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BULLETIN DE DROIT ET TECHNOLOGIE

LAW & TECHNOLOGY NEWSLETTER


01/08 // v5.1

PROFITING FROM
PEER PRODUCTION

23 27
contents

The Open Access Law Program /


4 16 18
Le programme Libre accès . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 BULLETIN DE DROIT ET TECHNOLOGIE
Creative Commons Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
LAW & TECHNOLOGY NEWSLETTER
Law Students Go Jump Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 01/08 // v5.1
The EDGE Network on the Emerging Dynamic Global Economies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Littering the Information Superhighway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
uOttawa Faculty of Law
CIPPIC – The Year in Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 75 Louis Pasteur Street
The University of Ottawa Law & Technology Journal (UOLTJ) / Ottawa, ON, CANADA K1N 6N5
Revue de Droit et technologie de l’Université d’Ottawa (RDTUO) ..................9 Printed in Canada
Profiting from peer production / Profiter de la production par les pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
On the Identity Trail heads towards home stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Concentration in Law & Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
The Laws of Robotics, with Professor Ian Kerr /
Les lois de la robotique, avec le professeur Ian Kerr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Digital Music with Professor Jeremy de Beer /
Musique numérique, avec le professeur Jeremy de Beer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC) /
Clinique d’intérêt public et de politique d’Internet du Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Technology Law Internship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
The Option in Law and Technology/
L’option en Droit et technologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Conférence commémorative Deirdre G. Martin en matière de droit relatif
au respect de la vie privée / Deirdre G. Martin Memorial Lecture in Privacy Law . . . . . . . 22
The Law & Technology Student Society (LTSS) /
l’Association des étudiants/étudiantes en droit et technologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The Epidemic of Lost and Stolen Data /
L’épidémie de pertes et de vols de données . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
The Privacy Network (TPN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Technology Law Speaker Series /
Série de conférences en droit des technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Le déterminisme génétique? /
Genetic Determinism and Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Faculty news . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

uOttawa Law & Technology Program


uOttawa Programme de Droit et Technologie

www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca/tech
WELCOME
BIENVENUE
Our law school yet again received more
applications than any other in Canada, and
many applicants tell us that they chose, and
Cette année encore, notre faculté de droit a reçu
plus de demandes d’admission que toutes les
autres au Canada, et bon nombre de candidats
often applied only to, the University of Ottawa déclarent avoir fait une demande à l’Université
because of our Law & Technology program. It d’Ottawa (certains disent, en fait, n’avoir fait
is true that the program has aucune autre demande ailleurs) en raison du
grown by leaps and bounds, programme de Droit et technologie. Il est vrai
and the accomplishments of the last few years que notre programme a connu une croissance
are extraordinary by any standard. The only spectaculaire et que nos réalisations des dernières
public interest, internet and technology law années sont extraordinaires à bien des égards.
clinic in Canada (CIPPIC), unique technology En effet, nous avons en outre mis sur pied la
law internships, and a world-class Faculty seule clinique d’intérêt public et de politique
that is truly second to none. d’Internet du Canada (CIPPIC), organisé des stages
exclusifs en droit des technologies et réuni un
corps professoral de renommée mondiale.

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 1


In the following pages, you will read about some of the events Les pages qui suivent traitent de certaines activités organisées par
organized by the program, including the speakers who have visited l’équipe du Programme. Il y est notamment question de notre série
our law school, in particular as part of our Torys Technology Law de conférences Torys sur le droit des technologies, toujours très
Speaker Series, which is always very well attended. We were courue. Nous avons, jusqu’ici, eu l’honneur d’y recevoir la juge en
honoured by the visit of the Chief Justice of Canada, the Rt Hon. chef du Canada, la très honorable Beverly McLachlin, ainsi que deux
Beverly McLachlin and two of the colleagues, Justices Fish and de ses collègues, MM. les juges Fish et Rothstein. M. le juge
Rothstein. Justice Rothstein delivered a keynote address at a major Rothstein a d’ailleurs prononcé une allocution privilégiée lors d’un
international conference on privacy and the Internet, Revealed_I, important congrès international sur la confidentialité et l’Internet,
which marked the end of Professor Ian Kerr’s (Canada Research « Revealed_I », qui marquait la conclusion d’un projet quinquennal
Chair in Ethics, Law & Technology) 5-year project, On The Identity du professeur Ian Kerr (Chaire de recherche du Canada en éthique,
Trail. Our technology law Faculty, the largest in the country, has en droit et en technologie), intitulé « On The Identity Trail ». Les
continued to blog actively and to contribute in myriad ways to professeurs de Droit et technologie ont continué d’alimenter leurs
policy debates, from privacy protection (or absence thereof) to blogues et ont contribué de diverses façons à des débats d’orienta-
consumer protection in online transactions. Professor Michael Geist tion de politique sur divers sujets, allant de la protection de la vie
(Canada Research Chair in Internet and E-commerce Law) has privée (ou de l’absence d’une telle protection) à la protection de la
continued to play a key part on several fronts, including identity confidentialité des transactions effectuées en ligne par les consom-
theft and copyright reform. We were also very happy that Professor mateurs. Le professeur Michael Geist (Chaire de recherche du
Teresa Scassa joined our Faculty to teach intellectual property and Canada en droit d’Internet et du commerce électronique) a continué
technology law courses in both English and French and to pursue a de jouer un rôle fondamental à plusieurs égards, notamment dans
very active research agenda. les domaine du vol d’identité et de la réforme du droit d’auteur.
The Common Law Section also celebrates two major anniver- Nous somme également très heureux de l’arrivée, au sein de notre
saries this year: 50 years for the Common Law Section corps professoral, de la professeure Teresa Scassa, qui enseigne, en
and 30 years of common law en français. Our technology anglais et en français, dans les domaines de la propriété intellectuelle
law program is an essential component of our success, a et du droit des technologies, en plus de s’investir dans d’imposants
program that is both bilingual and bijural. A perfectly projets de recherche.
natural outcome for Canada’s law school. La Section « Common Law » célèbre également cette année deux
Finally, we have just selected the architects who will anniversaires d’importance, soit les 50 ans d’existence de notre
work with us to build a much-needed extension to Fauteux Hall Section de common law et les 30 ans d’enseignement de la common
and complete renovation of the Brian Dickson Library. The new law en français. Notre programme de Droit et technologie, de par sa
building will reflect our core values: sustainable development, high nature bilingue et bijuridique, constitue une composante essentielle
faculty-student interaction and interactive learning, and the very de notre succès. Il s’agit là d’un aboutissement tout à fait naturel
latest technology to help our students learn, work together and pour la « Faculté de droit du Canada ».
study. More on this shortly. // Enfin, nous venons d’arrêter le choix des architectes qui
travailleront avec nous à la construction d’une très nécessaire
Acting Dean Daniel Gervais annexe au pavillon Fauteux, de même qu’à l’achèvement de la réno-
vation de la bibliothèque Brian Dickson. La nouvelle annexe
reflétera nos valeurs fondamentales : développement durable, interac-
tion soutenue entre étudiants et membres du corps professoral et
Professor Gervais is a member of the Law & Technology group and the apprentissage interactif, et technologie de pointe pour aider nos
Acting Dean of the Common Law Section of the Facutly of Law. His étudiants à apprendre, à travailler ensemble et à étudier. D’autres
latest book, Intellectual Property, Trade & Development, was published nouvelles à ce sujet suivront prochainement. //
in 2007 by Oxford University Press.
Daniel Gervais, doyen par intérim

Le Professeur Daniel Gervais est un membre du Groupe de Droit


& Technologie et le Doyen par Intérim de la Faculté de Droit. Son
dernier livre, “Intellectual Property, Trade & Development” a été publié
en 2007 par l’éditeur “Oxford University Press”.

2 TECHLAW //
TECHLAW:
THE LAW & TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE
TECHLAW:
BULLETIN DE DROIT ET TECHNOLOGIE
VOLUME 5, ISSUE 1 VOLUME 5, NUMÉRO 1

uOttawa Faculty of Law Faculté de droit, Université d’Ottawa


75 Louis Pasteur Street 57, rue Louis-Pasteur
Ottawa, ON, CANADA K1N 6N5 Ottawa ON K1N 6N5 CANADA

Editor: Andy Kaplan-Myrth Rédaction : Andy Kaplan-Myrth


Publisher: University of Ottawa,Law & Technology Program Publication : Université d’Ottawa, Programme de droit et technologie

The University of Ottawa Technology Law Newsletter is published seasonally Le Bulletin de droit et technologie de l’Université d’Ottawa est publié de façon
by the University of Ottawa’s Faculty of Law. The opinions expressed in this saisonnière par la Faculté de droit de l’Université d’Ottawa. Les opinions
newsletter are solely those of the contributors and are not necessarily those of exprimées dans ce bulletin reflètent la pensée des auteurs seulement et pas
the editor, sponsors, the University of Ottawa or its employees. nécessairement celle de la rédaction, des commanditaires, de l’Université
d’Ottawa ou de son personnel.
Some Rights Reserved. This newsletter is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial Licence. To view a copy of Certains droits réservés. Ce bulletin fait l’objet d’une licence Creative
this licence, visit: creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ca Commons de style attribution – pas de travaux dérivés – utilisation non
commerciale. La licence est publiée à l’adresse creativecommons.org/licenses/
Comments: Readers are invited to submit their comments and suggestions by-nc-nd/2.5/ca.
to the Editor.
Commentaires : La rédaction serait heureuse de recevoir les commentaires et
This newsletter is available free-of-charge online at http://www.commonlaw. suggestions des lecteurs et lectrices.
uottawa.ca/tech. To unsubscribe to this newsletter, send an email to
techlaw@uottawa.ca. If you were forwarded the newsletter by a friend and Ce bulletin est offert gratuitement en ligne à l’adresse http://www.commonlaw.
would like to subscribe, send an email to the same address. uottawa.ca/tech. Si vous désirez vous désabonner de ce bulletin, veuillez envoyer
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Disclaimer: This newsletter is for informational purposes only. It is not l’intermédiaire d’un ami ou d’une amie et que vous aimeriez vous y abonner,
intended to be a complete statement of the law, nor is it intended to provide veuillez envoyer un message électronique à la même adresse.
legal advice. No person should act or rely upon the information in this
newsletter without seeking professional legal consultation. Avertissement : Ce bulletin cherche uniquement à vous renseigner et non à
vous fournir un exposé complet de l’état du droit ou un avis juridique. Nous
déconseillons à quiconque d’agir en se fiant sur les renseignements publiés
dans ce bulletin et sans obtenir une opinion juridique professionnelle.

LA FACULTÉ DE DROIT ET TECHNOLOGIE /


LAW & TECHNOLOGY FACULTY
Jane Bailey Mistrale Goudreau Canadian Internet
Jennifer Chandler Elizabeth Judge
Jeremy deBeer Ian Kerr
Policy and Public Interest
Karen Eltis Canada Research Chair in Ethics, Clinic (CIPPIC) / Clinique
Daniel Gervais Law & Technology / d’intérêt public et de
Chaire de recherche universitaire sur le droit Chaire de recherche du Canada
de la propriété intellectuelle; le professeur en éthique, droit et technologie
politique d’internet
Oslers en droit de la technologie; doyen Andy Kaplan-Myrth du Canada
intérimaire de la Section de common law / Manager / Gestionnaire
University Research Chair Marina Pavlovic David Fewer
in Intellectual Property; Teresa Scassa Staff Counsel / Avocat-conseil
Osler Professor of Law; Chaire de recherche du Canada Philippa Lawson
Acting Dean of Common Law en droit de l’information / Director / Directrice
Michael Geist Canada Research Chair in Information Law
Canada Research Chair in Internet Val Steeves
and E-commerce Law / Cross-appointment:
Chaire de recherche du Canada Department of Criminology
en droit d’Internet et du
commerce électronique

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 3


THE OPEN ACCESS LAW PROGRAM
The Open Access Law Program, launched in June 2005,
is a part of the Science Commons Scholar’s Copyright Project,
http://sciencecommons.org/ projects/publishing/index.html, which
is working to support open access to scholarly research in a wide
range of disciplines in science and social science, including law.
The Scholar’s Copyright Project aims to increase access to knowl-
edge by reducing the technological, economic, and legal barriers
that have traditionally restricted access to scholarship. The Open
Access Law Program, of which Open Access Law Canada is a part,
specifically promotes open access to legal scholarship.

Open access provides free public access through the websites for Open Access Law
to scholarly literature and promotes the Canada, http://www.openaccesslawcanada.ca
dissemination of this scholarship, which (in English), and Libre accès au droit Canada,
benefits the author, the law review, and the http://www.libreaccesaudroitcanada.ca (en
public. Some of the benefits of open access Français). The resources include a Canadian
for scholarly publication are to permit quick Model Publishing Agreement, which has
dissemination of scholarship, to increase been specifically tailored to Canadian law,
access to research for educational purposes, and is available as a template for law reviews
to increase awareness of research among the to adopt. //
public, to allow authors to receive com -
ments and feedback in a timely manner, and Open access for legal
to facilitate global scholarly conversations.
Open access for legal scholarship enhances scholarship enhances
the profile of the law review, with increased
citation and visibility, and raises awareness
of the institution hosting the law review.
the profile of the law
Law reviews that join the Open Access
Law Canada program promise to take the
review, with increased
least restrictive licence consistent with the
law reviews’ needs, to send the authors an
citation and visibility,
electronic copy of the final version of their
article, and to provide public access to the
and raises awareness of
law review’s standard publishing contract so
authors can consult the publication agree- the institution hosting
ment before submitting their articles. Law
reviews are not required to set up an online the law review.
archive of articles or publish online. They
just need to agree that the authors can post Professor Elizabeth Judge is project
electronic copies of their articles to scholarly leader for Open Access Law Canada,
websites so people can access the articles http://www.openaccesslawcanada.ca/, an
even if they don’t have a subscription to a initiative launched this year to assist
legal database. Canadian law reviews to move to an open
The Open Access Law Canada program access publication model, which permits
provides a number of resources to encourage authors to archive their law review articles in
open access archiving, which are available publicly accessible scholarly websites.

4 TECHLAW //
LE PROGRAMME
LIBRE ACCÈS
Lancé en juin 2005, dans le cadre du projet de droit d’auteur sur l’héritage scientifique commun,
http://sciencecommons.org/ projects/publishing/ index.html, le programme Libre accès au droit
Canada cherche à promouvoir le libre accès à la recherche érudite dans une grande diversité de
champs des sciences et des sciences sociales, y compris le droit. Le projet de droit d’auteur sur
la recherche érudite (Scholar’s Copyright Project) veut faciliter l’accès au savoir en éliminant les
obstacles technologiques, économiques et juridiques qui, traditionnellement, ont limité l’accès
aux travaux érudits. Le programme Libre accès au droit, dont fait partie le projet Libre accès au
droit Canada, préconise plus particulièrement le libre accès à la recherche savante en droit.

