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~ 6,000 worder~ To what extent was the “urban crisis” in

(1) J.G. Ballard, Highrise,

1960s and 1970s America a crisis of modernity?
(xxxx); G. Orwell, 1984, 01 December 2019 15:50 "Did LBJ construct these as a crisis of mdoernity?" then

(3) Weaver, T., ‘Urban Crisis: - "

The Genealogy of a
Concept’, Urban Studies, Crisis, well which crisis? (Long term and Short term crisis moments - leading to the importance of discourse and
Vol. 53 (March 2016), pp. crisis.) Banfield EC (1970) The Unheavenly City: The
2039-55 Urban crisis not as uniquely American, but particularly american (3a) Nature and Future of Our Urban Crisis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown
a) p.2040 Discuss urban renewal here, rebuilding of cities Zipp and 'Which Urban Crisis' - But originally he blames it on government programms.
b) p.2041-5 But when it starts and end is a problem that people can't decide on (Pritichett v Weaver(c) Banfield EC (1974) The Unheavenly City Revisited. Boston,
c) p.2046 But problems in cities are seemingly perpetual, Bearegard depicts scepticism about the city being based in a certain - He maintained that, despite ongoing presence of ‘much poverty and much racial discrimination’,
(4)Hay, C. (1996). Narrating belief about american ruralism and freedom. ‘the present generation of urban Americans is better off than any other large group of people
Crisis: The Discursive has ever been anywhere’ (Banfield, 1974: 2). Moreover, for Banfield the problem of culturally
Construction of the "Winter - Conjuncture of the rise in racial politics (2), based ‘improvidence and irresponsibility’, was not solveable by state action.
of - Austerity, and preexisting problems often leads people to bifurcate the two. (15a)
Discontent". Sociology, ○ Selfs article makes efforts to understand the two in turn. Black Power rises as a response to cope with the
30(2), 253-277. issues of the urban crisis as much
a) 261 □ If I take the line that I'm going to take. That Underlying problems are the issues and that the
crisis only comes out of a peak of fervour… is it possible to argue that it is infact a race crisis?
(5)Chronopoulos, T., Spatial  The tipping point….? (16a)
Regulation in New York City:  Beauregard says that it is a euphemism for race. Offering that it was developed as a way "Why isn't the winter of discontent considered an "URBAN CRISIS" " -> path dependency, a rhetorical construction? (7a)
From Urban Renewal to to wash peoples hands of the problem. (14d) I would instead offer that there was a
Zero Tolerance (New York, tangible element of crisis. This crisis however wasn't urban, it was wholly racial.
2011) ◊ Beauregard admits that there were other problems, but these problems were not
a) p.2 unique to the period, race allows people to go nuts and talk about crisis! (14e)
b) Pp.1-7  The urban crisis exists not because the condition of the 60s in cities was inherently unique.
(6)Clair Drake, 'The Social Whether we think physically or rhetorically, this had all been done before -tulsa but the
and Economic Status of the warnings were hitting home harder. , it was worse but not unique. Crisis is extended to
Negro in the United States' this moment simply BECAUSE of racial problems, as a way to obfiscate away from the
Daedalus, 94/4, (1965), pp. problem of the day, race. The narrative hoops that are jumped through are done to avoid
771-814 talking about, or reframe race. The Urban crisis is not a modern crisis. It is a race crisis.
a) 812-4 -
(7)Hay, C., 'Chronicles of a Urban crisis is only invented once there are moments, Watts and rioting and that to be a crisis of something like
Death Foretold: The Winter "modernity" can it just be a moment?
of Discontent and It has tangible moments of crisis and this is how Weaver likes to approach it. (3) that the urban moments are then A crisis in the meaning of the city. It had had its apotheisis as the engine of american prosperity, nowt
Construction of the Crisis of folded into wider narratives of total decline hat was in relative decline people didn't know what to think.
British Keynesianism', The "Urban Crisis" creates a moment out of an institutional problem with the poor management of the city since
Parliamentary Affairs, Vol. the boom of the 1920s (14c) problems which those at the head were unable to solve properly, leading to an Urban Decay is maybe a more appropriate definition for a crisis of modernity ->
63, No. 3 (2010), pp. acceptance of the post-industrial nature of cities. It’s the new condition of urbanism the same problems remain
446-470. yet we become POSTmodern
a)p.461 Beauregard does depict this as a crisis in modernist discourse. Progress can no longer be seen in cities,
(8) S. Zipp, 'The Roots and So is "The Urban Crisis just a construction? EH the potent believe by sceptics that Cities are anathema to american culture found evidence in the white
Routes of Urban Renewal', While not explicit it also equates (or perhaps results) in a crisis of labour-based politics flight of the 60s and the increase in crime. (14b)
Journal of Urban History, 3b) what is more important is the pronouncement of crisis less so then the reality of crisis Crisis is a word to be used,
(2012) 39/3 pp.366-391 not a fact to be described. (4a)
a) 366 Rhetorical construction extends the necessity for action; but there does HAVE to be something to act against, a Fig 4.9 in C. Hay's Political Analysis, (New York) rate of change adds the sense of crisis, change is more
(9)Fishman, R., ‘The moment or a problem. prevalent in race. - the time horizons however are also fucked
American Metropolis at And there were tangible moments that required action (14a)
