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Domaine: Conducteurs des Travaux (CT)

Parcours: Licence

Etablissement: Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs (ENSI)

Code et Intitulé de l’UE: ENSI-LPCT-GC/GE/GM-S4-ANG 201: Anglais de spécialité:


approche thématique des textes

Credits: 2

Public cible: Cette UE s’adresse aux étudiants désireux d'obtenir la Licence en ingénierie.

Semester: 4

Pré-requis: Pour suivre cet enseignement, vous devez être inscrit (e) en année de Licence.

Enseignant responsable: AGOUZE Djignéfa Ablam, Docteur en Anglais, option littérature


américaine,

Sagbado-Lankouvi

Tél: (00228) 91 81 39 97,

Courriel: agouzablam83@gmail.com

Disponibilité: Vendredi de 9h30- 11h00 pour échanger avec les étudiants par RESCOUL)

2. DESCRIPTION DE L’UNITE D’ENSEIGNEMENT

2.1. OBJECTIFS DE L’UNITE D’ENSEIGNEMENT

Objectif general: Cette UE vise à outiller les apprenant (e)s à pouvoir développer les
compétences en matière de l’usage de la langue anglaise appliquée à l’ingénierie.

Objectifs spécifiques: Avant la fin de l’UE, les étudiant (e)s doivent être capables de :

 répondre aux questions sur les textes d’étude;


 former des mots selon la catégorie grammaticale;
 utiliser les prépositions dans leurs propres phrases;
 utiliser les phrases exclamatives;
 utiliser les pronoms relatifs dans leurs propres phrases;
 traduire des phrases et passages de l’anglais vers le français;
 utiliser les voix active et passive dans leurs phrases;
 utiliser les adjectifs avec les phrases proposes;
 construire des phrases avec le verbe “faire”;
 restaurer les passages avec les mots proposes;
 utiliser les discours direct et indirect;
 utiliser les phrases à condition

2.2. CONTENU DE L’UNITE D’ENSEIGNEMENT

Bref descriptif de l’UE: (max. 10 lignes)

L’Anglais 201 porte sur l’étude des textes appuyée par le développement des compétences
linguistiques permettant à l’étudiant ou l’étudiante d’articuler la langue anglaise dans bien
L’anglais 201 porte
des situations sur l’étude des textes
de communication. Chaque appuyée
chapitrepar
se le développement
termine des compétences
par un exercice d’application
linguistiques permettant
renforçant les aux étudiants
compétences acquisesetouétudiantes d’articuler
un exercice la langue
de recherche anglaise
préparant appliquée
l’étudiant ou
l’étudiante pour le cours suivant. Les échanges et les travaux pratiques qui meublent ce
Plan du contenu d’enseignement (parties, chapitres et sous-chapitres)
cours les amènent à s’améliorer, à acquérir des automatismes et ne plus craindre de faire
des recherches en Anglais.

Séance Rappel des objectifs spécifiques Titres des parties/chapitres/sous-


no. chapitres

1 répondre aux questions sur le texte


d’étude;
utiliser le temps approprié des verbes; The importance of engineers in a
utiliser les pronons relatifs; traduire un country
passage d’anglais vers le français
2 répondre aux questions sur le texte
d’étude; utiliser les prépostions; traduire
un passage d’anglais vers le français Importance of Machine Tools for
Milling machine and Sheet bending
machine

3 répondre aux questions sur le texte


d’étude; construire des phrases
exclamatives; traduire un passage Tools (Part one)
d’anglais vers le français

4 répondre aux questions sur le texte


d’étude; restaurer un texte avec la liste
des mots proposés; traduire un passage Tools (Part two)
d’anglais vers le français
5 répondre aux questions sur le texte
d’étude; utiliser la forme correcte des
verbes ou des adjectifs; traduire un Cutting tool
passage d’anglais vers le français

6 répondre aux questions sur le texte


d’étude; utiliser les prepositions, la voix
passive ou active; traduire un passage Electric protection devices
d’anglais vers le français

7 répondre aux questions sur le texte


d’étude; restaurer les phrases; utiliser les
unités de mesure; traduire un passage Corrosion
d’anglais vers le français

8 répondre aux questions sur le texte


d’étude; resataurer un passage; utiliser le
discours indirect; traduire un passage A Vapor-Compression system
d’anglais vers le français

9 répondre aux questions sur le texte


d’étude; poser de courtes questions à la
suite des phrases; traduire un passage How is Electricity Generated from
d’anglais vers le français Water?

10 répondre aux questions sur le texte


d’étude; utiliser les conditions avec les
phrases; utiliser la forme correcte de A Universal Power Adapter
“faire”; traduire un passage d’anglais
vers le français

11 répondre aux questions sur le texte The sheet bending machine in iron
d’étude; utiliser “qui”, “parmi”, “à moins sheet manufacturing; How bending
que”, “si”, “sur”, “ dont”; utiliser les process influence the work piece to
articles indéfinis; traduire un passage obtain stiffness
d’anglais vers le français

12 Evaluer les différents aspects du General Review/course evaluation


programme

Modalités d’évaluation
- Contrôle continu : les types d’activités d’évaluation retenus pour cette UE sont des
questions sur un texte, la compétence linguistique et la traduction. Ces activités comptent pour
50% dans la validation de l’UE.
- Examen final: le type d’activité d’évaluation pour cette UE est un examen écrit, ou
d’un travail pratique. Ceci compte pour 50% dans la validation de l’UE.
Bibliographie
Eric H. Glendinning et Norman Glendinning, Oxford English for Electrical and Mechanical
Engineering, Belgium, Oxford University Press, 1995
Internet
http://www.ccebook.on ccebook-original English books
3. DEVELOPPEMENT DU CONTENU ET ACTIVITES D’APPRENTISSAGE

I. Comprehension
Check your understanding after reading the following text.

Text1: The importance of engineers in a country

Transport: Cars, trains, ships, and planes are all products of mechanical engineering.
Mechanical and Civil engineers are also involved in support services such as roads, rail track,
harbors, and bridges.
Food processing: Mechanical engineers design, develop, and make the machines and the
processing equipment for harvesting, preparing and preserving the foods and drinks that
fill the supermarkets.
Medical engineering: Body scanners, X-ray machines, life-support systems, and other
high tech equipment result from mechanical and electrical engineers combining with
medical experts to convert ideas into life-saving and life-preserving products.
Building services: Electrical engineers provide all the services we need in our homes and
places of work, including lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, refrigeration,
and lifts.
Energy and power: Electrical engineers are concerned with the production and distribution
of electricity to homes, offices, industry, hospitals, colleges and schools, and the
installation and maintenance of the equipment involved in these processes.
Check your understanding

1. Products of mechanical engineering are known as……………….(complete)


2. How are foods and drinks maintained in supermarkets?
3. How are life-saving and life-preserving products got?
4. Lighting and heating are the only services Electrical engineers provide. True or False?
5. Who are the stakeholders of the production and distribution of electricity?
II. Linguistic competence
2.1. Put the bracketed verbs into the correct form
1. The resumption of our classes (to take) next month.
2. Engineers like (to work) with tools.
3. A trainee engineer always (to come) to the workshop on time.
4. Mechanical engineers (go) to Accra last week.
5. Students are (to sit) their exam now.

