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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
1 J‫א‬‫א‬
106
 ‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
   1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 
 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬         ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫ א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ? ‫א‬ ?   ? 1 J  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
   1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 

 KKK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E1J ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬،  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬،
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1 J‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

1
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪70‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 










-1-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬ 1-1
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫…א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2-1
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(Photography)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -‫أ‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ -‫ب‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬   (Stereoscopic Viewing) ‫א‬ ‫א‬  -‫ج‬
، (Stereo-Photographs)  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ 350‫א‬ (Aristotle)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬
 (Dr. Brook Taylor)   ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J 2
‫א‬     (Linear Perspective) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(J. H . Lambert)

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

(Nicephore Niepce)1839 J 3
(Louis Jacques Mande  ‫א‬ (William Henry Fox Talbot) 
،‫א‬‫א‬  Daguerre)
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 
18921840 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K(F. Stolze)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬1840(Arago)‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      J 2
(Aime’  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   1849  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K Laussedat)
K(Kites)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
، ‫א‬K (Terrestrial Photographs)‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬     1859  ‫א‬  J 3
K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   F ‫א‬ ‫א‬      1867  ‫א‬  J 4
KE
‫א‬‫א‬،1885 -1870‫א‬ J 5
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
K(Photogrammetry)‫א‬‫א‬(Meydenbauer)

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

  K‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  1886    J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K(Devilla)‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1894‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K1891(Roll Film) J 1
1892 (Floating Mark)‫א‬‫א‬ (F.Stolze)‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 1909  (Pulfrich)  ‫א‬
K‫א‬
   (Wright Brothers) ‫א‬ ‫א‬   1902  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  J 3
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ –   – 1913    J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬J 5
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 7
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬

-4-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    K ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫ א‬J 8
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬  ‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J 9
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬   (Planets) ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  
K
 ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ، (Skylab)‫א‬ ‫א‬ W ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬    ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K (Space Shuttle)‫א‬
      ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬J

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1 J‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 E‫א‬F‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪70‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 4







-7-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 1-2
 ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، (Film Magazine)‫א‬ ، (Lens Assembly)
 KE1J 2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 2F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Lens)‫א‬ J 
(Spherical Aberration) ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬ 
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬ (Plano Convex) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬(Chromatic Aberration)‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ (Violet)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

(Convex) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K (Accurate Focusing)


 KE2J 2F‫א‬Concavo – Convex‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 2F

 WE3J 2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬H‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
1 1 1
= +
f u v

E600  60 F ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    
 W(1/u)‫א‬

1 1
=
f v 
 W
f=v      
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-9-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 2F

W(Camera Cone)‫א‬ J 
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬    E ‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE4J 2F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F


 KWE4J 2F

W(Film Magazine)‫א‬ J 
30F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E120
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W(Diaphragm)‫א‬‫ א‬J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W(Shutter)E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬     ،        ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
، 1/100   ‫א‬     (Leaf Shutter)    
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬FE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ 1/800
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ (Exposure Time)‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  (Vibration) ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Rotating Disc Shutter)E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K E   F    ‫א‬   ،      
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K  
 KE5J 2F‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 2F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W(Filter)‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K(Haze)‫א‬

 W(View Finder)‫א‬J 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬     K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K E      ‫א‬F ‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   EF   E F 
 K‫א‬

 W
       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،(Focal Length) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،(Flaying Altitude) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،(Photo Number) ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬KKKKK‫א‬
،(Film Magazine)‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J
 K‫א‬30230 × 230 
‫א‬   (Vibration) ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬   J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 KContrastE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

Panchromatic  EF‫א‬‫א‬J
Films
True Color Films  ‫א‬‫א‬J
False Color Films  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Infrared Films  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬J


W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 2-2
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  (Photogrammetry)
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Filter)
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W(Single-Lens Frame Camera)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE6J 2F‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE6J 2F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K  ‫א‬   
    ‫א‬     K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    E‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬ (Angular Field of View)‫א‬‫א‬K 23 × 23
 W‫א‬‫א‬E23 × 23‫א‬F‫א‬
K758608‫א‬(Normal Angle)‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
K1008758‫א‬(Wide Angle)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
1208 ‫א‬(Super-Wide Angle)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
K1258
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 152 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W‫א‬    ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E305F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K210‫א‬‫א‬88.5‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(Photo Maps)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