Le libre accès est l’accès public gratuit aux aux personnes qui ne sont pas abonnées à Professeure Elizabeth Judge est la directrice
travaux d’érudition. Il favorise la diffusion des bases de données juridiques. du projet Libre accès au droit Canada,
des recherches, ce qui est avantageux pour Le programme Libre accès au droit http://www.libreaccesaudroitcanada.ca, mis
l’auteur, les revues juridiques et le grand Canada fournit des ressources diverses sur en œuvre cette année pour aider les revues de
public. Certaines retombées positives sont la ses sites Web, en anglais à l’adresse droit canadiennes à faire le passage vers le
diffusion rapide de la recherche, un plus http://www. openaccesslawcanada.ca et en modèle de la publication en libre accès, lequel
vaste accès à la recherche à des fins éduca- français à l’adresse http://www. libreacce- permet à l’auteure ou auteur [auteur]
tives, une plus grande sensibilisation du saudroitcanada.ca pour encourager l’archivage d’archiver ses articles parus dans une revue
public à la recherche, l’obtention plus simul- en libre accès. Parmi ces ressources, il y a un juridique sur des sites Web accessibles au
tanée de commentaires et d’observations sur modèle canadien d’entente de publication, grand public.
la recherche et la facilitation des échanges conçu dans l’optique particulière du droit
entre universitaires dans le monde. Le libre canadien. Ce modèle est mis à la disposition
accès à la recherche érudite en droit des revues de droit qui aimeraient s’en
rehausse le profil des revues juridiques, qui inspirer et l’adopter. //
sont ainsi plus fréquemment citées et plus
visibles. Par ricochet, l’établissement qui en
assure la publication se fait mieux connaître. Le libre accès à la
Les revues de droit qui participent au
programme Libre accès au droit Canada recherche érudite en
s’engagent à utiliser une licence aussi peu
restrictive que possible en tenant compte
des besoins de la revue, à fournir aux
droit rehausse le profil
auteurs une copie électronique de la version
finale de leur article et à offrir un accès
des revues juridiques,
public au contrat type de publication de leur
revue afin que les auteurs puissent consulter
qui sont ainsi plus
l’entente de publication avant de soumettre
un article. Les revues de droit n’ont aucune
fréquemment citées
obligation de tenir des archives électro -
niques des articles ou de publier les articles et plus visibles.
en ligne. Il leur suffit de permettre aux
auteurs de publier leurs articles sur des sites
Web savants afin de les rendre accessibles

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 5


LAW
STUDENTS
GO JUMP
STREET
Members of Law & Technology Students
Association (LTSS) went back to high
One of the most important benefits of the internet is the ease with school this last spring. In partnership
which information can be shared among users, whether those users
are professional artists, audiences, or users who also generate
with the Ontario Public Legal Education
creative works. The internet is built for sharing, but creative works Initiative (OPLEI), the group visited Hillcrest
online are subject to the same copyright laws that restrict sharing
offline. This is where Creative Commons licences come in. High School to talk with grade 11 students
An organization based in San Francisco, Creative Commons
provides copyright licences that allow authors and artists to retain about Facebook and potential privacy
ownership and control of their creative works while allowing those risks posed by social networking sites. //
works to be used more freely than would otherwise be possible. By
licensing a work under a Creative Commons licence, authors and
artists can say “Some Rights Reserved” instead of “All Rights Reserved”,
restoring balance and moderation to the dynamic of copyright. The EDGE Network on the
While the original Creative Commons licences were drafted in the
US and reflect American law, they have been “ported” to 34 countries Emerging Dynamic Global
around the world, with 9 more currently in the drafting stage.
Creative Commons Canada, based here in the Law & Technology Economies
group, created the first international ports of the licences when we The EDGE Network on the Emerging Dynamic Global Economies is
released the Canadian licences in 2004. a Canadian-based, international partnership of people working on
Creative Commons Canada is working on the newest version of interdisciplinary issues relating to emerging economies. Professor
the CC licences, version 3.0, and has other projects in the works Jeremy de Beer leads the research theme on technology and intellec-
including a large initiative that will make public domain works in tual property. He and his collaborators, including uOttawa doctoral
Canada much easier to identify. Last year, Andy Kaplan-Myrth of the candidate Lihong Li, are working on an important project,
Law & Technology group worked with a student, Kathleen “Strategies to Implement the World Intellectual Property
Simmons, to produce the Podcasting Legal Guide for Canada, a Organization’s Development Agenda.” This work, funded by the
resource requested by the podcasting community to help them navi- International Develop ment Research Centre and the EDGE
gate Copyright law and internet broadcasting in Canada. Network, involves a team of experts from around the world who are
looking at ways to make a concrete contribution to the reform of
international intellectual property law and policy. We are rethinking
By licensing a work under a Creative old policies and questioning the effectiveness of existing rules.
Through this international collaborative project, Professor de Beer
Commons licence, authors and artists and his team are committed to understanding and influencing the
relationship between intellectual property and access to knowledge,
can say “Some Rights Reserved” and ensuring that the WIPO Development Agenda is as effective as
possible in practice. //
instead of “All Rights Reserved”
We are rethinking old policies and
Together with Marcus Bornfreund in Toronto and Tina Piper at McGill
University in Montreal, Andy takes every opportunity he is given to questioning the effectiveness of
tell people about CC licences and encourage people to use them. //
existing rules.

6 TECHLAW //
Littering the
INFORMATION
SUPERHIGHWAY
The study of technology law is inherently a forward-looking process.
Consumers are encouraged to consider present technology obsolete
as they too, look forward to future developments. Rarely are the
complete lifecycles taken into account when the devices of years past
are overshadowed byglittering technologies lurking just around the
corner. In the process, old equipment is routinely moved into closets,
under beds, to China or wherever it will stay out of sight.
This past spring, a group of law students started taking a closer
look at what happens to all this high tech trash. Ashley Deathe and
Jeremy Hessing-Lewis, two third year common law students, organ-
ized The Integrated Circuit: A Symposium on Electronic Waste in
Canada in search of some answers. The project was the first partner-
ship between the Law & Technology Students Association (LTSS)
and the Environmental Law Students Association (ELSA) and
brought together electronics manufacturers, recyclers and the
consumers stuck in between. The keynote address was given by
Elizabeth Grossman, author of High Tech Trash: Digital Devices,
Hidden Toxics, and Human Health.
The symposium was accompanied by a successful e-waste drive
collecting a large amount of used electronics from students and staff
alike. The event attracted regional and campus wide media atten-
tion. The success prompted both student societies to plan on
making it an annual event. //

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 7


CIPPIC – The Year in Review
The start of a new academic year brings with it an opportunity for
CIPPIC to review its accomplishments over the past year. And it has
been an extremely busy year.

On the advocacy front, CIPPIC participated in two court


proceedings. In Lawson v. Accusearch Inc., 2007 FC 125, CIPPIC
sought judicial review of a decision of the Privacy Commissioner
of Canada not to investigate a complaint that an American data
broker was violating Canadian privacy law. CIPPIC
successfully argued that the company, despite being
located in the United States, nonetheless enjoyed
sufficient real and substantial connections to Canada for
the Commissioner to assert her investigative jurisdiction.

In Dell Computer Corp. v. Union des consommateurs, 2007


SCC 34, CIPPIC intervened at the Supreme Court of Canada
to argue that an arbitration clause in the terms and conditions
of an e-commerce website should not, as a matter of public
order in Quebec civil law, deny consumers recourse to class
actions. In a decision strongly favouring private ordering and
freedom of contract, the Court held otherwise. The decision
suggests that the courts will not intervene in consumer
contracts on fairness considerations, and that consumer advo-
cates should instead turn to legislatures to address fairness
issues in consumer contracts. • preparing advocacy materials on consumer
Outside of the courtroom, CIPPIC was equally busy. CIPPIC was, copyright issues; and
once again, occupied with copyright advocacy involving work with • preparing applications to the Competition
musicians, artists, software designers and documentary filmmakers Bureau and Privacy Commissioner of Canada
to assist them in voicing their concerns on copyright policy. Our regarding the Google-DoubleClick merger.
work with documentary filmmakers has led to more work on devel-
oping best practices for fair dealing with copyrighted work. Other The summer also saw the departure of one articling student, Tara
projects include participation in Canadian stakeholder consulta- Berish, who was called to the bar of Ontario and has now joined the
tions with respect to the WIPO Broadcasters Treaty, participating Justice Department, and the arrival of another, Jocelyn Cleary, a recent
before a Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canada’s federal graduate of the law school at the University of Windsor. Both posi-
private section privacy law, and the drafting and release of a Report tions were funded through CIPPIC’s selection as one of six Ontario
on Digital Rights Management and Consumer Privacy. This latter public interest organizations to receive funding for an articling student
report was funded by a grant under the Office of the Privacy under the Law Foundation of Ontario’s “Public Interest Articling
Commissioner of Canada’s Grants and Contributions Program. Fellowship” program.
CIPPIC’s 2007 summer internship program was, again, a great The 2007-08 academic year promises to be, again, extremely
success. Janet Lo (uOttawa), Candice Skelton (Queen’s), Philippe busy. CIPPIC received a $50,000 grant under the Office of the
Shink (UNB) and Shaun Gluckman (McGill) worked on a variety of Privacy Commissioner of Canada’s Grants and Contributions
projects and cases during their twelve week stint at CIPPIC. Program to study online privacy threats. CIPPIC is currently
Matthew Lui (Queen’s) joined CIPPIC as a volunteer intern for four researching technological and regulatory issues and will report on it
weeks, and numerous other students volunteered throughout the findings in the spring of 2008. Projects involving fair consumer
summer. Summer students’ projects and case files included: contracting practices and identity theft research continue. CIPPIC’s
• investigating and preparing complaints to the Privacy copyright advocacy also continues – once again, rumours of
Commissioner; pending copyright legislation are reverberating around Ottawa.
• advising clients and assisting other organizations on matters CIPPIC, as always, looks forward to advancing the public interest in
involving privacy rights, copyright and trademark law; these policy debates. //
• preparing a submission to a Senate Committee on Bill C-31
(Elections Act reform);
• attending and reporting on Parliamentary Committee meet-
ings on Identity Theft;
• investigating cases of alleged misleading advertising and
unjust discrimination under the Telecommunications Act;

8 TECHLAW //
The University
of Ottawa Law
& Technology
Journal UOLTJ
The University of Ottawa Law & Technology
Journal (UOLTJ) published two issues last
year, continuing its tradition of featuring
interdisciplinary law and technology schol-
arship by an international roster of authors.
A special issue devoted to privacy, anonymity,
and identity had eleven contributions from
Canadian and US authors tackling subjects
such as anonymity in behavioural research,
children’s online privacy, the right to privacy
and terrorism law in Canada, racial profiling,
privacy in virtual communities, privacy
classifications, and cyber-security for online
user information without privacy erosion. The
second issue considered internet content
regulation in Australia, commercialization
of university research, a comparison of
Canadian and European internet jurisdiction
principles, the law of the hyperlink, Canadian
copyright and P2P sharing, TRIPS and climate
change, patent law and non-coding DNA,
and electronic commerce norms. This year,
the Journal includes articles on open access
law, cybercrime, privacy under civil law, and
Fichte and copyright theory.

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 9


The Journal is an open access, bilingual, peer-reviewed academic
journal, with Professor Elizabeth Judge serving as Editor-in-Chief
and Professor Marina Pavlovic as the Managing Editor. The Journal
publishes scholarship on the intersection of law with established or
emerging technologies in any field, such as computer, internet and
e-commerce law; privacy; intellectual property; technology and
ethics; communications, entertainment, and social media; natural
sciences; traditional knowledge; evidence; cybercrime; security; and
e-government. The Journal’s contributors so far hail from Canada,
the United States, the United Kingdom, China, Australia, Belgium,
Finland, and Germany, and from a range of disciplines, including The Journal also has an innovative educational aspect. All of the
law, psychology, philosophy, sociology, communications, computer Journal’s student Assistant Editors receive intensive specialized training in
sciences, engineering, and cryptography. law and technology research through a 3-credit law course, the Technology
Since its inception in 2003, the UOLTJ has been distinguished by its Law Journal Internship. This course, unique in Canada, and offered to
commitment to advancing the free public accessibility of legal informa- both undergraduate and graduate law students, combines three compo-
tion and legal scholarship. The Journal is listed as a member of the nents of advanced legal research and methodology instruction; an intensive
Directory of Open Access Journals and the Open Access Law program introduction to law review editing, legal publication, and the Journal’s open
and the Journal’s full content is freely available online on the Journal’s access citation style; and exposure to law and technology scholarship and
website, www.uoltj.ca (in English) and www.rdtuo.ca (en français). the open access movement. //

Revue de Droit et technologie de


l’Université d’Ottawa (RDTUO)
Deux numéros de la Revue de Droit et technologie de l’Université nouvelles, dans tous domaines : droit de l’informatique, de l’Internet
d’Ottawa (RDTUO) ont été publiés l’an dernier. Fidèle à la tradition, et du commerce électronique; protection de la vie privée; propriété
cette revue publie toujours des articles interdisciplinaires spécialisés intellectuelle; technologie et éthique; communications, industrie du
en matière de droit et de technologie, en provenance d’auteurs du divertissement et médias sociaux; sciences naturelles; savoir tradi-
monde entier. Dans le cadre de notre numéro spécial ayant pour tionnel; preuve; cybercrime; sécurité et gouvernance électronique. Les
thème principal la protection de la vie privée, de l’anonymat et de auteurs qui ont contribué au magazine jusqu’ici proviennent du
l’identité, nous avons reçu onze contributions d’auteurs canadiens et Canada, des États-Unis, du Royaume-Uni, de la Chine, de l’Australie,
américains, traitant de sujets comme l’anonymat dans la recherche de la Belgique, de la Finlande et de l’Allemagne, et œuvrent dans
sur le comportement, la sécurité des enfants sur Internet, le droit à la une variété de disciplines, notamment le droit, la psychologie, la
vie privée dans le contexte de la loi sur le terrorisme au Canada, le philosophie, la sociologie, les communications, l’informatique, le
profilage racial, la confidentialité dans les communautés virtuelles, génie et la cryptographie.
la classification des notions de confidentialité et la cybersécurité des Depuis sa fondation en 2003, la RDTUO s’est distinguée par son
renseignements personnels des utilisateurs de l’Internet sans perte engagement à favoriser le libre accès à la documentation et à l’exper-
de protection. Notre deuxième numéro abordait diverses théma- tise juridique. La Revue est inscrite au Répertoire des publications
tiques, notamment les règlements quant aux contenus Internet en scientifiques gratuites et au programme « Libre accès au droit », et
Australie, la commercialisation des recherches universitaires, une son contenu intégral peut être consulté librement à l’adresse
comparaison des principes juridictionnels canadiens et européens www.rdtuo.ca pour la version française, et à l’adresse www.uoltj.ca
en matière d’Internet, le droit en matière d’hyperlien, les droits d’au- pour la version anglaise.
teur et le partage poste-à-poste au Canada, les ADPIC et les La Revue comporte également un aspect éducatif novateur. Tous les
changements climatiques, le droit des brevets et les brins d’ADN étudiants adjoints à la rédaction reçoivent une formation poussée en
non codants, et les normes du commerce électronique. Cette année, recherche en droit et technologie dans le cadre d’un cours de trois
le magazine comporte des articles sur le libre accès au droit, sur le crédits, le stage de la Revue de droit et technologie. Ce cours, exclusif
cybercrime, sur la protection de la vie privée en vertu des lois civiles dans tout le Canada et ouvert aux étudiants de premier et de deuxième
et sur la théorie de Fichte et les droits d’auteur. cycle, comporte trois volets : recherche et de méthodologie juridiques
La Revue est une publication bilingue en libre accès, dont les articles approfondies; introduction intensive au travail de révision et de publi-
sont révisés par son comité de lecture constitué de pairs. La professeure cation d’un périodique juridique spécialisé et au style de citation en
Elizabeth Judge en est la rédactrice en chef et la professeure Marina libre accès; familiarisation avec les mécanismes de recherche en droit et
Pavlovic, l’éditrice. La Revue publie des articles spécialisés portant technologie et au mouvement de libre accès. //
sur la convergence du droit et de technologies diverses, établies ou

10 TECHLAW //
Profiting
from peer Jeremy De Beer

production
Viacom’s billion-dollar lawsuit against YouTube1 has gene-
rated a lot of buzz in the legal and high-tech communities.
Pundits around the world have weighed in on YouTube’s
potential liabilities, though ultimately it will be the American
courts that settle those issues. Since the list of plaintiffs
has grown to include Britain’s Football Association Premier
League, the U.S. National Music Publishers Association and
others seeking certification as a class action, the prospect
for settlements satisfactory to all parties is slim.

