seguiais i sigas

seguia seguian siga

"p_:_r"'et"e~rt~·te"--- +'::~.rfect subju::_n"'c"'tl"'ye=- -_"

seguf seguimos siguiera siquierornos

seguiste seguisfeis siguieras siguierais

siguio siguieron siguiera siguieran

F~u~tu-:r-:e-_-_-_-_-~-_-_-_-_-_-_~-_~_-_-_-~~_~_~~-~~_-_-_-_-_-_-~~Im~e~r"a::-ti~y=e--------~~--~~--~--~ sequire sequiros sequiro

sigamos siqcis sigan

seguiremos sequireis sequiron

sigue / no sigas siga


sequld / no sigois sigan


10 feel. to "'9ret 110 teellwell. unwcllll

p_ participle: slnfiendo past partiejple: senfidQ

Sin ular PluMI SIn uklr



Present Condlt"io::_n"'a::_I = _ ___'

sienlo senlimos I senti ria senfiriamos

sienles sen tis j sentirias sentirfais

sienle sienlen ! senliria senlirian

""'Im=p"'e-=rf"e"'c""t ---------------tPresentSuiijUnctive------------.

sentla sentfamos !I sienta

ssntlos senliais sientcs

senHa sentian sienta

Preterite ~-----------. Impe-crf~e-ct~s-u""'b-,j-un-ct~iy-"--------~

senti sentimos sintiera

sentiste sentisteis smtieros

sintio sintieron smtiero

"FU"lccu-=-rec---------------·+imperati-:y .. -------------1·

sentire senfir6s santiro

sintomos sint6is sienton

sintierornos sintierais sintieran

senliremos sennreis sentiron


sentid / no sint6is sientan

siente / no sientas sienta


lob ..

present participle: sien"" p<l1t p<lrflclpla: sido

_S ;'nglliar Plllral Sin ular


soy eres


sericrnos seriois serton

J ~:~;~s

I seria -im-perlect-------------i' Present subjunctive




somos so is son

erornos erais

e'_o-,----,,- e_ro_n : sea

Preterite -'m erleCt"sUbTu"Ciive


fui fuiste fue


seamos seois sean



fuimos fuisteis fueron

fuera fueras fuera

Imperaiiv,,-- -

fuerornos fuerai.s fueran


sed / no se6is sean


sere seros sera

seremos sereis seron

s.e / no seas sea


10 hove

p_ p<lrtldpla: Ienlendo pent parf(ciple: lenidD

5/11 ulor Plural Sin Ii/or Plural


lengo tenemos tendria

lienes tenets tendrias

liene tienen tendria

Im-p-e-rf·e-ct~_~-----------------------+I-~pr"e~s=e::nt~·s~·U~b~~~n~c~t~iy~e~ ,

tenlo teniamos i tenga

tenias leniais ji tengas

tenia Ie~n-io-n_----~~ tenga

'Preterite Tm--';rteCt subjunclive-::- -'

luve luvimos tuviera

luvisfe luvisleis luvieras

luvo luvieron luviera

Futur-e---------~~-----f-;,mperatlYe - ----------.....,_

tenore lendr6s tenere

lendrfamos lendriais lendrian

tengamos tengais tengan

tuvierornos tuvierais tuvieran

lendremos tendreis lend ran

len / no tengas lenga


Ie ned / no tenqols lengan


to touch. to plav Ion inS,,"umentl

Sin ular


taco lacomos
I tocos tocois
toca locon
locaba toc6bamos
loeabas tocabais
locaba tocaban
toque focomos
tocaste tocasteis
toc6 toea ron
tocore tocaremos
tocoros toccreis
tocor6 tocor6n present participle: 1ocondo pad partlcJl>la: IOtodo

Sin 1)10,



loco rio mas locarlais toccrion

tocorio toccrios tocaria ---------.". .... -·+"resent sub·~j-u-nc-ctCCiv-e--------~ ..

toquemos tcqueis toquen

loque loques loque

'---- ==="-'''''"''-=_--+'''m'''!'''rfect subj::un::c:::t.::ivc:e'---- ~=""

tacara toearas facara

tocorornos tocarais loco ron



locad / no toqueis toquen


to b,ing

loca / no toques toque

poeAInt purtlcJple, lroyendo past participle: fT"id"

I Singular _. __ .. Plural ~-I.;S:.:;lnllg;ul;:;a"-r=-------:p'-"=ur'-'a"-I-------'I

Present --"_-'-_~ --j Conditional

Iraigo trcernos traeria

troes troeis traerias

trae traen !raeria

Iraeriamos lraeriais lraerion

_'mperfect Present _s~b·II~u~n~ct~iv~e:._ """=__'_ __

trcio trolornos trciqo troigamos

troles trolcis !raigas traig6is

trcio troian +.-'r::a::ig':ca======-'r-a_:igo-n----:-"""=-.