W(Multilens Frame Camera)‫א‬‫א‬ J 


‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE7J 2F‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬     ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 (Filters)‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   
 K‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 2F


W(Strip Camera)‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬KKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

W(Panoramic Camera)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Horizon)‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬ J 
   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
3     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫ א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 K‫א‬


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 2F

- 16 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W1J 2
‫א‬ 100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E9J 2F‫א‬
 ‫؟‬E;F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬230 × 230

d 
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬
23 cm 23 cm 


;

;/2
‫ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ اﻟﺒﺆري‬f ‫زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﺠﺎل‬ 

‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺰ‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE9J 2F


 ‫א‬
 W(d)‫א‬

d = [ (23)2 + (23)2]1/2 = 32.53 cm
tan (; /2) = (d/2) / f = 16.265/10
; = 2 tan-1 1.6265
; = (116.8)8
 K(Super-Wide Angle)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- 17 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
230 × 230‫א‬153‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫؟‬E;F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W J
‫א‬‫א‬ (Angular Field of View)‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬E23 × 23‫א‬F‫א‬
K8KKKKKKK8KKKKKKK‫א‬(Normal Angle)‫א‬‫א‬ o
K8KKKKKKK 8KKKKKKK‫א‬(Wide Angle)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
 8KKKKKKK‫א‬ (Super-Wide Angle)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
K8KKKKKKK

- 18 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1 J‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

3
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬٪70‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 6





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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   


W‫א‬‫א‬ 1-3
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(Fiducial Marks)‫א‬ J 1
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(Altimeter)‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬J 3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬J 5
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
K‫א‬ J 7
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 8
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 9
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 10

 K‫א‬E1J 3F‫א‬




‫رﻗﻢ اﻟﺼﻮرة واﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ 

‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ اﻹﺳﻨﺎد‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2-3
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E2J 3F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 3F

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬
W(Planimetric Maps)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ E‫א‬ ‫א‬F ‫א‬ E‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬   F ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 K

W(Topographic Maps)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K (Conventional Ground Surveying Methods)‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W(Extension of Ground Control Networks)‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ (Ground Control) ‫א‬   
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  K  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    
(Mosaic)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬     
 K  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Preliminary Planning)
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   (Photogrammetric Measurements)  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K(Digital Terrain Models)‫א‬‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  (Computer)   
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬    ‫א‬    (Planimetric Orthophotomap)
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 (Topographic Orthophotomaps) ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   E‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E‫א‬KKKF‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K(Field Investigation)

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

W(Land Surveying)‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬(Legal Evidence)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬ J 8
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،E‫א‬F

W‫א‬‫א‬ J 9
 K،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬ J 10
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 11
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬ J 12
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، (X-Ray)     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬KKKK‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 13

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3-3
‫א‬   E‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  
(Side  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    E‫א‬F‫א‬ (Forward or End Overlap)
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ Overlap)
‫א‬،(50%)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Percent ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 (70%) ، (55%)‫א‬ End Overlap)
 KE4J 3FE3J 3F‫א‬(PE)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 3F


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

W‫א‬‫א‬ 4-3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، Art‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬K‫א‬،
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   J 3
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
   K  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
W‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE5J 3F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 3F

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

WTone‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬
- 27 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ Texture‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

WShadow‫ א‬J 3
‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬   
‫א‬،‫א‬ K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K  
،‫א‬KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE6J 3F


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE6J 3F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

WPattern‫ א‬J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 KE7J 3F‫א‬‫א‬K


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 3F

W J 5
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 W،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬   J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 
‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫ א‬J 
K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
      ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬J 
K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬        
 W‫א‬
W‫ א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬      ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Photogeology ‫א‬‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،

W‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
   ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- 30 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 KE8J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 3F

W‫א‬‫ א‬J 5
‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬KE9J 3F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE9J 3F
W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 6
- 31 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ،E10J 3F ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،    
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
 K‫א‬


 E10J 3F

W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 7
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،     
 ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬


