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ADVANTAGE

TM

EXCELLENCE IN ENGINEERING SIMULATION


VOLUME II ISSUE 3 2008

GETTING CONNECTED
WITH MEMS
PAGE 8

ENERGY PREDICTING DESIGNING FOR A


SPOTLIGHT VIBRATIONS COMPETITIVE EDGE
PAGE 13 PAGE 24 PAGE 27
EDITORIAL

The Power of Structural


Dynamics Simulation
Analyzing time-varying loads helps develop innovative products
with vibration, motion and other real-world behavior in mind.

Companies increasingly rely on structural dynamics scenarios such as bomb-blast damage to buildings,
simulation to study how products vibrate, bend, twist and ballistic impact of aircraft on power stations, stamping and
otherwise move when subjected to loads that vary over other metal-forming manufacturing operations, or drop
time. Whereas static analysis is traditionally used to deter- testing of cell phones and other consumer products.
mine characteristics such as stress and deflection of The beauty of this breadth and depth of ANSYS struc-
individual parts under a constant load — such as a weight tural dynamics solutions is that they are not confined to
on the end of a beam — structural dynamics enables specialists intimately familiar with the technology who are
designers and engineers to study product behavior in running problems on supercomputers. Rather, analysis
greater detail. Such analysis could include determining the compression techniques enable most problems to be run
natural frequency of a washing machine so the appliance on conventional desktop machines. Moreover, analysis
doesn’t jump around in the spin cycle, for example, or cal- models are far easier to set up through the ANSYS
culating the fatigue life of a car suspension to withstand Workbench interface — with features for extracting
years of pounding by potholes and rough roads. geometry directly from CAD systems, building models
Structural dynamics is being implemented in an with robust meshing tools, and setting up the analysis with
expanding range of applications, as seen in some of this a simulation tree that describes problems in user-friendly
issue’s articles. “Predicting Vibrations in High Power terminology related to geometry and physical behavior.
Burners” describes how engineers shortened development In this way, engineers can easily perform structural
time by five months by determining an assembly’s natural dynamics simulation as a routine part of development —
frequencies through modal analysis and refining the design fixing problems, refining designs and optimizing product
early to avoid these damaging displacements. “No More performance early in the cycle instead of with costly, time-
Dropped Calls” covers the work of an engineering team at consuming and usually less-precise physical testing. On a
EPCOS NL that used multiphysics analysis to account for corporate level, forward-thinking manufacturers with the
fluid, electrostatic and mechanical effects in simulating the good sense to invest in these tools enjoy the benefits of
transient dynamic response of an innovative RF-MEMS higher profitability and greater market share through well-
switch that promises to reduce the number of disconnected engineered products designed with vibration, motion and
cell phone calls and extend battery life. “Analyzing Random other real-world behavior in mind. ■
Vibration Fatigue” is about tools based on probability and
statistics used to study the damaging effects of highly
unpredictable arbitrary loads. There are also advanced tools
for studying nonlinear dynamics where large, high-speed John Krouse, Senior Editor and Industry Analyst
loads permanently deform structures. Applications include

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Executive Editor Art Director Ad Sales Manager Designer About the Cover
Chris Hardee Susan Wheeler Shane Moeykens Miller Creative Group EPCOS NL and Philips
Helen Renshaw Applied Technologies have
Managing Editor Editors Circulation Manager used simulation to develop
Chris Reeves Erik Ferguson Graphics Contributor Sharon Everts an RF-MEMS switch for
Fran Hensler Dan Hart improving cell phone signal
Senior Editor and Marty Mundy strength.
Industry Analyst Shane Moeykens Editorial Advisor
John Krouse Kelly Wall Cell phone © iStockphoto.com/
michal koziarski; French wine valley
© iStockphoto.com/katarzyna mazurowska
Email the editorial staff at ansys-advantage@ansys.com.
ANSYS Advantage is published for ANSYS, Inc. customers, partners and others interested in the field of design and analysis applications.
Neither ANSYS, Inc. nor the senior editor nor Miller Creative Group guarantees or warrants accuracy or completeness of the material contained in this publication.
ANSYS, ANSYS Workbench, CFX, AUTODYN, FLUENT, DesignModeler, ANSYS Mechanical, DesignSpace, ANSYS Structural, TGrid, GAMBIT and any and all ANSYS, Inc.
brand, product, service, and feature names, logos and slogans are registered trademarks or trademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subsidiaries located in the United States
or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark licensed by ANSYS, Inc. All other brand, product, service and feature names or trademarks are the property of their
respective owners.

© 2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.


CONTENTS

Table of Contents
FEATURES
4 SPORTS
Faster, Higher, Stronger
Engineering simulation in sports comes of age at the
2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.

8 ELECTRONICS
4
No More Dropped Calls
Using true multiphysics incorporating fluid, electrostatic and
mechanical effects, engineers are simulating the transient
dynamic response of an innovative RF-MEMS switch for
improving cell phone signal strength.

10 THOUGHT LEADER
Simulation-Based Innovation
as a Competitive Advantage
Predictive analysis tools save time and money at Xerox and, more
8 important, enable top-line revenue growth and the competitive
advantage that comes from developing winning products.

Spotlight on Engineering Simulation for the


Energy Industries
13 The Global Challenge
As engineers and technologists rally to meet energy and
environmental demands, they turn to engineering simulation
13 to solve their most complex problems.

16 Blending Solar Panels with Roof Profiles


Simulation guides the design of innovative solar panel
frames, reducing molding time, material and cost.

18 Coupling Analyses to Improve


Nuclear Safety
Coupled thermal hydraulic and stress analysis of
a CANDU feeder pipe helps determine integrity.

20
20 Reformers Getting Results
Simulation pushes diesel-powered fuel cells
on their way to early markets.

22 Harnessing Natural Energy


Multiple simulation tools are used as a cost-effective
way to design reliable offshore wind turbines.

24 Predicting Vibrations in
High Power Burners
Engineering simulation reduces development time
for industrial burners by five months.
24

2 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


CONTENTS

SIMULATION @ WORK
27 SPORTS ANSYS Adds Leading Electronics
Picking Up Speed
Speedbike designers use fluid simulation to gain Solutions to Its Portfolio
a competitive edge.
The recent acquisition of
30 AUTOMOTIVE
Ansoft Corporation by ANSYS,
Electromagnetics Comes Through Inc. augments the depth and
in the Clutch breadth of the ANSYS port-
BorgWarner engineers meet a tight deadline in optimizing
folio of engineering simulation
the design of a revolutionary variable-torque clutch for
solutions for electronics by
all-wheel-drive vehicles.
providing increased functionality,
32 PARTNERS usability and interoperability.
Higher Returns on the As a leading developer of high-
Simulation Investment performance electronic design
Optimizing Linux clusters for ANSYS Mechanical software automation software, Ansoft is
delivers fast turnaround on large problems. world-renowned for expertise in
electromagnetic, circuit and system simulation. This tech-
nology is highly complementary to leading-edge solutions from
DEPARTMENTS ANSYS in the areas of structural, fluids, thermal and electro-
34 ACADEMIC magnetic simulation.
Because electronics are now integral to many products
Driven to Simulation
A teenage student helps improve the aerodynamic design from automobiles to coffee makers to industrial equipment,
of F1 race cars using ANSYS software and Windows high true virtual prototyping must encompass all design aspects of
performance computing. those products. The fusion of ANSYS and Ansoft provides us
with a unique opportunity to address the convergence of
36 ANALYSIS TOOLS mechanical, fluids and electrical engineering that will take
Stretching Your Elastomer Understanding simulation to a new level — a level that will provide the true
Accurate nonlinear analysis leads to a better material selection multiphysics design solutions our customers need.
process that enables innovation and faster time to market. The next issue of ANSYS Advantage, to be distributed in
December, will feature articles that introduce readers to the
39 TIPS AND TRICKS
broad range of capabilities added by the Ansoft product port-
Analyzing Random Vibration Fatigue
folio, for the design of products such as cellular phones,
Powerful ANSYS Workbench tools help calculate the damage
Internet-access devices, communications systems, integrated
of vibrations that lack straightforward cyclic repetition.
circuits, broadband components, printed circuit boards, auto-
43 Extracting Solution-Dependent motive electronics systems and power electronics.
Regions in CFX-Post We are excited about the state-of-the-art technologies that
Identifying and quantifying regions of reverse flow Ansoft adds to the simulation software portfolio from ANSYS.
in the CFX-Post fluids post-processor. The integration of these two companies and our technologies
will enable ANSYS to better serve our customers throughout
45 OUTSIDE THE BOX
the world by accelerating the delivery of powerful and compre-
Bio-Inspiring Engineering
hensive, customer-driven engineering simulation solutions.
Scientists use nature to advance technology.

James E. Cashman III


President and Chief Executive Officer
ANSYS, Inc.

34

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 3


FEATURE: SPORTS

Citius, Altius, Fortius


Faster, Higher, Stronger
Engineering simulation in sports comes of age at the
2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.
By Chris Hardee, Executive Editor, ANSYS Advantage

Simulation has also been used in


the two most recent Olympic Games —
the 2004 Summer Games in Athens,
Greece, and the 2006 Winter Games in
Torino, Italy — but both its adoption
and visibility have been somewhat lim-
ited to date. The recent launch of the
Speedo racing swimsuit in February of
2008, though, has made quite a splash
in the press. The timing of the product
launch to coincide with the Olympics,
the publicity that the rapidly falling
world records has generated, and the
subsequent controversy about fair-
ness that the suit has sparked have
Donald Miralle/Getty Images generated a high level of buzz. The
Swimmers at the 2008 U.S. Olympic Trials wearing the Speedo LZR RACER suit Beijing Games in all likelihood will
be a turning point in the marriage of
In the Olympics, hundredths of a reach, is now also reaching into the simulation and sport, accelerating its
second can be all that separates a world of sports. High-profile examples adoption by teams and nations looking
medal performance from no medal at — such as the 2007 America’s Cup and to improve medal counts and shining
all. When the margin of victory is that the 2007 Formula One racing season the spotlight on simulation for specta-
small — whether running or rowing, — have conclusively demonstrated the tors and the general public. It wouldn’t
cycling or swimming — elite athletes effectiveness of computer-aided engi- be surprising if post-event office cooler
will look for an advantage that provides neering and the competitive advantage conversations turn to the simulation
a competitive edge. Dedicated training it can provide. In both examples, the color commentary.
has always been the foundation for a winners invested heavily in simulation While certain individuals in the
gold medal performance, but with only analysis. sporting community have carried the
fractions of a heartbeat separating
winners and losers, techniques such Image © Camera4/Thonfeld
as psychology, nutrition, physical
therapy, massage and meditation have
all become important tools for the
Olympic athlete. With athletic perform-
ance in many sports approaching
the supposed limits of the human
body, improved performance will more
often come from dimensions other
than fitness.
Engineering simulation, a valuable
tool in certain high-tech industries for
the last three decades and currently
growing in its commercial and industrial
The German double flatwater kayaking team (foreground) at the 2007 World Championships

4 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


FEATURE: SPORTS

Olympic venues are the physical


culmination of years of planning and
construction, often preceded by
prestigious architectural design compe-
titions. The structures are innovative
and visually stunning and are meant not
only to engender pride from the host
country, but also to serve as iconic
landmarks for the future. While these
innovative designs push the architec-
tural envelope, simulation technology
has played a significant role by
validating that innovative designs, con-
struction techniques and materials will
work with certainty.
People all over the world tuned in to
Image courtesy British Cycling the Beijing Summer Games in August
2008 and witnessed a stage that was
British track cyclist (center) at the 2008 World Championships
created in part by the technological
sophistication and power of computer-
simulation torch for years, and certain While simulation is likely to emerge aided engineering technologies. They
teams and countries have already into the public spotlight in this year’s also watched sporting events on that
adopted it wholeheartedly, others are Olympic Games because of its impact stage in which the same technology
just beginning to experiment. The simu- on the events themselves, its impact had been brought to bear. Faster,
lation-enabled medal count in Beijing and influence on the design of the Higher, Stronger — the Olympic motto
will likely provide the tipping point. The event venues — the stadia and sport- — could as easily be a description
water sports — where hydrodynamic ing centers — while no less significant, of the benefits of engineering simu-
design and optimized technique will most likely remain out of the public lation. A paddle stroke, a flip turn, a
can enhance speed — are all prime eye. The use of both mechanical and heartbeat and hundredths of a second
candidates for further analysis. This fluids analysis for the design of build- were the story in Beijing and often were
includes swimming, of course, but also ings and the comfort and safety of the all that determined which athletes
all of the boating events, such as spectators, press and athletes who use won a medal. It was interesting to
canoeing, kayaking, rowing and sailing. the buildings is a more traditional and watch how many simulation-enhanced
As with the America’s Cup yacht entrenched use of the technology. athletes stood on the podium.
designs, which have benefited from a
significant investment in simulation
analysis, every detail of boat design,
from the hull to the most inconsequen-
2008 Beijing Olympic Results
tial fixture, can influence performance
and benefit from multiphysics analysis.
Swimmers wearing Speedo’s new LZR RACER® suit,
All of the cycling events, with victory designed using ANSYS software, won 94% of the gold
dependent on aerodynamic and struc- medals awarded and set 23 new world records.
tural variables — such as helmet shape,
wheel design, derailleur materials, and
shifter mechanisms — can benefit from
fluids and structural analysis. In tennis,
The British track cycling team, supported by ANSYS
raquet design and material choices technology, won 13 medals, including 7 golds in a total
have already revolutionized the sport, of 10 events.
increasing speed, power and control.
And even in track and field events,
where the equipment is simple —
simply shoes in many cases — design
With ANSYS simulation-enhanced boat designs, the
and material advances can provide German flatwater kayaking team won a total of 6 medals.
increased bounce, a lengthened stride
and the infinitesimal nose that can pro-
vide the winning edge in a photo finish.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 5


FEATURE:
FEATURE: SPORTS
SPORTS
VENUES

Angelo Cavalli/Getty Images

The National Stadium – Table Tennis Badminton


Bird’s Nest Gymnasium Arena
The Beijing National Stadium, or Bird’s As one of the most popular sports in Badminton — another popular sport in
Nest, is the main stadium for the Beijing China, table tennis warranted a worthy China, like table tennis — was played in
games and was designed by Swiss archi- venue. The gymnasium’s roof, incorpo- an arena designed in the shape of a
tects Herzog & de Meuron to incorporate rating a central transparent ball shape, shuttlecock. The building is a single-
universal qualities of beauty and to be sen- was designed in keeping with both tradi- layer reticulated shell structure that is
sitive to Chinese cultural traditions. This tional features and the modern Beijing 62 meters long by 46 meters wide.
venue hosted the opening and closing cer- style. Researchers at Tongji University Researchers at Beijing University of
emonies as well as the track and field used ANSYS software for a nonlinear
analysis of the pre-stressed, steel
truss roof structure. In this analysis,
researchers assessed the hybrid
tension design for pre-stress, nonlinear
buckling and the ultimate bearing
capacity of the roof. The engineering
group applied BEAM188 elements and
took into account geometric, material
and support condition nonlinearities
STR/Getty Images
caused by the slide bearing. The team
determined that the structural validity Technology used ANSYS software to
of the roof depended on the strength perform a nonlinear stability analysis. The
and rigidity of the support column, team used BEAM188 elements — a 3-D
which is comprised of a central rigid linear finite beam element, based on the
Image © Sunmdm/dreamstime.com
ring (5 meter by 2 meter) and roof Timoshenko beam theory. The analysis
events. The 332 meter long by 296 meter brace system. The analysis helped in took into account shear deformation and
wide elliptical structure has an unusual lat- the creation of an optimum design. rotational inertia effects. Utilizing ANSYS
tice steel design. One group of researchers Parametric Design Language (APDL), the
simulated the structure using ANSYS research team constructed a virtual
software for static and dynamic analysis. model of the arena. The simulation
Another group used simulation to evaluate results indicated that the structure is
the structural response to a spatially least stable if the initial geometry dis-
varying magnitude 7 earthquake in which figurement ratio is approximately 1/250.
there were multiple support excitations and
multiple natural frequencies in the 1 to 6 Hz
range. In this study, displacements of up
to 0.9 meters were predicted and within
Cancan Cho/Getty Images
acceptable limits for the design.