Treierl!&--~'- _.- - - Imperfect subjunctive. _

tro]e Irajimos trojero trojerornos

trojiste lrojisteis trcjeros Irajerais

'raja trojeron trcjero Irajeran

'FUture-------'----------t-1 :--lni·l'_e!-"tive--~===_::-··------

trcere troeros troero

Iraeremos trcereis traer6n

tree / no !raigas Iraiga


troed / no trolqcls troiqon


to come

present participle: vlnlendo past partlcJple, venldo


Each of Ihe following verbs is coniugated III 0 manner similor 10 one of Ihe verbs <:anjugoled in Ihe tables above. aborrecer 110 hale, 10 abhorl see .,IMcer absolver 110 absolve, 10 acquill see velver abstraer 110 obstroctl see traer

acoger Ito greell s.e" reeoger

actualizar (to bring up 10 dalel see re(lliz.ar adherir 110 adhere, 10 slick 101 seepreferlr advertir {lo advisel see dl,vertir

agradecer {lo Ihankl see efrecer

almorzar 110 eallunchl see mostrar amanecer {lo gellighl out) see ofreeer

I analizar 110 analyzel see "",Hzar anochecer {lo gel dark outl see ofrecer aparecer (to appear) see otrec.e.r apllcar 110 applyl see toear

aterrizar (to land) see rG'oHzar

atraer 110 allracl, 10 coptivotel see truer autorizar (to authorize I :see rl;taTi:.lor

bendecir 110 bless) see deelr

blanquecer 110 bleach, 10 whilen) S~e cfrecer buscar 110 seek, 10 look fori S~ toccr

caracterizar (to characterize) see reaHzar carecer 110 lock] see otrecer

chocar 110 crash, 10 collide] see taco, colocar 110 placel see teccr competir 110 compelel see padl.

componer 110 compose, 10 arrangel Sell poner comunlcar (to cornrnunlcotel see toea! conclulr (to conclude] see ccnsmnr

conferlr 110 confer, 10 compare I see preferlr conmover 110 move lemolionallyJl see mover consegulr {lo gel, to oblainl see segulr conseritir (10 consent) see sent)r

constitulr 110 conslilule) see con.trulr

edificar (10 conslrucll see toca,

encoger 110 shrinkl see recoger

encontrar (to meet, 10 find) s-ee mO!itrnr enfatizar (10 emphasizel seereellzer enloquecer (to drive crazy) see offecer enriquecer 110 grow richl see ofrecer entremorir 110 flicker, 10 die awayl see merlr envejecer 110 age, 10 grow aldl see ofreeer envolver (to cover, to wrap) see'volver entretener (to entertain) see tener equlvocarse 110 be wrangl see ro""r escoger (fo choose, to pick out) see re'l;:ogar especializar (to specialize! see reali:ar especlficar (10 specify, 10 namel see toear establecer 110 eslablishl see olree,,,

veis ven

velamos veicls veion

vimos vistels vieron

veriomos veriois verion

veamos veois yean

vieramos vierais vieran

vieras viera

ve / no yeas vea


ved / no veols Yean

veremos verels veron


10 dress '10 gel dressed'


Pl8Mnt partkl .... ' IIlstlendo part~,~ldo

51 ular


.~ ~C~~~o-n-a-I-- ------------------.

visto veslimos vesliria vestiriamos
vistes vestis vestirlas vestirlais
viste visten vesfirfa veslirian
_I",J,_e_rfect Present subjunctive
vestia vestlcmos vista vistamos
vestios vestiois vistas vlstois
vestlo vestion vista vistan
Preterite I_ml'_erfect subjunctive -~
vesti vestimos vistiera vistierornos
vestiste vestisteis vistieros vistierais
vistio vistieron vistiera vistieran
Future !T!!~er(J!i.v_e__ ____________ . ______
vestire vesliremos vistamos
vestiros vesnreis viste / no vistas vestid / no vlstcis
vestiro vestiron vista vistan ISingu!,,' Plu,al SIn ular Plural
P,e.ent <;andltional
vengo venimos vendrfa vendrfamos volvemos
vienes ven1s vendrias vend riots volveis
viene vienen vendria vendrian vuelven
Impertect , Present-·sub 'unctiv$
venia venfamos venga vengamas volviamos
venias veniols vengas veng6is volviais
vente venian venga vengan volvian
Preterite Imperfect subjunctive
vine vinimos viniera vinierornos volvimos
viniste vinisteis vinieras vinierais volvisteis
vino vinieron viniera vinieran volvieron
Future Imperative
vendre vendremos vengamos volvcre volveremos
vsndros vendreis yen / no vengas venid / no venqois volveros volvereis
vendro vend ran venga vengan volvero volvercn volveriornos valve ria is volverian