- 32 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬   

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

- 33 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1 J‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

4
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪70‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 3









- 34 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬ 1-4
،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ،   ‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬KKK
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   F ‫א‬   (30%)   (10%)
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 K‫א‬‫א‬(10%)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬    E ‫א‬ F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫ א‬J 1
 K‫א‬KKKK
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬5 – 3‫א‬
E‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E Base Topographic MapF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
EView FinderF‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ F ‫א‬ ‫א‬    
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬KKKK
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 L (Photo  Maps)‫א‬ 
E‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬         ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  
‫א‬    ‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EModelFK‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ ENeat AreaF‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KETransparent SheetFE
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     
  E F    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،   ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬(Exposure Stations)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  (Effective Coverage or Neat Area) ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(B)‫א‬(B × W)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬، (Air Base) ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(W)،‫א‬E
 W‫א‬‫א‬(W)(B)‫א‬
B=D–E
W=D–S
‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ (D)
 (S) ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (E)E ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬(PS)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(PE)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
PE = [(D - B)/D] × 100
 PS = [(D - W)/D] × 100

 WE1J 4F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
f = c = 153 mmW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E = 60 %W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Zavg = 2 km ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 d = 230 mm‫א‬
 ‫؟‬(B)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- 37 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،(B)‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 B=D–E
 W(Savg)‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬(E)(D)
Savg = c / Zavg = 153mm / 2000 m
D = (230mm) × (2000 m / 153 mm) = 3007 m
E = (60/100) × (230mm) × (2000 m / 153 mm) = 1804 m
B = D – E = 3007 m – 1804 m = 1203 m

 WE2J 4F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 Savg = 1 : 5000 W‫א‬
B = 500 m W‫א‬‫א‬
 d = 230 mmW‫א‬
 K(PE)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 PE = [(D – B) / D] × 100
D = d × (1 / Savg)
D = (230 mm) × (5000) = 1150 m
 W
PE = [(1150-500)/1150] × 100 = 56.5 %

 WE3J 4F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E2J 4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫(؟‬PS)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،900 m‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 PS = [(D - W)/D] × 100
PS = [(1150-900) / 1150 ] × 100
PS = 21.7 %

- 38 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 ،E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 WE4J 4F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Zavg = 1530 m:‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
f = 153 mmW‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
d × d = 230 × 230 mmW‫א‬ J
PE = 60 %W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
PS = 25 %W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J 

K‫א‬

 W‫א‬
‫א‬  (Zavg) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ (c) ‫א‬ ‫א‬  (S) ‫א‬   J 
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
S = c / Zavg = 153mm/1530m = 1/10000
 W‫א‬230 × 230 mm‫א‬
(230 mm × 10000) ( 230 mm × 10000 ) = 5.29 sq.km
- 39 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W(b)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  
B = d – e = 230 mm – 60 × (230 mm / 100) = 92 mm
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(e)‫א‬(d)
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(w)‫א‬‫א‬
W = d – s = 230mm – 25(230mm/100) = 172.5 mm
 W(b × w)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
B × w = 92 mm × 172.5 mm
 W(AN)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
AN = B × W = b (10000) × w (10000)
AN = B × W = 92mm (10000)×172.5mm(10000)
AN = 1.587 sq.km
















- 40 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬ 2-4

E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
Principal Points 
‫א‬‫א‬
Neat Model 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

B B B B 

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 4F

 WE5J 4F
 (6 × 4.5 km) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 250 m W‫א‬ J
1:10000 W‫א‬ J
c = f = 153 mm W‫א‬‫ א‬J