2.2. Complete the following sentences with the listed relative pronouns : whom, who,
whose, which
1. A civil engineer is a man ----------- specializes in civil engineering.
2. This is the trainee -------------- the Director recruited.
3. Mr. Comlan is the man --------- chisel I took yesterday.
4. That is a training ------------- interests me.
5. The Medical engineers ------------ the employer has chosen, are from his home town.
III. Translation

Translate the following passage into French

Energy and power: Electrical engineers are concerned with the production and distribution
of electricity to homes, offices, industry, hospitals, colleges and schools, and the
installation and maintenance of the equipment involved in these processes.

IV. Home assignment

Use “who”, “whose”, “whom”, “which” with your own sentences.


I. Comprehension
Read the following text and check your understanding.

Text 2 : Importance of Machine Tools for Milling machine and Sheet bending machine

About Machine Tools and Their Importance


The term tool refers to the category of machinery which is generally powered electrically or
hydraulically or by any means other than human effort. These are widely used to make
manufactured parts or components in various ways that include cutting or certain other kinds
of deformation. By constant research and day-by-day developing technical strategies, today a
wide range of tools have evolved to make the industrial processes simplified and easier to work
out.
A milling device is definitely one of the best examples of tools that have evolved to make solid
material machining processes in industries simpler. With the help of this one can perform a vast
number of operations ranging from simple tasks like slot and keyway cutting, planing, drilling
to complex operations like contouring and die sinking. There are two categories now available
in market. They are horizontal milling and vertical milling where horizontal and vertical refers
to the orientation of the main spindle of the device.

Machine tools are the devices used to cut, drill, press, and shear the hardened materials into
specific forms. These are are used to cut, press, bend and form sheet metal into different shapes
and sizes. Various metals are used for this process. Aluminum, brass, copper, steel, tin, nickel
etc are used for various automobile, medical and other industries.

These are applied in different applications and industries. Several types of power press are
available like C type power press, pillar power press, hydraulic, punch press, H type power
press. Hydraulic press use hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force uses hydraulic
equivalent of a mechanical lever. Hydraulic power press is commonly used for hydroforming.
Sheet bending is a type of sheet metal machine use to form heavy and large right angle and
curved folds on the sides of the trunks. Steel body fly press is also a categorical bending tools
used for particular press work with higher centre distance, accuracy and efficiency. Arbour
press is used for general engineering workshops, automobile workshops and garages. Other
types are swaging, small and imported sheet metal equipments are used for various industrial
applications.

Power press are widely used in various industrial purposes in automobiles and other industries
to acquire enormously high precision press operation, table and ram are aligned to each other.
Hand operated sheet bending device has cast iron body, complete with handle, bending bar and
bending blade to curve folds on the sides of the trunks. Hand operated rack and pinion type
arbour presses are used for driving mandrels in and out of work also used in inserting and
removing bushes, bearing etc. Press brakes are used in many different forming jobs with the
right die design like V dies, rotary bending dies, acute angle dies, radius dies etc. In a
mechanical press brake, energy is added to a flywheel with an electric motor.
A clutch engages the flywheel to power a crank mechanism that moves the ram vertically.
Accuracy and speed are two advantages of the mechanical press brake. Hydraulic press brake
operates by means of two synchronized hydraulic cylinders on the C-frames moving the upper
beam. Press brake is a fundamental tool to get steel forming industry. Thus growing needs of
metal and steel have increased the usage of tools in various industrial applications. If you are
looking for good quality tools like lathe, drill, sheet metal, SPM & heavy, shearing, Tool room,
Construction and wood working, you must visit www.bhavyamachinetools.com for further
information and advanced features with tools.
Check your understanding

1. How do we get manufactured parts or components ?


2. The industrial processes are simplified and easier to work out thanks to………..
(complete)
3. Give three (3) operations that a milling device helps carry out.
4. What are the four (4) functions of machine tools ?
5. How many types of power press are noted in the text ?
6. Which press do general engineering workshops, automobile workshops and garages
require ?
7. Why are Power press widely used in automobiles and other industries ?

II. Linguistic competence

Complete the following sentences with the appropriate preposition: at, to, on, in, for, of,
with,

1- Koffi bought his new bus ------------- London.


2- Mawuvi says he will pay --------- the tools.
3- I shall go --------- the workshop tomorrow.
4- The items consist ------- hammer, iron and pliers.
5- I do not agree --------- any of my friends.
6- Do not sit ----------- my chair, please.
7- My friend is good ---------- Engineering.
8- The Church Minister asked us to repent ---------- our sins.
9- The trainee students appealed ----------- the school authorities to help them.
10- Truancy will lead you ----------- a failure.

III. Translation

Translate the passage below into French

Machine tools are the devices used to cut, drill, press, and shear the hardened materials into
specific forms. These are are used to cut, press, bend and form sheet metal into different shapes
and sizes. Various metals are used for this process. Aluminum, brass, copper, steel, tin, nickel
etc are used for various automobile, medical and other industries.

IV. Home assignment

Translate the following passage into French

Power press are widely used in various industrial purposes in automobiles and other industries
to acquire enormously high precision press operation, table and ram are aligned to each other.
Hand operated sheet bending device has cast iron body, complete with handle, bending bar and
bending blade to curve folds on the sides of the trunks.

I. Comprehension
Read the following text and check your understanding.

Text 3 : Tools (Part one)

Tools are particularly important in construction work. They are primarily used to put things
together (e.g., hammers and nail guns) or to take them apart (e.g., jackhammers and saws).
Tools are often classified as hand tools and power tools. Hand tools include all non-powered
tools, such as hammers and pliers. Power tools are divided into classes, depending on the power
source: electrical tools (powered by electricity), pneumatic tools (powered by compressed air),
liquid-fuel tools (usually powered by gasoline), powder-actuated tools (usually powered by an
explosive and operated like a gun) and hydraulic tools (powered by pressure from a liquid).
Each type presents some unique safety problems.