1
Viacom International Inc. et. al. v. YouTube Inc. et. al., Civil Action No. 1:07-cv-02103 (LLS) (FM) (S.D.N.Y).

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 11


The odds are that YouTube
would lose a Canadian lawsuit The situation is even more uncertain in
Canada. But the odds are that YouTube would
lose a Canadian lawsuit like this. How

like this. How would things play would things play out north of the border?
In Canada, firms’ potential liabilities are
determined by different principles than in the
out north of the border? U.S.. There are, however, some similarities.
Canadian copyright law, like American law,
grants exclusive reproduction and perform-
ance/communication rights for audio, visual
While the courts consider the case, it is If no settlement is reached, the outcome and audio-visual content. It isn’t clear how
worthwhile to reflect on the broader conse- of this case will depend mainly on the appli- other aspects of the Canadian Copyright Act
quences of this kind of litigation for the cation of the safe harbour system under the might apply here, including provisions
networked information economy. At the end Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA).2 pertaining to distribution rights, adaptation
of the day, lawsuits like this are only good for Pursuant to § 512 a firm hosting allegedly rights, synchronization rights and so on. But
lawyers. Consumers, creators and content infringing material at the direction of its user it is safe to say that in both jurisdictions there
owners would be far better off to focus on is not liable for infringement if it complies are a number of different grounds on which a
streamlining licensing solutions rather than with ‘notice-and-takedown’ procedures. But prima facie case for direct infringement could
stubbornly litigating disagreements. to get immunity, the host can’t know about be made. That is, it is likely that YouTube
Let me first say a few words about the the infringement or even be aware of could be held liable for its own infringing
case itself and the U.S. legal environment. circumstances from which infringement is activities, including reproducing and
YouTube is being sued for direct and indirect apparent. Moreover, the host can’t receive communicating copyright-protected works.
copyright infringement. Viacom alleges that financial benefits directly from the infringe- The key differences between Canada and
YouTube directly reproduces, performs and ment in a situation where it has the right and the U.S. boil down to the nuances of indirect
distributes its copyright-protected content. ability to control its user’s activity. infringement—liability for other people’s
It also alleges that YouTube is secondarily There’s much debate about what all that infringements—and applicable defences.
liable for users’ infringements on three means, and little precedent to go on. Canadian law imposes liability for authorizing
grounds: contributory, vicarious and indu- Opinion divided on YouTube’s prospects for acts of infringement, but not for simply con-
cing copyright infringement. a successful defence in the U.S.. tributing to, benefiting from or inducing them.

PROFITER DE LA PRODUCTION PAR LES PAIRS Jeremy De Beer

La poursuite d’un milliard de dollars matière d’octroi de licences plutôt que de s’intéressent à la production entre pairs
intentée par Viacom contre YouTube a s’acharner à vouloir régler leurs différends consiste à envisager les possibilités d’octroi de
suscité une grande effervescence dans le devant les tribunaux. licences, y compris incluant d’éventuelles
monde juridique comme dans l’univers de la Dans cet article, Jeremy de Beer après avoir mégatransactions entre les magnats de l’indus-
technologie de pointe. Les sommités du envisagé la tournure que prendrait, au Canada, trie, des licences générales collectives et des
monde entier se sont prononcées quant aux une poursuite comme celle qui oppose Viacom initiatives comme les « Creative Commons ».
possibles responsabilités de YouTube, bien à YouTube, se penche sur les économies engen- Ces stratégies nécessitent des concessions de
que le règlement du différend revienne drées par la production par les pairs. Les part et d’autre du litige entourant les droits
ultimement aux tribunaux américains. Les entreprises se rendent compte qu’il y beaucoup d’auteurs, mais ces concessions se révéleront
perspectives de règlements satisfaisants d’argent en jeu et prennent en marche le train très avantageuses, puisqu’elles réduiront
pour toutes les parties sont amoindries par des contenus produits par des pairs. substantiellement les dommages collatéraux
l’ajout, à la liste des plaignants, de la Le chevauchement de l’économie com - pour ceux qui choisissent de souscrire à une
« Football Association Premier League » mer ciale et de l’économie de partage économie parallèle de partage. À long terme,
britan nique, de l’« U.S. National Music engendre son lot de tensions. On distingue c’est sans doute l’intérêt public qui en tirerait
Publishers Association » et d’autres organi- difficilement les contenus piratés de ceux le plus d’avantages. //
smes cherchant à exercer un recours collectif. qui sont fournis par des pairs. C’est une
À l’heure où les tribunaux étudient cette tâche ardue que d’effectuer un tri dans un tel Professeur Jeremy de Beer est membre du groupe
affaire, il est opportun de réfléchir aux éventail de contenus. Qui plus est, comme Droit et technologie. Il donne le cours de
conséquences plus étendues de tels litiges de nombreuses entreprises œuvrant dans ce Musique numérisée, dont la description figure
sur l’économie de l’information en réseau. Tout domaine souffrent d’une certaine forme de dans cette revue. Son étude sur l’obtention de
compte fait, des poursuites de ce genre ne schizophrénie, l’économie de l’information en licences pour les œuvres orphelines, pour le
profitent qu’aux avocats. Il serait plus avan- réseau comporte toute une gamme d’intérêts compte de la Commission du droit d’auteur du
tageux pour les consommateurs, pour les qui se recoupent. Canada sera publiée prochainement.
créateurs et pour les propriétaires de contenu Le professeur de Beer conclut qu’une
de viser des solutions de rationalisation en bonne option pour les entreprises qui

12 TECHLAW //
Australian law is also different than intellectual property laws of most countries. What sort of remedial action might be
American law, in that it too incorporates the If this seems anomalous, consider required? Well, the Court hinted that upon
concept of authorization. Yet, despite the Columbia law professor Tim Wu’s analogy. notice of infringing content, the host might
legal diffe rences, the Federal Court of Wu explains that if the internet were a be required to “take it down.”
Australia and the U.S. Supreme Court red-light district, Napster, Kazaa and Canadian legislators might have adopted
reached roughly similar conclusions about Grokster would be the pimps while YouTube a different approach. In 2005, Bill C-60 was
liability for indirect infringement in the would be the hotel. introduced to reform parts of Canadian
Kazaa and Grokster cases respectively.3 A Canadian safe harbour for hosts and copyright law. Though the Bill died before
It does not follow, however, that a transmitters is found in paragraph 2.4(1)(b) passing into law, it would have established a
Canadian court would reach the same result. of the Copyright Act. It provides that persons ‘notice-and-notice’ system. That means a
The leading Canadian case on liability for who only supply “the means of telecommuni- firm notified of alleged infringement could
authorizing infringement is CCH v. LSUC.4 cation necessary for another person to so have escaped liability by forwarding the
In it the Chief Justice of Canada, writing for a communicate” are not themselves parties to notice to its customer. Though less strict
unanimous Supreme Court, explicitly rejected the communication. The leading case on this than a ‘notice-and-takedown’ or ‘notice-
the principles of Australian law upon which point is SOCAN v. CAIP, 5 in which the and-termination’ regime, it has been
the Kazaa decision was based, saying: “The Supreme Court of Canada considered reported to be nonetheless effective. The Bill
[Australian] approach to authorization shifts whether internet service providers were liable also would have immunized network services
the balance in copyright too far in favour of to pay a tariff (SOCAN’s Tariff 22) for the from all liability for caching, including commu-
the owner’s rights and unnecessarily inter- online communication of musical works. The nications and reproductions.
feres with the proper use of copyrighted Court held they were not. An intermediary The U.S. litigation against YouTube
works for the good of society as a whole.” To falls within the safe harbour so long as it should provoke Canadians to ask another
be held liable based on conventional principles “confines itself to providing ‘a conduit’ for question when designing legislative reforms:
of Canadian copy right law the alleged information communicated by others.” The What exactly is a network service? Bill C-60
authorizer must sanction, countenance and use of techniques to improve the efficiency of would have provided a safe harbour for
approve the infringement. And even if a communications, such as caching, does not firms “providing services related to the oper-
defendant could be said to authorize users’ affect intermediaries’ legal liability. ation of the Internet or other digital
activities, courts must presume they do so only Unlike the U.S. provision, however, the network.” A firm that “provides digital
insofar as it is in accordance with the law. Canadian safe harbour does not apply to memory in which another person stores a
One way YouTube’s users might act activities other than communication. A work or other subject-matter” would have
legally is by making fair uses of copyright- service provider or host might still be liable also been protected. But would this have
protected content. In this respect, Canadian for reproductions that occur when content covered YouTube? Should it have?
law is less forgiving than American law. Most is cached. (Canadian broadcasters have liti- Yale law professor Yochai Benkler
notably, there is no clearly established gated and lobbied unsuccessfully against a observes that a networked rather than
parody defence in Canada. Nevertheless, the copyright tariff requiring payments for industrial information economy “holds great
distinction between ‘fair use’ in the U.S. and ephemeral reproductions.) Or, a service practical promise: as a dimension of indi-
‘fair dealing’ in Canada isn’t particularly provider or host might be held to authorize vidual freedom; as a platform for better
important to the outcome of this case, given the infringing acts of its customers. democratic participation; as a medium to
that much of the content on YouTube falls SOCAN v. CAIP also dealt with that ques- foster a more critical and self-reflective
outside the scope of this defence. Yes, there tion. The Court found that “when massive culture; and … as a mechanism to achieve
is ample non-infringing content, but there is amounts of non-copyrighted material are improvements in human development
also much material that is clearly illegal. accessible to the end user, it is not possible everywhere.”6
Moreover, firms that actually host or to impute … an authority to download Lawrence Lessig treats this ‘second
transmit copyright-infringing content are copyrighted material as opposed to non- economy’ as distinct from and complemen-
treated differently from firms that merely copyrighted material.” However, Justice’s tary to the traditional one based on quid pro
contribute to or induce infringement. Binnie’s obiter dicta suggests that copyright quo transactions. 7 Yet there seems to be
Perhaps surprisingly, hosts and interme- liability may exist if a service provider has increasing convergence between the two
diaries are less likely to be liable, due to the notice of infringing material on its system economies. Commercial entities are scram-
availability of safe harbour provisions in the and “fails to take remedial action.” bling to capitalize on the sharing economy.

Wu explains that if the internet were a red-light


district, Napster, Kazaa and Grokster would be
the pimps while YouTube would be the Hotel.
2
17 U.S.C. § 512.
3
Universal Music Australia Pty Ltd. v Sharman License Holdings Ltd., [2005] FCA 1242; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Inc et al. v. Grokster, Ltd et al., 545 U.S. 913, 125 S. Ct. 2764 (2005).
4
CCH Canadian Ltd. v. Law Society of Upper Canada, 2004 SCC 13.
5
Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada v. Canadian Assn. of Internet Providers, 2004 SCC 45.
6
Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006) at 2.

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 13


An empirical study commissioned by the European
Union concluded that open-source software is worth
€12 billion per annum to the European economy
Two famous examples include the US$580 content. Some of the material available on and amateurs alike. Separating this spectrum
million purchase of MySpace by News sites such as YouTube is blatantly copyright of content is not an easy task.
Corporation and Google’s acquisition of infringing and directly competes with copy- It doesn’t help matters that many of
YouTube for US$1.65 billion. On a related right owners’ offerings on their websites, at the firms operating in this environment
note, an empirical study commissioned by digital download retailers and through televi- suffer from a sort of schizophrenia. News
the European Union concluded that open- sion broadcasts or DVD video recordings. Cor poration owns MySpace. Viacom has
source software is worth €12 billion per Other material incorporates copyright- relied on the same safe harbours that protect
annum to the European economy.8 Firms are protected content into legitimate derivate YouTube to operate its own video-sharing
realizing that there are big bucks at stake and works, such as music or video mashups or sites, iFilm and AtomFilms. Sony is trying to
jumping aboard the bandwagon of peer- soundtracks added to home movies. And still protect its interests in music, film, television
produced content. more material is genuinely creative in the and video games, while at the same time
The overlap of the commercial and sharing very strictest sense of the word, as is the case Universal Music has sued Sony-owned
economies has caused tensions. There is no with many independent films, music videos Grouper.com. Consumers have become
bright line between pirated and peer-produced or other works produced by professionals creators, and consequently, intellectual

7
Lawrence Lessig, “On the Economies of Culture” Lessig Blog (28 September 2006), online: Lessig Blog <http://www.lessig.org/blog/archives/003550.shtml>.
8
Rishab Aiyer Ghosh, “Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
sector in the EU” (20 November 2006), online: EUROPA European Commission <http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/ict/policy/doc/2006-11-20-flossimpact.pdf>.