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

d × d = 230 × 230 mmW‫א‬‫ א‬J


PE = 60 % W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
PS = 20 % W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
150 km / hr W‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬ J 
 W‫א‬‫א‬(Np)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
[230 mm (10000)] / 1000 = 2.3 km
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(100 % - 60%) × 2.3 km = 0.92 km
 W
Np = (6 km / 0.92) = 6.5
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   E   F   
6.5 + 2 = 8.5W‫א‬
 W( 9 )‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬(Ns)‫א‬‫א‬(Strips)‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(100 % - 20 %) × 2.3 km = 1.84 km
 W‫א‬‫א‬
Ns = (4.5 km / 1.84 ) = 2.4
‫א‬‫א‬ (3)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (3) ‫א‬‫א‬
(4)(1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(0.5)(Ns)‫א‬
 K(3)
، (9)‫א‬‫א‬
(3×9)E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K
- 42 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬(t)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(B)‫א‬‫א‬
(100 % - 60 %) × (230 mm) × (10000) / 1000 = 920 m
 W،150 km/hr(V)‫א‬
 V = (150 × 1000 m) / (3600)sec. = 41.67 m /sec
 W
 t = B / V = (920m) / (41.67 m /sec) = 22.08 sec


 KE5J 4F‫א‬WE2J 4F

 WE6J 4F
2.5×15 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬km

- 43 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬  E  ‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬   ‫א‬  J

h =500m‫א‬‫א‬
 K avg

Kc=153mm‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
Kd×d = 230 × 230 mm‫א‬‫ א‬J
KPE = 60%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
KPS = 25%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
KSavg = 1:12000 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬
WEHF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
Savg = c/(H-havg)
1/1200 = 153mm / (H-500m)
H=500m + 1836m = 2336m

WEB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
B = [ d – PE(d) ] × (1/Savg)
B = [ 230mm – (60/100) (230mm) ] × (1200)
 B = 1.104 km

WENpF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
Np = 25/1.104 = 23
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
Np = 23 + 2 + 2 = 27

WENsF‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 W(W)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W = D – PS (D) = D – 0.25 D = 0.75 D
D = (0.75) × (230mm) × (12000) = 2070m
 WENsF‫א‬‫א‬
Ns = 15/2.07 = 7.25
- 44 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 Ns = 8
‫א‬‫א‬E1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE Ns = 9FW‫א‬‫א‬
WENp total F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
Np total = Np × Ns = (27) × (9) = 243 photos
‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ ‫א‬EF J 6
K‫א‬

25 km 

1 
2

3
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺨﻄﻮط‬2070 m = 2.070 km
4
W 
15 km 5 
6 
7 
8

9


 KE6J 4F‫א‬WE3J 4F

- 45 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬J
f = c = 153 mmW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E = 60 %W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Zavg = 2 km ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 d = 230 mm‫א‬
 ‫؟‬(B)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬‫א‬3.5×12 km
‫א‬  E  ‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬   ‫א‬  J

h =550m‫א‬‫א‬
 K avg

Kc=153mm‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
Kd×d = 230 × 230 mm‫א‬‫ א‬J
KPE = 60%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
KPS = 25%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
 Savg = 1:12000 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

- 46 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1 J‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

5
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪70‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 15







- 47 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬ 1-5
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K
K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
   ،   E ‫א‬‫א‬  F ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬   W ‫א‬     ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
   K        ‫א‬   
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1
 K‫א‬‫א‬E2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
 K‫א‬E4

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2-5
 
    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    
‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
           ،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E1
 K‫א‬‫א‬E2

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
 KE0.02 – 2.00F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E3K‫א‬E2K‫א‬E1

 ‫א‬E1
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E2
،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
         ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
 K‫א‬
- 49 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬E3
 ،E25 cmF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬ 3-5
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E2E‫א‬F‫א‬E1

 ‫א‬‫א‬E1
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KE1J 5F‫א‬‫א‬

- 50 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 5F

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E
،‫א‬
 KE2J 5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- 51 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 5F

 ‫א‬‫א‬E
،‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
 KE3J 5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3–5F

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K2.5 ‫א‬ •

- 52 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬E2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
 ‫א‬‫א‬ E


WMirror Stereoscope ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬      ‫א‬  
‫א‬ ‫א‬  3.5    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
KE4J 5F


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 5F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E1
K‫א‬ E2
K‫א‬ E3
 KE5J 5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- 53 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 5F

 ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬    
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬8 E1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E2
KE6J 5F‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE6J 5F

W‫א‬‫א‬ E

، ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
، y x ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،15.5‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
- 54 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K 


‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE7J 5F


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 5F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E1
 ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫ א‬ ‫א‬  E2
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬   EN1,N2F ‫א‬   E3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬
EBmF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E5

