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21st Century Literature from the
Philippines and the World

WEEK 1.2

Capsulized Self-Learning Empowerment Toolkit

Schools Division Office of Zamboanga City

Region IX – Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga City

“Unido, Junto avanza con el EduKalidad Cree, junto junto puede!”



Capsulized Self-Learning Empowerment Toolkit

21st Century
from the
SUBJECT & Philippines
QUARTER 1 WEEK 1.2 DAY ___________________________________
GRADE/LEVEL and the dd/mm/yyyy


Grade 11/12
TOPIC Philippine Literature during the Spanish Period
Identify the geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of
Philippine literary history from pre-colonial to the
 Identify some forms of Philippine literature during the
Spanish Period;
 infer the theme from a literary piece; and
 recognize the contribution of literature in the
development of nationhood.
IMPORTANT: Do not write anything on this material. Write your answers on the Learner’s
Activity and Assessment Sheets provided separately.

Forms of Philippine Literature in the Spanish Tradition

From 1565 to 1898,

the Philippines was What was the focus of Philippine literature
Spain’s only colony during the Spanish Period? The Spaniards
in Asia. used literature to spread Catholicism, so our
legends and myths became stories of the lives
of saints and characters from the Bible.
What were the changes that the Spaniards introduced to Philippine
literature? They brought with them the printing press and introduced the
use of the Latin alphabet in writing. A style of writing called the Euro-
Hispanic tradition was born during this period.
What is the Euro-Hispanic tradition? It is the literary style that imported characteristics popular in
Europe and in Spain. These include love stories about knights or heroes, and are usually set in a
foreign country. Example? Francisco Baltazar’s Florante at Laura. This also showed the creativity
of our Filipino literary artists to adapt works and make them accessible to a listening audience
because many Filipinos did not know how to read or write in Spanish.

What genres in literature did the Spanish introduce? The Spaniards taught the Filipinos the novel,
the essay and print journalism. The Propaganda Movement utilized these literary forms to
advocate against Spanish crimes and abuses like Jose Rizal in his novels, Noli me tangere and El
filibusterismo, and Graciano Lopez Jaena and Marcelo H. Del Pilar in their articles in the
newspaper, La Solidaridad.




Korido – a narrative that is based on legend and fantasy; sung at a faster pace and has a plot
for entertainment purpose. Example: Ibong Adarna by Jose de la Cruz

Awit – a narrative poem about a hero and his love interest; sung at a slower pace and is
didactic. Example: Florante at Laura by Francisco Baltazar

Komedya – a theatrical presentation of a Spanish romance story that shows the values of
religiosity and loyalty to the king.

Duplo – a poetic joust or a debate in the form of poetry.

Moro-moro – a melodrama depicting battles between Spanish forces and Muslims, where the
former always wins over the latter.

Sarswela -can either be musical comedies or melodramas that make fun of social issues or the
trials in life.

The life of Jesus Christ was a popular subject for many of the literary forms during the
Spanish Period. The pasyon was a long narrative poem about the life and death of Jesus
Christ, and was often sung during Holy Week. The sinakulo was a dramatization of the
Passion of Christ including His crucifixion. The tibag originated the santacruzan.
Panunuluyan was a drama about the search of St. Joseph and the Virgin Mary of a place for
the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem

Andres de Castro Bonifacio (1863-1897) is often called the Father of

Philippine Revolution. He was one of the founders and later on became
Supremo of the Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga
Anak ng Bayan or more commonly known as the Katipunan, which sought the
independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule. Compared to the
members of the Propaganda Movement, Bonifacio wrote in Tagalog, making
his works more accessible to the ordinary Filipinos especially during the
Philippine Revolution of 1896.
In the succeeding part are selected stanzas from one of his poems titled Pag-
ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa which was first published in March 1896 in the first
issue of Kalayaan –the newspaper of the Katipunan

SAQ-1: What can you say about the themes of Philippine literary forms during the Spanish
SAQ-2: What do you think is the value of literature in promoting love of country?

Let’s Practice! (Write your answer on the separate sheets provided.)

Theme is defined as the underlying meaning of a literary work. It is important not to confuse a theme
with subject. Subject is a topic that acts as a foundation for a literary work, while a theme is an
opinion expressed on the subject. For example, a writer may choose a subject of war for his story, and
the theme may be his personal opinion that war destroys one‟s soul. Usually, it is up to the readers to
explore the theme of a literary work by analyzing characters, plot, and other literary devices.

Directions: Read the following excerpts from Andres Bonifacio’s Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa and
then write the theme or meaning of each stanza on the line provided.