volvamos volvois vuelvan

volvierornos volvierais volvieran

vuelve / no vuelvas vuelva


volved / no volvo is vuelvan

I estremecerse (to shudder) see ,o1recer explicar 110 explainl see tocar

exponer (to expose, to exhibit) see pener extraer 110 extroct) see rroer

finallzar (to fincltzel sea re,,'i~ar florecer 110 flower, 10 Ihrivel see ofrecer freir 110 fry I see rei,

maldecir 110 curse I see dad, mantener (to maintain) see te;n.ot medlr 110 measure, 10 weighl see pedlr mentlr {lo lle) see senrtr

merecar (to deserve, 10 merit) S£l-9: ofre.cer

obedecer Ito obeyl see ofrecer

obtener 110 obtoinl see tenet

oponer Ito oppose) see pone,

organizar (to arganizel see ,eall.a,

parecer 110 seem, 10 appearl see ofrecer perder 110 lose) see enlender

perecer {lo perishl see afrecer perludlcar (10 damageJ seato""r

permanecer (to remain, to endure) see ofrecer perseguir 110 pursue, 10 perseculel see .eguir

I contor (to count, 10 tell I see mostrcr contener {lo conlain, 10 hold] see tener contraer (to contract, to limit) see traer contribuir (to contribute) see ccnstrulr convenir (to agree) -S€',e ventr

convertir 110 convert) see dIvert" costar (to cost) see mestmr

crecer (to grow) see ofrecer

criticar (to criticize) see teccr garantizar (10 guarantee) see reaH:zc:nr

desaparecer 110 disappearl s~e ofrecer I herlr 110 wound, 10 hurl) see preferl'

desconocer (not to know, 10 disovowl see ,COO"""' I hulr 110 fleel see censtrulr

desereer 110 disbelievel see CI~e~_ ' Impedlr (10 impede 10 hinderl see pedlr

deseriblr (10 describe) see aocnblr . Imponer 110 impose) see pener

desenvolver 110 unfold, 10 decipher) see volver Incluir 110 includel see con.truir

deshacer (10 undo,. 10 lake aparll lee hace, Indlcar 110 indicale to hintl see teca,

desobedecer 110 disobeyl sa~ ofrecer ..' . .'

despedirse /10 leave, 10 say goodbye) see pedl. Infe~lr (10 Infer, 10 intlict) see prelerlr

destruir (to desfroy) see c:onstrulf ~nffUir (to Influ_enceJ see ccnstr~lr . _,

d sf II d I - tl intervenlr 110 intervene, 10 rnedictel see verur

esve tr 0 un .ress seta-ves r introducir (to introduce) see- condudr

detener (to detoinl see en~r invertir (to invert to invest) See divertir

devolver 110 return [sornerhinqll see valver '

disolver 110 dissolve] see volver leer Ito readl Se~ creee

disponer (10 disposel sea perter lIover 110 rom) see mOVer

distraer 110 dislracll .M rrcsr locallzar 110 localize, 10 locote) s~e ,rea'iI-.g,

doler 110 pain, 10 achel <~e 'mover

pertenecer {to belong, to pertain) see ofraeer pervertir {lo pervert) .eo divertlr

poseer (to own, to possess) see creer practicer (to practice) see toccr

predecir 110 predictl see daclr

prevenir 110 prevent. 10 anlicipalel see venl, producir 110 producel see cornducir proponer 110 propose, 10 suggesll see poner provocar 110 provoke) see loea.

publlcar (10 publish I lee Ioea,

reconocer 110 recognize, 10 acknowledgel seeconocer reconstruir Ito rebuild, 10 reconstrucll see construlr recordar (to remember, to rernindl see mestrcr reduclr 110 reduce] see con dud,

referlr Ito refer, 10 relotel see preferlr

repellr (10 repeall see pedlr

reponer 110 replace, 10 pul back) see poner reproduclr (10 reproducel see conducir resolver 110 resolve I see volver

retraer (10 bring bock) see traer

revoear 110 revoke, 10 repeall see tecor revolver (to stir, to turn) see volvar

secor (to take out) see rocer

seduclr {to seduce, 10 tempt) see ClllldllJ(;ir simpatizar (to sympathize) sea r'&c'Jlizar sobreponer (to superimpose) see porter sobresalir (ro excel, 10 stone outl sea salir soler Ito be in Ihe habil all see mover sonreir 110 smilel see relr

sostener 110 sustcin, 10 support) s~~ tener suplicar 110 begl see tocor

suponer 110 suppose, 10 assumel see poner suscrlblr 110 subscribel see e.criblr

sustltulr 110 substitutel s,"" <.onslroi, sustraer Ito lake away, 10 sleall see ,,"ae,

traducir 110 Iranslale) see con duel,

utllizar 110 ulilize, 10 use) see <ealiz<rr

volar {lo flyl see most,ar