Hand tools include a wide range of tools, from axes to wrenches. The primary hazard from hand
tools is being struck by the tool or by a piece of the material being worked on. Eye injuries are
very common from the use of hand tools, as a piece of wood or metal can fly off and lodge in
the eye. Some of the major problems are using the wrong tool for the job or a tool that has not
been properly maintained. The size of the tool is important: some women and men with
relatively small hands have difficulty with large tools. Dull tools can make the work much
harder, require more force and result in more injuries. A chisel with a mushroomed head might
shatter on impact and send fragments flying. It is also important to have the proper work surface.
Cutting material at an awkward angle can result in a loss of balance and an injury. In addition,
hand tools can produce sparks that can ignite explosions if the work is being done around
flammable liquids or vapours. In such cases, spark-resistant tools, such as those made from
brass or aluminium, are needed.

Power tools, in general, are more dangerous than hand tools, because the power of the tool is
increased. The biggest dangers from power tools are from accidental start-up and slipping or
losing one’s balance during use. The power source itself can cause injuries or death, for
example, through electrocution with electrical tools or gasoline explosions from liquid-fuel
tools. Most power tools have a guard to protect the moving parts while the tool is not in
operation. These guards need to be in working order and not overridden. A portable circular
saw, for example, should have an upper guard covering the top half of the blade and a retractable
lower guard which covers the teeth while the saw is not operating. The retractable guard should
automatically return to cover the lower half of the blade when the tool is finished working.
Power tools often also have safety switches that shut off the tool as soon as a switch is released.
Other tools have catches that must be engaged before the tool can operate. One example is a
fastening tool that must be pressed against the surface with a certain amount of pressure before
it will fire.

One of the main hazards of electrical tools is the risk of electrocution. A frayed wire or a tool
that does not have a ground (that directs the electrical circuit to the ground in an emergency)
can result in electricity running through the body and death by electrocution. This can be
prevented by using double-insulated tools (insulated wires in an insulated housing), grounded
tools and ground-fault circuit interrupters (which will detect a leak of electricity from a wire
and automatically shut off the tool); by never using electrical tools in damp or wet locations;
and by wearing insulated gloves and safety footwear. Power cords have to be protected from
abuse and damage.

Other types of power tools include powered abrasive-wheel tools, like grinding, cutting or
buffing wheels, which present the risk of flying fragments coming off the wheel. The wheel
should be tested to make sure it is not cracked and will not fly apart during use. It should spin
freely on its spindle. The user should never stand directly in front of the wheel during start-up,
in case it breaks. Eye protection is essential when using these tools.

Bolster
Bolster is like chisel but it is used to cut bricks. Its cutting edge is wider than the width of
brick. It is useful for accurate cutting of bricks.

Boning Rods
Boning rods are made of wood and they are T shape. They are used to level the excavated
trench throughout its length. Minimum three boning rods are used to level the trench surface.

Brick Hammer
Brick hammer is used to cut the bricks and also used to push the bricks if they come out of the
course line.
Check your understanding

1. What is the fundamental role of tools ?


2. Name the two categories into which the tools have fallen.
3. How many Power tools’s classes are there ?
4. Which classes does your area of specialization take into account ?
5. Is there any hazard by using hand tools ? (Give a short answer)
6. Contrast the Power tools means of protection with the ones of other tools.
7. The risk of electrocution is known as……………..

II. Linguistic competence

Note:

Exclamation is used to express excitement, surprise, admiration or any other such strong
emotion.

Complete the following sentences with: what, what a, how, so, such an, such a.

1- -------------- nice car he bought !


2- -------------- Wonderful it was !
3- She is ---------- beautiful girl!
4- The bag seemed to be -------------- expensive for me!
5- ----------- difficult that exercise will be!
6- ----------- handsome men we saw yesterday night!
7- ----------- intelligent the students of this Institute are!
8- ------------ bad your children are!
9- We gave them ----------- good gift for their marriage!
10- -------------- cheap your friend’s school fees are!
III. Translation
Translate the following passage into French

Other types of power tools include powered abrasive-wheel tools, like grinding, cutting or
buffing wheels, which present the risk of flying fragments coming off the wheel. The wheel
should be tested to make sure it is not cracked and will not fly apart during use. It should spin
freely on its spindle. The user should never stand directly in front of the wheel during start-up,
in case it breaks. Eye protection is essential when using these tools.

IV. Home assignment

Write your five (5) exclamatory sentences on your own.


I. Comprehension

Read the following text and check your understanding.

Text 4: Tools (Part two)

Pneumatic tools include chippers, drills, hammers and sanders. Some pneumatic tools shoot
fasteners at high speed and pressure into surfaces and, as a result, present the risk of shooting
fasteners into the user or others. If the object being fastened is thin, the fastener may go through
it and strike someone at a distance. These tools can also be noisy and cause hearing loss. Air
hoses should be well connected before use to prevent them from disconnecting and whipping
around. Air hoses should be protected from abuse and damage as well. Compressed-air guns
should never be pointed at anyone or against oneself. Eye, face and hearing protection should
be required. Jackhammer users should also wear foot protection in case these heavy tools are
dropped.

Gas-powered tools present fuel explosion hazards, particularly during filling. They should be
filled only after they have been shut down and allowed to cool off. Proper ventilation must be
provided if they are being filled in a closed space. Using these tools in a closed space can also
cause problems from carbon monoxide exposure.

Powder-actuated tools are like loaded guns and should be operated only by specially trained
personnel. They should never be loaded until immediately before use and should never left
loaded and unattended. Firing requires two motions: bringing the tool into position and pulling
the trigger. Powder-actuated tools should require at least 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of pressure against
the surface before they can be fired. These tools should not be used in explosive atmospheres.
They should never be pointed at anyone and should be inspected before each use. These tools
should have a safety shield at the end of the muzzle to prevent the release of flying fragments
during firing. Defective tools should be taken out of service immediately and tagged or locked
out to make sure no one else uses them until they are fixed. Powder-actuated fastening tools
should not be fired into material where the fastener could pass through and hit somebody, nor
should these tools be used near an edge where material might splinter and break off.

Hydraulic power tools should use a fire-resistant fluid and be operated under safe pressures. A
jack should have a safety mechanism to prevent it from being jacked up too high and should
display its load limit prominently. Jacks have to be set up on a level surface, centred, bear
against a level surface and apply force evenly to be used safely.