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ EN1N2'F‫א‬
 KEN2N1'F‫א‬‫א‬
Bm= ( N1N2' + N2N1' ) / 2
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WBm
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WN1N2'
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WN2N1'
 K‫א‬

  ‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬   E6
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
      ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  E7
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

Stereoscopic Parallax ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬i ‫א‬KB‫א‬‫א‬ O2O1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ j‫א‬، i2‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  i1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬، j2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ j1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  
 i1 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬  Pi، i‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ i2‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ i2 i1
، j2 j1    ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ Pj    j  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
 KE8J 5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 5F
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
∆Pij = Pi - Pj
- 57 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W
 Kji ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W∆Pij
 Ki‫א‬‫א‬WPi
 Kj‫א‬‫א‬WPj

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 WE1J 5F
B ‫א‬‫א‬،59.23 A‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،54.24
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬B‫א‬A‫א‬
 KB‫א‬
 ∆PAB = PA – PB = 59.23 - 54.24 = 4.99 mm

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
Pi = XP i1 – XP i2
 W
 i‫א‬‫א‬WPi
 ‫א‬‫א‬i ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WWXP i1
 ‫א‬‫א‬i ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WXP i2

 WE2J 5F
،E-7.2F‫א‬‫א‬ A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KA‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE-79.6F‫א‬‫א‬
- 58 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬
PA = XP A1 – XP A2 = (-7.2)-(-79.6) = 72.4 mm

 K‫א‬‫א‬E2
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Pi = ( F × B) / ( H- hi)
 i ‫א‬‫א‬W Pi
 ‫א‬‫א‬WF
 ‫א‬‫א‬WB
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WH
 i ‫א‬Wh i

 WE3J 5F
، 750 ‫א‬‫א‬، 1700 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬220A‫א‬،150‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬A‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 PA = ( F × B) / ( H- hA) = (150 × 750) / (1700 – 220) = 76.01 mm

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Pi = PJ + ∆PiJ
KJi ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W∆PiJ
 Ki ‫א‬‫א‬WPJ
 KJ‫א‬‫א‬WPJ

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 WE4J 5F
 ‫א‬ B‫א‬‫א‬،E72.35F A‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫؟‬B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K E-3.55FA
 W‫א‬
PB = PA + ∆PBA = 72.35 + ( -3.35 ) = 68.8 mm

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E6J 5F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬،E0.01F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EiF‫א‬‫א‬، E9J 5F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EMiF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،EJF

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،EMJF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
∆P iJ = Mi – MJ
‫א‬‫א‬i ‫א‬‫א‬
 KJ‫א‬
Pi = PJ – ∆PjJ
KJi ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W∆PjJ
 Ki ‫א‬‫א‬WPi
KJ‫א‬‫א‬WPJ


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE9J 5F

 WE5J 5F
 B‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،E8.75F A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 72.1
 KE12.3FB‫א‬
 W‫א‬
∆PAB = MA – MB = 8.75 – 12.3 = - 3.55 mm
 PA = PB - ∆PAB = 72.1 + (-3.55) = 68.55 mm
- 61 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  



 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬Ex , yF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 X Gi = ( X Pi ) × (B / Pi) Y Gi = ( Y Pi) × (B / Pi) 
 W
 i‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE X Gi Y Gi F
 i ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE X pi Y pi F
 ‫א‬‫א‬WB
 i ‫א‬‫א‬WPi

 WE6J 5F
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  A ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬  ، E 38.1 ،  72.4F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 K600‫א‬‫א‬48.5A‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 X GA= ( X PA) × (B / PA) = 72.4 × (600 / 48.5) = 895.67 m
 Y GA= ( Y PA) × (B / PA) = 38.1 × (600 / 48.5) = 471.34 m

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 h i = H – ( (B × F)/Pi )
 i ‫א‬W h i
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WH
- 62 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬WB
 i ‫א‬‫א‬WP I
 ‫א‬‫א‬WF

 WE7J 5F
152.4‫א‬‫א‬ 1233‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬A ‫א‬‫א‬K390 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K91.67‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 h A = H – ( (B × F) / PA ) = 1233 – ( (390 × 152.4) / 91.67) = 584.63 m