6 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


Events FEATURE: SPORTS

Track Cycling – The British National Team


In competitive track cycling, aerodynamic drag is perhaps the most important adversary. Pedal-
ing a single-speed, lightweight racing bicycle on a 250-meter banked oval track requires
attention to every detail in order to shave fractions of seconds.
The bicycle–rider system, while seemingly simple, contains
approximately 250 components — all of them critical when
waging a war on drag. Derailleur, sprocket, chain, wheels,
helmets and suits can all be optimized, resulting in incremental
gains in speed. Working with UK Sport’s Innovation team, the
British track cycling team has employed simulation technology
supported by TotalSim to a degree that few other Olympic
teams have done to date. Following the 2004
Image courtesy British Cycling Image courtesy United Kingdom
Athens Games, in which they won four Sports Council

medals, the team has invested significant resources in research


and development, much of it on the computer. The results
at the recent World Track Championships in March
2008 had the British team winning nine out
of 18 gold medals.

Image courtesy Speedo

Swimming –
The Speedo LZR RACER Swimsuit
From the starting gun to the final touch, there is nothing between an
Olympic swimmer and a medal except water. Decreasing passive drag
was the engineering challenge that Speedo took on three years ago when it
partnered with a number of organizations — including ANSYS, NASA and sev-
eral universities — to create the world’s fastest swimsuit. In conjunction with
research on fabrics and suit construction, as well as testing in water flumes,
fluid analysis using ANSYS software was a critical part of the project. With
the analysis identifying the locations of greatest drag on the swimmer’s body, special
fabric panels were bonded to the suit in those regions and were also used to
mold the swimmer into a more hydrodynamic shape. It has been calcu-
lated that the suit has five percent less passive drag than their
previous fastest suit, and world records have fallen at an
unprecedented rate since the introduction of the
LZR RACER swimsuit in February 2008.

Image © Camera4/Thonfeld

Flatwater Kayaking –
The German National Team
Take a carbon fiber kayak no longer than 5.20 meters and no heavier than 12
kilograms with an accentuated V-shaped hull and very low draft when loaded. Add
elite paddlers stroking at racing pace with double-bladed paddles, and you have the
ingredients for a very complex simulation problem. The Institut for Research and Develop-
ment of Sports Equipment (FES) in Berlin performed this fluids analysis calculation using
ANSYS CFX software. As the paddles grab the water, the trim of the boat and the water
resistance change constantly. The simulation, which involved two-phase flow around the
Pool photo © iStockphoto.com/Purdue 9394

hull and calculation of the boat’s changing trim, were verified through experimentation in a
towing tank. The end result was an overall reduction in drag of up to three percent. Using
simulation, FES helped design the German team’s entire fleet of flatwater racing kayaks
for the Beijing Games, as well as boats for the canoeing, rowing and sailing events. ■

Thanks to the following for their assistance with this article: for the Speedo swimsuit story: Keith Hanna,
Leigh Bramall, Natalie Fieldsend and Helen Rushby, ANSYS UK, Ltd.; for the track cycling story: Rob Lewis,
Total Sim; Scott Drawer, UK Sport; Natalie Fieldsend, ANSYS UK, Ltd.; for the flatwater kayaking story:
Mathias Jirka, ANSYS Germany GmbH; Nicholas Warzecha, FES Berlin; for the Olympic venue stories: Tony
www.ansys.com Image courtesy FES Hu and Angela Liu, ANSYS China (Pera Global Holdings,
ANSYS Inc.).
Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 7
FEATURE: ELECTRONICS

No More
Dropped Calls
Using true multiphysics incorporating fluid, electrostatic
and mechanical effects, engineers are simulating the
transient dynamic response of an innovative RF-MEMS
switch for improving cell phone signal strength.
By Jeroen Bielen and Jiri Stulemeijer, EPCOS NL, Nijmegen
Sander Noijen, Philips Applied Technologies, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

One of the most perplexing prob- an expanding range of applications large on–off capacitance ratio (1:20)
lems for mobile phone users is including automotive manifold pres- needed to change impedance levels to
dropped calls — those annoying and sure sensors, ink-jet printer nozzles, an optimal value for better signal trans-
unpredictable disconnections when pacemakers and industrial equipment mission. One of the major challenges in
signal strength falls below a given systems. developing the device is ensuring that
threshold. Typically the problem is a This particular module is under the switch actuates in 50 microseconds
mismatch in impedance (resistance to development at component manufac- or less — fast enough to shift imped-
electromagnetic wave transmission) turer EPCOS NL, which recently ance before a call is disconnected.
between the phone’s antenna and announced the acquisition of the With conventional electromech-
power amplifier, causing signals to be RF-MEMS activities from NXP Semi- anical switches, such performance is
partially reflected back into the ampli- conductors. At specific points in the easily verified and refined through a
fier rather than transmitted into development, Philips Applied Tech- series of test and redesign cycles using
the surrounding open space. Such nologies — a contract research and hardware prototypes. Semiconductor
impedance mismatches usually are development supplier — supported the fabrication setup for MEMS is costly
caused by the presence of objects RF-MEMS activities with their specific and time-intensive, so engineering
adjacent to the antenna — the caller’s expertise in finite element modeling. simulation is an indispensable tool in
hand, a car frame or building wall, RF-MEMS switches are well optimizing MEMS designs early in devel-
for example — resulting not only in suited for this adaptive antenna- opment. Simulation is especially helpful
dropped calls but also shortened talk matching application because of in predicting the complex MEMS per-
time as battery power is drained their linearity and accuracy, and the formance, which typically is influenced
trying to maintain signal strength. by several interdependent variables and
An innovative solution to this prob- often defies intuitive logic. Amazingly,
lem is an adaptive antenna-matching the RF-MEMS switch in this application
module that senses the mismatch and is small enough to fit on the head of a pin
automatically changes the phone’s — approximately 250 microns square
impedance by adjusting a capacitor and five microns thick, with a three-
value in a matching network between micron travel distance for the capacitive
the power amplifier and antenna. The switching plate.
device is expected to reduce power The engineering team used ANSYS
consumption of mobile handsets by up Multiphysics software extensively in the
to 25 percent and significantly reduce development of the RF-MEMS switch.
the number of dropped calls. The solution was especially important in
The heart of the module is a set determining switching speed, a critical
of RF-MEMS (radio frequency-micro- parameter that depends on three inter-
electromechanical systems) switches, related effects:
made with semiconductor manufac- • Electrostatic force of a transducer
turing techniques and materials. The that actuates the opening and
A single directly-coupled multi-field model of the RF-MEMS
compact size, sensitivity and speed of switch containing elements accounting for three effects: closing of the switch when an
MEMS devices are being leveraged in fluid (blue), electrostatic (red) and mechanical (yellow) electrical voltage is applied

8 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


FEATURE: ELECTRONICS

• Mechanical configuration of com- between the switch’s elec-


ponents, including the residual trode plates, especially in the
gap between electrode plates critical “almost closed”
that determines the capacitance state. Nonlinear gap ele-
of the closed switch ments were used to capture
• Fluid behavior of the inert gas in the mechanical action of the
the hermetically sealed module switch, including contact of
as it is squeezed from the gap the electrode plates at
between the electrode plates as complete closure. Similarly,
the switch closes electrostatic transducer ele-
ments provided high-fidelity Acc.V Spot Magn Det WD Exp 100µm
200 kV 2.0 200x SE 7.5 1 DIE16_JS70_C_5x5_right
Software from ANSYS accounted simulation throughout. A new
Finite element model showing pressure (left quadrant) and displacement
for all three of these interrelated nonlinear transient squeeze- (right quadrant) overlaid on scanning electron microscope image of an
effects using the same directly- film formulation capability RF-MEMS switch measuring 250 microns wide
coupled multiphysics model, thus of the FLUID136 element 15
1 bar FE simulation
avoiding the delays and potential was used to accurately 1 bar measurement
inaccuracies of exchanging results represent the air gap and

Capacitance (pF)
0.4 bar FE simulation
0.4 bar measurement
between different models. fluid damping effects in 10
Parametric capabilities of the the switch. EPCOS and
software were especially helpful in Philips Applied Technolo-
modifying the configuration of the gies assisted in validation 5
switch by merely changing a few of this element for use in
key parameters rather than rebuilding larger pressure regimes.
the model from scratch. In particular, Taking into account fluid, 0
scripting features of the ANSYS electrostatic and mechanical 0.0+00 5.0E-05 1.0E-04 1.5E-04 2.0E-04 2.5E-4 3.0E-04

Parametric Design Language (APDL) effects in a single model, Time (s)


enabled the engineering team to ANSYS Multiphysics tech- Simulation results of opening and closing transients at two ambient
pressures agree closely with test measurements.
implement an algorithm for readily nology accurately predicted
determining the capacitance–voltage the switching time for the module and plasticity for solder joint fatigue life
(CV) curve, including nonlinear snap- allowed engineers to refine the design calculation, or structural analysis to
back instabilities that characterize the for optimal performance. The process determine stress and deformation for
quasi-static behavior. APDL was also enables the team to simulate numerous various packaging alternatives.
used to run design optimization and module configurations quickly, provid- As a result of these capabilities of
sensitivity studies, most importantly in ing fast turnaround for rapidly changing ANSYS Multiphysics software, an opti-
simulating the potential instability of the cell phone requirements for a wide mal design will be released to production
switch in its “almost closed” state. range of phone models. Moreover, in the 2010 time frame, strengthening
The engineering group used software from ANSYS is used in EPCOS’s position in the competitive
specialized ANSYS elements to studying other aspects of module telecommunications market with an
accurately represent switch behavior design, including thermal–mechanical innovative product that meets a signifi-
for the various stages of gap closure simulation to predict material creep and cant consumer demand. ■

edge
Capacitance (pF)

mid

Gap (µm)

Detail of the electromechanical model shows an example of the


capacitance-gap relationship obtained from an independent electrostatic
simulation and used for the transducer elements shown in red. The two
curves for the edge and middle of the plate represent fringing effects of
the electrostatic field on the capacitance-gap relationship.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 9


FEATURE: THOUGHT LEADER

Simulation-Based
Innovation as a
Competitive Advantage
Predictive analysis tools save time and money at Xerox and,
more important, enable top-line revenue growth and the competitive
advantage that comes from developing winning products.
By Korhan Sevenler, Director Product Lifecycle Management, Xerox Corporation, New York, U.S.A.
© Xerox Corporation

Xerox Corporation was built on the company’s Lean Six Sigma in


innovation, defining an industry with the manufacturing 18 months earlier. At the
introduction of the first plain paper heart of DFLSS is the capability to per-
photocopier using a new electrographic form numerous design of experiments
process it called xerography. Innovation (DOEs) to study the sensitivity of
remains at the foundation of the changes in key product variables such
$17 billion company as the world leader as part manufacturing tolerances,
in document duplication and manage- operating temperatures of the machines
ment. In the face of fierce global or differences in print media. The idea is
Korhan Sevenler
competition, Xerox provides the indus- to arrive at a robust design — one that
try’s broadest portfolio of offerings. delivers defect-free performance in
Digital systems include color and spite of these variations by taking the
black-and-white printing and publishing guesswork out of design and shifting
systems, digital presses and “book the focus to optimization up front
factories,” multifunction devices, laser in development.
and solid ink network printers, copiers, ANSYS DesignXplorer technology
and fax machines. holds great potential in the Xerox DFLSS
Engineering simulation is vital in efforts by enabling engineers to readily
developing this expanding range of set up these DOE studies, assess
products. Predictive tools ensure that design sensitivities through response
high quality standards are met and surfaces and quickly develop robust
reduce the number of prototype testing designs. The speed and ease of use
iterations, each costing tens of thou- of the software fits right in with the
sands of dollars and weeks of time. program of instilling DFLSS throughout
More profoundly, simulation enables the company’s engineering ranks and
top-line revenue growth and the com- increasing overall efficiency of engi-
petitive advantage that comes from neering operations.
developing innovative, winning new
products. Simulation-Based Product Development
All Xerox products are developed
Design for Lean Six Sigma using leading-edge analysis tools.
One of the latest and most far- ANSYS Mechanical software is one of
reaching engineering initiatives is the the primary analysis tools for advanced
Xerox Design for Lean Six Sigma simulation, particularly in multiphysics
(DFLSS) strategy. The program was applications in which multiple physical
instituted in 2005 following the start of factors must be evaluated. ANSYS CFX

10 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


FEATURE: THOUGHT LEADER

Structural analysis of interconnected parts and assemblies was of critical value in developing the iGen3 digital printing system —
one of the most complex systems ever developed by Xerox.

and FLUENT products, likewise, are Structural analysis of numerous costs in line and maintaining quality
used for computational fluid dynamics interconnected parts and assemblies and reliability. The machine is now
studies, and ANSYS DesignSpace tech- was of critical value during the design regarded as one of the company’s
nology is an ideal tool in early product of the iGen3. By shifting engineering premier flagship products and a major
development for simulation-based efforts up front as much as possible, source of revenue.
design to assess alternative concepts engineers could more readily study
and to optimize designs up front in the product performance, spot potential Overcoming Organizational Obstacles
cycle. Xerox is moving toward greater problems, evaluate alternatives and In many respects, implementing
use of the ANSYS Workbench interface, refine the design to avoid problems the tools and technologies for simula-
which is consistent with the approach of later. Using engineering analysis and tion-based product development is
engineers performing their own analysis, DFLSS methods, Xerox brought the easier than overcoming organizational
rather than having a central group for iGen3 to market on time while keeping obstacles across a large, distributed
that function. enterprise. One of the chal-
Software from ANSYS was lenges is in securing funding
instrumental in developing the 2.41E-3 and time in the development
iGen3 digital printing system, cycle for up-front simulation.
enabling Xerox to penetrate the 2.41E-3 Traditionally, engineering
commercial printing market with groups have been set up to
image quality “look and feel” 2.41E-3 complete designs as fast
comparable to offset presses — as possible, with incentives
yet with a faster speed, greater 2.40E-3 based on productivity
economy for short-run press and speed in performing
jobs and the ability to customize 2.40E-3 these tasks.
each page. More than $1 billion 2.40E-3 In contrast, the simu-
was poured into the R&D project, lation-based design process
1.96
-1