In general, tools should be inspected before use, be well-maintained, be operated according to


the manufacturer’s instructions and be operated with safety systems (e.g., guards). Users should
have proper PPE, such as safety glasses.

Tools can present two other hazards that are often overlooked: vibration and sprains and strains.
Power tools present a considerable vibration hazard to workers. The most well-known example
is chain-saw vibration, which can result in “white-finger” disease, where the nerves and blood
vessels in the hands are damaged. Other power tools can present hazardous exposures to
vibration for construction workers. As much as possible, workers and contractors should
purchase tools where vibration has been dampened or reduced; anti-vibration gloves have not
been shown to solve this problem.

Poorly designed tools can also contribute to fatigue from awkward postures or grips, which, in
turn, can also lead to accidents. Many tools are not designed for use by left-handed workers or
individuals with small hands. Use of gloves can make it harder to grip a tool properly and
requires tighter gripping of power tools, which can result in excessive fatigue. Use of tools by
construction workers for repetitive jobs can also lead to cumulative trauma disorders, like carpal
tunnel syndrome or tendinitis. Using the right tool for the job and choosing tools with the best
design features that feel most comfortable in the hand while working can assist in avoiding
these problems.

Air hose= tuyau d’air, Jackhammer= marteau-piqueur; chain-saw= scie à chaîne

Gloves
Gloves are required to prevent the hands from direct contact with cement, paints etc. and to
avoid injury while using machines, tools etc.

Ladder
Ladder is also required in construction works. To check slab work, to transport material to the
higher floors, to paint the walls etc.
Measuring Tape
Measuring tape is used to check the thickness, length, widths of masonry walls, foundation
beds, excavated trenches etc.

Wheel Barrow
Wheel barrow is used to transport bulk weights of materials like cement, sand, concrete mix
etc. it contains one or two wheels at its front and two handles at its back which are used to
push the wheel barrow.

Check your understanding

1. What is the content of Pneumatic tools ?


2. Why the fastener may go through the object and strike someone at a distance ?
3. When do Gas-powered tools present fuel explosion hazards ?
4. Who is qualified to operate Powder-actuated tools ?
5. What is the demand of Power-actuated tools before firing ?
6. Are safe pressures the best condition for operating Hydraulic power tools ?
7. Who are the target of vibration hazard ?
8. Why should workers and contractors buy tools ?
9. Cumulative trauma disorders are the result of………………… (complete).
II. Linguistic competence
Fill in the blanks with the correct terms from the list below.

choice context required involves


minimum problem complex appears
mechanics tackled objective relates
mixed range short-term opportunity
assembled actions complying early
monetary provide remains point
Decision-making

The problems confronting a manager are likely to be ..1.. and varied and it is not suggested they
can always be ..2.. by reference to a rigid formula, but an analytical and ..3.. approach is
certainly to be commended. Whether the decision ..4.. to personnel, finance or marketing, the
..5.. of the process are the same.

First, the ..6.. must be defined. Where it is ..7.. it may be necessary to break it down into parts.
All the relevant facts should be ..8.. and the various aspects of the situation brought together.
Then the full ..9.. of alternatives (or options) should be considered. A choice will have to be
made between the alternatives and this ..10.. weighing up the pros and cons of each of the
alternatives, before deciding on what ..11.. to be the best solution in the given circumstances.
What is best in the ..12.. may not be so appropriate in the long-term – and vice versa.

In a business ..13.. the decisions will be made in terms of a ..14.. evaluation. The best alternative
will either be the option which gives the greatest profitability, or the one which allows a given
goal to be achieved with the ..15.. expenditure.

At this ..16.. the decision is still in the mind and it now requires implementation. Subordinates
need to be told what is ..17.. of them and their..18.. need to be monitored to make sure they are
..19.. with the instructions.

Subordinates are often given the ..20.. to participate in the ..21.. phases of the routine. They can
..22.. information and usefully discuss a situation with their manager. However, the ..23..
between the alternatives is the manager’s prerogative, since he ..24.. responsible for the
outcome.

III. Translation
Translate the following passage into French
Gas-powered tools present fuel explosion hazards, particularly during filling. They should be
filled only after they have been shut down and allowed to cool off. Proper ventilation must be
provided if they are being filled in a closed space. Using these tools in a closed space can also
cause problems from carbon monoxide exposure.
IV. Home assignment

Translate the following passage into French

Use of tools by construction workers for repetitive jobs can also lead to cumulative trauma
disorders, like carpal tunnel syndrome or tendinitis. Using the right tool for the job and choosing
tools with the best design features that feel most comfortable in the hand while working can
assist in avoiding these problems.
I. Comprehension
Read the following text and check your understanding.
Text 5: Cutting tool
In the context of machining, a cutting tool or cutter is any tool that is used to remove some
material from the work piece by means of shear deformation. Cutting may be accomplished by
single-point or multipoint tools. Single-point tools are used in turning, shaping, planing and
similar operations, and remove material by means of one cutting edge. Milling and drilling tools
are often multipoint tools. It is a body having teeth or cutting edges on it. Grinding tools are
also multipoint tools.[1] Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting
edge (although of high negative rake angle), and shears a tiny chip.
Cutting tool materials must be harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be
able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a
specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the
workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface. The angle of
the cutting face is also important, as is the flute width, number of flutes or teeth, and margin
size. In order to have a long working life, all of the above must be optimized, plus the speeds
and feeds at which the tool is run.
Linear cutting tools include tool bits (single-point cutting tools) and broaches. Rotary cutting
tools include drill bits, countersinks and counterbores, taps and dies, milling cutters, reamers,
and cold saw blades. Other cutting tools, such as bandsaw blades, hacksaw blades, and fly
cutters, combine aspects of linear and rotary motion.
Cutting tools with inserts (indexable tools)
Cutting tools are often designed with inserts or replaceable tips (tipped tools). In these, the
cutting edge consists of a separate piece of material, either brazed, welded or clamped on to the
tool body. Common materials for tips include cemented carbide, polycrystalline diamond, and
cubic boron nitride. Tools using inserts include milling cutters (endmills, fly cutters), tool bits,
and saw blades.
The detailed instruction how to combine the tool assembly out of basic holder, tool and insert
can be stored in a tool management solution.
Chisel
Chisel is generally used in wood work and this must be useful to remove the concrete bumps
or excess concrete in hardened surface.
Circular Saw
Circular saw used to cut the wood boards, frames etc. It is used when accurate cutting is
required in less time. It is safer than hand saw.