Century’s End: Past and Defining the crisis defines the problem and thus the action. But to say it is simply a construction would be
Future Influences’, Housing oversimplifying there was certainly SOMETHING happening
Policy Debate, Vol. 11 Or is it -> Crisis of modernity or a crisi about a percieved future? (5a)
(1999), Chronopolous makes it clear that urban renewal and change is always a response to percieved problems, the nature
a) 200 of which is largely constant, but understood diffrently. Is it a problem of modernity then? Or a problem of managing
b) 203 inequality? (5b)
(10)R. Keil, 'Urban 6a) A failure of modernity to present a future. By 1960s "the future was here" as it were
Neoliberalism: Rolling with In this source there is an acceptance that the slum is here to stay "unless we change course
changes in a globalizing
world' in Springer, S., Kean, (17) Boughton's book is a fantastic comparison point, the narratives structures and problems of change are all
B., and MacLeavy, The present. But the word "crisis" is never used
Handbook of Neoliberalism,
(New York, 2016) pp. 385-98
a) 391
(11) R. Barthes, Seimology "Define modernity?" then
and the Urban, in N. Leach - There is a highmindedness to some discussion of modernity, but it would be churlish to pretend that they have an
(ed.) Rethinking exacting relevance to the conditions of American urban riots. Some evidence to say that the rheotric of crisis and slum is inherent in the city at large (12a).
Architecture: A Reader in - Problematising "multiple modernities" as Wagner does demostrates that modernity is zeigeist-y. Modern Schafrans article is a critique of the language used to apply to a contemporary crisis in the
Cultural Theory, (New York, modernity is different to early-modern modernity. What we are seeing is perhaps different formulations of the suburbs, but draws attention to the "old wine, new bottles" nature of the language used.
1997) pp.167-72 ideas of progress. Modernity is old wine in new bottles. Language about cities is cyclical. Problems of urbanness are understood the same way. Thus
a) 168 the "urban crisis" is not a discreet crisis point, but a peak of rhetorical concern(?)
(12) - Smarts discussions of Neitzche help to characterise but it is more useful to think of the tangible expressions of Irrespective of tangible situation, perhaps the city is always fated to have a crisis, but it in its core or
Alex Schafran (2013) such ideas. periphery, the language is always the same. The urban crisis is thus not a crisis of modernity but a
Discourse and dystopia, - Social democracy feature inherent in the shifting needs of a populace trying to dominate such a concentrated, and
American style, City, 17:2, - New Deal / Keynsian consensus inflexible space.
130-148 - The exact confines of the problem may change, but the trends are similar constantly as
An admission that these schemas of modernity are white minded, and tend to obfuscate
a) 130-2 - populations shift from centre to periphary, abandonment (legal or economic) leads to
(13) Raymond Williams, deprivation or restructuring, which can be "reversed" through gentrifcation processes,
"Metropolitan perceptions - Modernity in this question is presumed as a state to be achieved a state which needs to be described populations leave and populations return
and the emergence of - Modernity has a multitude of descriptors and some see the city as the defining symbol of modernity, but
modernism," The Politics of disagreements thrive on what a "modern" city looks like
Modernism (London: Verso, ○ Some have labeled the prominence of the automobile as the definining condition of the modern city - 9a)
1989), pp. 37-48. but in this context modernity has little affect on the urban crisis at all?
(14)R.A. Beauregard, Voices ▪ Unless we can label something important about the condition of this sort of space? Not human
of Decline, (New York, minded?
2003) ○ Modernity as urbanism (13a), many descriptions (certainly contemporary) see the city as the agent of
a) 4 modernity/progress (certainly a concern for Roland Barthes. The city not as a developments (an advent of
b) 15-28 change) but a fixed entity worth investigating for semiotics (11a)
c) Pp.27-30 ▪ 9b) modern fascination for the highrise, and the concentration of urban space to the detriment of
d) 151 local community
e) 150 This condition is also pan-atlantic1a -> media of the time is obssessed with the city being the heart of
15) the modern - dystopian state. Metropolis America does not have a monopoly on modern urbanism..
“To Plan Our Liberation”: ▪ No slums but massive concetration of people. Rise of the housing estate
Black Power and the Politics ○ Post-industrial neo-liberal city…. Modern? Or post-Modern? What about diversifying the cities economy is
of Place in Oakland, not modern? And yet we consider the neoliberal city as post-modern. So when did we hit modern?
California, 1965-1977 ▪ Kiel suggest that disasters of modernity (urban crisis) are the lifeblood of the post-modern city. (10a)
Self, Robert Urban Crisis are then the tipping point of modernity?
Journal of Urban History,
September 2000, Vol.26(6), - Zipp doesn't define modernity but highlights a problem with modernist urbanism; taken over by businessman is
pp.759-792 this a problem with "modernity" as a whole? Or profiteering in the modern world (8a)
A) p.760 ○ 8b) restore something, whilst acting as a complete break from the nineteenth centure urban landscape????
(16)M. Duneier, Ghetto: the Is it right to think as "modernity" as a specifically temporal/tangible character. Or is it a way of thinking? A
invention of a place, the definition of progress??
history of an idea, (new -
york, 2016)
(a) p. 90 Space-time compression David Harvey (2)

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