1.98
0E

E+0

which resulted in greater than focuses on spending more


4.9

-
4E

1.99
-1

E+0
4.9

8E

2.01

400 patents on a product that time early in the cycle


-1

E+0
4.9

2E

2.02
-1

E+0

was the most complex system to analyze and refine


5.0

6E

2.04
-1

E+0
5.0

0E

ever developed by Xerox and designs, thus saving time


E+0
5.1

that pushed the limits of speed ANSYS DesignXplorer study of a deformation of a


and expense downstream
and performance. polygon mirror used in a complex digital printer through reduced reliance on

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 11


FEATURE: THOUGHT LEADER

Xerox engineers use ANSYS Mechanical software in a wide range of analysis applications such as these studies of heat transfer (left) and contact analysis (right).

prototype testing cycles and less last- engineers can discover how to best dreaming up innovations, such as the
minute troubleshooting. Over recent utilize simulation tools and techniques incandescent electric light bulb; instead,
years, Xerox has made great progress such as DFLSS and DOE in the product he had a process of experimentation in
in moving to up-front modeling and development process — not solely to place and workers to carry out his
simulation in order to reduce physical save time and money but also to directions.
prototypes. Training for DFLSS has explore alternatives, try out different Likewise, simulation technology
been especially effective, beginning ideas and run through numerous what- today enables engineers to be their own
first with the enthusiasts and then if scenarios. innovator, trying out different ideas effi-
extending to those who recognized the From that type of environment ciently to see what works and what
value of DFLSS in their professional comes the stimulus for innovation doesn’t. By zeroing in on the good ideas
development. needed to maintain a competitive edge. and iteratively refining concepts with
In this respect, simulation-based multiple experiments, engineers today
Communities of Practice approaches today are analogous to what can leverage the speed and accuracy of
One of the challenges for a large happened in Thomas Edison’s lab in simulation in driving product design
organization is that professionals gen- New Jersey, United States. Considered innovations, which are the foundation of
erally have only limited opportunities to one of the most prolific inventors in industry-leading companies. ■
exchange ideas and share their knowl- history, Edison didn’t just sit around © Xerox Corporation

edge. Xerox addressed this issue with


Communities of Practice: knowledge
networks through which people with
common specialties (engineers, sales,
marketing, equipment repair, etc.) can
discuss best practices, experiences,
tips and solutions to problems.
As part of this effort, Xerox holds an
annual company-wide two-day forum
for engineers on modeling, simulation
and DFLSS. Speakers from within the
company, as well as outside experts,
are invited, and ample free time and
break-out are provided for informal net-
working and information exchange.
The company also hosts monthly
“Lunch and Learn” sessions, in which
engineers meet to hear about and dis-
cuss the latest simulation approaches
and methods.

Driving Innovation with Simulation-Based


Processes
One of the greatest values of Com- Particle trajectories in a printer emissions control subsystem were simulated
munities of Practice for Xerox is that by Xerox engineers with ANSYS fluid analysis software.

12 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


CHEMICAL PROCESSING
ENERGY: OVERVIEW

Roof photo © iStockphoto.com/Max Homend


Simulation courtesy Stein Design
House image courtesy of Digital Vision/PunchStock

The Global Challenge


As engineers and technologists rally to meet energy and
environmental demands, they turn to engineering simulation
to solve their most complex problems.
By Ahmad Haidari, Director of Industry Marketing for Process, Energy and Power, ANSYS, Inc.

The demand for energy, regardless tides. The potential benefits are there, • Increase fuel cell reliability
of rising costs, is driven by a com- but the projects are complex and the
bination of population growth, global efforts, in business and human costs, • Build cheaper, safer nuclear
industrialization and the desire for can be enormous. For example, energy power plants
improvements in quality of life in the industry engineers are being called • Reduce energy consumption
remotest corners of the world. The upon to: through improved
increasing worldwide need for reliable efficiency and retrofits
energy at a reasonable cost, combined • Drill deeper and in harsher
with environmental concerns, has environments with reduced Energy companies and related
brought science and engineering environmental impact industries are applying engineering
together into the spotlight. The collec- • Develop technology to reduce simulation technology at a high rate,
tive challenge is to utilize technology to greenhouse gases and the indicative of an ongoing “energy
answer the call to find high-yielding bio- overall carbon footprint revolution.” Companies both large and
mass, deliver affordable oil and gas, small and in many sectors deploy
develop clean coal, harness the sun’s • Make wind and solar power more solutions from ANSYS, Inc. to optimize
power, capture the wind and “turn” the cost-effective and scalable design and engineering approaches in

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 13


ENERGY: OVERVIEW

applications ranging from energy


production and processing to con-
servation and end use. The broad
acceptance of technology from ANSYS
is, in part, due to the company’s
unwavering focus on the energy indus-
try along with continual investment in
expanding capabilities. For years, many
components of ANSYS technology
have been applied to the energy
industry. Turbomachinery application
products are used in rotating equip-
ment, including hydroturbine and
power system design. To meet
nuclear regulatory concerns, ANSYS
follows NQA-1 quality classification
for its ANSYS structural mechanics
Engineering simulations are used to study micro-cracks and fatigue to evaluate turbine performance
software. Products in the offshore suite
at higher pressure and temperatures.
are used for oil, gas and wind turbine Courtesy Siemens Power Generation

offshore installations as well as for


ensuring that installations are up to
industry-specific regulatory standards
(code check). ANSYS pressure vessel simulations. In addition, there is a need exploring soil mechanics, rock
capabilities help engineers meet ASME for engineering software that models fractionation, drilling, and thermally
code requirements and are used as much of the overall system as enhanced oil extraction concepts
in stress analysis of tubes, boilers possible. ANSYS provides true multi- in which engineers can combine
and storage tanks. Explicit analysis physics tools for applications in which an explicit study of rock fracture in a
capabilities are used for catastrophic there is little or no opportunity for same-simulation environment as they
event simulation, including impact simplification, of either the physics or assess the transport of sand away
and explosion. the detailed geometry. As an example, from the reservoir.
The undeniable demand from the unparalleled breadth of tools Another requirement is for
the energy sector is for a strong from ANSYS is ideal for studying engineering simulation tools to
emphasis on the quality and reliability of enhanced oil recovery (EOR): be scalable, available for use on an

Technology from ANSYS is applied to flow assurance projects dealing with oil flow ability (addressing sand management, slug flow and gas-lift applications), ensuring more efficient
and uninterrupted flow of oil in a given pipeline. This example shows slug flow in a gas-liquid pipeline.

14 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


CHEMICAL PROCESSING
ENERGY: OVERVIEW

engineer’s desktop, across the


work group or for enterprise deploy-
ment — based on an organization’s
specific needs. Global energy
companies leverage the flexible
architecture of solutions from ANSYS
for worldwide projects that address,
for example, offshore platform design,
building and retrofitting nuclear
plants, designing and installing wind
turbines, and developing clean
coal technologies.
Similar to other industries, espe-
cially recently, energy projects and
product design applications are
Image © iStockphoto.com/Magumi Terao
restricted by demanding time
schedules. Engineers must get reliable
answers from their engineering simu-
lation activities in a reasonable
time-to-solution. Features in ANSYS ANSYS products on these machines, This industry spotlight highlights
technology, such as two-way CAD are proving to be valuable in simulating customer successes and details a
associativity and an intuitive workflow real-world problems in the energy few examples in which many of the
environment that reduces the time industry. Continual HPC improvement ANSYS solutions are used in
needed to set up problems, lead to means that simulations with large engineering simulation related to
efficiency. Organizations also are look- computational cells are being modeled the energy industry. The selected
ing to reduce the engineering hours routinely, benefiting from near-linear articles capture the benefits cus-
needed to run complex engineering scalability of ANSYS software tools in tomers have reaped in transforming
simulations. Advances in high- parallel processing simulations. leading-edge design concepts into
performance computing (HPC), along There has never been a greater reality in nuclear, fuel cell, solar
with the exceptional performance of need for engineering simulation to help power, wind turbine, and equipment
conserve energy, to bring a plant online retrofit and design applications. ■
months or years ahead of schedule,
to evaluate an innovative energy
concept, or to improve equipment
efficiency. Even small improvements
can reap big benefits, whether the Image © iStockphoto.com/Hans F. Meier
end product is brand new or a
retrofit. Today, engineers successfully
employ simulation tools to design new
equipment that uses less energy,
whether power, steam or heat. Through
analysis, development teams retrofit oil
and gas, refining, and power-generation
For environmental, green and sustainable design,
engineers use simulation tools from ANSYS to evaluate
equipment, looking to improve through-
retrofit options, optimize combustion and heat transfer, put and reliability, avoid unacceptable
capture pollutants, design pipelines and sub sea equip-
interruptions, and increase product life.
ment, look at safety and installation strategies, and
increased structural integrity to avoid spills and disruption, This broad acceptance of engineering
Vortex-induced motion for this truss spar is modeled to simulation tools puts ANSYS in a
understand global and local forces on the spar streaks.
Geometry courtesy Technip U.S.A. unique position to help power the world.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 15


ENERGY: SOLAR

Blending Solar Panels


with Roof Profiles
Simulation guides the design of innovative solar panel
frames, reducing molding time, material and cost.
By Matthew Stein, President, Stein Design, California, U.S.A.

Open Energy SolarSave® panels are designed to integrate and interweave with standard roofing tiles so as to blend in with the roof profile and color.

One of the most efficient sources of In their continuing efforts to improve


renewable energy is rooftop photo- the cost-effectiveness and perform-
voltaic (PV) solar cells, which convert ance of these solar panels, Open
sunlight into electricity for homes and Energy commissioned Stein Design to
business. Use is hampered, however, complete a redesign of the panel with
by high upfront costs as well as the goal of reducing unit cost while
aesthetics, with most solar panels improving strength and reliability. The
mounted on unattractive brackets new design was to be a four-foot-long
that do not blend well with house and PV panel to replace existing three-foot
building designs. models, cutting square-foot costs by
Open Energy Corp. of Solona Open Energy solar panels being installed reducing the number of electrical
Beach, California, has overcome these connections, related junction boxes and
drawbacks with SolarSave® panels — a solar roof solution other hardware. Analysis work was done exclusively using
unlike anything previously available in the industry. Panels ANSYS DesignSpace software.
are designed to integrate and interweave with standard Stein Design started the redesign by first evaluating the
roofing tiles so as to blend in with the roof, an important con- existing three-foot panel product. Three-dimensional solid
sideration in subdivisions with strict homeowner bylaws CAD model assemblies were generated in SolidWorks® and
pertaining to roof profiles and solar panel installations. These then imported into the ANSYS DesignSpace tool to perform
integrated panels are also cost-effective, as they are the stress analysis. Two load cases were considered: (1) a
installed as tiling over part of the roof rather than as an 300-pound per-square-foot pressure, satisfying at least 99
add-on above traditional coverings. The lightweight panels percent of structural building code requirements across the
are warranted for 25 years, are easily handled, and can be United States and Canada for snow loads; and (2) a 400-
walked on, simplifying installation for roofing contractors and pound load concentrated in a three-inch-diameter area,
solar integrators. representing a concentrated heel-load of an installer on the

16 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


ENERGY: SOLAR

Stress distribution and deformation for walk-on load on the three-foot panel frame

panel. Experimentally, this walk-on requirement is typically


checked using an industry-standard 200-pound load
transferred to the glass panel via a three-inch diameter steel
puck. Given the weight of some contractors and the heavy
equipment they carry, 400 pounds was considered a better
target, providing more of a safety margin than the code
requirement of 200 pounds.
Analysis showed that the original three-foot plastic frame
was strong enough to support both the walk-on and snow
loads. However, further investigation was necessary for the In this reconfigured design that reduced production costs, frame stress increased
somewhat for both the walk-on load (top) and snow load (bottom), but remained
new four-foot panel, since analysis indicated that a well within targeted safety margins.
400-pound walk-on load (twice the industry standard)
created stress that was 40 percent greater than the allow-
able tensile stress of the solar panel glass (6,000 pounds per
square inch or psi). Moreover, there was concern that in inches. Even though nominal wall thickness was reduced by
some cases the bond between the glass panel and its 40 percent and nominal rib thickness by 43 percent, the
plastic mounting frame might be compromised over time maximum frame stresses rose by only 33 percent overall,
due to temperature expansion differences in the materials, through improved rib design and placement. The maximum
since the coefficient of thermal expansion for the solar glass stress in the four-foot molded frame increased to approxi-
is about one-tenth that of the frame’s polycarbonate plastic. mately 2,550 psi — from a level of approximately 1,700 psi in
This results in a one-quarter-inch linear expansion difference the three-foot frame — well within the design target of a
across the frame when subjected to a 200 degree Fahrenheit 3-to-1 safety margin for the 9,000 psi tensile strength
temperature change — from extreme heat in direct summer polycarbonate material. The resulting four-foot panel frame
sun to sub-zero nighttime temperatures in extreme winter uses less material than the original frame and can be
climates. To account for these effects, the four-foot plastic injection-molded in two-thirds the time, yielding a finished
molded frame was split into two parts, and an interlocking four-foot assembly that costs the same to manufacture as
expansion joint, as well as 10 percent glass-fill to the the original three-foot panels.
polycarbonate frame material, was added. These changes The use of ANSYS DesignSpace capabilities was critical
reduced the thermal expansion difference between the solar throughout this entire redesign process and is part of the
glass and the four-foot plastic frame to one-third that of the reason Stein Design can provide clients fast turnaround with
original three-foot frame. designs that meet stringent requirements. Its ease of use
The next step in the redesign was to reduce thicknesses enables engineers to get up to speed quickly, even if several
and reconfigure the frame walls and ribs to use less material months may pass between analysis projects. Furthermore,
and shorten molding cycle time, thus lowering production the software interfaces seamlessly with SolidWorks mechan-
cost. The original three-foot panel design had nominal wall ical design software, so part geometry can be readily
thicknesses of 0.210 inches and nominal rib thicknesses of changed and analysis solutions regenerated quickly to
0.150 inches, but some walls were as thick as 0.260 inches, investigate “what-if” scenarios throughout the development
resulting in a slow molding cycle time. ANSYS DesignSpace process. In this way, the technology guides the design to an
technology was used to verify the design as it progressed optimum configuration that satisfies multiple engineering
through multiple iterations in which nominal wall thickness requirements and enables projects to be completed much
was trimmed by 0.085 inches and rib thickness by 0.065 faster than would otherwise be possible. ■

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 17


ENERGY: NUCLEAR

Image ©iStockphoto.com/Hans F. Meier

Coupling Analyses to
Improve Nuclear Safety
Coupled thermal hydraulic and stress analysis of
a CANDU feeder pipe helps determine integrity.
By Myung Jo Jhung, Principal Researcher, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, South Korea