Concrete Mixer
Concrete mixer is machine which mixes the ingredients water, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate and cement to deliver the perfectly mixed concrete.
Drill Machine
Drill machine is used to make holes in the walls, slabs, doors, window frames etc.

Vibrator
Vibrator is used to compact the concrete by this the air gaps are filled with water and
workability varies without adding water to it.

Tile Cutter
Tile cutter is used to cut the tiles. Sometimes, normal tile size is larger than required at the
corners where floor meets the wall in that case tile cutter is useful.
Check your understanding

1. What role does a cutter play in the scope of machining ?


2. How many tools are multipoint tools ?
3. What should be the state of cutting tool materials in the metal-cutting process?
4. What are Common materials for tips composed of ?
II. Linguistic competence
Add an appropriate verb or adjective from the list below to each of the following
sentences where indicated.

Verbs Adjectives
achieve same
consider day’s
maintain astute
avoid typing
deal greater
1. If subordinates are …… in the decision-making process they will show …… interest in
their work.
2. The …… work can all too easily become a battle to …… with piles of paperwork before
the time runs out.
3. Like a good car driver the …… manager looks as far ahead as he can so as to spot hazards
and then …… them.
4. The whole business organisation, from the Board of Directors down to the …… pool, is a
net-work of teams each trying to …… its own goals.
5. Each team in the business will …… its target more easily and effectively if everyone is
pulling in the …… direction.
6. Before you decide on a course of action it is wise to …… the …… consequences.
7. Most firms are aware of the need to …… good …… relations.
8. When a …… plan is being …… it is necessary to bring into account its effect on the
environment.
III. Translation
Translate the following passage into French.
Cutting tool materials must be harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be
able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a
specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the
workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface.

IV. Home assignment

Give four (4) electric devices with their use.


I. Comprehesion
Read the following text and check your understanding.

Text 6: Electric protection devices

Electric protection devices refer to a particular type of equipment applied to electric power
systems to detect abnormal conditions and to initiate appropriate action to correct the abnormal
condition. From time to time disturbances in the normal operation of electric power systems
occur. This may be caused by natural phenomena, such as lightning, wind and snow; by
accidental means traceable to reckless drivers, inadvertent acts by plant maintenance personnel,
or other acts of human beings; or by conditions produced in the system itself, such as switching
surges, load swings, or equipment failure.

Protective devices must therefore be installed on a power system to ensure continuity of electric
service, to prevent injury to personnel, and to limit damage to equipment when abnormal
situations develop. Application of these devices varies widely since they are applied
commensurately with the degree of protection required.

For the purpose of applying protection, power systems are divided into areas, or zones. Each
component of a power system falls into one of five different zone classifications: generator,
transformer, bus, transmission line, or motor. Protection devices are applied to each zone to
detect abnormal system conditions within that zone and to initiate actions for the removal of
that zone from the rest of the system. Note that complete protection is afforded by overlapping
zones. Removal of only the malfunctioning part of the system ensures maximum electric service
continuity.

Check your understanding

1. Why do we apply Electric protection devices to electric power systems ?


2. When do disturbances in the normal operation of electric power system occur?
3. Give three reasons that sustain disturbances in the operation of electric power system.
4. Account for the installation of protective devices on a power system.
5. Incomplete protection is provided by overlapping areas. True or false?
II. Linguistic competence

2.1. Restore the text with the appropriate word from the list. Do not write down the text,
but write the number and the letter.

Listed words:

A-downlink B-energy C-spots D-frequency

A communications satellite receives the ----1---- beamed up to at it by an earth station and


amplifies and returns it to earth at a ----2---- of about 2 gigahertz away; this prevents
interference between the uplink and the ---3---. Communications satellites appear to hover over
given---4--- above the equator. This does not make them stationary, but rather geostationary.
2.2. Complete the following sentences with the right preposition chosen from (of, with, to,
by, at)

1-The class assignment consists ….. two parts namely the theoretical part and the practical one.
2- Telecommunication engineers dealt… the important part of the communication matter
yesterday.
3- Mawuvi is good …. Electrical engineering.
4- Iron responds ….. Oxygen.
5-The accident is caused…… the careless drivers.
2.3. Put the following sentences into passive voice or active voice.
1- The mechanical engineering has been repairing the mill.
2- A thorough training has been completed before the project started.
3- John is going to call the post.
4- Copper conducted well current in the course of the experience.
5- Water is said to boil at 100°c.

III. Translation

Translate the following passage into French

Protective devices must therefore be installed on a power system to ensure continuity of electric
service, to prevent injury to personnel, and to limit damage to equipment when abnormal
situations develop. Application of these devices varies widely since they are applied
commensurately with the degree of protection required.

IV. Home assignment

What do think that it should be done to prevent metals from being attacked by corrosion?
I. Comprehension
Read the following text and check your understanding.

Text 7: Corrosion

Corrosion attacks all engineering materials, especially metals. Corrosion is any chemical
reaction which harms the properties of a material. It reduces the life of a material and increases
the cost of a structure. For example, a steel bridge must be repaired regularly to protect it from
rust. Various metals have therefore been developed to resist corrosion. Among them are the
stainless steels. These metals contain from 12 to 35% chromium which forms a very thin layer
or film of chromium oxide on the surface of the metal. This film protects the metal from
corrosion. Alloys made from copper and nickel are also corrosion-resistant. For example Menel
metal, which contains roughly 60% nickel and 30% copper, is resistant to both fresh and salt
water corrosion. It is therefore used for marine engine parts, and for other surfaces like ship’s
propellers which are in contact with sea water. Cupronickels, which contain a smaller
proportion of nickel, have a similar resistance to fresh and sea water. They are mainly used to
make tubes.

When two different metals touch each other in the presence of moisture corrosion occurs. This
type of corrosion is known as galvanic or electrolytic corrosion because it has an electrical
cause. The metals and the moisture act like a weak battery and the chemical action which results
corrodes one of the metals. If, for example, aluminum sheets are riveted with copper rivets, the
aluminum near the rivets will corrode in damp conditions.

Check your understanding

1- Which engineering materials are mostly targeted by corrosion?


2- Name any chemical reaction that harms the properties of a material.
3- How do we protect a steel bridge?
4- What the property of copper is?
5- When does corrosion take place?
II.