1. Aling pag-ibig pa ang hihigit kaya sa pagkadalisay at pagkadakila

gaya ng pag-ibig sa tinubuang lupa?
Aling pag-ibig pa? Wala na nga, wala.



2. Pagpupuring lubos ang palaging hangad

sa bayan ng taong may dangal na ingat.
umawit, tumula, kumatha’t sumulat,
kalakhan din niya’y isinisiwalat.

3. Walang mahalagang hindi inihandog

ng may pusong mahal sa Bayang nagkupkop,
dugo, yaman, dunong, katiisa’t pagod,
buhay ma’y abuting magkalagut-lagot.

4. Bakit? Alin ito na sakdal ng laki

na hinahandugan ng buong pagkasi,
na sa lalong mahal nakapangyayari
at ginugugulan ng buhay na iwi.

5. Ito’y ang Inang Bayang tinubuan,

siya'y ina’t tangi na kinamulatan
ng kawili-wiling liwanag ng araw
nagbibigay-init sa buong katawan.

6. Kalakip din nito’y pag-ibig sa Bayan

ang lahat ng lalong sa gunita’y mahal,
mula sa masaya’t gasong kasanggulan
hanggang sa katawa’y mapasa-libingan

7. Sa aba ng abang mawalay sa Bayan,

gunita ma’y lagging sakbibi ng lumbay;
walang alaala’t inaasam-asam
kundi ang makita’y lupang tinubuan.

8. Pati ang nagdusa’t sampung kamatayan

wari ay masarap kung dahil sa Bayan,
at lalong maghirap, O, himalang bagay,
lalong pag-irog pa ang sa kanya’y alay.

9. Kung ang baying ito’y mapapasa-panganib

at siya ay dapat na ipagtangkilik,
ang anak, asawa, magulang, kapatid,
isang tawag niya’y tatalikdang pilit

10. Hayo na nga, hayo, kayong nangabuhay

sa pag-asang lubos ng kaginhawahan,
at walang tinamo kundi kapaitan,
hayo na’t ibangon ang naabang bayan.



Key Points

 Philippine literature during the Spanish Period can either be classified as religious or secular.
Religious literary pieces were largely inspired by subjects from the Bible or the lives of saints,
as these were used extensively to promote the Catholic faith. Examples are: pasyon, sinakulo,
panunuluyan and tibag.
 Secular literature featured themes from the Euro-Hispanic tradition such as love stories about
knights or heroes, usually set in a foreign country. Examples are: awit, duplo, korido, moro-
moro, komedya and sarswela.
 The Spaniards introduced the following literary forms: novel, drama, essay and print
journalism. The Propaganda Movement used these forms to promote nationalism.
 Theme is the underlying message of a literary work.

Let‟s see how much have you learned today!

Directions: Read each item carefully and answer the following questions. (Answer on the Learner’s
Activity and Assessment sheets.)

Identify whether the literary form is religious On the lines provided, write T if the statement is
or secular. Write A for religious or B for true or F if the statement is false.
secular on the lines provided.
________ 11. The Spaniards introduced poetry
________ 1. awit to Philippine literature.
________ 2. duplo ________ 12. Most literary pieces during the
________ 3. komedya Spanish Period were inspired by
________ 4. korido the Bible.
________ 5. moro-moro ________ 13. The essay was one of the literary
________ 6. panunuluyan forms used by the Propaganda
________ 7. pasyon Movement.
________ 8. sarswela ________ 14. In analyzing a literary work,
________ 9. sinakulo theme and subject are
________ 10. tibag synonymous.
________ 15. Filipino literary artists during the
Spanish Period were patronized
by a literate audience.

Bienvenido L. Lumbera, Philippine Literature: A History and Anthology, ed.
Cynthia N. Lumbera Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2005, 1-458

Online Sources
“Andres Bonifacio‟s „Pag-Ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa,‟” Presidential Museum and Library,
accessed July 12, 2020, http://malacanang.gov.ph/7050-andres-bonifacios-pag-

REFERENCE/S “Literary Devices: Definition and Examples of Literary Terms,” Literary Devices, accessed
July 12, 2020, https://literarydevices.net/theme/

Lorelyn Medina, Illustration of a Filipino Kid Boy Wearing Traditional Costume
of a Farmer Conical Hat, Kamisa De Chino, Red Scarf and Slippers, digital art, n.d.,
accessed July 03, 2020, www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/illustration-filipino-kid-



Presidential Museum and Library, Imprinting Andres Bonifacio: The Iconization from
Portrait to Peso, photograph, n.d., accessed July 12, 2020, http://malacanang.gov.ph/

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