The ultimate goal of nuclear safety Because components in operating considered pressure and temperature
regulation is to protect the public and nuclear reactor systems can be subject simultaneously in generating the
the environment from the radiation to extreme forces and stresses that may normal operating stresses. For the
hazards that could accompany the threaten their integrity, safety is a purpose of this study, a total time of
production and utilization of nuclear constant concern. Safety is ensured by 180 seconds was considered for
energy. The Korea Institute of Nuclear predicting conditions that would lead to heat-up and cool-down. Assuming an
Safety (KINS) develops and imple- component failures using simulations internal pressure of 10 MPa, the team
ments nuclear safety programs, such that incorporate fluid structure inter- of investigators discovered that maxi-
as safety reviews and inspections, action (FSI) as a key technology. mum levels of equivalent stress and
development of regulatory standards Simulations using FSI, for example, can stress intensity were located in the
and monitoring of environmental radia- involve taking results from a simulation intrados (inner curve) of the first and
tion within Korea. In order to maintain of fluid flow with convective heat second bend. They also discovered
and continually improve nuclear safety, transfer and applying these results as that stress component variations along
increasing technology depth is required loads in a structural simulation. In the the circumference were more severe
for prediction, analysis, experimental past, these fluid and structural fields along the radius of the inner surface
and remedial measures. typically were analyzed separately than along the outer surface.
due to the limitations of computer The team used ANSYS CFX fluid
software and hardware resources. flow simulation software to model the
But advances in both areas now flow of the heavy water coolant and
permit unified and efficient multi- determine the temperature distribution
physics simulations that couple the within the heavy steel pipe. The investi-
combined effects of interrelated gators set the initial conditions to be
physical phenomena (physics or fields).
In this project, KINS researchers 400
- Heat-up / Cool-down -
performed a coupled thermal hydraulic - -
- -
and stress analysis of a pipe with two - -
300 – –
Temperature (˚C)

bends. They studied transient heat-up - -


- -
and cool-down of the feeder pipe - -
- -
that delivers the primary coolant to 200 – –
- -
the nuclear fuel of a CANDU pressur- - -
- -
ized heavy water reactor. The research - -
100 – –
team then used the results of this simu- - -
- -
lation for fatigue analysis of the pipe. - -
- -

The team developed a finite


-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
element model for simulation using
Time (sec)
ANSYS Mechanical software. For Transient thermal data representing a typical
ANSYS CFX model of pipe exterior (left) and interior (right) this structural analysis, the engineers heat-up and cool-down cycle of the pipe model

18 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


ENERGY: NUCLEAR

the inner surface during cool-down. As


was seen with the pressure-based Simplifying the FSI Process
stresses, maximum thermal stresses with ANSYS Workbench
occurred in the intrados of the bend.
When integrating structural and fluids
The greatest thermal stresses
analyses, the intuitive interface of the
found during cool-down, combined
ANSYS Workbench platform enables designers
with the pressure-driven stresses, were
and analysts to account for one-way or
used to determine the maximum equiv-
two-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI).
alent stresses, which were quantified to
For example, if an ANSYS mechanical sim-
be approximately 19 MPa. The fatigue
ulation requires the results from an ANSYS CFX
Equivalent stress predictions in the pipe analysis curve for carbon steel [1] indicated a
assuming a constant interior pressure of 10 MPa. The simulation in the specification of a load, users
life of more than 106 cycles under this
line indicates where calculations for stress variations only need to select the relevant surfaces and
and stress variation components were conducted. stress — much greater than what the
the ANSYS CFX results file that contains the
feeder pipe is expected to see in oper-
desired load. The ANSYS Workbench environ-
a stationary fluid and a temperature of ation. Therefore, the KINS researchers
ment takes care of the rest, including
20 degrees Celsius for both the fluid were able to conclude that the
management of files, extraction of data, inter-
inside the pipe and the pipe itself. As cumulative usage factor is almost
polation between meshes and application of
the heavy water flowed through the infinite, and thermal fatigue of the pipe
boundary loads.
pipe, the temperature of the pipe due to heat-up and cool-down over the
User setup for two-way FSI only requires
increased due to the heat transfer time considered is negligible for this
selection of the surfaces at which information
between the pipe and the fluid. The operating scenario.
such as temperatures or pressures are
team assumed a constant reference Software from ANSYS allowed
exchanged. The CFD and FEA solvers then run
pressure of 10 MPa, and in their simula- the KINS team to successfully perform
concurrently with robust implicit coupling on
tions included the variations of material a coupled thermal hydraulic-stress
one or more machines connected by LAN, WAN
properties with temperature of both the analysis of the CANDU feeder pipe
or even Internet. Load transfer between the two
heavy water and the pipe. to verify integrity estimates. By per-
uses an advanced algorithm that is both
KINS engineers then used the ther- forming a unified simulation, the
profile-preserving and conservative. There is no
mal results from the fluids simulation as combined effects of the interrelated
need for third-party software — all the data
input for a structural simulation that physical phenomena could be investi-
exchange is handled automatically and inter-
analyzed the resultant thermal stresses. gated efficiently, reducing both the time
nally, using built-in socket-based inter-process
They were able to obtain predictions and the cost of independent simu-
communication (IPC).
of equivalent stress variations during lations. At the same time, this approach
There is no compromise in capability as
heat-up (30 seconds) and cool-down provided a more realistic picture of the
the ANSYS FSI solution uses the full power and
(100 seconds). Analyzing the results behavior of these components under
features of ANSYS CFX and ANSYS mechanical
and comparing the heat-up with the the given operating conditions. ■
products.
cool-down phases, the KINS team
determined that the most severe axial References
[1] ASME, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel – John Stokes, Product Manager
and circumferential stresses arose at Code, Section III, Appendix I, The American ANSYS, Inc.
the outer surface during heat-up and at Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2004.

Temperature distribution in the pipe for typical heat-up and cool-down. From left to right: 10, 30, 70, 100, 130 seconds,
with blue indicating lower temperatures and red higher temperatures

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 19


ENERGY: FUEL CELLS

A liquid fuel concentration isosurface colored by


evaporation rate is plotted with the flow pathlines colored
by the concentration of evaporated diesel for the ATR-7
mixing chamber.

Reformers
Getting Results
Simulation pushes diesel-powered fuel cells
on their way to early markets.
By Zdenĕk Por š and Ralf Peters, Institute of Energy Research – Fuel Cells,
Forschungzentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany

In the transportation sector, fuel


cells offer the potential of improving
the energy conversion efficiency and
decreasing overall pollutant emissions. also known as
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) coking. These
fuel cells are especially suitable in effects progres-
transportation applications, for both sively deactivate
vehicle propulsion and as auxiliary the catalyst and lead to
power units (APUs), because of their reduced system durability.
good dynamic characteristics. The function of an
Mixing device assembly for the ATR-7 autothermal
Usually for logistical reasons, APUs autothermal reformer (ATR) diesel reformer
use the same fuel as the main engine; mixing chamber is to supply uniform
for example, this could be kerosene in flow of a homogeneous mixture of air, high boiling temperatures, is that the
aircraft or diesel in trucks. Because steam and evaporated fuel to the temperature required for evaporation
PEM fuel cells are powered by hydro- catalytic reaction zone. In designing sometimes exceeds the fuel ignition
gen, if they are to use a hydrocarbon an ATR mixing chamber, important temperature. Complete evaporation
fuel such as kerosene or diesel, processes for optimization include fuel of the diesel fuel without coking thus
catalytic reforming must be employed injection, atomization and evaporation. represents the greatest technological
to extract the hydrogen. In a catalytic Poor quality of the reactant mixture has challenge in the reactant mixing
process called autothermal reforming, a negative impact on the conversion process.
liquid hydrocarbon fuel reacts with efficiency, so it is important to maintain At Research Centre (FZ) Jülich in
oxygen and steam to produce a refor- proper air–fuel and steam–fuel ratios to Germany, researchers have been
mate product that consists mainly avoid hot spots. The fuel must also be developing diesel fuel processing units
of hydrogen along with some carbon completely evaporated before entering for PEM fuel cells, including ATRs,
monoxide and carbon dioxide. Reforming the reaction zone to prevent catalyst since 1998. They have used compu-
commercially available diesel fuels has damage due to coking. tational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a
a number of technical challenges, To completely evaporate the fuel, tool for design optimization since
including complete fuel conversion, a considerable amount of heat is 2003. From a modeling standpoint,
processing of aromatic compounds required. One challenge of this of special interest to FZ Jülich
and prevention of carbon formation, requirement, especially for fuels with researchers was the mixing of diesel,

20 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


ENERGY: FUEL CELLS

air and water at the reformer inlet, along in the chamber size. The basic concept
with the temperature and concentration of the ATR-7 was then further improved
distribution to individual sections of the in the next-generation ATR-8, which
ceramic honeycomb structure that enabled fuel distillation residue separa-
contains the catalyst. The research tion from the reactant gas stream
group found this task too complex before entering the catalyst zone.
to be solved by “trial and error” design This development confirmed for FZ
improvements alone and chose Jülich researchers that FLUENT
FLUENT fluid flow simulation software software was an important tool for
from ANSYS to analyze the flow in optimizing mixing processes in reactors
the reformer mixing chamber. and balance-of-plant devices such
To simulate the flow regime, the as heat exchangers. Worldwide, the
researchers used the k-ε turbulence ATR-7 and ATR-8 are the only known
model, since its accuracy was sufficient Glass prototype of a 50 kWe ATR reformers tested with commercial
for the purpose. Based on the type of diesel without measurable catalyst
nozzle in the reformer, they chose to The CFD model of ATR-5 found unfa- deactivation. The next development
use the pressure swirl atomizer model, vorable flow profiles near the fuel step is to scale the design up from
one of the FLUENT software’s discrete nozzle (for example, dead flow zones) 5 kWe to 50 kWe. Analysis of the larger
phase models, to study the fuel and poor heat exchange from hot mixing chamber concept shows a more
injection and atomization process. gases to fuel droplets. In a new con- complex flow field design. In the larger
With respect to the complex physical cept, the ATR-7, the energy of the design, the incorporation of curved
phenomena of the atomization and superheated steam was used to force blades in the air feeding area serves
evaporation processes, they chose evaporation of the fuel while air was to intensify mixing and provides a
the pure hydrocarbon n-tetradecane then added to the mixture downstream homogeneous flow profile behind the
(C14H30) as the model fuel for diesel. of the evaporation zone. A special air mixing zone. A glass model of this
The analysis helped to identify design of the mixing chamber’s evapo- design has been fabricated for the
weak areas in the existing design and rator section guaranteed intensive purpose of flow experiments and is
to optimize a new design. In the 5 kWe mixing of the fuel spray and hot gases, scheduled to be fully tested by 2010.
power class, the previous state-of-the- thus completely evaporating the fuel With such reformers leading the way,
art autothermal reformer type 5 (ATR-5) and preventing coking. Improvements cooperation between researchers and
did not prove feasible because even in the steam and air inlet designs led to industry could make it possible to
though the mixture homogeneity stronger turbulence effects in the mix- introduce the first diesel- or kerosene-
was sufficient, the design could not ing chamber, which made for a better powered fuel cells to the market
guarantee complete fuel evaporation. mixture quality and an overall reduction by 2015. ■

45

40
H2 conc. in the dry reformate [vol.%]

35

30 ATR-5 ATR-7
non-optimized CFD optimized
25

20

15

10

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time on stream [h]

Comparison of hydrogen concentration during autothermal reforming A 50 kWe ATR design incorporates curved blades in the air feeding area, which
of ARAL Ultimate diesel for the ATR-5 (non-optimized) and ATR-7 result in more agitated mixing and provide a homogeneous flow profile behind the
(CFD optimized) designs air mixing zone, as seen by the pathlines depicted here.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 21


ENERGY: WIND

Harnessing
Natural Energy
Multiple simulation tools are used as a cost-effective
way to design reliable offshore wind turbines.
By Fabian R. Vorpahl, Holger Huhn and Hans-Gerd Busmann, Fraunhofer Center for
Wind Energy and Maritime Engineering (CWMT), Bremerhaven, Germany Image courtesy REPower

Stefan Kleinhansl, Aero Dynamik Consult GmbH, Neuhausen/Stuttgart, Germany

Governments around the world are looking to offshore a partially submerged substructure. The substructure is
wind power because of its potential as a reliable source of fastened to the ocean floor using foundation piles. In order to
inexpensive, renewable energy. However, developing wind obtain accurate results when simulating the overall system,
farms in a marine environment comes with a new set of engi- a number of effects must be considered simultaneously,
neering challenges. The support structures for these offshore including loads from turbulent wind fields, the turbine control
wind turbines (OWTs), for example, must be designed to system, loads resulting from waves and currents, the elastic
function effectively in deep water and with large turbines. behavior of the support structure, and the soil characteristics
Offshore projects also present challenges to design engi- of the local sea bed.
neers, manufacturers and operators because storms, rough To carry out the complex simulation of OWTs with
seas and saltwater subject the entire turbine and its associ- branched support structures, engineers at the Fraunhofer
ated support structure to extreme stresses. Engineering Center for Wind Energy and Maritime Engineering (CWMT)
simulation is a valuable tool for designing cost-efficient and used a special purpose aeroelastic software, ADCoS. This
reliable large-frame OWTs. tool relates the influence of the environment (wind effect,
To evaluate OWT designs for life expectancy and certifi- wave type and structure, sea state and behavior of the
cation, detailed analysis of critical parts of the turbine is ocean currents) and the soil-pile structural interactions, to
very important in order to predict fatigue. The OWTs being the structural capacity of the overall wind turbine. ADCoS,
studied consist of a turbine and tower that are attached to developed by Aero Dynamik Consult Ingenieurgesellschaft,
has typically been utilized for onshore wind
turbines and has the capability to conduct a
detailed investigation of interacting loads
Model and the resulting dynamic response on an
Rotor Nacelle Assembly Turbulent Wind Fields OWT. Extensive knowledge of all the load
Controller (Aerodynamics)
sources and their interactions can help
Rotor Drive Train improve the reliability of OWTs and is
vital for cost-effective operation of offshore
wind farms.
Tower Before analyzing a turbine’s reaction to
wave loading, the CWMT engineering team
needed to develop a finite element model
of the entire structure. Researchers used
Substructure Waves and Currents
ANSYS Mechanical software to develop
(Hydrodynamics)
and define the support structure as a
parameterized beam model. Using the
Foundation Soil–Pile Interaction
Support Structure
ANSYS-to-ASAS translator, they trans-
ferred the model to ANSYS ASAS software.
Within the ANSYS ASAS Offshore
Structure of an offshore wind turbine and loads that must be considered for simulation analysis tool, the engineering group used

22 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


ENERGY: WIND

Support structure as a beam model in ANSYS Mechanical Wave loads as simulated by ANSYS ASAS software
(left) and in ADCoS software (right)