Linguistic competence

2.1. Fill in the spaces in these sentences with the correct terms as follow: Mechanical,
Civil, Engineering, advanced,

1………………. Can be defined as the practical application of the findings of theoretical


science.
2- Law, medicine, and engineering are professions that require specialized education at the
………..level.
3- A ………engineer might work on a dam, a bridge, or a skyscraper.
4………………engineering deals with sources of power and the machines that make use of
them.
2.2. Filling in the spaces in the following table:
Physical quantity Typical unit Short form

force newton

time s

kilogramme

Length and distance

2.3. Complete the following sentences with the right connectors: because, to, which, and,
however

1. Thermoplastics will soften when heated…… they will harden when cooled.

2. There are two kinds of plastics: thermoplastics…..thermosets.

3. Plastics are used …..make engineering components.

4. Plastics are used widely in engineering…… they are too cheap.

5. The pressure and the heat change the powder, ….. becomes liquid plastic.

III. Translation

Translate the following passage into French

Corrosion attacks all engineering materials, especially metals. Corrosion is any chemical
reaction which harms the properties of a material. It reduces the life of a material and increases
the cost of a structure. For example, a steel bridge must be repaired regularly to protect it from
rust. Various metals have therefore been developed to resist corrosion.

IV. Home assignment

What do you know about a vapor-compression system?


I. Comprehension
Read the following text and check your understanding.

Text 8: A Vapor-Compression system

Each of the four components of a vapor-compression system—the compressor, the condenser,


the expansion device and the evaporator—has its own peculiar behavior. At the same time, each
component is influenced by conditions imposed by the other members of the quartet. A change
in condenser-water temperature, for example, may change the rate of refrigerant to the
compressor pumps, which, in turn, may require the expansion valve to readjust and the
refrigerant in the evaporator to change pressure. However, the heart of the vapor-compression
system is the compressor.

The four most common types of refrigeration compressors are reciprocating, screw, and
centrifugal and vane. The reciprocating compressor consists of a piston moving back and forth
in a cylinder with suction and discharge valves arranged to allow pumping to take place. The
screw, centrifugal and vane compressors all use rotating elements. The screw and vane
compressors are positive-displacement machines and the centrifugal compressor operates by
virtue of centrifugal force.

The workhorse of the refrigeration industry is the reciprocating compressor, built in size ranging
from fractional-kilowatt to hundreds of kilowatts refrigeration capacity. Modern compressors
are single-acting and may be single-cylinder or multi-cylinder. In multi-cylinder compressors,
the cylinders are in V, W, and radial or in-line arrangements. During the suction stroke of the
piston, low-pressure gas is drawn in through the suction valve, which may be located in the
piston or in the head. During the discharge stroke, the piston compresses the refrigerant and
then pushes it out through the discharge valve, which is usually located in the cylinder head.
Following the trend of most rotative machinery, the operating speed of compressors has
generally increased the past 20 years. From the slow speeds of early compressors of about 2 or
3 r/s, the speeds have increased until compressors today operate at speeds as high as 60 r/s.

Check your understanding

1-Give the four constituents of a vapor-compression system.

2- What influenced each component?

3- Name the center of the vapor-compression system.

4- What is the reciprocating compressor made up of?

5-Explain the process that takes takes place during the discharge stroke.

II. Linguistic competence

2. 1- Restore the following text with the words listed: tastes, organisms, maintenance,
added, mixing, several. Just write the number with the corresponding word (NB: Do not
write down the passage). Example: 7. Hammer
Prechlorination place during the discharge stroke is the application of chlorine before any other
treatment. The chlorine may be ...1… in the suction pipes of raw-water pumps or to the water
as it enters the …2… chamber. Its use in this manner has …3 advantages. It may improve
coagulation and will reduce …4… and odors caused by organic sludge in the sedimentation
tank. By reducing algae and other…5…it may keep the filter sand cleaner and increase the
length of filter runs. Its range of effective action will, of course, depend on the …6… of a
residual through the units of the plant.
2.2. Replace the words in Italics by the synonyms without copying the sentences.

1-The public requires that their water supply be clean and safe to drink.

2-There has been some anxiety about organic materials which could cause disease.

2.3. Put the sentences below in the Reported Speech

1- “Are you coming to the laboratory tomorrow?” Peter asked Kokougan

2- “We broke irons yesterday.” said Emefa

3- “These machines are heavy. Do not take them like this.” Yaama told Amevi

4- “We can become great engineers if we learn our lectures hard and practice.” Said Sotomé

5 “The electrical engineers have done a wonderful experience.” Said Amah

III. Translation

The four most common types of refrigeration compressors are reciprocating, screw, and
centrifugal and vane. The reciprocating compressor consists of a piston moving back and forth
in a cylinder with suction and discharge valves arranged to allow pumping to take place. The
screw, centrifugal and vane compressors all use rotating elements. The screw and vane
compressors are positive-displacement machines and the centrifugal compressor operates by
virtue of centrifugal force.

IV. Home assignment

Compare and contrast static electricity with current electricity.


I. Comprehension
Check your understanding after reading the following text.

Text 9 : How is Electricity Generated from Water ?

There are two primary methods for generating electricity from water. One method uses the
energy potential of trapped water in dams in a more sophisticated version of the water wheel,
and the other captures energy from ocean waves. Electricity generated from water is entirely
renewable, since water is an abundant natural resource and no water is expended during the
electricity generation process. For this reason, many nations rely heavily on hydroelectric
power because they want to promote sustainable energy production.

When a dam is used to generate energy, tunnels are installed in the dam when it is built. These
tunnels are lined with turbines which are turned when water flows through the tunnels. As the
turbines turn, they create electricity which can be fed into the grid or stored. Dam operators can
determine the amount of energy produced by regulating the flow of water; most dams are
capable of generating far more power than they do on a daily basis, which can be useful when
there are problems at other power plants and facilities.

Electricity generated from water on the ocean is known as wave power or wave energy. This
method of power generation uses changes in the air levels of sealed chambers to power turbines.
These chambers are floated on parts of the ocean with high wave activity, ensuring that a great
deal of electric energy can be produced. Not all areas of the ocean are suitable for the generation
of wave power, but some seaside communities have taken advantage of the technology to power
themselves.

Electricity generation is a major concern for much of the world, since demand is only rising
with the growing human population. The benefit of hydroelectric power is that once generation
facilities are built, it is easy to maintain and operate them. Electricity generated from water is
also clean, since it doesn't involve the burning of fossil fuels to generate power. People can also
generate hydroelectric power themselves, if they have access to a fast-moving body of water so
that they can install waterwheels.
There are some drawbacks to electricity generated from water. Dams, for example, can be quite
destructive when they are installed, as water will flood the regions behind dams. This has been
a cause for controversy in the past, especially when dams flood valleys used by native peoples
for burial and religious ceremonies. If a dam fails, it also cause catastrophic flooding, and
people downstream of a dam tend to experience a reduction in available water after it has been
installed. Concerns have also been raised about wave power, since it can be quite noisy and it
may prove damaging to marine life.