14 TECHLAW //
It doesn’t help matters that many of the firms operating in this
environment suffer from a sort of schizophrenia. News Corporation
owns MySpace... The networked information economy involves
a web of overlapping interests.
property rights-holders. Many professional Discou raging or resisting consumers’ be reached with conglomerates representing
artists and producers endorse their fans’ creativity can be ineffective and, in some multiple subsidiary labels, studios or networks.
social media networks. The networked cases, counter productive. Even merely Another way to deal with such content might
information eco nomy involves a web of encouraging consumer creativity, as opposed be collective blanket licensing, either on a
overlapping interests. to enabling it, may leave revenue-generating voluntary or compulsory basis. Collective
So what can the YouTube case teach us opportunities untapped. blanket licensing could also work well to
about legal strategies for profiting from Obviously, one of the primary challenges enable the creation of a wide range of deriva-
peer-produced content in this complex envi- firms face is to balance competing sentiments tive works. For many other creative works,
ronment? And by ‘profit,’ I mean both direct and strategies. The typical tension is between individual creators might enter into express
and indirect financial returns as well as the publicity viral marketing provides and the agreements; though the host or provider will
social, cultural and democratic gains achiev- control needed to monetize momentum. One normally stipulate take-it-or-leave-it licensing
able through systems of peer-production. of the advantages of most countries’ safe terms through clickwrap contracts. In some
The cutting-edge business literature harbour provisions is that they allow copyright circumstances, Creative Commons or similar
refers to several alternative market strategies owners some of the best of both worlds. licenses might be appropriate.
that may be preferential to costly legal Content owners can tolerate certain uses of These strategies require concessions from
battles. Authors of a recent study on mana- their works while prohibiting others. When both sides of the copyright debate. Rights-
gerial approaches reveal that a firm’s attitude consumers’ behaviour becomes cause for holders will be required to relax legal and
toward consumer innovation can be either discomfort, copyright owners can complain. technological control over their creations
positive or negative while its actions can be Unfortunately, many firms find it difficult and tolerate certain uses of their intellectual
either active or passive.9 Differentiating on to take advantage of the flexibilities offered property. Distributors will have to accept the
these two axes, the authors classify firms under safe harbour schemes. For large legitimacy of copyright concerns and perhaps
into four categories, depending on whether corporate copyrights-holders, notifications pay for activities that should arguably be free.
they discourage, resist, encourage or enable might be ineffective. Though the specifically These trade-offs among private parties
creative consumers. Firms that discourage identified infringing work may be removed, are, however, worth the price. In this way,
creativity have a negative attitude, which another copy of the same work may reappear creators of all sorts will experience increased
they assert only passively. Resisting firms, by within days or hours. The giant game of profits, distributors and other intermediaries
contrast, share a negative attitude but take whack-a-mole can be tedious and costly. will be able to build innovative business
active steps to restrain consumer creativity. Recipients of such notifications might models and society will benefit from a more
A positive attitude differentiates firms that also find it onerous to comply with their democratic and participatory culture.
encourage or enable consumer creativity, legal obligations. Though automation might Perhaps most importantly, this strategy
but only enablers act overtly to facilitate help, where value judgments are appro- for capitalizing on creative consumers in the
consumers’ behaviour. priate, automation can be highly problematic. traditional economy will minimize collateral
The best business models involve coope- Given the lack of judicial or quasi-judicial damage upon those who wish to participate
ration between incumbent copyrights-holders, oversight, unsubstantiated notifications in the parallel sharing economy. And, in the
innovative entrepreneurs and independent might result in the unwarranted removal of long term, the public interest will perhaps
peer producers. For instance, The BBC actively non-infringing content. be the greatest beneficiary of all. //
enables consumer creativity through its A better option, therefore, is to embrace
‘Creative Archive’ project. Bands like the licensing possibilities. Options include mega- Professor Jeremy de Beer is a member of the
Barenaked Ladies are also building success by deals between powerhouse players, voluntary Law & Technology group. He teaches Digital
embracing peer-production. They have collective blanket licenses and initiatives like Music, profiled elsewhere in this magazine. His
enabled fan remixes by selling the raw tracks the Creative Commons. For mainstream study of orphan works licensing at the Copy-
behind their recordings, encouraged fans to music, movies and television programs posted right Board of Canada will be published soon.
capture and share concerts and released music in their entirety, large-scale agreements might
videos incorporating social media celebrities.
There is no single strategy that suits all
firms dealing with peer-produced content. Bands like the Barenaked Ladies are also building success by
Nevertheless, the models being implemented
by the likes of the Barenaked Ladies and the embracing peer-production. They have enabled fan remixes and
BBC offer significant and generally underap-
preciated benefits to all stakeholders. released music videos incorporating social media celebrities.

9
Pierre R. Berthon et al., “When Customers Get Clever: Managerial Approaches to Dealing with Creative Consumers” (2007) 50 Business Horizons 39 at 44-45.

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 15


on the IDENTITY TRAIL
heads towards home stretch Ian Kerr and Cynthia Aoki

Four years ago, a team of around a dozen After four years of creative and ground- The Revealed “I” conference was preceded
privacy experts based at uOttawa and else- breaking research, funding for the project by a day long student conference, The
where received one of the largest-ever grants will come to an end in March, 2008. To cele- Student “I”: A student conference on privacy
from the Social Sciences and Humanities brate and disseminate some of their and identity , on October 25 th, 2007.
Research Council to study the impact of remaining research outcomes, the members Graduate and undergraduate students from
identification technologies on our identities, of ID Trail hosted a major, multi-disciplinary around the world presented their own peer-
and on our ability to remain anonymous. conference on October 26-27th, 2007 at the reviewed research on project related themes.
Directed by Ian Kerr, Canada Research University of Ottawa. This event, the third Three students from ID Trail were
Chair in Ethics, Law and Technology, On the major conference of the project, was entitled selected to present their work: Cynthia
Identity Trail (www.idtrail.org) has brought The Revealed “I”: A conference on privacy Aoki, Jennifer Barrigar and Katie Black.
together researchers from North American and identity. It featured speakers from across Cynthia’s presentation investigated the legal
and European academic, public, private, Canada, the United States and Europe and and ethical implications of memory damp-
and not-for-profit sectors. With the goal of brought together policy makers, academics, ening drugs on identity, recently proposed
developing an interdisciplinary dialogue public interest and civil rights advocates, by some as a form of therapy for post trau-
and getting academic results out in plain and technologists for a two day discussion matic distress disorder. Katie’s presentation
language to policy makers and the broader on the nature, value and place of anonymity, examined the implementation of Canada’s
public, the team has undertaken three identity and authentication in our net - No-Fly List and its effects on privacy and
different approaches to issues of privacy, worked society. broader issues of social justice. Jennifer
anonymity and identity. The first is a social The Revealed “I” conference and a previous presented on the use of reputation systems
science and humanities perspective, the international workshop held in Bologna, in online dating environments and their
second addresses legal and policy questions, Italy, were also the basis for a scholarly perpetuation of gendered inequality.
and the third explores the technologies book, Anonymity, Privacy and Identity in a Even though the project itself will come to
themselves. Networked Society: Lessons from the an end next March, all of the researchers
During the past four years, ID Trail has Identity Trail, the first book published by associated with the project will continue to
quadrupled to more than 50 researchers, Oxford University Press to be licensed under a contribute their knowledge, expertise, and
including a distinguished array of aca - Creative Commons licence, allowing anybody passion in further understanding the impact
demics, practitioners and members of to share the content for non-commercial of privacy, anonymity and identity on today’s
public interest organizations, as well as purposes. This book follows The Contours networked society. //
dozens of graduate and undergraduate of Privacy (Cambridge Scholars Publishing)
students from various dis ciplines and as the second book to be published by ID
universities. Together, they have produced Trail, both making a global contribution to
dozens of peer-reviewed academic articles, the literature on privacy, surveillance, iden-
three special journal issues and a series of tity and authentication.
online educational resources for children
and adults. They have also participated in
more than 100 presentations at numerous
conferences and community events.

16 TECHLAW //
LL.M. EN DROIT
ET TECHNOLOGIE
Par l’entremise du groupe de droit et technologie, la Faculté de droit
de l’Université d’Ottawa offre un programme exclusif de maîtrise en
droit (LL.M.) avec concentration en droit et technologie. Cette
concentration comporte des cours spécialisés, des expériences
pratiques et la possibilité de réaliser des recherches de deuxième
cycle novatrices, en anglais comme en français. L’Université
d’Ottawa étant située dans la capitale canadienne des technologies,

CONCENTRATION IN
ce programme joue un rôle clé dans la formation de juristes spéciali-
sés en droit des technologies, qui exercent maintenant leur

LAW & TECHNOLOGY


profession dans toutes les sphères du droit des technologies.

Corps Professoral
Through the Law & Technology group, the University of Ottawa Il s’agit du plus important corps professoral dans le domaine du
Faculty of Law offers a unique LL.M. with a Concentration in Law & droit des technologies au Canada.
Technology. The Concentration offers specialized courses, practical
experience and the opportunity to conduct innovative graduate Vous aurez pour professeurs des spécialistes reconnus sur la scène
level research in English and French. From its location in Canada’s nationale et internationale dans des domaines novateurs comme la
technology capital, the program has been instrumental in producing propriété littéraire et artistique, les marques de commerce, les
technology law practitioners who now occupy all facets of the tech- brevets, le droit de l’Internet, le commerce électronique, le droit à la
nology law fields. vie privée, la cybersécurité, la cybercriminalité, la déontologie de
l’information, la gouvernance de l’Internet et la justice sociale.
Faculty
The largest Canadian law faculty dedicated to technology law issues. Modules
• Programme d’études : Le programme comporte deux sémi-
Learn from recognized national and international experts in naires d’études supérieures spécialisés, Techno-théorie et
the innovative areas of: Copyright; Trademark; Patent; Internet Law; Techno-régulation, un mémoire ou un projet de recherche
E-Commerce; Privacy; Open Source; Cyber-security; Cybercrime; en droit des technologies, un stage, de même que des cours
Biotech nology, Information Ethics; Internet Governance; and au choix dans les domaines de la médiatique, de la propriété
Social Justice. intellectuelle et du commerce électronique.
• Stages : auprès de cabinets juridiques d’importance,
Modules d’entreprises spécialisées dans la technologie, des services
• Curriculum: The curriculum includes two specialized grad- gouvernementaux d’élaboration des politiques ou de
uate seminars, Technopolicy and Techno pru dence , a groupes d’intérêt public.
research paper or technology law project, internship, and • Clinique d’intérêt public et de politique d’Internet du
elective courses from the areas of new media, intellectual Canada : bénévolat ou stage à la CIPPIC, la clinique
property and e-commerce. juridique canadienne de pointe en matière de droit des
• Internships: With leading Canadian law firms, technology technologies.
companies, government policy departments or public • Revue de droit et technologie de l’Université d’Ottawa :
interest groups. bénévolat ou stage à la RDTUO, périodique spécialisé en
• Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic: droit des technologies.
Volunteer or intern at CIPPIC, Canada’s foremost technology law • Colloques internationaux, série de conférences bimensuelles
clinic. et séminaires spéciaux.
• University of Ottawa Law & Technology Journal:
Volunteer or intern at the UOLTJ, an academic law review Admission
specializing in law and technology jurisprudence. Pour être admissibles au programme de maîtrise en droit, les candi-
• International Conferences, Bi-weekly Speaker Series and dats doivent détenir un diplôme de droit de premier cycle d’une
Special Lectures. université canadienne, obtenu avec une moyenne satisfaisante, ou
un diplôme de droit équivalent, obtenu à l’étranger, moyennant des
Admission résultats jugés comparables. Pour plus de renseignements, veuillez
In order to be considered for admission to the Master of Laws communiquer avec le bureau des Études supérieures de la Faculté
program, applicants must have an undergraduate law degree from a de droit : adresse Internet :
Canadian university with a satisfactory average or an equivalent
foreign law degree with comparable results. For more information http://www.llmlld.uottawa.ca/fra/maitrise/admission.htm/
please contact the Faculty of Law Graduate Studies office: courriel : llmlld@uottawa.ca téléphone : 613-562-5774
télécopieur : 613-562-5341 //
Internet: http://www.llmlld.uottawa.ca/eng/master/admission.htm
Email: llmlld@uottawa.ca Telephone: 613.562.5774
Fax: 613.562.5341 //

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 17


THE LAWS OF ROBOTICS,
WITH PROFESSOR IAN KERR
1. a robot may not injure a human being or,
through inaction, allow a human being
to come to harm.
2. a robot must obey orders given to it by
human beings except where such orders
would conflict with the first law.
LES LOIS DE LA
3. a robot must protect its own existence as
long as such protection does not conflict
ROBOTIQUE, AVEC
with the first or second law. LE PROFESSEUR
isaac asimov (runaround, 1941)

we are entering an age of advanced robotics and automation. by the


IAN KERR
time that students enrolled in this course become established in
1. un robot ne peut ni porter atteinte à un être
their legal careers, it is anticipated that robots will be our surgeons humain ni, restant passif, laisser cet être
and our domestic servants. other complex services once offered by humain exposé au danger.
human beings will be completely automated; these automated 2. un robot doit obéir aux ordres donnés par les
systems will become the proxy for human decision-making.
êtres humains, sauf si de tels ordres sont en
how do law and technology structure and constrain our possible
future worlds? what laws or ethical rules ought to govern a society contradiction avec la Première Loi.
enmeshed in human-computer interaction? and how will these 3. un robot doit protéger son existence dans la
various codes enable and disable the possibility of achieving what is mesure où cette protection n’entre pas en
good, what is right and what is just? contradiction avec la Première ou la
the aim of this course is to interrogate these questions through an
exploration of the state of the art of robot and automation technolo- Deuxième Loi. isaac asimov (cercle vicieux,
gies and their introduction into society. we will consider the ethical 1941) (source : les robots, isaac asimov, éditions
and legal significance of robots in the workplace, the market and at j’ai lu, traduction de pierre billon, 1967)
home. through a critique of existing and soon to be proposed ethical
and legislative frameworks, we will contemplate the interrelation- nous entrons actuellement dans une ère de robotique et d’auto-
ship between ethics, law and technology by thinking about the matisation de pointe. nous prévoyons qu’au moment où les
general goals of artificial intelligence, whether and how robots ought étudiants inscrits à ce cours auront entrepris leur carrière
to be programmed, how automated systems ought to resolve juridique, des robots nous serviront de chirurgiens et d’aides
conflicting rules and norms, and about the broader social implica- domestiques. d’autres services complexes traditionnellement
tions of boarding this strange mothership. // fournis par des humains seront entièrement automatisés; ces
systèmes automatisés deviendront les intermédiaires des prises
de décision des humains.
comment le droit et la technologie structurent-ils et limitent-
ils nos univers futurs éventuels? quelles lois et quelles règles
éthiques devraient régir une société où domine l’interaction
entre l’être humain et l’ordinateur? et comment ces codes divers
permettront-ils ou entraveront-ils la réalisation de ce qui est
bon, de ce qui est bien et ce de qui est juste?
ce cours a pour objectif d’examiner ces questions par une
exploration de la robotique et des technologies d’automa -
tisation de pointe, et de leur avènement dans la société. nous
nous pencherons sur le sens éthique et juridique de la présence
de robots en milieu de travail, sur le marché et à la maison. par
une critique des cadres éthiques et législatifs existants et en voie
d’être proposés, nous considérerons les interrelations entre
l’éthique, le droit et la technologie en analysant les objectifs
généraux de l’intelligence artificielle, en se demandant si et
comment les robots devraient être programmés, en évaluant
comment les systèmes automatisés devraient résoudre les
contradictions entre les règlements et les normes, et en s’attar-
dant aux implications sociales plus importantes que risque
d’engendrer l’adoption de ce curieux mode de vie. //