ASAS-WAVE to calculate the wave loads on the support putation of soil–pile interaction were executed using a single
structure. With the aid of ASAS-WAVE, loads resulting from Windows batch file. To date, some validation has been
linear and nonlinear waves, as well as irregular sea states completed, and further validation will be performed under
and currents, were taken into account. The research team the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration project
calculated the loads using Morison’s equation and then (OC3) within the International Energy Agency’s Wind
exported the distributed member loads, as equivalent nodal Annex XXIII.
loads, into a text file for further use. In researching the interaction of wind and water with a
For the next step, the team conducted the nonlinear sim- wind turbine structure, CWMT engineers use ANSYS
ulation of the foundation piles using the P-Y approach, as Mechanical functionality for creating the structural model
recommended by the American Petroleum Institute. This and the ANSYS ASAS Offshore suite’s extensive options to
was done using SPLINTER, the soil-pile interaction tool, in account for hydrodynamic loads and soil characteristics.
the ANSYS ASAS Offshore product. SPLINTER allows sim- The adaptive architecture of these tools allows them to be
ulation of single piles or pile groups, including group connected to ADCoS, which then enables the simultaneous
interaction effects via the soil medium. The outcomes of the aero-servo-hydro-elastic simulation of the OWT. Detailed
SPLINTER analyses were linearized stiffness matrices for load history information and resulting fatigue data — such as
each pile head. rain flow counts, load spectra and damage equivalent
Finally the CWMT researchers performed the aero- loads — can be derived from ADCoS. Equipped with this
hydro-servo-elastic (nonlinear finite element) simulation knowledge, CWMT can perform in-depth investigations
using the ADCoS software. In this step, engineers input the and optimization of critical parts, leading ultimately to
model created in the ANSYS Mechanical software, the wave even more reliable and cost-effective OWTs for future wind
loads from the ANSYS-WAVE tool and the stiffness matrices farm projects. ■
from SPLINTER for the pile heads into ADCoS. The modeling References
of the support structure, calculation of wave loads and com-
[1] Jonkman, J., Butterfield, S., Musial, W. and Scott, G., “Definition of a
5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development,”
ANSYS Solutions ADCoS Software NREL/TP-500-38060, Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy
Structural Simulation Aeroelastic Simulation Laboratory, February 2007.
• Definition of parameterized [2] Kleinhansl, S., Mayer, M. and Mangold, A. “ADCoS — A Nonlinear
support structure • Parameterized model
Support structure Aeroelastic Code for the Complete Dynamic Simulation of Offshore-
• Optimization of the structure
model transferred to Structures and Lattice-Towers,” DEWEK – Proceedings, 2004.
Model used for ANSYS ADCoS using a macro
[3] Vorpahl, F., Huhn, H., Busmann, H.-G. and Kleinhansl, S., “A Flexible
ASAS simulation
Aeroelastic Simulation Approach for Offshore Wind Turbines,”
European Offshore Wind Proceedings, 2007, www.eow
Offshore Simulation • Deterministic and 2007proceedings.info/allfiles2/272_Eow2007fullpaper.pdf (11.06.08).
• Calculation of loads from Nodal loads stochastic wind loads
transferred as time
[4] Nichols, J., Camp, T., Jonkman, J., Butterfield, S., Larsen, T., Hansen,
waves and currents on
support structure series in text file • Loads from waves and A.M., Azcona, J., Martinez, A., Munduate, X. and Vorpahl, F., “Offshore
• Calculation of stiffness irregular sea states Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase III
matrices for pile elements Stiffness matrices • Soil characteristics Results Regarding Tripod Support Structure Modeling” (to be published).
for pile elements
transferred as text files [5] http://www.cwmt.fraunhofer.de
Simulation process and data handling [6] http://www.aero-dynamik.de

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 23


ENERGY: BURNERS

Predicting Vibrations
in High Power Burners
Engineering simulation reduces development
time for industrial burners by five months.
By Gianluca Argentini, Mathematical Modeler, R&D Department, Riello Burners, Legnago, Italy

properties, including natural modes of vibration and


dependence on the geometry and the materials used in
the system’s components.
The usual mathematical description for problems of
this type is based on the structural mass [M], stiffness [K]
and damping [C] matrices of the system, which are
related to the displacements of the structure {U(t)} by the
standard set of differential equations of motion:

While this equation can be manually solved for


simple, linear, discrete systems, a numerical approach
like finite element analysis is necessary for complex
Displacement at the first natural vibrational mode for the original Riello burner configuration geometries such as in a burner-engine system. Engineers
and researchers at Riello Burners have found that modal
analysis using ANSYS Mechanical software within the
Industrial gas and oil burners are used for steam produc- ANSYS Workbench environment is extremely useful for a
tion in industrial processes and electric power generation rigorous numerical treatment of alternate designs.
plants. Reducing vibrations in these systems can increase The engineering team applied a fixed constraint at
component longevity and reduce maintenance on bolts the surface where the sleeve duct was anchored to the
and flanges. A gas or oil burner is comprised of an combustion chamber. For each body with a large mass,
intake system that draws air into the burner and an the engineers specified the appropriate physical constants,
ignition area where fuel is introduced, mixed with the intake such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, using
air and ignited. In the air intake system, an electric motor the engineering data section of the ANSYS Workbench
drives an impeller, which pulls in air and propels it along the interface. When necessary, the team modified these values
volute-shaped housing and into the ignition area. The ignition using the material property form, which allows users to
area contains a sleeve duct that encases a combustion specify suitable data in the physical characteristics field.
head and attaches the entire burner to the associated An initial simulation using the original burner design
combustion tube, or boiler. An industrial burner that is capable provided the same results as experiments with regard to
of producing more than five megawatts may exhibit structural the values of vibrational frequencies. In particular, as
vibrations due to interaction between the combustion computed by the software, a value of 49 hertz demonstrated
chamber and the flame initiating from the burner itself. the need to accurately balance the electric engine to avoid
Experiments on these kinds of burners at Riello whirling effects caused by a rotational speed of only 48
Burners Combustion Research Center showed that the revolutions per second. Also, the smallest computed value
frequencies of the vibrations depended on the power of of 29 hertz is almost equal to the natural frequency of the
the flame, the dimensions of the combustion tube, and combustion tube (boiler). When designing and engineering a
the features and design of the burner assembly itself. high power burner, the geometric and physical properties
In order to reduce vibration in the burner system, of the boiler — including the dimensions of the tube, the
engineers performed a detailed study of their structural physical characteristics of the materials and the water mass

24 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


ENERGY: BURNERS

Electric Motor

flow — must be considered very carefully so that


the boiler’s vibrations have a natural frequency
that is not close to that of the burner in order to
avoid resonance problems.
To understand and include the influence of
combustion on the burner’s mechanical vibrations,
the engineering team considered and improved
a mathematical model in which the flame’s
perturbation and boiler’s geometry were combined
into a unique Fourier series with frequencies
expressed by:

Sleeve Duct Impeller Volute

The geometry of a burner assembly: Air is taken in through the impeller and directed into the sleeve
where c was the speed of sound in the tube’s local duct, which houses a combustion head (which initiates the flame).
environment (400 m/s), L the tube’s length (8 m)
and m the natural frequency of concern. Using this
formula, f1 was calculated to be 25 hertz, a value
very close to the smallest vibrational frequency of
29 hertz computed by the software.
Using the harmonic response analysis
module in the ANSYS Workbench platform,
Riello engineers performed computations using
sinusoidal loads with frequencies in the range of
5 to 100 hertz acting on the surface between
sleeve duct and combustion tube. This module
allowed researchers to set values for damping Impeller four-nodal diameter mode associated Equivalent stress for impeller four-nodal
coefficients to improve the accuracy of the simu- with its first natural frequency; this value, 141 diameter mode at 141 hertz; at the edge of
hertz, is close to other vibrational frequencies the hub’s central bearing surface, the local
lation. The simulation results were confirmed of the global system. stress values are high and can be close to
by the data obtained from experiments for both the creep coefficient of the material.

ANSYS Software for Linear Dynamic Vibration Simulation


The study of structural dynamics is critical for understanding and stresses in the model. It is mainly used instead of a time-history analysis
evaluating the performance of any product. It is also essential for to determine the response of structures to random or time-dependent
solving noise and vibration problems with existing structures. ANSYS loading conditions such as earthquakes, wind loads, ocean wave loads,
mechanical solutions, including ANSYS Structural, ANSYS Mechanical jet engine thrust and rocket motor vibration.
and ANSYS Professional software, provide all the necessary tools for A random vibration analysis is similar to a spectrum analysis
such analyses. technique but is based on probability and statistics. It is used to analyze
Usually, vibration analysis begins with a modal analysis that loads that produce random time histories, such as acceleration loads
estimates the natural vibration frequencies of a given structure. The during a rocket launch, that can be represented by a power spectrum
frequencies of the structure can be determined from an unloaded state or density during each event.
from the loaded structure, as loads may shift the frequencies. Depending Finally, a transient dynamic analysis is used to determine the
on the environment of the structure, several advanced types of analyses response of a system under a given load variation over time.
can be performed: harmonic, spectrum, random vibration or transient ANSYS mechanical solutions allow the use of any of these tech-
dynamic analysis. niques with various methods: direct analysis where the full matrices
Harmonic response analysis is a technique used to determine the are assembled, mode superposition that reuses the results of a modal
steady-state response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally analysis, or reduced methods that condense the problem to a smaller set
(harmonically) with time. The structure’s response is calculated at of degrees of freedom. The last two options help reduce the compu-
several frequencies and a graph of a response quantity (usually displace- tational time. Another technique to reduce the computational time is the
ments) versus frequency is generated. Peak responses are then identified Component Mode Synthesis (CMS), which is used in reducing the size of
on the graph and stresses reviewed at those peak frequencies. the problem when large and complex assemblies are modeled.
A spectrum analysis is one in which the results of a modal analysis
are used with a known spectrum to calculate displacements and – Pierre Thieffry, Product Manager, ANSYS, Inc.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 25


ENERGY: BURNERS

vibrational frequencies and displacement values. The


peak displacement value for the mechanical system was
computed at 30 hertz, confirming that the burner shows
a structural resonance due to the first harmonic Fourier
component of the flame.
To eliminate the structurally dangerous lower vibrational
frequencies, the team performed modal analysis for a
set of possible design modifications to the structure of
the components. After iterating through four new designs,
the engineers reached a virtual configuration where the first
natural frequency is sufficiently high that displacement of
the global structure does not occur during normal opera-
tion. In the end, by using the ANSYS Workbench platform,
Riello Burners minimized the high cost for construction and
testing of intermediate prototypes, reducing the time to
develop an optimized model of the burner by approximately
five months. ■

References
[1] Den Hartog, J.P., Mechanical Vibrations, Dover: New York, 1985.
The new design of the volute showing reinforcement by ribs at upper and lower
parallel surfaces and by new material at the engine flange (modifications in green) [2] Strogatz, S.H., Abrams, D.M., McRobie, A., Eckhardt, B., Ott, E.,
“Theoretical Mechanics: Crowd Synchrony on the Millennium Bridge,”
Nature 2005, Vol. 438, pp. 43–44.
[3] Doria, A., “A Simple Method for the Analysis of Deep Cavity and Long
Neck Acoustic Resonators,” Journal of Sound and Vibration 2000,
Vol. 232 (4), pp. 823–833.

26 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


Speedbike designed in a cooperative effort between VRT-Speedbike e.V., SPORTS
ANSYS Germany GmbH, and Adam Opel GmbH

Picking Up
Speed
Speedbike designers use fluid simulation to gain a competitive edge.
By Ralf Siber and Frank Werner, Adam Opel GmbH, Rüsselsheim, Germany
Guido Mertens, VRT-Speedbike e.V., Bergisch Gladbach, Germany and Marco Lanfrit, ANSYS Germany GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany

Speedbikes are the Formula One equivalent for human It became evident that, to further improve designs, each
powered vehicles (HPV). They owe their ability to be faster competitor would have to decrease the frontal area, due to
than any other HPV to aerodynamics that are better than all asymptotically improved drag values. The project Speed-
other earth-bound vehicles. In order to achieve this state of hawk was launched as a cooperative effort between
the art, it is necessary to investigate both global and local VRT-Speedbike e.V., ANSYS Germany and Adam Opel
aerodynamic effects and their interactions, in addition to GmbH. The initial hull design for this new vehicle failed
analyzing the human factor (cooling, breathing, vision for dramatically at the Speedchallenge 2004, which took place
navigation, safety). The similarities to automobile develop- at the Opel proving ground in Dudenhofen. This led to a
ment are striking. significant redesign that used simulation to evaluate both
In 1994, the collaboration between Guido Mertens of internal and external factors.
VRT-Speedbike e.V. and the Institute for Plastics Processing The aim was to derive a new aerodynamic hull from
(IKV) at RWTH Aachen University (notably Johannes Dyck- the old one through the use of digitized point data. The
hoff) led to the creation of the Speedbike Tomahawk 1. It was team converted point data from a 3-D digitization that
designed to surpass the existing distance record over one was performed at the Adam Opel GmbH Styling Center
hour. Its development revealed that speedbike design in into regular surfaces with Autodesk ® SurfaceStudio™.
general had to address not only aerodynamics but also Parts without a direct effect on the air flow (redirection
ergonomics and driving stability. The results of this develop- gear under seat, chain and chain sheet) were neglected.
ment process were several long distance records between The simulation efforts that followed used FLUENT
1996 and 1999, including a record of over 82 kilometers in software. Researchers chose the RNG k-ε turbulence
one hour set by rider Lars Teutenberg. model because it offers a good compromise between

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 27


SPORTS

Pressure contour on exterior side (left) and top (right) of a speedbike, assuming a 4-degree diagonal flow

Revised ventilation designs (left) compared with earlier ones (right) led to greatly improved rider comfort; contour plots represent temperature.

computational accuracy, storage requirements and fiberglass/CFK skin or using the hood frame as a safety
computing time. The mesh consisted of a five-tier prism cage), taking rider comfort into account during development
surface layer on both the interior and exterior surfaces of the required a substantial effort. For this, air ventilation construc-
vehicle, while a hexcore mesh created in the TGrid tool tions had to be inserted and tested on a suitable test track at
filled the volume. Ground, tire, interior hull surface and rider running conditions for each case. All information was
clothing roughnesses were taken into account, while the acquired subjectively from the rider.
outer hull was regarded as being hydraulically smooth. The team designed the ventilation to occur passively,
Earlier tests showed that disk wheels themselves are reducing interior cabin humidity and supplying cooling air to
very aerodynamic, whereas in combination with wheel the rider. In the Speedhawk, air flows into the ventilation
housings, the close proximity of these components makes system at a stagnation pressure point on the vehicle, is
the parts act together like a friction pump. An enlargement of distributed through the interior and later escapes from the
the wheel housings would disturb a large portion of the clean tail area. To simulate this effect, researchers computed
lower hull flow. As a compromise, the physical vehicle was the interior and exterior volumes in a coupled way so that
designed using aero spokes. both the flow resistance of the interior and the flow change
For the correct computation of the complete model, the resulting from the addition of a passive ventilation system in
engineering team had to compute the the front were accounted for simultaneously.
external and internal flow in combination. In simulating the entire interior and exterior
This included simulation of the bow areas, of the Speedhawk together, the team
the underbody and the rear of the vehicle. intended to significantly improve
Researchers optimized the bow and performance when compared to
underbody profiles to minimize air con- their 2004 demonstration. The
gestion between the lower leading edge of corrections made to the design
the craft and the ground. The length of the have resulted in a 10 percent
tail was driven by the necessity to create a improvement in drag perform-
gentle transition from the broadest part of ance so far, as well as much
the hull to the tail and to offer balanced more significant driver comfort,
control behavior in cross-wind conditions. boding well for the future
In addition, the team simulated various wind performance of the vehicle.
conditions to mimic real driving conditions. The molds for lamination will
An equally important emphasis for speedbike be produced by Gaugler & Lutz
development was safety and comfort. While oHG in August 2008 and the team
safety aspects can be considered by carry-over Lars Teutenberg fits tightly into the initially looks forward to a finalized vehicle in
designed Speedhawk prototype.
preventive measures (Kevlar inlays within the Image courtesy Berndt Photography September 2008. ■

28 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


CHEMICAL PROCESSING

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 29


AUTOMOTIVE

Electromagnetics
Comes Through in the Clutch
BorgWarner engineers meet a tight deadline in optimizing the design
of a revolutionary variable-torque clutch for all-wheel-drive vehicles.
By Chris Kurmaniak, Senior Design Release Engineer, BorgWarner TorqTransfer Systems, Michigan, U.S.A.