Check your understanding

1. Precise the two methods for generating elcetricity from water.


2. Why is it said that electricity generated from water is wholly renewable ?
3. How do we call electricity generated from water ?
4. Why do many nations depend heavily on hydroelectric power ?
5. What is the required condtion for a dam to generate electricity ?
6. Are all the areas of the ocean suitable for the generation of wave power ? (Give a short
answer)
7. What makes electricity generation a major concern for much of the world ?
8. What are some drawbacks to electricity generated from water ?

II. Linguistic competence

2.1. Put the following sentences into passive voice.

1. The Electrical engineer is restoring the road lights.


2. They will complete a thorough training before the project starts.
3. They can notice the arrival of their boss.
4. Copper conducted well current in the course of the experience.
5. People say Haoujoue is economical.
2.2. Add question tags to the following sentences

Note:

A question tag is a short question that is added to a sentence to have people’s agreement on
what is said or to check an information. The positive statements carry negative tag whereas the
negative statements take positive tag.

1. I am a talented Engineer in our school, ………….?


2. Let’s go to the mill, …………….?
3. We don’t have an electrical drill in our workshop, ………………….?
4. Open the workshop for the practice, ……………………?
5. We no longer built the dams, ………………………………?

III. Translation

Translate the passage below into French

Electricity generation is a major concern for much of the world, since demand is only rising
with the growing human population. The benefit of hydroelectric power is that once generation
facilities are built, it is easy to maintain and operate them. Electricity generated from water is
also clean, since it doesn't involve the burning of fossil fuels to generate power. People can also
generate hydroelectric power themselves, if they have access to a fast-moving body of water so
that they can install waterwheels.

IV. Home assignment

Give three (3) examples of Universal power adapters.


I. Comprehension
Check your understanding after reading the following text

Text 10: A Universal Power Adapter

Universal power adapters are devices that make it possible to connect a power supply to various
devices in just about any setting. There are adapters for handheld devices, laptops, and even for
various types of household appliances. The need for a universal power adapter usually comes
about when an individual is traveling to another country, where the type of electrical outlets and
the kind of power supply must be converted in order to function properly with the device.

One of the more common examples of a universal power adapter would be the universal laptop
power adapter. Adapters of this type normally come with plug attachments that make it possible
to connect the power cord to different configurations of wall outlets. Since various countries
use different designs and standards for electrical outlets, anyone who travels to a foreign
location is likely to need these attachments in order to be able to use the laptop without relying
solely on battery power.

Along with making sure that the plugs are compatible, a true universal power adapter will also
help to convert the type of current available within the country to a type that is compatible with
the electronic device. For example, if a handheld device or laptop requires direct current to
operate properly, but the individual is traveling in a country where alternating current is the
norm, the adapter will compensate for the difference in voltage and cycle of the electrical
current. This makes it possible to use the device without damaging the components.

Universal power adapter kits for travelers are relatively easy to purchase today. Many include
a selection of plugs that match the sockets used in most countries around the world, notably the
United States, the United Kingdom, and most of Europe and Asia. In the event that the plugs
included in the power adapter kit does not match with a local type of plug, it is usually a simple
matter to purchase an appropriate plug locally.

Along with adapters for use by travelers, people who are living abroad for a period of time may
also make use of a universal power adapter on any household appliance he or she is taking
along. Adapters of this type can be used with stereo equipment or other expensive electrical
items that the individual wishes to have access to on an ongoing basis. When purchasing
adapters for this purpose, it is important to make sure the particular appliance will function
properly with an adapter, since some electrical appliances will not work at full efficiency even
with the use of an adapter plug to convert the power supply.

Check your understanding

1. What permit to connect a power supply to various devices in just about any setting ?
2. Only one country uses different designs and standards for electrical outlets. True or
False ?
3. What role does a true universal power adapter play in a matter of Compatibility ?
4. Is it often a simple matter to buy an appropriate plug locally ?
5. Which kind of power adpter do you use for your home ?

II. Linguistic competence

2.1-Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form

1- If Kofi worked hard he (pass) j his exam.


2- My mother (buy) me a new motorbike if I had succeeded.
3- James will come if he (have) time.
4- If their team had played harder, they (win) that match.
5- If I (be) the thief, I would have shot him dead.
6- You (spoil) it if you aren’t careful.
7- Edoula would have not planted the yams if he (know) what would happen.
8- If Kofi had worked hard, they (give) him a scholarship.
9- If the soldiers saw you, they (will- can-would) kill you.
10- If John bought a car, he (travel) to Lagos.

2.2. Complete with the correct form of “ make” or “do”


1. No car…………….. in this country
2. What does your husband…….. for living?
3. When I reached Jamaica, I …… a stop.
4. You ………. any effort to change.
5. Yesterday, they ……… him mend eight cars for $ 100 note.
6. You can ……. It.
7. Don’t ………noise. Tom and Angela are having a nap.
8. If you………as I told you, you wouldn’t have got into troubles with the bank.
10. It’s time for Togolese …….peace.
11. If you………….. right, you will go to Heaven.

III. Translation
Translate the following passage into French

Universal power adapters are devices that make it possible to connect a power supply to various
devices in just about any setting. There are adapters for handheld devices, laptops, and even for
various types of household appliances. The need for a universal power adapter usually comes
about when an individual is traveling to another country, where the type of electrical outlets and
the kind of power supply must be converted in order to function properly with the device.

IV. Home assignment


1. What role do iron and steel play in your community?
2. What role do sheet metals play in society?
I. Comprehension
Read the following text and check your understanding.

Text 11: The sheet bending machine in iron sheet manufacturing

Iron and steel are the most common fabrication material in manufacturing and repair shops.
They are widely used in construction, assembly, vehicle manufacture, processing and packaging
industry. Large metal plates are produced in form of foils, rolls and plates that are then used for
numerous applications. Bending is a common operation done in production centers. The
component is plastically deformed along a given axis and this result to a change in geometry
and shape. Various sheet metal bending equipments have been developed and are used during
production. Essentially, this equipment folds the object into various angles and also produces
various shapes during manufacturing. In this process, the material is first feed into the device.
Manual or automatic controlled clamping that positions the components on the equipment is
done. Then, the front plate of is then lifted to bend the plate to the required angle. Other forming
methods can be accomplished using this instrument.