18 TECHLAW //
Digital Music,
with Professor
Jeremy de Beer
de Beer’s Digital Music course is a unique
multi-national and multi-disciplinary survey
of the global digital music scene. Together
the class canvasses aspects of the law in
Canada, the States, Europe, Australia,
Asia and Africa. As well as having a
cross-continental scope, we analyze
timely issues through many different
lenses, by taking into account legal,
com mercial, techno logical and
social pers pec tives. The overarching
objective is to think broadly about the
TECHNOLOGY
policies affecting the future of digital
music and, ultimately, the creation and
LAW INTERNSHIP
consumption of our own culture. // The internship provides students with the opportunity to spend one
day per week in a technology law environment. Through readings,
observation, and work assignments, students will gain insight into
Musique numérique, avec le daily practice and policy issues for lawyers working in the tech-
professeur Jeremy de Beer nology law field. This popular course is available to both
undergraduate and graduate students as an elective course and
Le cours « Musique numérique » du professeur de Beer comporte un tour students are assigned a grade of satisfactory / non-satisfactory.
d’horizon multinational et pluridisciplinaire de la scène mondiale en matière The Technology Law Internship program has spanned four
de musique numérique. Les étudiants examineront ensemble diverses cities – Ottawa, Montreal, Toronto, and Washington, DC. With more
facettes de la loi au Canada, aux États-Unis, en Europe, en Australie, en Asie than two dozen internship partners, students have the opportunity
et en Afrique. Tout en procédant à une comparaison de ce qui se fait sur les to intern at major law firms, business, governmental and non-
différents continents, nous analysons des questions d’actualité sous un governmental organizations, CIPPIC and the University of Ottawa
certain nombre de points de vue, en fonction de leurs aspects juridiques, Law & Technology Journal. //
commerciaux, technologiques et sociaux. L’objectif général consiste à
susciter une réflexion d’ensemble quant aux politiques qui auront des réper-
cussions sur l’avenir de la musique numérique et, conséquemment, sur la
création et la consommation de notre propre culture. //
STAGES EN DROIT
DES TECHNOLOGIES
Le stage permet à l’étudiant ou à l’étudiante de passer une journée
par semaine dans un milieu spécialisé en droit des technologies et
d’acquérir ainsi, par le biais de lectures, d’observations et de tâches
qui lui sont confiées, une expérience de la pratique et des questions
de politiques auxquelles font face quotidiennement les juristes
The Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic œuvrant dans le domaine du droit des technologies. Ce cours
(CIPPIC) was established in fall of 2003 at the University of optionnel populaire est offert aux étudiants de premier cycle et aux
Ottawa, Faculty of Law, Common Law Section. CIPPIC seeks to études supérieures. La note attribuée est exprimée de la façon suiv-
ensure balance in policy and law-making processes on issues ante : satisfaisant/ non satisfaisant.
that arise as a result of new technologies. Upper year law Le programme de stages en droit des technologies est réalisable
students work under the supervision of the Clinic director on dans quatre villes : Ottawa, Montréal, Toronto et Washington, DC.
projects and cases involving the intersection of law, technology Grâce à la collaboration de plus de vingt-quatre partenaires, ces stages
and the public interest. CIPPIC Summer Fellowship peuvent s’effectuer auprès de grands cabinets, d’entreprises, d’orga-
Program is now open to Canadian law students who have nismes gouvernementaux et non gouvernementaux, de la CIPPIC et
completed at least two years of law school. For more informa- de la Revue de droit et technologie de l’Université d’Ottawa. //
tion and current news visit: http://www.cippic.ca //

La Clinique d’intérêt public et de politique d’Internet du


Canada a été mise en place à la section de common law de
l’Université d’Ottawa à l’automne 2003. La CIPPIC s’efforce
d’assurer un équilibre entre la politique et les processus légis-
latifs liés aux questions que soulèvent les nouvelles technologies.
Guidés par la directrice générale de la CIPPIC, les étudiants et
les étudiantes des cours supérieurs collaborent à des projets et
des dossiers qui soulèvent des questions à l’intersection du
droit, de la technologie et de l’intérêt public. Le programme
des bourses de recherche d’été de la CIPPIC est maintenant
offert aux étudiants et étudiantes du Canada qui ont terminé au
moins deux années d’études en droit. Pour obtenir plus de
renseignements et des nouvelles récentes, consultez le site Web :
http://www.cippic.ca // TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 19
THE OPTION IN
LAW AND TECHNOLOGY
You don’t have to specialize in Law & Technology to take L&T courses – in fact, courses like
Introduction to Intellectual Property are recommended for any students planning to enter the
practice of law. But some LL.B. students take lots of Law & Technology courses and want to
receive formal recognition of their specialization. For these students, the Faculty of Law offers
the “Option in Law & Technology”.
To qualify for the Option in Law & Technology, students must complete 18 credits in the
field, including Intro to IP and one of our Internships. The Major Paper requirement must
also be completed in either one of the Option courses or in a Directed Research course.
A list of requirements for the Option is available at the Academic Affairs office. To get more
information or to register for the LL.B. with Option in Law and Technology, please speak with
an Academic Affairs officer. //

L’OPTION EN DROIT
ET TECHNOLOGIE
Il n’est pas nécessaire de vous spécialiser en Droit et technologie pour suivre des cours de D
& T. En fait, des cours comme « Introduction à la propriété intellectuelle » sont recom-
mandés à tout étudiant envisageant la pratique du droit. Toutefois, certains étudiants du
baccalauréat en droit suivent de nombreux cours en Droit et technologie et veulent se voir
reconnaître officiellement cette spécialisation. La Faculté de droit offre donc à ces étudiants
l’« option en Droit et technologie ».
Pour se voir reconnaître l’option en Droit et technologie, les étudiants doivent obtenir
18 crédits de cours dans ce domaine, dont le cours d’« Introduction à la propriété intellectuelle »,
de même que l’un de nos stages. Leur mémoire de recherche doit également être rédigé dans
le cadre de l’un des cours de l’option ou d’un cours de recherche dirigée.
Veuillez vous adresser au bureau des Affaires académiques pour obtenir la liste des
exigences liées à l’option. Pour obtenir des renseignements complémentaires ou pour vous
inscrire au L.L.B. avec option en Droit et technologie, veuillez vous adresser à un respon-
sable des Affaires académiques. //

20 TECHLAW //
TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 21
Conférence Deirdre G. Martin
commémorative Memorial Lecture
Deirdre G. Martin in Privacy Law
en matière de droit
relatif au respect de The Law & Technology Group is honoured to host
later this year the first annual Deirdre G. Martin

la vie privée Memorial Lecture in Privacy Law. The Deirdre G.


Martin Memorial Lecture was established thanks
to the generosity of her colleagues at the Insurance
Le Groupe de Droit et technologie aura l’honneur de tenir, d’ici Bureau of Canada’s Legal Division.
quelques semaines, la première Conférence annuelle Deirdre G. Ms. Martin (‘78) passed away on June 21, 2006 after a short illness.
Martin en matière de droit relatif au respect de la vie privée. Cette She was a loving mother of three children, a passionate and excellent
conférence verra le jour grâce à la générosité des collègues de lawyer, a dedicated daughter and sister, and a caring friend to
Deirdre G. Martin, à la division des affaires juridiques du Bureau many people, each of whom feels her loss deeply. Her law school
d’assurance du Canada. friends remember her charming and infectious smile—it will be
Mme Martin (1978) est décédée le 21 juin 2006, des suites d’une sadly missed.
brève maladie. Mère de trois enfants qu’elle affectionnait, avocate Ms. Martin was Senior Counsel with the Insurance Bureau of
éminente et passionnée, fille et sœur dévouée, amie attentive de Canada from 1998 until 2006. She was an expert on the application of
nombreuses personnes, elle a, par son départ, créé un grand vide the federal, Alberta, and British Columbia privacy laws to the prop-
chez tous ceux qui la côtoyaient. Ses confrères et consoeurs d’études erty and casualty insurance industry. Ms. Martin was a gifted speaker
se souviennent avec nostalgie du charme contagieux de son sourire. who enjoyed making presentations on the implementation of these
Mme Martin a occupé le poste de conseillère juridique principale privacy laws. Between 2001 and 2004, she conducted training seminars
au Bureau d’assurance du Canada de 1998 à 2006. Elle œuvrait across Canada to over two thousand people from P&C insurance
comme spécialiste de l’application de la loi fédérale et des lois companies, independent brokers, and claims adjusters.
provinciales de l’Alberta et de la Colombie-Britannique en matière The Law & Technology Group is thrilled that Professor Anita Allen of
de protection de la vie privée et d’assurance multirisque. Mme Martin the University of Pennsylvania Law School will deliver the inaugural
était une conférencière douée qui prenait grand plaisir à faire des Deirdre Martin Memorial Lecture. Anita L. Allen (aka Allen-Castellitto)
présentations sur la mise en œuvre de ces lois. De 2001 à 2004, elle a is a leading expert on privacy law and contemporary ethics. She is
animé, dans tout le Canada, des séminaires de formation auxquels ont the author of several books on privacy law including Why Privacy
participé plus de deux mille personnes, employés de sociétés d’as- Isn’t Everything: Feminist Reflections on Personal Accountability.
surance multirisque, courtiers indépendants et experts en sinistres. Professor Allen will deliver the Deirdre G. Martin Memorial
Le groupe de Droit et technologie est très heureux d’accueillir Lecture on February 26, 2008. //
la professeure Anita L. Allen de la Faculté de droit de l’Université de
Pennsylvanie, qui prononcera cette première Conférence commé-
morative Deirdre G. Martin. La professeure Allen (également connue
sous le nom de Allen-Castellitto) est une éminente spécialiste en
matière de droit relatif à la protection de la vie privée et d’éthique
contemporaine. Elle a rédigé plusieurs ouvrages sur le droit à protec-
tion de la vie privée, dont Why Privacy Isn’t Everything: Feminist
Reflections on Personal Accountability.
La professeure Allen prononcera la Conférence commémorative
Deirdre G. Martin le 26 février 2008. //

The Law&Technology l’Association des étudiants/


Student Society (LTSS) étudiantes en droit et technologie
The Law & Technology Student Society (LTSS) is a University of l’Association des étudiants/étudiantes en droit et technologie (AEDT)
Ottawa student-run organization for law students interested in law est une organisation gérée par des étudiants et les étudiantes
and technology. The LTSS actively promotes technology law to s’intéressant au droit des technologies, à l’intention des étudiants de
students as an area of practice and provides opportunities for ce domaine. L’AEDT travaille activement à promouvoir la pratique
students to participate in law and technology related initiatives. du droit des technologies et à offrir à la population étudiante des
http://www.ltss.ca // occasions diverses de se renseigner en la matière. http://www.ltss.ca //

22 TECHLAW //
The EPIDEMIC of
Lost and Stolen Data:
Are Custodians of Data Liable in Negligence
for Breaches of Data Security?
Jennifer A. Chandler*
* Professor Chandler’s full length article on the thieves open new service accounts or
this topic is forthcoming in Volume 23(2) obtain new credit in the victim’s name. This
of the Banking and Finance Law Review. can ruin a victim’s credit rating and expose
Professor Chandler gratefully acknowledges him or her to harassment from collections
Borden Ladner Gervais LLP’s support for agencies. In a smaller number of cases,
her research assistant David Quayat victims such as law enforcement personnel,
through its Research Fellowship Program have expressed the fear that the compromise
in the preparation of the full length article. of personal information such as home
addresses exposes them to the risk of phys-
Unfortunately the choice of the term ical danger. The economic harm caused by
“epidemic” to describe the problem of data widespread fraud is not visited solely upon
security breaches at major data custodians the people whose data is misused. Where
such as banks, large retailers and govern- the losses are absorbed by banks or by the
ment agencies is not an overstatement. The merchants who accept the fraudulent credit
informal tallies maintained by websites such card purchases, the costs are passed on
as “The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse” 1 broadly through higher prices.
necessarily understate the problem as they This problem has begun to attract the
are limited to those data breaches that are attention of legislators, academics and class
publicly known and which affect Americans. action lawyers. There is a growing body of
Nonetheless, it paints an impressive picture decided cases in the United States dealing
of over 160 million records of sensitive with civil liability for breaches of data secu-
personal information lost or stolen since rity, and multiple actions are pending in both
2005. Canadians are also clearly affected. In Canada and the United States. These lawsuits
January, 2007, TJX Companies Inc. announced have been brought on behalf of various kinds
a security breach affecting millions of of plaintiffs. First, the people whose data has
records in Canada, the United Kingdom, been compromised have sought to recover
Ireland, the United States and Puerto Rico. the costs of monitoring or repairing their
In the same month, Talvest Mutual Funds credit or of obtaining identity theft insurance.
announced the loss of 470,000 Canadian Merchants who suffer credit card chargebacks
client records. Undoubtedly the losses are as a result of fraudulent purchases made
higher given that some breaches are not using compromised credit cards have claimed
disclosed, and some data custodians may be these losses. Financial institutions have
unaware that they have taken place. attempted to recover the costs associated with
The primary concern associated with the responding with mass cancellation and reis-
compromise of this data is that it can be suing of payment cards. The plaintiffs have
used for identity fraud. In some cases, identity argued that the defendants (including major
thieves drain existing accounts or make retailers, financial institutions, universities
fraudulent credit card purchases. In others, and government) have been careless in

In a smaller number of cases, victims such as law


enforcement personnel, have expressed the fear that
the compromise of personal information such as home
addresses exposes them to the risk of physical danger.
1
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse www.privacyrights.org/ar/chrondatabreaches.htm.