All-wheel automotive drive systems re-engineering and optimizing the manufacturing processes, operational
have evolved dramatically, becoming device’s electromagnetic solenoid environments and other design
increasingly popular in an expanding actuator, assuring reliability and proper variables. This minimized hardware pro-
range of vehicles. The technology function for a wide range of operating totype testing and enabled BorgWarner
began several years ago with relatively environments. In parallel, engineers to subsequently land the contract and
simple devices that would positively had to provide guidance for the design, quickly launch a new robust product
engage and disengage a vehicle’s sec- tooling and validation of the manu- with market-leading performance.
ondary axle with the main transmission facturing processes. NexTrac communicates with the
and driveline. Systems are now more Using electromagnetic capabili- vehicle’s electrical bus and is modulated
complex, with sophisticated controllers ties in ANSYS Multiphysics software, by a BorgWarner-supplied electronic
that continuously monitor vehicle condi- engineers were able to achieve these control unit (ECU) containing propri-
tions and actively adjust driveline torque goals, quickly evaluating design alter- etary control algorithms. According to
balance to enhance vehicle stability and natives, optimizing device operation the level of electrical current provided,
handling. These systems are also through simulation, and studying the an electromagnetic solenoid actuator
integrated seamlessly with the operation impact of different material properties, compresses clutch plates. This action
of the engine, transmission, anti-lock
brakes and a myriad of other vehicle Electromagnetic Solenoid
powertrain and safety subsystems.
Armature Stator
One of the most recent
advances in all-wheel-drive
systems has been made
by BorgWarner TorqTransfer
Systems (TTS) — a leading
global designer and producer
of transfer cases and torque
management devices for all-
wheel-drive passenger cars, crossover
vehicles, sport-utility vehicles and light
Clutch Plates
trucks. The company recently devel-
oped the electromagnetically actuated
NexTrac™ active all-wheel-drive
system, which provides a slipping con-
nection with varying levels of torque
transmission between the front-wheel-
drive transmission and rear axle.
BorgWarner TTS engineers initially Electronic Control Unit
attracted customer interest in NexTrac
with concept-level hardware. The
challenge then was to provide a set of Based on electrical current from an electronic control unit (ECU), the armature of an electromagnetic solenoid
actuator moves laterally to compress clutch plates separated by an organic friction material, thus applying
production prototypes for a customer required torque to the rear axle. The stator (containing the coil winding) is bolted inside an aluminum casting
vehicle in three months. This required fixed to the vehicle’s rear axle.

30 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


AUTOMOTIVE

applies the required torque to the structures. Software from ANSYS


rear axle, enabling smooth enabled BorgWarner TTS to move
engagement, exceptional torque forward quickly by including B-H
accuracy and quick performance nonlinear material property data
response at a relatively low cost. into analysis models and com-
Engineers from BorgWarner used paring results with linear and
software from ANSYS in studying native “reference steel” results.
the many design constraints and The efficiency and interactivity of
Front-Wheel-Drive
nonlinearities associated with the Front Axle this process enabled analysts to go
Transmission
stator and armature that comprise through multiple what-if iterations in
the device’s electromagnetic solenoid comparing behavior of alternative
actuator — the core element of materials.
NexTrac operation. Another valuable feature of the
Driveshaft
The engineering team used technology from ANSYS was the
simulation in designing the various ability to analyze the design’s
elements of the actuator to meet a response in the time domain.
range of performance criteria. Funda- Through the design permutation
mentally, the actuator must achieve a NexTrac Variable- process, BorgWarner engineers eval-
Rear Axle Torque Clutch
specified maximum force (which uated actuator reactions to typical
dictates the maximum clutch torque controller inputs and used them
of the system) within the size and as a tool for optimization. This
power consumption constraints enabled them to balance static
specified by the vehicle manufac- design metrics with metrics of
turer. It must also reach its dynamic response. This feature is
maximum force within a mini- particularly important for prod-
mum amount of time and proceed ucts controlled in real time.
NexTrac active all-wheel-drive system provides a slipping
to maximum force bounded by a connection with varying levels of torque transmission Through successful analysis and
force-to-electrical-current linearity between the vehicle’s front-wheel-drive transmission the ability to provide design direc-
and the rear axle.
requirement. The assembly must be tion to its sub-suppliers, BorgWarner
designed robustly with respect to The ability to study the balance of TTS was able to meet customer
temperature and manufacturing vari- magnetic circuit design (primarily flux deadlines and deliver a highly refined
ations. It must also survive a multitude density and the number of coil actuator design for maximum
of durability test schedules and vehicle windings that would fit in the coil force capacity, improved linearity,
level validation testing, and accomplish package) was extremely valuable. The reduced response time and reduced
all objectives at minimum weight and engineering team also employed power consumption. In this way,
cost. The ANSYS Multiphysics tech- custom scripts to adjust temperature ANSYS Multiphysics software
nology enabled BorgWarner engineers and material properties in validating enabled BorgWarner TTS to quickly
to quickly encompass all these the design under vehicle and manu- deliver next generation NexTrac
important design constraints and facturing conditions. In addition, key technology and meet the demands of
nonlinearities. dimensions — known for problems or a growing all-wheel-drive market. ■
During the simulation process, difficulty in manufacturing — were
engineers meshed and analyzed the permuted to study their effect on sys-
concept-level actuator to study electro- tem performance before prototypes
magnetic performance, identify key were produced.
design deficiencies and guide develop- The flexibility of the material
ment toward an optimal design. They property specification process
then selected important geometry proved to be very helpful
features, which were automatically throughout the project.
iterated and meshed by custom script Like many simulation prob-
programs generated within the ANSYS lems, accurately representing
Multiphysics software environment. nonlinear material behavior is
One major advantage of the custom vitally important to producing BorgWarner engineers used
script feature was that it enabled coil relevant results. This is particu- electromagnetic capabilities in
ANSYS Multiphysics software
winding characteristics to be inte- larly true in the estimation of force in calculating the magnetic flux
grated into the design permutation. developed in electromagnetic density of the armature.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 31


PARTNERS

Higher Returns on the


Simulation Investment
Optimizing Linux clusters for ANSYS Mechanical software delivers
fast turnaround on large problems.
By Joshua Bernstein, Software Engineer and Arend Dittmer, Director Product Management, Penguin Computing, California, U.S.A.

In many organizations, design engineers perform FEA Before an ANSYS Mechanical model can be solved in
(finite element analysis) simulations using desktop systems. parallel, it must be decomposed so that the computations
With this approach, high-powered systems are required even can be distributed. A sparse matrix is generated when
though they are typically only fully utilized for short periods of performing the structural analysis and has a resulting size
time due to workflow interruption. Alternatively, solving more that depends upon the number of degrees of freedom in the
complex problems on shared back-end compute systems is model. Ideally, this matrix can be stored entirely in memory.
more efficient. Offering excellent price/performance ratio, In this case, the solver is run in the in-core (IC) mode. If
Linux ®-based clusters have become a common platform the simulation run cannot be executed in-core, the ANSYS
for these back-end computations. However, the concept of Mechanical software writes the sparse matrix to a file,
achieving high performance through interconnected systems passing through the disk input/output (I/O) subsystem. In
introduces performance and manageability challenges. this latter case, the simulation is run out-of-core (OOC), and
One of the biggest obstacles to a quick return on a the read/write I/O speed to the local scratch space greatly
cluster investment is the initial cluster setup. After deploy- impacts solver performance.
ment, the system configuration on compute nodes needs to Figure 1 shows performance results for ANSYS
remain consistent. Even minor discrepancies — a missed Mechanical benchmarks, tested using three memory config-
driver update on one system, for example — are hard to urations. As expected, memory configuration had the
troubleshoot. In the case of a cluster upgrade or system biggest impact on performance for the larger models —
failure on a compute node, the compute nodes need to be benchmarks 7 and 8. Significantly longer runtimes for these
reprovisioned, leading to maintenance downtime. Moreover, two models with the 8GB memory configuration occurred
it is difficult to identify and control processes in a cluster as because they were solved out-of-core. Moving from an
compared to a single system. 8GB to a 16GB configuration resulted in a 32 percent
To better understand optimal methods for installing and
running ANSYS Mechanical software on a Linux cluster, a 3000

2500
series of benchmark tests was performed by Penguin
Runtime (sec)

2000
Computing and run on an Intel®‚ Cluster Ready certified
1500 8GB
cluster using Penguin Computing’s Relion® 1600 series 16GB
1000
servers, equipped with two dual-core Intel Xeon® 5160 32GB
500
CPUs. Scyld ClusterWare™ 4.20, a cluster management
0
solution from Penguin Computing, was installed on the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

cluster [1]. Scyld ClusterWare is designed to make the Benchmark Number

management of a Linux cluster as easy as the management Figure 1. In-core vs. out-of-core performance comparison
of a single desktop system and is fully compatible with
Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®. With ClusterWare’s lightweight
3000
provisioning, compute nodes boot over the network from a
2500
master node into local memory. Avoiding a local operating
Runtime (sec)

2000
SATA
system (OS) installation on every compute node guarantees 1500
1000 SAS
configuration consistency, allows for easy node replacement 500
and ensures cluster scalability. ClusterWare also provides a 0
Single, Dual and Quad Disk Configuration
unified process space: All processes running in the cluster
can be directly controlled from the master node. Figure 2. Relative performance of SATA vs. SAS disks

32 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


PARTNERS

fabrics. Marginal performance improvement is noted for the


How to Obtain Optimal Performance? Infiniband fabric relative to Ethernet results. The cores used
Many users of ANSYS Mechanical software want to get the for this set of benchmark runs were allocated round-robin:
very best performance out of their software and hardware combi- Each process was launched on one core on a different
nation. Others wish to make the best hardware purchase decisions. system. After four cores on four systems had been allocated,
Fortunately for both groups, ANSYS has put together a white the algorithm wrapped around and allocated the next core
paper on “Obtaining Optimal Performance in ANSYS 11.0.” This on the first node in the set, and so forth.
performance guide provides a comprehensive resource for ANSYS A second set of tests, shown in Figure 4, was performed
Mechanical users who wish to understand the factors that impact using a node packing method for distributing processes
the solution performance of this software on current hardware sys- onto cores. When scaling across an increasing number of
tems. The guide provides information on ANSYS Mechanical cores, up to four processes were started on one node before
computing demands, hardware considerations, memory usage, moving to the next node. Better performance is achieved
parallel processing and I/O considerations. The guide also includes with the round-robin allocation method, as round-robin max-
general information on how to measure performance in the ANSYS imizes the amount of memory available for each process.
Mechanical solvers and an example-driven section showing how to The presented benchmark results are useful for deter-
optimize performance for several ANSYS Mechanical analysis types mining the optimal set of conditions for running an individual
and equation solvers. The guide provides summary information job. This does not consider the more realistic case in which
along with detailed explanations for users who wish to push the many simultaneous ANSYS Mechanical runs need to be
limits of performance on their hardware systems. Both Windows® executed in parallel. Another option is to optimize for total
and UNIX® or Linux® operating system issues are covered through- throughput rather than for performance of individual jobs.
out the guide. This guide can be downloaded from the ANSYS When optimizing for throughput, the performance of individ-
Customer Portal. ual jobs of the same priority has to be balanced against the
number of simultaneous jobs running on the cluster. Best
— Ray Browell, Product Manager performance for high-priority jobs is achieved with round-
ANSYS, Inc. robin allocation of cores on nodes that are dedicated
exclusively to running one high-priority job at a time. ■
performance increase as the problem was now solved
in-core. While the benefit from solving FEA solutions in-core References
may seem obvious, this characteristic is often overlooked [1] These benchmarks are described at http://www.ansys.com/services/
hardware-support-db.htm.
when managing back-end compute systems.
To illustrate the influence of different local storage con- [2] To request the benchmark models, contact Shane Moeykens,
shane.moeykens@ansys.com.
figurations on performance for an analysis model that runs
out-of-core, benchmark 7 was run on a node configured with
8GB of RAM. Figure 2 presents observed runtimes for two 1200

1000
different disk configurations. Serial attached SCSI (SAS) disk
Runtime (sec)

Ethernet
800
configurations performed up to 18 percent better than serial Infiniband
600
advanced technology attachment (SATA) configurations.
400
SAS drives spin considerably faster than SATA drives —
200
15,500 RPM vs. 7,200 RPM — but their better I/O perform-
0
ance is partially offset by their higher cost and smaller 1 2 4 8 16

capacities. Moving from a single disk configuration to a two- Number of Processes

disk redundant array of independent drives (RAID0) Figure 3. Distributed solver scalability
configuration yielded performance gains of 10 percent
1200
for SAS disks and 18 percent for SATA disks, indicating a
significant advantage for the parallel I/O provided by the 1000
Sequential
RAID0 configuration. 800
Round-Robin

Distributed ANSYS Mechanical technology spreads the


Runtime (sec)

600
computational workload of a single solver run across multi-
ple systems. For benchmarking solver scalability, distributed 400

benchmark BMD-4 was chosen. Each node in the cluster


200
was configured with 8GB of RAM and used a RAID0 disk
configuration consisting of four SAS drives. 0
1 2 4 8 16
Figure 3 illustrates the scalability of the BMD-4 bench- Number of Processes

mark. The job scales well on Ethernet and Infiniband® Figure 4. Performance comparison of round-robin vs. sequential core allocation

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 33


ACADEMIC

Image © Afby T1/dreamstime.com

Driven to Simulation
A teenage student helps improve the aerodynamic design of F1 race cars
using ANSYS software and Windows high performance computing.
By Eric Tierling, Freelance Writer, Germany and Shane Moeykens, Strategic Partnership Manager, ANSYS, Inc.