Use of the device in iron sheet manufacturing


Iron comes in various sizes and shapes depending on its utilization. During their production,
the folding machine is utilized to produce various shapes and structures. Edge folding is the
most common bending process performed using manual and automatic devices. The component
is bent at the edges to various angles. The materials are first feed to the device such that the part
to be bent protrudes from the equipment edge. They are then clamped such that the protruding
part is cantilevered about the clamping edge. A wiping die is then used to apply a vertical force
that bends the component to the required angle. This method is used to produce a variety of
bends on iron plates.
A channel folding is another process performed using specialized equipment. In this case, the
machine has an upper and lower die. The two are made to various geometries that resemble the
part to be developed. For example, a square punch will produce square shaped bend while a V
or U shaped dies develops V and U groves respectively. The die is made such that the punch
fits into it and is clamped on the lower surface of the device. Upon lowering the punch, the
component is formed to resemble the curvature of the forming dies. This is a quick and
economical method to develop most components. The use of this equipment is therefore very
important in fabrication processes.
Corrugation is another common bending process. In this process, a special tool is used to
produce a series of symmetrical grooves on the entire surface of the component. Corrugations
have increased resistance to twisting and fracture. Depending on the shape of the die, different
corrugations such as U, V or square corrugations can be made on the component. In the
corrugation process both the punch and die are identical but one part is held stationary while
the punch moves vertically. The metal plate is mounted between the two dies and subsequent
pressing forms the corrugations. The device is also used to develop other complex sheet
structures.
Bending= pliage; sheet metals= tôles; the folding machine= plieuse; a square punch= un
poiçon carré; corrugations= ondulations; the metal plate= plaque métallique
Check your understanding
1. Where do we use iron and steel ?
2. The most common bending process is known as……………(complete).
3. When does a vertical force bend the component to the required angle ?
4. Under which condition the machine has an upper and lower die ?
5. What is the process which allows the production of a series of symmetrical grooves ?
6. How are corrugations formed ?
II. Linguistic competence
2.1. Complete with the appropriate word from the list. Just write the number and the
corresponding word. (among, between, on, who, whose, how, unless, if)
1- The man ……….car was stolen in front of the inn last week, is a V.I.P in this country.
2- No matter………you are, you must wear the uniform like everybody.
3- ………..have you been living together as husband and wife?
4- We look forward to counting you……..our guests tonight.
5- ……..you leave now, you will miss the bus.
6- ………reception of your order, we dispatched the goods at once.

2.2. Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the bracketed words
1. (react) I was surprised at his _____________________ .
2. (reluctant) He went away very
3. (invent) He has a very………..mind.
4. (origin) The ___________plan was better than this one.
5. (Recognize)…………was impossible in such darkness.
6. (solve) I didn’t realize that the………….. was so simple.
7. (notice) His influence on her was quite…………….
8. (hesitate) Why are you……………………………...?
9. (explain) I am waiting for an ………………………..
10. (beauty) It’s a _________ house.
11. (edit) The new________ will be published shortly.
12. (economy) We must _______ on fuel.
13. (economy) We must be more__________.
14. (economy) The ________ situation is very bad.
15. (exist) It’s one of the oldest manuscripts in _________.
16. (exclude) The price quoted is ________ of tax.
17. (envy) She is ________ of her neighbour’s success.
18. (length) You should ________your trousers.
19. (vary) Her cooking is good is but it lacks_________.
20. ( succeed) He is a __________ doctor.

III. Translation
Translate the following passage into French
Iron and steel are the most common fabrication material in manufacturing and repair shops.
They are widely used in construction, assembly, vehicle manufacture, processing and packaging
industry. Large metal plates are produced in form of foils, rolls and plates that are then used for
numerous applications. Bending is a common operation done in production centers.

IV. Home assignment


What contribution does bending process make to the field of engineering?
I. Comprehension
Read the text below and check your understanding.

Text 12: How bending process influence the work piece to obtain stiffness

Metal work piece and subsequent machining process done over them had been very tough as
most of the times the shaping of metal work piece was completed with manual assistant.
However, the rate of precision was found to be unreliable in many cases. The invention of
specific machining equipment brought drastic changes in the workshop process, thus industries
could witness reliability of work to increase the production rate. Bending of sheets of various
metals can be done with the help of sheet bending equipment on complete dependency over
precision. Shaping or metal sheets is a long and complicated process as work pieces varies in
thickness. Metal layers are fabricated for a range of industrial usages such as manufacturing of
car structure, boxes, wings of the aeroplanes, tables, and many more products. Applying the
principle has to be done in a systematic way as some metal works need trimming, slitting or
perforating before it is sent. It is only with the help of specific machinery can be applied with
perfection.
How Possibly Stiffness of the Metals Increase by Bending Method?
It is an explicit work meant to bend metal sheets which are not relatively thick. Either this
technology is applied for core manufacturing industrial requirements or to enhance the stiffness
of the material. One of the benefits of applying this principle is that process stiffness of metal
sheets can be increased with precise application. Increasing the stiffness with apparatus is done
by altering the die shape. This is considered one of the most common sheet metal structuring
operations applied to obtain a range of shapes such as L, U, V, etc. However, by increasing the
moment of inertia for bending requisite the stiffness of metal can be increased.

Check your understanding


1. What brought drastic changes in the workshop process ?
2. How is bending of sheets of various metals achieved ?
3. Why is shaping or metal sheets a long and complicated process ?
4. Altering the die shape commands the increase of the stiffness with apparatus. True or
false ?
5. Give three examples of shapes that the text noted.

II. Linguistic competence

Fill in the blanks with a, an, or O.

1. I can’t possibly work in such………university.


2. Engineers display……..great courage.
3. He’s quite………... honest man.
4. They’ve been collecting such……. Fine stamps!
5. We must put ………end to this political crisis in the country, for the sake of everyone.
6. Trainees are doing……..useful job.
7. We’ve got ….....very little food left.
8. You have never heard such……..unusual advice.
9. They’re building……….industry in my village.
10. He never goes out without……... hammer.
11. There was no………cloud in the sky.
12. She’s………engineer somewhere in Paris.

III. Translation

Translate the following passage into French

Metal work piece and subsequent machining process done over them had been very tough as
most of the times the shaping of metal work piece was completed with manual assistant.
However, the rate of precision was found to be unreliable in many cases. The invention of
specific machining equipment brought drastic changes in the workshop process, thus industries
could witness reliability of work to increase the production rate.

IV. Home assignment

What is your impression on the english classes you have taken this semester ?