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 23


handling sensitive data such that it has been these plaintiffs fail. Plaintiffs in these cases individual him or herself through spyware or
lost or stolen. have raised the interesting analogy of their phishing websites. As a result, it is difficult to
So far the plaintiffs’ claims in negligence situation to those plaintiffs in the so-called tie the identity fraud to the poor security
have largely been unsuccessful, although “medical monitoring cases” in which people practices of the defendant. Not all plaintiffs
reasonable arguments can be made both as a exposed to toxins with dangerous but latent have been unsuccessful. In Bell v. Michigan
matter of negligence doctrine and public effects have sometimes succeeded in obtaining Council 25,2 the plaintiffs successfully sued
policy that the courts should be more recep- the cost of ongoing medical monitoring. This the treasurer of their union for negligent
tive to these claims in appropriate cases. argument has been rejected by the courts. handling of their personal data. The trea-
Negligence law deals poorly with the This seems unfair since the plaintiffs are surer’s daughter was convicted of identity
harms of the “information age,” failing in being advised by the government and often fraud after a notebook was found in her
many cases to recognize the harms that can by the institutions suffering the data security possession listing the names, social security
be done to and by information. The modern breaches to invest in credit-monitoring serv- numbers and drivers’ licenses of the plaintiffs
explosion of identity theft is a function of ices or other forms of self protection. As a as well as the fraudulent purchases made in
the technologies of data storage and result, careless data custodians are able to their names. This case involved unusually
processing, which permit the retention of shift to the plaintiffs the costs of preventing good evidence of causation, and the plaintiffs
large amounts of data. It also flows from the the identity fraud. in many other cases have found it difficult
fact that modern life involves a multitude of Where the plaintiffs do suffer identity much more difficult to establish causation.
transactions with strangers and so creates a fraud, they encounter other difficulties. In It is possible that some financial institu-
pervasive need for individual authen tica- particular, the plaintiffs find it difficult to tions may be able to assist plaintiffs, at least
tion, which has largely been done using prove that the identity theft they suffered was with respect to breaches in security at
personal information. We have a society that caused by a breach of security at the defen- retailers rather than banks. Very quickly
is heavily dependent upon and personal dant data custodian. Even where the identity after the public announcement of the TJX
data and yet does not have sufficient mecha- theft involved the specific infor mation Companies Inc. security breach, a banking
nisms in place to ensure its safety. known to have been stolen from the defen- association began to announce publicly that
The basic problems posed for plaintiffs in dant and occurred reasonably soon after the its member banks had linked fraudulent
negligence claims for harms flowing for breach of security, courts have refused to find credit card purchases to the security
breaches of data security can be summarized causation. The difficulty appears to be that breach. 3 This willingness to make public
as follows. First, where plaintiffs have the infor mation used to commit identity statements may reflect the banks’ growing
become aware of a breach of data security fraud (such as names, addresses, credit card unhappiness over having to bear the costs of
but have not yet suffered identity fraud, the numbers, social insurance numbers) is often preventive measures such as canceling
courts have tended to find that no actual held by numerous data custodians, any one compromised payment cards.
harm has been suffered. Since a negligence of whom may have mishandled it. In addi- Even where plaintiffs are able to establish
claim requires a showing of actual harm, tion, this data can also be stolen from the that the data security breach caused the
2
2005 Mich. App. LEXIS 353 (Mich. C.A.).
3
Allan Holmes, “The TJX security breach. This one’s different. Way different.” CIO Blogs (1 February 2007), http://advice.cio.com/node/681

L’ÉPIDÉMIE de pertes et de vols de données :


les dépositaires de données sont-ils responsables de négligence en
cas d’atteinte à la sécurité des données? Jennifer A. Chandler*
* L’article de la professeure Chandler sur ce Privacy Rights Clearinghousei » minimisent perdus est sans doute plus élevé, puisque
sujet sera publié intégralement dans le nécessaire ment la portée du problème, certains bris ne sont pas révélés et qu’il peut
volume 23(2) de Banking and Finance puisqu’ils ne font état que des bris de sécu- arriver que des dépositaires ne soit pas au
Law Review . La professeure Chandler rité de notoriété publique dont ont été courant de tels incidents.
exprime sa gratitude à Borden Ladner victimes des Américains. Néanmoins, ce site La principale source d’inquiétude liée à
Gervais LLP pour le soutien financier brosse un impressionnant portrait de la situa- la perte de ces données est que celles-ci
accordé à son assistant de recherche David tion, puisqu’il fait état de la perte ou du vol peuvent être utilisées pour usurper l’identité
Quayat par le biais de son Programme de de plus de 160 millions de dossiers de ren- des victimes. Les dommages économiques
bourses de recherche. Ce soutien a en outre seignements personnels sensibles depuis causés par la prolifération des fraudes ne
facilité la réalisation de l’article intégral. 2005. Ce phénomène n’épargne évidemment touchent pas seulement les personnes dont
pas les Canadiens. En janvier 2007, The TJX les renseignements personnels ont été utili-
Le choix du terme « épidémie » pour qual- Companies Inc. ont annoncé un bris de sés fraudu leuse ment. Le coût des pertes
ifier le problème d’atteinte à la sécurité des sécurité qui a eu des répercussions sur absorbées par les banques ou par les
renseignements personnels chez les princi- des millions de dossiers au Canada, au marchands qui acceptent des transactions
paux dépositaires de données comme les Royaume-Uni, en Irlande, aux États-Unis et effectuées avec des cartes de crédit volées se
banques, les grands détaillants et les agences à Puerto Rico. Durant le même mois, les traduit par des hausses de prix généralisées.
gouver nementales n’est malheureusement Fonds communs de placement Talvest ont Le problème a commencé à attirer l’atten-
pas exagéré. En effet, les sondages informels déclaré avoir perdu 470 000 dossiers de tion de législateurs, d’universitaires et
publiés sur des sites comme celui de « The clients canadiens. Le nombre de dossiers d’avocats spécialisés en recours collectifs. Il

24 TECHLAW //
identity fraud, they may have difficulty in
persuading a court that the loss is recover-
able in negligence. The courts have
controlled quite carefully what forms of “pure
economic loss” (i.e., loss that does not flow
from physical damage to person or property)
may be recovered in negligence claims.
Another interesting, if legalistic, problem
may face plaintiffs in the Canadian lawsuits.
The Supreme Court of Canada ruled years ago
that where the government puts in place Even where the identity theft involved the
through legislation a comprehensive proce-
dure to deal with a particular problem, the specific information known to have been
courts cannot develop a parallel remedy
in common law. 4 As a result, a Canadian stolen from the defendant and occurred
defendant could argue that plaintiffs must
bring their complaint regarding inadequate reasonably soon after the breach of security,
data security safeguards to the Privacy
Commissioner of Canada under the Personal courts have refused to find causation.
Infor mation Protection and Electronic
Documents Act.5 This Act provides a reason-
ably comprehensive set of data security established cause of action (i.e., negligence) actors to bear the costs of
obliga tions as well as an enforcement to a new context. They may also argue that their own carelessness in
mechanism, and may eventually give rise to a only provincial legislation can foreclose the order to encourage a
claim for damages before the Federal Court. development of a common law remedy since reasonable level of care to
The difficulty facing plaintiffs is that it is civil remedies fall within provincial jurisdic- be taken. Unfortunately,
unlikely that the class action mechanism is tion under the Canadian Constitution. Since the courts have so far
compatible with the scheme set out by the Act. these arguments have not, to my knowledge, found negligence law to be poorly-equipped
As a result, the plaintiffs, whose individual been tested, their success before the courts to deal with the problem. We shall see if they
losses may be fairly small, may lack the incen- is uncertain. are able to adapt the doctrines to meet the
tive to vindicate their rights by pursuing the In sum, we are facing a real problem with problem or whether the legislature or industry
matter alone through to the Federal Court. significant consequences for individuals organizations will step forward. //
They may find it worthwhile only if they are whose personal information is com pro -
able to do so via a class action that gathers mised as well as with considerable economic Professor Jennifer Chandler is a member of
together all similarly affected individuals. repercussions for everyone. For various the Law & Technology group. Her research is
Plaintiffs may seek to refute the argument reasons, data custodians seem to face inade- currently focused on medical-legal problems
that they are limited to the procedures set quate incentives to maintain reasonably as well as liability issues related to identity
out in the Act by noting that they are not effective data security safeguards. As a result, theft and data security.
invoking a new common law cause of the problem is unlikely to go away. Tort law
action, but are simply seeking to apply an has been used in the past to cause careless

4
Board of Governors of Seneca College of Applied Arts & Technology v. Bhadauria, [1981] 2 S.C.R. 181.
5
S.C. 2000, c.5.

y a, aux Etats-Unis, un nombre croissant de peut faire valoir des arguments raisonnables frais de leur propre manque de vigilance,
procès liés à la responsabilité civile pour en matière de théorie de la négligence et de afin de favoriser l’adoption de mesures de
atteinte à la sécurité de renseignements politiques publiques, pour inciter les sécurité appropriées. Malheureusement, les
personnels, et de nombreuses poursuites tribunaux à se montrer plus réceptifs quant à tribunaux ont jusqu’ici constaté que le droit
sont étalement en attente devant les ces allégations dans certains cas. de la négligence ne comportait guère les
tribunaux, au Canada comme aux Etats- Dans cet article, la professeure Jennifer dispo sitions nécessaires pour régler
Unis. Les plaignants invoquent la négligence Chandler soutient que pour diverses adéquatement le problème de l’atteinte à la
des défendeurs (y compris des géants du raisons, les dépositaires de renseignements sécurité des renseignements personnels. //
commerce de détail, des institutions finan- personnels seraient peu motivés à maintenir La professeure Jennifer Chandler est membre
cières, des universités et des gouvernements) des mesures de sécurité raisonnablement du groupe Droit et technologie. Ses recherches
dans le traitement de données sensibles, ce efficaces en ce qui a trait à ces données. Par actuelles sont axées sur les problèmes
qui, disent-ils, en a occasionné la perte ou le conséquent, le problème n’est pas près de médico-légaux, de même que sur les ques-
vol. Jusqu’ici, toutefois, les allégations de disparaître. Dans le passé, on a déjà recouru tions de responsabilité liées au vol d’identité
négligence émises par les plaignants ont été au droit de la responsabilité délictuelle pour et à la protection des données.
déboutées pour la plupart, même si l’on obliger les parties négligentes à assumer les

i
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse www.privacyrights.org/ar/chrondatabreaches.htm.

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 25


The Privacy
Network (TPN)
The Privacy Network (TPN) is
an innovative privacy research
Technology
collaboration project housed
at the University of Ottawa’ Law
and Technology Group and initi-
Law SPEAKER
ated by Bell Canada and Microsoft
Canada. The Privacy Network’s SERIES
mission is to facilitate sharing, Thanks to a generous donation by Torys
debate and development of LLP in September 2002 and matched by
forward facing privacy laws, the Ontario Research Network for E-
policies and especially technologies Commerce (Ornec), the Faculty of Law
by bringing together and facili- introduced the Torys LLP Technology
tating collaboration among those Speaker Series . Since that time, the
Series has brought national and interna-
who work in privacy positions tional experts to the faculty’s distance
within the corporate sector, learning multimedia room in Fauteux
academic institutions, and Hall. The Series is webcast live and all
public sector agencies. lectures are archived on the Program’s
website for public access. Delivered
through the school year, this is a
standing-room only event attended by
Ottawa-area practitioners,government
personnel, industry leaders and
academics. Schedule and archives are
available on the Program website. //

SÉRIE DE CONFÉRENCES
The Privacy Network actively works to
en droit des technologies
identify and champion the development of Grâce à une généreuse contribution du cabinet Torys, s.r.l. en
academic led Privacy Enhancing Technology septembre 2002, à laquelle s’est ajouté un montant équivalent
research projects and match them with offert par le Réseau ontarien de recherches sur le commerce
interested corporate partners. The results of électronique (RORCÉ), la Faculté de droit a mis en place la
the productized and commercialized privacy Série de conférences Torys, s.r.l., en droit des technologies.
technology research will contribute to the Depuis ce temps, la Faculté a accueilli, dans sa salle multimédia
development of an increased pool of informed de Téléapprentissage du pavillon Fauteux, des spécialistes
and insightful technical tools, solutions and canadiens et étrangers. La série est diffusée sur le Web et toutes
knowledge available for the benefit of busi- les conférences sont archivées sur le site Web du programme,
ness, consumers and regulators. afin d’en permettre la consultation publique. Cette activité, qui
The Privacy Network operates a commu- s’étend sur toute l’année universitaire, à laquelle on ne peut
nity based self-service information and prendre part que debout, attire des praticiens et praticiennes,
research portal at www.theprivacynet- des fonctionnaires, des chefs d’industrie et des universitaires de
work.org that promotes collaborative la région d’Ottawa. On peut consulter l’horaire et les
solution and application development. The archives sur le site Web du programme. //
Privacy Network Portal provides a useful
platform for users to form Communities
along a variety of privacy topics and develop
and maintain Solutions and Projects within
such Communities – with the intent of
developing new privacy solutions collabora-
tively or enhance and grow existing solutions,
tools and best practices. //

26 TECHLAW //
LE DÉTERMINISME
GÉNÉTIQUE?
La discrimination légitimée
et les répercussions des tests
individuels pour le public
Professeure Karen Eltis

En plus de véhiculer la promesse de soulager les


fléaux de la maladie, la soi-disant « révolution
génétique » soulève des questions épineuses
concernant les droits de la personne, la vie privée,
la divulgation de renseignements personnels et le
sujet même du présent exposé : la discrimination
génétique et la nature particulière des stigmates
sociaux qui peuvent s’y rattacher.

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 27


Il est maintenant clair que certaines formes originale : l’intersectionnalité dans le contexte déclaré, lors d’une émission-débat radio-
de recherche, autrement prometteuses sur le de la génétique. Bien que ce texte n’offre phonique, que les personnes de couleur
plan thérapeutique, peuvent engendrer par qu’une première réflexion sur le sujet, son étaient, de naissance – ou génétiquement –
inadvertance des risques sociaux qui trans- objectif immédiat consiste à étendre l’analyse moins intelligentes1. Un point très important
cendent les préoccupations individuelles pour capter les problèmes de droits de la pour les fins de cette discussion : celui-ci a fait
des personnes qui prennent part à ces personne engendrés par les tests génétiques état de certaines études soi-disant scientifiques
études. Cela étant le cas, nous nous réalisés sur des individus et analyser les rami- à l’appui de ses dires racistes répréhensibles.
pencherons dans les lignes qui suivent sur le fications négatives possibles des résultats de Adhérant à une thèse quelque peu simi-
stigmate particulier lié à l’information géné- ces tests sur les groupes vulnérables. laire, une étude parue dans le Journal of
tique et sur ses répercussions possibles en Plus précisément, il est logique de penser Biosocial Science suggère non seulement
matière des droits de la personne, au-delà qu’on pourrait malencontreusement utiliser qu’un groupe d’humains est plus intelligent
du contexte de l’assurance et de l’emploi. les résultats des évaluations individuelles que d’autres, mais explique le processus
Une telle analyse soulève les intérêts pour formuler des hypothèses générales sur génétique qui, allègue-t-on, serait à la source
divergents possibles entre les membres des groupes ethniques ou autres. Cela de ce phénomène. Il s’agit des Juifs ashké-
déclarés de groupes historiquement entraînerait une réévaluation des mécanis- nazes; le processus en question est la
vulnérables et le groupe lui-même, que le mes de droits humains axés sur l’individu. sélection naturelle. L’article fait état
droit semble privilégier la thèse du consensus En voici un exemple. En 2005, un psychia- d’une douzaine de gènes pathologiques
dans le contexte génétique. Face à ces diffi- tre a suscité une énorme controverse (pour ne courants chez les Juifs ashkénazes et de
cultés, cet article propose une approche pas dire la fureur) à Montréal lorsqu’il a leur rôle présumé dans ce processus de

1
Les personnes de couleur avaient un quotient intellectuel inférieur à la moyenne. CTV.ca News Staff, « Quebec Radio Shrink Sparks Complaints of Racism », 29 septembre 2005, à
l’adresse : <http:// www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20050928/mailloux_defends_ 050928/20050928?hub=Canada> (consulté pour la dernière fois le 21 septembre 2007).