What began as a hobby for enthusiasts who pioneered often take place during pit stops, which have become part
road racing in France in the 1890s has evolved into a pro- of the race strategy.
fessional sport attracting millions of followers around the A reason for the the decreasing number of passing
globe. Grand Prix racing now takes place in Europe, the maneuvers can be found in safety regulations imposed by
Asian Pacific rim, the Middle East, South America and the the governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l’Auto-
United States, with one of the most successful series being mobile (FIA), and the resulting changes to the aerodynamics
Formula One (F1). The passion associated with F1 racing of modern F1 race car designs. In the 1980s, road grip was
has grown beyond the teams, drivers and technicians who derived primarily from wide tires. With a shift to
are personally involved with the sport. Broadcast to coun- narrower tires, aerodynamic grip — which depends
tries worldwide, each of the 17 races in the 2007 season on several factors including the intensity of air
was watched by an average of 597 million viewers. turbulence — has become a much more
Milad Mafi, a teenage student in Germany, has followed important factor than the mech-
Formula One racing since childhood, and is much more anical grip provided by the
than a regular fan. Although only 16 years old, he is already tires. The external aero-
skilled at optimizing the aerodynamic design of F1 race cars dynamics of modern
with the aid of high performance computing (HPC) on the Formula One
Windows® platform. cars produce
a downward
Aerodynamic Computations force of
Milad started watching Formula One TV broad-
casts as a child and loved racing maneuvers such
as passing. Over time, however, he realized like
many others that these thrilling moments were
becoming rarer, and today are close to extinction. Pressure contours on the surface
In modern F1 racing, changes in position most of a classic 1980s F1 race car

34 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


ACADEMIC

roughly 25,000 Newtons (N), which corresponds to a


gravitational force of 2.5 metric tons.
Maintaining laminar air flow across the wings and body
of an F1 car is an ideal that is not realized in practice.
Turbulence and eddies form around bluff components of a
car body and trail behind the moving car, reducing efficiency.
The wings of an F1 car may fail to fulfill their design function
in some highly turbulent flow conditions, producing little or
no downward force while creating significant resistance.
This necessitates that drivers reduce their curve speed and
curve acceleration, making it nearly impossible to execute a
passing maneuver on the track.

More Passing Excitement


The interaction between the rear wing and diffuser leads to a decrease in total pressure
Driven by his disappointment in the decreasing number
behind an F1 race car.
of passing maneuvers, Milad started to research the
problem. Where other teenagers prefer to play football, he
examined the design and aerodynamic behavior of F1 race FLUENT software from ANSYS, the same technology that
cars — an exciting challenge for a boy who programmed his many Formula One teams also rely upon.
first computer-aided design (CAD) solution when he was By using this combination, Milad had a powerful simula-
just 11 years old. tion platform for his aerodynamic experiments. In addition,
There are two primary approaches for exploring the he took advantage of the comprehensive support provided
aerodynamic behavior of an F1 race car: using a wind tunnel by Microsoft and ANSYS, allowing him to obtain answers
or performing fluids simulation. Efficiency, visualization quickly and concentrate on his work. With the Windows
capabilities and accuracy — not to mention the financial HPC platform and FLUENT software, he could analyze the
savings — make simulation analysis an excellent option. problematic components of F1 race cars and avoid cost-
With the aid of Microsoft and ANSYS, Milad turned to intensive and time-consuming physical tests.
an industry standard — PC servers for high performance Milad had the discipline to first investigate the compo-
computing. He was able to investigate turbulence effects nents of interest — wings, diffuser, bargeboards, etc. — in
and the design modifications necessary to make passing 2-D before moving to 3-D calculations. After weeks of
maneuvers on the track easier. intense computations, his results indicated that the winglets
Microsoft’s Compute Cluster Server 2003 (predecessor and the lower rear wing element, which interact with the
of the current Windows HPC Server 2008) provided an diffuser, produce significant turbulence. Although it might
effective HPC software platform capable of performing seem simple, this observation could influence the aero-
complex flow simulations. Working with a Microsoft HPC dynamic design of modern F1 racing cars and yield better
partner, Milad received access to a Windows HPC Server passing capabilities.
cluster having more than 250 CPUs — all tied together with
the Microsoft HPC solution. For the flow analysis, he used Windows HPC Enhances Racing Excitement
Trying to keep F1 racing exciting without compromising
safety, the FIA constantly makes rule changes aimed at
increasing the ability of cars to overtake each other. One
approach for achieving better passing capabilities might
build on Milad’s research and the resulting design optimiza-
tions he performed on the front wing, rear wing, diffuser and
bargeboards.
Given the fact that F1 race teams make significant
investment in improving performance, it is not sur-
prising that Milad has already been in
contact with several Formula One
teams. As a result, the next
time you watch an F1 race,
you might see car designs
An optimized F1 race car design
that have been influenced
based on Milad’s research by Milad’s observations. ■

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 35


ANALYSIS TOOLS

Image © iStockphoto.com/James Pauls


Stretching Your
Elastomer Understanding
Accurate nonlinear analysis leads to a better material selection process
that enables innovation and faster time to market.
By Siddharth Shah, Product Manager, ANSYS, Inc.

Elastomers, or rubbers, are a category of engineering materi-


als that are used in many critical applications and have properties
that are very distinct from commonly occurring solid materials.
They exhibit a highly elastic nature, allowing them to be stretched
to many times their original length and, upon release, quickly
return to their original shape. This ability to significantly deform
and, as a result, conform between complex adjacent surfaces
Large deformation analysis of an elastomeric-based automotive door seal makes them very attractive for use in seals, sealants, gaskets
and shock-absorbing applications.
For a good seal, the elastomeric part needs to maintain
sufficient pressure against the sealing surface so that a leak is
prevented. Since they are often expected to function at extreme
conditions, it is critical to determine whether sufficient pressure
can be maintained.
Elastomers have the following characteristics:
• Ability to undergo large deformations and sustain strains
in the range of 500 percent
• Highly nonlinear load-displacement or stress–strain
relationship
• Nearly or fully incompressible — can undergo very
little volumetric change under stress or cannot be
compressed significantly under load
• Exhibit high energy absorption under cyclically
3-D analysis of an O-ring elastomer seal employed in a valve cavity varying load, providing excellent damping properties
• Highly dependent on temperature, operating
frequency and duration of use

Elastomers have a wide range of applications and come in


an even wider range of material types. Diverse and often
conflicting design requirements make material specifications
difficult. Selecting a material is often a complex process, with
the final choice dependent on a series of trade-offs and
intangible factors. A material is often selected based on
familiarity and experience that takes years to develop. As a

36 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


ANALYSIS TOOLS

result, as newer elastomeric


Hyperelastic
materials are made available, a compression
Neo-Hookean continuous learning process unloading 1
unloading 2
Mooney-Rivlin is necessary.
unloading 3
Polynomial Simulation can help aug- unloading 4
ment the understanding of an unloading 5
Ogden
elastomer’s performance by
Arruda-Boyce providing deep insight that
Gent may not be available through
physical testing. With software
Yeoh
tools, it is possible to study
Ogden (Foam) many prototypes rapidly, accel-
Blatz-Ko erating the understanding of the
Anisotropic material. In this way, engineers
Pressure vs. deflection loading curve for a typical gasket material
are provided with a means to
User make better material choices
Material models available with and develop a more effective
ANSYS mechanical tools
selection process.

Simulation
With any finite element analysis, the accuracy of
the material properties used is critical. However,
because of the highly nonlinear and nearly incom-
pressible attributes of elastomers, their mathematical
characterization assumes a central role in ensuring the
quality of any analysis. Complex mathematical models,
often referred to as hyperelastic material models, are
required to accurately describe elastomer behavior
under loading conditions.
Most elastomeric specimens need to be tested in a
1.81
lab to extract their stress–strain behavior. The goal is
to acquire the stress–strain curves of the material in
the desired operating state and then find the matching 1.5

material model to mimic that behavior. It is highly rec-


ommended that more than one set of test data — such 1.25

as uniaxial tension, biaxial tension and shear test data


— be used to identify the correct model for the material.
Stress MPa

1.

0.75
ANSYS Mechanical Technology
Uniax Exp
To fully rely upon a simulation tool for the material Biax Exp
0.5
selection process, the software needs to be accurate and Shear Exp
Uniax Fit
have an established record of excellent correlation with Biax Fit
0.25
experimental results. The mechanical suite of software Shear Fit

from ANSYS has repeatedly proven to have all of the nec-


0.
essary features to perform quick and accurate simulations
0. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.679
of elastomeric components.
Strain mm/mm
In ANSYS software, there is a wide choice of material
models backed by robust element technology sufficient to
cover all possible combinations of natural and synthetic Screenshot of curve fitting setup (top) and samples of uniaxial,
elastomers. To further enhance accuracy of simulations — biaxial and shear fitted data using the Yeoh 3rd order curve
fitting model available in the Engineering Data tool in the
such as predicting the damping behavior of elastomers ANSYS Workbench platform (bottom)
— the hyperelastic material models can be freely
combined with any of the viscoelastic material models.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 37


ANALYSIS TOOLS

To aid in identifying the right material model for Additionally, it is critical for simulation to account for
stress–strain data, software from ANSYS provides a very contact between elastomeric components. Often the com-
efficient and lucid curve fitting tool. This tool, available in ponents contact themselves as well as adjacent surfaces
Prep7 as well as in Engineering Data, can account for that are made of materials other than rubber. The robust,
much of the experimental stress–strain data of the mate- automatic, surface–surface contact capability with mechan-
rial under consideration and then quickly compare ical software from ANSYS accounts for this nonlinearity. This
different material models. The tool then automatically capability is not only robust, but is automatic, quick and
makes available the various mathematical constants that straightforward to use. ■
can be used by the material models.

Cook Compression: World’s First Compressor Valve with Elastomeric Elements


Cook Compression designs and manufactures inlet-discharge valve design — such as fixed clearance, ease of repair in the field and
valves and capacity-control equipment for industrial reciprocating gas the robustness of the design to handle plant process upset conditions.
compressors in refineries and petrochemical plants. In the industry, Once shapes are determined, elastomeric materials are selected
they have built a reputation for long life and efficiency. Historically, on the basis of their mechanical properties and their resistance to
metals have been the primary material of choice for valve elements. chemical attack. Candidates passing this last criterion get evaluated
In the early 1970s, Cook Compression pioneered engineered thermo- using nonlinear analysis in ANSYS Structural software to provide
plastics as valve element materials. insight into the deformation and stresses at operating temperature
Customers continue to demand a longer mean time between and pressure. Shapes can be adjusted based on the analysis output,
failures (MTBF) for their valve elements. This has been the main driving and the design evolution continues until a shape is deemed worthy of
force behind the investigation of alternative materials. Today, Cook a field trial.
Compression is analyzing elastomeric materials for use in reciprocat- There are millions of polymers that can be evaluated. Physically
ing compressor valves using nonlinear FEA. testing them all would be costly at best and impossible at worst.
A compressor valve must open and close with each stroke of the Being able to create a systematic method for polymer selection and
compressor (300 to 1500 rpm), forming a gas-tight seal when closed then having the capability to perform nonlinear FEA provides insight
and allowing gas to flow into how the polymer
though the valve when behaves under operat-
open. Since elastomeric ing conditions, which in
materials have no strength, turn provides feedback
applying them in environ- about how to improve
ments in which differential the selection process.
pressures exist is challeng- In short order, many
ing. To make things more polymers and polymer
Deformation contours for the prototype
complex, these valves also Cook Compression manufactures complete compressor valve
families can be elimi-
compressor valve assemblies such as this one.
operate at differential pres- nated, leaving only the
sures that cycle between zero and some value. Since compressor most promising candidates. Having a reliable simulation model
valves are aerodynamic devices, shapes that promote efficient gas makes analysis fast and accurate.
flow are desirable in order to reduce pressure losses as well as the In the Cook Compression analysis, physical measurements of the
load/power on the driver equipment. prototypes matched the simulation-predicted deflections within 0.002
Meeting the needs of dynamic differential pressure loading using inches. As a result, the world’s only compressor valves with elas-
an aerodynamic shape made from a material with no inherent strength tomeric valve elements are operating successfully in a number of
is not an easy task. First, designers model the parts in 3-D with Solid locations. More work is being conducted to expand the operating
Edge™ software and evaluate them for ease of manufacture. At this envelope, and elastomeric designs are greatly increasing the MTBF
stage, designers then conceptualize shapes that promote efficient flow, with lower valve pressure drops than their thermoplastic and metal
with consideration of negative parameters relevant to compressor counterparts.

“The nonlinear capability of ANSYS Structural software has proven to be an invaluable tool in quickly
evaluating shapes and elastomeric polymers for use in compressor valves. Time to market is reduced, and the
accuracy of the FEA results provides the necessary confidence to spend money on prototype production.”

Kevin Durham, Director of Valve Engineering


Cook Compression

38 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


TIPS AND TRICKS

Analyzing Random
Vibration Fatigue
Powerful ANSYS Workbench tools help calculate the damage
of vibrations that lack straightforward cyclic repetition.
By Santhosh M. Kumar, Technical Support Engineer, ANSYS India

Determining the fatigue life of parts under periodic, sinu-


soidal vibration is a fairly straightforward process in which
damage content is calculated by multiplying the stress 0.2
amplitude of each cycle from harmonic analysis with the
Amplitude

0.1

number of cycles that the parts experience in the field. The 0


-0.1
computation is relatively simple because the absolute value
-0.2
of the vibration is highly predictable at any point in time. 24
Vibrations may be random in nature in a wide range of 6
applications, however, such as vehicles traveling on rough 5
12
roads or industrial equipment operating in the field where Day
4
Time
arbitrary loads may be encountered. In these cases, instan- 3
2
taneous vibration amplitudes are not highly predictable as
0 1
the amplitude at any point in time is not related to that at
Figure 1. Random vibrations measured for vehicle on a rough road showing perio-
any other point in time. As shown in Figure 1, the lack of dicity for single, dual and quad disk configuration
periodicity is apparent with random vibrations.
The complex nature of random vibrations is demon-
strated with a Fourier analysis of the random time–history
shown in Figure 2, revealing that the random motion can be
represented as a series of many overlapping sine waves,
with each curve cycling at its own frequency and amplitude.
With these multiple frequencies occurring at the same time,
the structural resonances of different components can
be excited simultaneously, thus increasing the potential
Amplitude

Time
0
damage of random vibrations.

Statistical Measures of Random Vibration


Because of the mathematical complexity of working
with these overlapping sine curves to find instantaneous
amplitude as an exact function of time, a more efficient way
of dealing with random vibrations is to use a statistical
process to determine the probability of the occurrence of
particular amplitudes. In this type of approach, the random
Amplitude

vibration can be characterized using a mean, the standard 0


Time

deviation and a probability distribution. Individual vibration


amplitudes are not determined. Rather, the amplitudes are
averaged over a large number of cycles and the cumulative
effect determined for this time period. This provides a more
practical process for characterizing random vibrations than
analyzing an unimaginably large set of time–history data for Figure 2. Random time–history can be represented as a series of overlapping
many different vibration profiles. sinusoidal curves.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 39


TIPS AND TRICKS

An important aspect of such a statistical representa- 3 3

tion is that most random processes follow a Gaussian 2 2

probability distribution. This distribution can be seen in a 1 1

Acceleration (g)
Acceleration (g)
frequency-of-occurrence histogram (sometimes referred 0 0
to as probability density function), which plots the num-
-1 -1
ber of times random acceleration peaks reached certain
-2 -2
levels in small frequency segments called bins. The his-
togram shown in Figure 3 represents a random signal -3
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
-3
0 100 200 300
Time (sec)
measured for 10,000 seconds and indicates that this No. of occurrence
Figure 3. Gaussian distribution (right) of random signal (left)
random signal follows a classic bell-shaped Gaussian
probability distribution.
Representing the random signals in this manner is
sometimes called a zero-mean Gaussian process, since
the mean value of the signals centers at zero of the his-

PSD (G2/Hz)
Amplitude
togram, as do the random signal responses, which are
usually described in terms of standard deviation (or
sigma value) of the distribution. Figure 3 shows how the
Gaussian distribution relates to the magnitude of the Time Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4. Random time–history (left), power special density (PSD) of a random time-history (right)
acceleration levels expected for random vibration. The
instantaneous acceleration will be between the +1σ and
the -1σ values 68.3 percent of the time. It will be
between the +2σ and the -2σ values 95.4 percent of the
time. It will be between the +3σ and the -3σ values 99.73
0.475
percent of the time. Note that the Gaussian probability
distribution does not indicate the random signal’s
frequency content. That is the function of the power PSD(G2/Hz)
spectral density analysis.
20 Frequency (Hz) 200
Power Spectral Density
The usual way to describe the severity of damage for
random vibration is in terms of its power spectral density 15
(PSD), a measure of a vibration signal’s power intensity
in the frequency domain. Looking at the time–history
plot in Figure 4, it is not obvious how to evaluate the 150
constantly changing acceleration amplitude. The way to 7 X
evaluate is to determine the average value of all the
amplitudes within a given frequency range. Although
acceleration amplitude at a given frequency constantly Figure 5. Problem sketch of aluminum beam with a weight at the tip undergoing
changes, its average value tends to remain relatively white-noise random vibration
constant. This powerful characteristic of the random
process provides a tool to easily reproduce random
signals using a vibration test system. PSD Analysis Sample Problem
Random vibration analysis is usually performed over a To illustrate how power spectral density analysis is
large range of frequencies — from 20 to 2,000 Hz, for used in calculating the fatigue life of a part undergoing
example. Such a study does not look at a specific random vibration, consider a cantilevered aluminum beam
frequency or amplitude at a specific moment in time but (Al 6061-T6 [E=68.9 GPa, γ=0.3]) that is 150 mm long by 15
rather statistically looks at a structure’s response to a mm wide by 7mm high, as shown in Figure 5. This system
given random vibration environment. Certainly, we want has an overall damping ratio of 5 percent. An instrument
to know if there are any frequencies that cause a large assembly of weight 2N is mounted on the tip of the beam,
random response at any natural frequencies, but mostly and its movement is restricted to only the vertical direction.
we want to know the overall response of the structure. The assembly must be capable of operating in a white-noise
The square root of the area under the PSD curve (grey random vibration environment with an input PSD level of
area) in Figure 4 gives the root mean square (RMS) value 0.475 g2/Hz (from 20 to 200 Hz) for a period of 4.0 hours. The
of the acceleration, or Grms, which is a qualitative meas- challenge is to determine the approximate dynamic stress
ure of intensity of vibration. and the expected fatigue life of the assembly.

40 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


TIPS AND TRICKS

Analysis of the assembly under this white-noise Standard Deviation Bending Stress Percentage of Occurrence
environment results in a bending stress contour plot shown
1σ stress 1x 55.4 = 55.4 MPa 68.3%
in Figure 6, which shows a maximum 1-σ bending stress of
55.4 MPa (see accompanying table). 2σ stress 2x 55.4 = 110.8 MPa 27.1%

3σ stress 3x 55.4 = 166.2 MPa 4.33%


Reponse Power Spectral Density (RPSD)
Figure 7 shows a response power spectral density plot
(new in Workbench 12.0) of a node at root having maximum
bending stress at the system’s first natural frequency of
~56 Hz. The integration of the RPSD curve (the area under
the curve) yields variance of bending stress. The square root
of the variance is 1σ value of the bending stress.

Fatigue Analysis
For fatigue life calculation in the sample problem, root
Figure 6. 1-σ bending stress distribution
mean square (RMS) stress quantities are used in conjunction
with the standard fatigue analysis procedure. The following
procedure explains how to calculate the fatigue life using one
Response PSD -
of the most common approaches: the Three-Band Technique Normal Stress

using Miner’s Cumulative Damage Ratio [1].


The first step is to determine the number of stress
cycles needed to produce a fatigue failure. When the root of
the beam is connected to the other parts of the structure
without any fillet, the computed alternating stress has to
account for stress concentration effects. The stress con-
centration factor K can be used in the stress equation or in 56.426
3.2591e+8
defining the slope b of the S-N fatigue curve for alternating 2.5e+8

stresses. The stress concentration should be used only 1.e+8

once in either place. For this sample problem, a stress con- 5.e+7
2.5e.7
centration factor K = 2 will be used in the S-N fatigue curve
as shown in Figure 8, where slope b = 6.4. 1.e+7
5.e+6
The approximate number of stress cycles N1 required to
PSD

2.5e+6
produce a fatigue failure in the beam for the 1σ, 2σ and 3σ
stresses can be obtained from the following equation: 1.e+6
5.e+5
2.5e+5

1.e+5
50000
25000
where: 17785
2. 2.5 5. 10. 25. 50. 100. 200.
N2 = 1000 (S1000 reference point) Frequency

S2 = 310 MPa (stress to fail at S1000 reference point) Figure 7. Response power spectral density of bending stress distribution
for aluminum beam
S1 = 55.4 (1σ RMS stress)
b = 6.4 (slope of fatigue line with stress concentration K = 2)

The number of cycles to fail (N) under dynamic stress is K=1


calculated as follows: 310
Stress (MPa)

103

b=6.4 K=2 51.7

103 N, Cycles to fail 108


Figure 8. S-N curve for 6061-T6 aluminum beam with a stress concentration of 2

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 41


TIPS AND TRICKS

The actual number of fatigue cycles (n) accumulated damage is generated by the 3σ level, even though it acts
during four hours of vibration testing can be obtained from only about 4.33 percent of the time. The 3σ level generates
the percent of time exposure for the 1σ, 2σ and 3σ values: more than two times as much damage as the 2σ level,
which acts about 27.1 percent of the time.
The above fatigue cycle ratio shows that about 95.71
percent of the life of the structure is used up by the four-
hour vibration test. This means that 4.29 percent of the life
remains, with the expected life of the structure obtained
from the following calculation:
Used life + remaining life = 4.0 hrs + [(4.0) x (0.0429)] =
~4.17 hrs
Miner’s Rule
Miner’s cumulative fatigue damage ratio is based on While fatigue life evaluation under a random process is
the idea that every stress cycle uses up part of the fatigue highly complicated, Miner’s Rule provides a reasonably
life of a structure, whether the stress cycle is due to sinu- good prediction. In the example, the safety factor of 2
soidal vibration, random vibration, thermal cycling, shock calculated from structural stress values is not adequate to
or acoustic noise. ensure fatigue life of the beam for the chosen environment.
Miner’s fatigue damage cycle ratio calculation is as follows: When it comes to design for manufacturing, it is recom-
mended that the beam design be changed to provide a
fatigue life of approximately 8 hours, amounting to a safety
factor of 2 on the fatigue life. ■

Reference:
[1] Steinberg, D.S., “Vibration Analysis for Electronic Equipment,”
John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2000.
An examination of the above fatigue cycle ratio shows
that the 1σ RMS level does very little damage even though The author would like to thank Eng Hui Khor, ANSYS, Inc., for his technical
it is in effect about 68.3 percent of the time. Most of the advice and editorial assistance.

42 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


TIPS AND TRICKS

Extracting Solution-
Dependent Regions
in CFX-Post
Identifying and quantifying regions of reverse flow
in the CFX-Post fluids post-processor.
By Robin Steed, Senior Fluids Application Specialist, ANSYS, Inc.

When evaluating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Quantifying Reversed Flow


results, engineers are often faced with the need to quantify Although visualization is helpful in understanding the flow
aspects of the flow based on specific behaviors in the solu- field, it is also necessary to quantify the results for the
tion fields as opposed to geometric locations. One example purposes of evaluation, comparison and optimization. You
is the need to visually identify and quantitatively evaluate can use the CFX Expression Language (CEL) to quantitatively
regions of reversed air flow in an automotive vehicle cabin. evaluate the proportional area of the reverse flow region, and
This will be demonstrated using CFX-Post to evaluate a CFD then evaluate the average temperature of forward and
solution obtained from FLUENT software. reversed flow on the plane.

Visualizing Reversed Flow Units and Algebraic Operations in CEL


Using the solution from the cabin airflow simulation, a
CEL is an algebraic expression language that follows standard
vertical plane through the vehicle was colored by velocity in
unit arithmetic. It allows CFX-Post (and CFX Solver) users to create
the x direction (velocity u). Deep blue regions in this contour
plot suggest low speed or reverse flow. It’s difficult to tell, persistent, algebraic expressions to evaluate integrated quantities,
however, at exactly what point the flow is actually reversed new variable fields, complex material properties and boundary
because of the smooth color gradient. To locate regions conditions. CEL variables include many common constants, all
where the velocity is in the negative x direction, you can sim- solution variables and any other expressions you have created,
ply create a contour plot on the same plane, manually regardless of the order in which they are created. All variables
specifying the contour boundaries at -100, 0 and 100 meters include appropriate dimensions. The CEL subsystem ensures that
per second (m/s) in order to clearly delineate forward and quantities are converted to the same units before being added and
reverse flow regions. flags errors if a user tries to add values that equate to different
dimensions. For instance, you can add 10 meters/second to 30 kilo-
meters/hour but cannot add 10 meters/second to 30 kilometers.
The same holds true for other available algebraic operations.

In the example, to calculate the area proportion,


you need to know the area of the plane (Plane 1) and the
area of reversed flow. For this, you would use the
area()@<location> function:
Flow field on a plane down the middle of the cabin, colored by velocity in the x direction

Plane area = area()@Plane 1

To calculate the area of reverse flow, you must


first create a User Surface object and define it using
the From Contour method, picking contour level 2 on
Contour 1. This area is called User Surface 1. Using a
similar approach, User Surface 2 is defined by picking
contour level 3 on Contour 1. This provides you with a
Reverse flow is indicated by the light blue contour region. location for your expression.

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 43


TIPS AND TRICKS

Reverse flow regions (in blue) at new plane location

Expression Original Location New Location

Plane area 1.588 [m2] 1.505 [m2]

Contour and user surface object geometry details Reverse flow area 0.972 [m ]2
0.666 [m2]
Reverse flow area proportion 0.612 0.443
The area of reverse flow is returned by the expression: Tave forward 286.300 [K] 287.708 [K]
Reverse flow area = area()@User Surface 1 Tave reverse 286.861 [K] 290.798 [K]
Tdiff 0.561 [K] 3.091 [K]
The area proportion is obtained by dividing the two
expressions: Quantitative data at original and new locations
Reverse flow area proportion = Reverse flow
area / Plane area when the input changes. If the plane is moved to a new loca-
tion, the dependent object states are instantly updated,
Next, you would obtain the area weighted average tem- including to the level of the calculated expressions.
perature on the reverse and forward flow regions and the As you post-process your results, you can add figures,
difference between the two in a similar manner using the tables and comments to an HTML report, which can option-
areaAve()@<location> function. The area average ally include 3-D viewer files [1]. Post-processing objects
function returns the area weighted average of a variable or created during the session, including the report, can be
expression at the specified location. saved to a CFX state file.
Tave reverse = areaAve(Temperature) The CFX-Post state file is a text file containing only the
@User Surface 1 persistent data (parameters of objects), not the results. The
Tave forward = areaAve(Temperature) CFX-Post state allows a user to restore a post-processing
@User Surface 2 session or apply an existing post-processing state to new
Tdiff = Tave reverse – Tave forward simulation results without the need for scripting or journal
files. This feature allows engineers to reduce time spent on
Object Persistence post-processing, compress the analysis process and
The calculated objects in our example (Tave reverse, increase productivity. It is also the basis for the automatic
Tave forward, Tdiff, etc.) have the dependencies on post- extraction of quantitative results from ANSYS CFX software
processing objects or geometries (in this case, the contour in a CFD simulation using ANSYS DesignXplorer software. ■
plot and the plane that the contour resides on). But what
happens if the plane is moved? References
The real power of CFX-Post lies in the persistence of its [1] Free viewer download available at http://www.ansys.com/
data — meaning the calculated object data is preserved products/cfx-viewer.asp

Expressions

User Surface Tave Forward


Tdiff
Contour 1
Tave Reverse
User Surface
Reverse Flow
Reverse
Flow Area
Plane Plane Area Proportion
Vector 1
Point Cloud
Streamline 1
Dependencies for user-created objects and expressions.

44 ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 www.ansys.com


OUTSIDE THE BOX

Bio-Inspiring
Engineering
Scientists use nature to advance technology.
By ANSYS Advantage Editorial Staff with the assistance of Matevz Dular,
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Animals are naturally engineered to be highly


efficient. Fireflies emit a light that essentially
produces no heat. Cockroaches and crickets are
able to traverse complex and uneven terrain, a trait
worth imitating if you’re developing a robot that
needs to navigate unknown and rough territory.
Studying natural solutions to the physical world
is not new and can often lead to important and
surprising technological advances.
Within the study of locomotion, observations in
the animal kingdom have led to a number of
engineering developments that may have other-
wise been overlooked. The rough textures found on
shark skin would intuitively introduce extra drag
into the swimming process. When swimsuits are
designed with similar surfaces, however, they prove
more efficient than other alternatives. In another
example, penguins provided engineering insight
when researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology developed a marine propulsion system
that uses two oscillating foils to create thrust in
the water. The system boasts significantly higher
efficiencies than the traditional propeller system.
In order to fully understand any propulsion
system, familiarity with the fluids that are involved is
essential. For Matevz Dular, who was collaborating
with the Marine Biology Station Piran in Slovenia,
simulation was an effective tool to employ when to assign the velocity boundary condition for the
wanting to learn more about jellyfish locomotion. fluid moving past the animal. By using two phases
As Dular puts it, the animals are usually not very of liquids in the simulation — both with identical
keen to cooperate experimentally, and simulation properties — Dular was able to introduce a virtual
solved this problem. Using FLUENT simulation color tracer in order to visualize the vortices that were
software, he was able to help researchers visualize produced by the jellyfish locomotion.
the flow patterns related to the animals’ move- From an engineering point of view, jellyfish
ments, gaining insight into the dynamics of the bell propulsion is interesting because it was perfected
contraction and relaxation. over millions of years. With simulation, we can
Dular utilized a user-defined function (UDF) further our understanding of how it is that animals
to describe the movement of the jellyfish bell, a are so efficient and try to learn from those
dynamic mesh capability to describe the mesh natural designs. So what other natural engineering
motion, and another UDF to calculate the forces solutions are waiting to be discovered? Humming-
that the bell imposed on the surrounding fluid as bird-inspired new high-tech flight techniques with
it moved. With the resultant force, he was able to aerospace application? Insect-inspired drug delivery
calculate the acceleration of the jellyfish in each methodologies within the pharmaceutical industry?
time step. The jellyfish acceleration was then used Time will tell. ■

Image © iStockphoto.com/Klaas Lingbeek-van Kranen

www.ansys.com ANSYS Advantage • Volume II, Issue 3, 2008 45