GENETIC DETERMINISM
AND DISCRIMINATION:
A Call to Re-Orient Prevailing Human Rights
Discourse to Better Comport with the Public
Implications of Individual Genetic Testing
Professor Karen Eltis

“Privacy Abstract:
Genetic testing can not only provide infor-
could haplessly be used to make general
assumptions about entire ethic or gender
considerations no mation about diseases but also respecting
their prevalence in ethnic, gender or other
groups. In this manner, genetic information
can directly influence identity impacting
longer arise out of vulnerable populations. While offering the
promise of significant therapeutic benefits
and perhaps even reframing conceptions of
group rights and dimensions of self-identi-
particular individual and serving to highlight our commonality,
genetic information also raises a number of
fication, thus importing constitutional scrutiny
on questions of dignity and discrimination
problems; rather, sensitive human rights issues touching on
identity and the perception thereof, as well
in particular. Is there a risk of collective
stigmatization deriving from discrete testing
they express associal
the possibility of discrimination and
stigma. Moreover, the stoicism with
of self-identified individuals? Would such
stigmatization impinge on individual dignity
conflicts affecting which the public tends to greet such data is
of particular relevance to its eventual impact
by the exogenous imposition of ethnic or
gender/sexual identity? If so what norms can
everyone.”i on rights in the genomics age. It stands to
reason that the results of individual screenings
most adequately respond if and when indivi-
dual and group interests diverge? //

i
Spiros Simitis, “Reviewing Privacy in an Information Society”, 135 U. PA. L. REV. 707, 709 (1987).

28 TECHLAW //
développement de l’intelligence2. Bien que des conclusions générales sur l’ensemble naturel des tests génétiques inappropriés, de
cette affirmation puisse paraître flatteuse à d’un groupe ethnique ou sexuel. toute évidence, les répercussions sociales
prime abord, quiconque connaît un tant soit Les ramifications publiques de l’informa- qui en résultent sont susceptibles de
peu l’histoire du peuple juif saisit tion génétique démontrent la nécessité porter atteinte aux droits des groupes, et
immédiatement que de telles allusions (au d’études multidisciplinaires approfondies plus particulièrement à leur droit à l’égalité
caractère exceptionnel ou au « génie » mani- offrant une réponse juridique éclairée, car et à la dignité.
feste des Juifs) servent uniquement à manifestement certaines formes de recherche C’est précisément le raisonnement fondé
alimenter le racisme3. peuvent comporter des risques sociaux plus sur la dignité qui semble le plus en harmonie
Enfin, même l’ancien président de importants que l’éclectisme des donneuses avec la protection des renseignements
l’Université Harvard a été invité à démis- et des donneurs de spécimens biologiques. susceptibles d’engendrer la diffamation à
sionner après s’être prononcé sur la À titre d’exemple, songeons à l’étude des l’égard d’un groupe.
soi-disant « infériorité » des femmes en prédispositions comportementales – en Pour compliquer encore les choses, il est
mathématiques et en sciences en raison de particulier la prédisposition à la violence – fort plausible que les intérêts des individus
leur bagage génétique inné. Dans cette et à son intersection avec l’ethnicité et le appartenant à des groupes divers divergent de
même veine, soulignons que les données sexe. Il va sans dire que ce genre d’études ceux du groupe lui-même dans le contexte
« scientifiques » qui fondent les prétentions risque d’avoir des répercussions importantes génétique. Cela remet donc en question la
de ce biologiste de formation rendent ses sur le fonctionnement du système pénal. présomption fréquente de l’intersection entre
propos particulièrement consternants. Déjà, aux États-Unis des condamnés à mort les intérêts des membres individuels et de la
Si les débats juridiques ont été limités invoquent la défense « du mauvais sang », collectivité d’un groupe minoritaire, que le
jusqu’ici à déterminer si l’information prétendant que leur comportement criminel droit semble tenir pour acquis.
génétique constitue une forme exception- est la conséquence d’un gène qui les prédis- Perçu sous cet angle, même le « critère du
nelle de renseignements personnels, pose à la violence et que ce comportement bienfait thérapeutique », que proposent la
justifiant donc un traitement normatif est indépendant de leur volonté. plupart des éthiciens qui préconisent les
distinct, la discussion s’est faite presque S’il est vrai que « [TRADUCTION] le préju- tests génétiques uniquement s’ils sont béné-
exclusivement dans le contexte des assur- dice résultant des tests ciblant des groupes fiques pour la santé du sujet, semble peu
ances et de l’emploi ou, plus précisément, vulnérables (ethniques ou autres) particuliers pertinent dans ce contexte, car même si l’in-
dans la perspective des individus soumis au dépasse le seul individu et porte atteinte à des dividu en tire un avantage véritable, les
criblage génétique. groupes sociaux en entier », comme le résultats du test risquent d’encourager le
Mais qu’en est-il des personnes appar- suggèrent Jin et coll. (Yale), est-ce que des développement de stéréotypes nuisibles
tenant à que ce la Cour suprême du Canada mesures législatives, mêmes particulières, pour le groupe avec lequel est associé l’indi-
appelle « les groupes historiquement conçues dans le cadre de « [TRADUCTION] vidu assujetti au test.
vulnérables? ». Chose étonnante, les réper- notre système actuel de protection des Pour résumer la nature du problème
cussions publiques de l’ethnicité et du sexe humains sujets de recherche centrée sur l’indi- abordé ici : premièrement, le débat actuel
vus à travers le prisme du savoir génomique vidu, […] peuvent offrir une protection sur l’information génétique est confiné
ont à peine fait l’objet d’études. adéquate » par rapport aux conséquences des presque entièrement à ses ramifications
Pourtant il devient de plus en plus tests génétiques pour le public? sur la santé et la vie privée; deuxièmement,
manifeste que le risque de discrimination Mon intention est de susciter une le débat part habituellement de la présomp-
génétique transcende la sphère des préoccu- réflexion sur ce sujet précis. Cette probléma- tion que les intérêts d’un individu et de
pations personnelles – et, il va sans dire, le tique se prête mieux à une analyse fondée son groupe social sont identiques, ce qui
contexte étroit de l’assurance et de l’emploi. sur les droits de la personne (en particulier n’est pas toujours le cas; enfin, le débat
Les exemples précités relativement à l’intelli- sur la dignité) qu’à la législation spécifique semble oublier le stoïcisme avec lequel le
gence présumée de certaines cohortes ou ad hoc4. public en général accueille les données
démontrent bien, de fait, comment les résul- De plus, bien que le droit à la vie privée scientifiques et l’effet unique de la science
tats de tests individuels peuvent servir à tirer ait été qualifié comme étant l’enjeu le plus sur la culture populaire.

2
G. Cochran, J. Hardy et H. Harpending, « Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence », Journal of Biosocial Science 35, nº 5 (2006): 659-693, à l’adresse :
<http://homepage.mac.com/harpend/. Public/AshkenaziIQ.jbiosocsci.pdf> (consulté pour la dernière fois le 21 septembre 2007).
3
Voir J. A. Barondess, « Care of the Medical Ethos, with Some Comments on Research: Reflections after the Holocaust », Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43, nº 3 (2000): 308-324.
Selon Green et coll.:, « Historically, genetic information has been used to discriminate against individuals and groups, particularly Jews and other minorities. » H. Markel, « The Stigma
of Disease: Implications of Genetic Screening », American Journal of Medicine 93, nº 2 (1992): 209-215.
4
Argumentation élaborée dans K. Eltis, « Genetic Determinism and Discrimination: A call to Reorient Prevailing Human Rights Discourse to Better Comport with the Public
Implications of Genetic Testing » 35 J.L. Med. & Ethics 282 (2007).

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 29


CONCLUSION
Si, à bien des égards, l’information génétique s’apparente aux autres formes de
données prévisibles en matière de la santé aux fins de l’assurance et de l’emploi, ses
ramifications publiques, et plus particulièrement ses répercussions dans l’esprit du
public, ou l’incompréhension de questions liées à l’ethnicité et au sexe dénotent des
différences fondamentales qui méritent que l’on s’y attarde davantage.
Les scientifiques jouissent de la confiance qu’ont perdue les politiciens; ils revêtent
leur habit blanc et du coup, leur légitimité leur est acquise, ou presque. De plus, les
juristes transforment les déclarations équivoques des scientifiques en propos univo-
ques. Le paradoxe, comme le souligne le Dr Arthur Caplan (du Centre of Bioethics
Penn Medicine), est le suivant : bien que la capacité prédictive de l’information géné-
tique, selon l’hypothèque la plus optimiste, ne soit pas à l’abri de l’erreur, la
perception qu’ont les gens de leurs gènes (et de ceux d’autrui) est particulière, voire
teintée de fatalisme, pour ne pas dire de stoïcisme.
Bien que l’information génétique puisse éventuellement, et fort heureusement,
aider à chasser les notions d’ethnicité ou de « race » simplistes et trompeuses qui sont
à la source de bien des problèmes de racisme et nous amener à rejeter la terminologie
raciale dichotomique, le manque de questionnement avec lequel le public tend à
accepter les conclusions « scientifiques » donne lieu de craindre d’éventuelles manip-
ulations . Les décideurs politiques en savent souvent trop peu en matière de science
pour réglementer efficacement dans le domaine et le public en sait encore moins.
Une préoccupation connexe : des facteurs non génétiques – comme la pauvreté –
échappent à la vigilance.
QUE POUVONS-NOUS ET DEVONS-NOUS FAIRE dans ce contexte? Notre inten-
tion modeste, ici, consiste simplement à éveiller l’attention générale aux ramifications
sociales de la discrimination génétique – et à souscrire au besoin de repenser le débat,
pour l’instant principalement centré sur les renseignements personnels, surtout dans
le contexte de l’emploi et de l’assurance – comme le démontre le régime canadien. Il
faut en outre veiller à ce que toute réponse éventuelle soit fondée sur les droits – tant
individuels que collectifs – plutôt que sur des considérations liées exclusivement à la
santé, puisque le « critère du bienfait thérapeutique », comme nous l’indiquions,
pourrait ne pas toujours comporter la solution recherchée. Dans une perspective de
droits de la personne, il faudrait une solution qui reconnaisse la multiplicité des
intérêts en jeu, afin de stimuler une prise de décisions politiques éclairées. Les
chercheuses et les chercheurs ne peuvent être tenus responsables des perceptions des
facteurs génétiques chez le public, mais ils devraient être sensibles aux répercussions
importantes que peut avoir leur travail sur les relations sociales (Bhopal). On entend
énormément parler de la diabolisation de l’information génétique, mais l’idéalisation
de l’essentialisme génétique constitue peut-être une menace encore plus criante. //

30 TECHLAW //
The Law & Technology group at the University
of Ottawa prides itself in having the leading
program in Canada researching the legal and
social issues at the crossroads of law and
technology. An important part of this mission
has been assembling a group of faculty
unmatched at any other law school in
the country.
Professor Jane Bailey
Jane Bailey is an assistant professor at the University of Ottawa
Faculty of Law. She currently teaches in the areas of cyber-
This year, we added two professors to our ranks. feminism, contracts and civil procedure and has also taught
Professor Marina Pavlovic, and Dr. Teresa Scassa. regulation of internet communications. Her research focuses on
the intersections between law, equality, privacy and tech-
Marina Pavlovic nology, including in relation to online self-exposure, hate
LL.B. (Belgrade, Serbia), LL.M. (Ottawa) propaganda and child pornography. Her recent publications include:
“Confronting Collective Harm: Technology’s Transformative Impact on Child
LL.D. (Candidate, Ottawa)
Pornography” (2007) 56 UNBLJ 65; and “Seizing Control?: The Experience
Professor Pavlovic joined the Common Law English Program in
Capture Experiments of Ringley and Mann” (2007) 9 Ethics and Information
July 2007. She is currently completing her LL.D. dissertation at
Technology (co-authored with Ian Kerr). Her forthcoming publications include:
uOttawa, working under the supervision of Dr. Daniel Gervais.
“Life in the Fishbowl: Feminist Interrogations of Webcamming” in On the Identity
Prior to joining uOttawa as an Assistant Professor, Professor
Trail: Anonymity, Privacy and Identity in a Networked Society, Ian Kerr, Carole
Pavlovic acted as an in-house counsel for a telecommunication company in
Lucock and Valerie Steeves, eds.; “Framed By Section 8: Constitutional Protection
Belgrade (Serbia); as an of-counsel with a law firm in Salzburg (Austria), where she
of Privacy in Canada” (2008) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal
practiced in the area of international commercial arbitration; and was a part-time
Justice; “What’s So Cyber About It?: Reflections on Cyberfeminism’s Contribution
professor at the Common Law Section (2004-2007). Professor Pavlovic is also the
to Legal Studies” (2007) 19 CJWL (co-authored with Adrienne Telford); “Missing
Managing Editor of the University of Ottawa Law & Technology Journal. Her
Privacy through Individuation: The Treatment of Privacy in the Canadian Case
teaching focus is dispute resolution, and her research interests include dispute reso-
Law on Hate, Obscenity and Child Pornography” (2008) 31 Dalhousie Law
lution, comparative law, conflict of laws, and technology regulation and policy. //
Journal; and “Unreliable Data, Decontextualized Sorting & Invidious Discrimination:
Conceptualizing the Collective Privacy Violation of Harmful Speech Through
Data Management Concepts” (2008) 31 Dalhousie Law Journal. //
Dr. Teresa Scassa
Canada Research Chair in Information Law
Dr. Scassa joined the Law & Technology faculty in September, Professor Jennifer Chandler
2007 and is the Canada Research Chair in Information Law. She Professor Chandler is continuing her work looking at the
holds undergraduate law degrees in civil and common law from manner in which courts address disputes involving technology.
McGill University, as well as an LL.M. and an S.J.D. from the She is currently conducting major case studies involving vaccina-
University of Michigan. She taught at Dalhousie Law School for tion and psycho-physiological measurement technologies (e.g.
15 years before joining the faculty of law at the University of Ottawa as a full functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain as well as
professor in July 2007. She has taught a range of subjects including Intellectual polygraph testing). She is also completing work relating to the
Property, Law and Technology, Public Law, Administrative Law, and Professional permissible limits of self-help in response to identity theft.
Responsibility. She is a member of the Nova Scotia Barristers’ Society. She is co-editor Professor Chandler is also teaching a new course in medical-legal problems as well
of the Canadian Journal of Law and Technology, and co-author of the recent book as continuing her teaching in legal philosophy for the information age and tort law.
Electronic Commerce and Internet Law in Canada, (CCH Canadian Ltd.). Her research Professor Chandler recently published “The Autonomy of Technology: Do
and scholarship is primarily in the areas of intellectual property law, law and technology, courts control technology or do they just legitimize its social acceptance?” in the
and privacy. She has written articles on a range of topics in theses areas. // Bulletin of Science Technology & Society; “Liability for Breaches of Data Security”
in the Banking and Finance Law Review; “A Right to Reach an Audience: An
Approach to Intermediary Bias on the Internet” in the Hofstra Law Review; and
coauthored a chapter titled “Legal Challenges of Online Reputation Systems” in
Ronggong Song, Larry Korba and George Yee, eds, Trust in eServices: Technologies,
Practices and Challenges. //

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 31


Professor Jeremy de Beer
Professor Jeremy de Beer is currently engaged in research on
intellectual property with a particular focus on international
development and issues of access to knowledge. As the
research theme leader in the area of technology and intellectual
property with the EDGE Network on the Emerging Dynamic
Global Economies he is directing a multi-national and multi- Professor Michael Geist
disciplinary team of scholars funded by the IDRC to propose practical strategies for Michael Geist, Canada Research Chair in Internet and E-commerce
implementing WIPO’s Development Agenda into practice. Professor de Beer is also Law, has been active on a range of Internet issues including
a member of the research team on an IDRC-funded project on African Copyright digital copyright, net neutrality, privacy, and open access. His
and Access to Knowledge, a nearly million-dollar 28-month investigation of the work on digital copyright garnered widespread attention in
impact of copyright on access to learning materials in Africa. In several recent Canada after he launched a Facebook group focused on forth-
publications in Canada and abroad Professor de Beer has written about the rights coming copyright reform. The group grew to over 37,000
and responsibilities of intellectual property owners, particularly in respect of members and led to the government delaying the introduction of the legislation.
biotechnological innovations. In addition to speaking on that topic in various coun- Professor Geist appeared in numerous media interviews and was frequently credited
tries around the world, he has been continuing with his research on matters of with leading the movement in favour of balanced copyright reform in Canada.
copyright law. He is the author of a soon-to-be released study of orphan works In addition to his weekly column, which now appears in Canada in the Toronto
licensing at the Copyright Board of Canada. Other conference presentations and Star, Ottawa Citizen, and The Tyee as well as in the BBC and Ynet (Israel), Professor
publications have analyzed the legal, economic and social implications of peer- Geist delivered dozens of lectures throughout Canada and the United States on
produced digital content. This work is closely related to Professor de Beer’s unique emerging Internet issues in 2007. In the spring of 2007, he appeared before
advanced seminar on Digital Music Law, which he teaches at the University of several House of Commons committees including the Standing Committee on
Ottawa and elsewhere. In 2007-08, Professor de Beer is also teaching the Law of Industry to discuss telecom reform and counterfeiting, and the Standing
Negligence and his core course, an Introduction to Property Law. // Committee on Public Safety to discuss counterfeiting. //

Professor Karen Eltis


Professor Karen Eltis is a member of the Faculty of Law at the Acting Dean Daniel Gervais
University of Ottawa (Droit Civil), specializing in comparative In December 2007, Dean Gervais published Intellectual
constitutional law, new technologies/bioethics and democratic Property, Trade & Development (Oxford Univ. Press, 2007),
governance. She currently acts as Senior Advisor to the National which he edited and in which he wrote two chapters. The book
Judicial Institute (on secondment) and is the immediate past explores the many policy overlaps between trade, economic and
Director of the Human Rights Center and of the law faculty’s cultural development, intellectual property and human rights.
bi-juridical National Program. Karen holds law degrees from McGill University, the Dean Gervais also published three book chapters in European
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Columbia University School of Law Harlan publications dealing with intellectual property, human rights and reform of
Fiske Stone Scholar and served as comparative law clerk to President Aharon Barak Canadian copyright law and a major article on the legal protection of electronic
of the Supreme Court of Israel. Prior to joining the faculty, Professor Eltis practiced databases (Chicago-Kent law Journal). Dean Gervais is working on two new books
law in New York, focusing primarily on international arbitration. She is a member and a major empirical copyright research project and has just completed a report
of the New York State Bar Association’s Alternative Dispute Resolution Committee. to the Government of Canada on limitations and exceptions to copyright. In July
Some of her most recent publications include: “Comparative Constitutional 2007, he taught at the University of Amsterdam and participated in scholarly
Law and Judging in ‘Times of Terror’” (prepared for the Federal Court of Canada), events in Nashville (Vanderbilt University), Columbia (University of South Carolina)
“Genetic Testing : Discrimination and the Public Implications of Individual Testing” and Punta del Este (Uruguay) and New York (Cardozo Law School). //
34 Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Volume 3 (2007) and « La surveillance du
courrier électronique en milieu du travail: le Québec succombera t-il à l’approche
permissive américaine? » 51 Revue de droit McGill 475. Her current research
focuses on the impact of technology on courts and judicial ethics. // Professor Mistrale Goudreau
Mistrale Goudreau has been a member of the Quebec Bar since
1981 and is associate professor at the Civil Law Section of the
David Fewer University of Ottawa where she teaches courses on intellectual
David Fewer joined the Faculty as Legal Counsel to the property, law and technology and statutory interpretation. She
Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic in November, has been also lecturer and visiting professor at the Faculty of
2004. Since 1997, Mr. Fewer has practised intellectual property law of the University of Montreal, at the Faculty of Law of the
and technology law, first with national law firms and, since University of Nantes (France), and at the Canadian Foreign Service Institute (CFSI)
2003, with his own firm, Fewer & Company. in Ottawa, as well as research fellow at the Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches
Prior to entering private practice, Mr. Fewer completed an und internationales Patent-, Urheber- und Wettbewerbsrecht ( Munich, Germany)
LL.M. at the University of Toronto, where he wrote on intellectual property policy and consultant for the Government of Canada. In the past, Mistrale Goudreau has
and the application of the Charter to copyright law. Mr. Fewer also clerked with acted as the executive director of the Council of Canadian Law Deans and as the
the Federal Court of Canada, where he had the opportunity to work with a assistant dean for clinical and applied teaching and the vice-dean of the Civil Law
number of judges at both the Court of Appeal and Trial Division on intellectual Section of the University of Ottawa. She is a member of the executive committee
property and related matters. He has taught and written extensively on intellectual of the editorial board of Les cahiers de propriété intellectuelle. She is the author of
property and technology law issues. numerous articles on copyright, unfair competition, commercial law and civil
Mr. Fewer leads advocacy on intellectual property-related matters at CIPPIC, responsibility, of a book entitled Guide juridique du droit d’auteur (Ministère de la
Canada’s only technology law clinic. Mr. Fewer’s work at CIPPIC focuses on training Culture et des Communications, 1998) and she collaborated to the publication of
students in effective advocacy, producing relevant online resources, and articu- Le droit de la propriété intellectuelle (Yvon Blais, 2006). //
lating a public interest perspective in government policy development and
law-making processes. //

32 TECHLAW //
Professor Elizabeth F. Judge Philippa Lawson
Dr. Elizabeth F. Judge, associate professor, specializes in intellectual Philippa Lawson is the director of Canada’s only technology law
property, law and literature, and privacy. She is a founding clinic, located at the University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law. Prior
editor and the Editor-in-Chief and Faculty Advisor for the to starting up CIPPIC in 2003, she was Senior Counsel with the
University of Ottawa Law & Technology Journal, project leader Public Interest Advocacy Centre in Ottawa, Canada, where she
for Open Access Law Canada, and the co-author of Intellectual represented consumer groups in court and regulatory proceedings,
Property: The Law in Canada. Her research focuses on interdis- multi-stakeholder working groups, and other policy-making
ciplinary law and literature scholarship, especially intersections between copyright forums from 1991 to 2003. Ms. Lawson is a nationally recognized public interest
and authorship. Her current research, supported by the Social Sciences and advocate, and has worked with Canadian and international consumer organizations
Humanities Research Council of Canada, studies eighteenth-century fan fiction of since the early 1990s on many initiatives involving telecommunications, privacy
iconic fictional characters in the emerging genre of the eighteenth-century British and consumer protection in the online environment. She is currently a co-investigator
novel, the history of copyright law, and legal and literary ideas of originality and on the SSHRC-funded “On The Identity Trail” project (see www.idtrail.org), and is
authorship. Her recent publications include “Intellectual Property Law as an the lead investigator for the research project “Legal and Policy Approaches to
Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability Identity Theft” funded by the Ontario Research Network on Electronic Commerce
for Intellectual Property Owners” in the Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society (ORNEC). As Director of CIPPIC, Ms. Lawson’s work focuses on training students in
and “Kidnapped and Counterfeit Characters: Eighteenth-Century Fan Fiction, effective advocacy, producing relevant online resources, and ensuring that the public
Copyright Law, and Custodial Interests in Fictional Characters” in Originality and interest is robustly represented in government policy development and law-making
Intellectual Property in the French and English Enlightenment, ed. Reginald processes on issues involving new technologies.
McGinnis (Routledge, 2008). // Recent publications include On the Data Trail: How Detailed Information About
You ends up in the Hands of Organizations with whom You have no Relationship
(April 2006); Compliance with Canadian Data Protection Laws; Are Retailers
Andy Kaplan-Myrth Measuring Up? (April 2006), and Approaches to Security Breach Notification: A
Andy Kaplan-Myrth is the Manager of the Law & Technology White Paper (Jan.2007). //
group. He has a background in Mathematics and holds an M.A.
in Linguistics and Cognitive Science from Yale University. Andy
has an interest in public policy and education about legal issues Professor Valerie Steeves
related to the internet and other technologies. After earning his Valerie Steeves is an Assistant Professor in the Department of
LL.B. in the Law & Technology program at the University of Criminology. One of her main areas of research is the impact of
Ottawa and articling at a national firm, Andy returned to the Faculty as the group’s new technologies on children’s privacy. Her recent publications
Manager. Andy is also a Project Lead for Creative Commons Canada and last year include two book chapters on online playgrounds: “The
co-authored the Podcasting Legal Guide for Canada with Kathleen Simmons. // Watched Child: Surveillance in Three Online Playgrounds”,
Proceedings of the International Conference on the Rights of
the Child (Montreal: Wilson Lafleur, forthcoming 2008); and
Professor Ian Kerr “Who’s Minding the Kids?: Online Surveillance of Tinys and Tweeneys”, coauthored
with Ian Kerr, A Sociedade Vigilante: Ensaios sobre Privacidade, IdentificaÁ„o e
Ian Kerr is the Canada Research Chair in Ethics, Law &
Vigil‚ncia. Frois, Catarina (org.) (Lisboa: Imprensa de CiÍncias Sociais, 2008). She
Technology. He holds a three way appointment in the Faculties
has also written about the effectiveness of the current legislative framework to
of Law and Medicine and the Department of Philosophy at the
protect children’s privacy in “Closing the Barn Door: The Effect of Parental
University of Ottawa. Dr. Kerr teaches in the areas of moral
Supervision on Canadian Children’s Online Privacy,” coauthored with Cheryl
philosophy and applied ethics, internet and ecommerce law,
Webster (Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 2008) and “Broken Doors:
contract law and legal theory, and has published writings in
Strategies for Drafting Privacy Policies Kids Can Understand,” coauthored with
academic books and journals on the ethical and legal aspects of digital copyright,
Jacquelyn Burkell and Anca Micheti ( Office of the Privacy Commissioner of
automated electronic commerce, artificial intelligence, cybercrime, nanotech-
Canada: 2007). Professor Steeves also sits on a number of committees dealing
nology, internet regulation, ISP and intermediary liability, online defamation,
with law and technology issues, including the Canadian Standards Association
pre-natal injuries and unwanted pregnancies. His current program of research
Technical Committee on Privacy and the American Association for the
includes an examination of the impact of the human-machine merger on existing
Advancement of Science Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility. //
regimes of regulation, and how we ought to regulate such mergers taking into
account the various social and ethical issues they raise. He is co-editing, with
Valerie Steeves and Carole Lucock, a book titled On the Identity Trail: Anonymity,
Privacy and Identity in a Networked Society (Oxford University Press), which will
articulate the themes and questions that have emerged as a result of his SSHRC
project’s investigations over the past four years. Dr. Kerr recently published a book
chapter on emerging health technologies in Canada Health Law and Policy, 3rd edition,
as well as a two journal articles: “Seizing Control?: The Experience Capture
Experiments of Ringley & Mann” in Ethics and Information Technology, with Jane
Bailey, and “Emanations, Snoop Dogs and Reasonable Expectation of Privacy” in
Criminal Law Quarterly, with Jena McGill. //

TECHLAW // 01/08 // v5.1 33


The Law & Technology Program at
the University of Ottawa, Faculty of
Law was founded in 1998 and is the
leading program of its kind in Canada.
Providing specialized courses, practical
experience and the opportunity to
conduct innovative research, the
program covers both the graduate
and undergraduate level.
From its location in Canada’s technology capital, the University of
Ottawa Law & Technology Program acts as a central source of legal
information and expertise for policy-making and judicial determina-
tion in Canada and has been instrumental in producing technology law
practitioners that now occupy all facets of the technology law field. //

LAW +
TECHNOLOGY
Créé en 1998, le programme de droit et tech-
nologie de la Faculté de droit de l’Université
d’Ottawa est un programme d’avant-garde,
unique en son genre au Canada. On y offre des
cours spécialisés, des expériences pratiques et la
possibilité de mener des recherches novatrices,
tant au premier cycle qu’aux cycles supérieurs.
L’Université d’Ottawa est située dans la capitale canadienne des technologies et son
programme de droit et technologie constitue un noyau vital sur le plan de l’information
juridique et de l’expertise dans le domaine de l’élaboration de politiques et de décisions
judiciaires au Canada. Ce programme a joué un rôle clé dans la formation de juristes
spécialisés en droit et technologie qui exercent maintenant leur profession dans tous les
domaines du droit des technologies. //