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ∆h = ( Z × ∆P ) / Bm
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬W∆h
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WZ
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WBm
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W∆P

 WE8J 5F
‫א‬‫א‬، 2‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،3600‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،100‫א‬
 W‫א‬
∆h = ( Z × ∆P) / Bm = (3600 × 2) / 100 = 72 m

 K‫א‬E4
- 63 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 h i = h j + ∆hiJ،∆hiJ = ( Z × ∆PiJ) / Bm
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬W∆h ij
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WZ
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WBm
j‫א‬i ‫א‬‫א‬W∆PiJ
 i ‫א‬Wh i
 J ‫א‬Wh J

 WE9J 5F
‫א‬‫א‬0.5B‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،5000‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،40 ‫א‬
 ‫؟‬280 B‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬
 W‫א‬
∆hAB = ( Z × ∆PAB) / Bm = ( 5000 × 0.5) / 40 = 62.5 m
h A = h B + ∆hAB = 280 + 62.5 = 342.5 m

 WAnalog instruments ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 4-5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 KAnalog instruments  •
KAnalytical instruments  •

- 64 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

KDigital instruments  •



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 5F

PG-2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KWildB-8
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 WAnalytical instruments ‫א‬‫א‬ 5-5


‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬AC1 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬–Fiducial Marks–‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،E8J 5F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
DSR11BC3‫א‬C100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K C140 


 ‫א‬AC1WE8J 5F
 Digital instruments‫א‬‫א‬ 6-5
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Digital Photogrammetry = Photogrammetry + Digital image processing
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE9J 5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- 66 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 KWE9J 5F‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬،‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WJ
 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬0.55B‫א‬A‫א‬
  ‫א‬J
‫א‬، 5000‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،55‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬300 B‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1 J‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

6
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪70‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 12








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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1-6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،EzF‫א‬Ex , yF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 EFE1
 K‫א‬Ex , yF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E2
 K‫א‬،‫א‬، EzF
 E3
 KEzF‫א‬Ex , yF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
KGPS‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،K
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬KKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬KKKKKK،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2-6
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E+F‫א‬ J 1
EYF‫א‬ J 2
ETF‫א‬ J 3
 KE1J 6F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  







D D D 
5D

5D 


D


 KE+ , YF‫א‬WE1J 6F

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KEdF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ E

5 × F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KED
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬EDF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
D = d × (1/(Sp × 1000))
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WD
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Wd
 K‫א‬WS p
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 WE1J 6F
‫א‬ ‫א‬         ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 W‫א‬ E1:12000F‫א‬‫א‬،E 0.04F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
D = d × (1 / (Sp × 1000)) = 0.04 × (1 / ((1/12000)×1000))
 = 0.04 × (12000/1000) = 0.48 m
 E0.48F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E5 × D = 5 × 0.48 = 2.4 mF‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E2

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬Ex , yF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

EzF‫א‬‫א‬W?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬،EZF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3-6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬KKKK
W‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬ 4-6
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،
  ‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F، ،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?P?‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ?PX?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬
 ?PY?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


P

PY

PX

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 6F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬‫א‬
 Kbx‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1
 Kby‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
 Kbz‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
 K‫א‬ dbz، dby،dbx‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 Kϖ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1
 Kφ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
 Κ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3
 K‫א‬ dΚ، dφ،dϖ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2J 6F‫א‬


3 4 
1 2


5 6 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 6F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1F‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2F‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E2FE1F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E4FE3F‫א‬‫א‬
 KEw/2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3FE1F‫א‬‫א‬
 KEw/2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4FE2F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E6FE5F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬E1
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Kby1‫א‬E1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
- 78 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 KΚ1‫א‬E2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 Kbz1‫א‬E3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 Kφ1‫א‬E4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 Kϖ1‫א‬E5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
‫א‬ϖ1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 ‫א‬
KE5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
‫א‬‫א‬E6F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Kby2‫א‬E2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 KΚ2‫א‬E1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 Kbz2‫א‬E4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 Kφ2‫א‬E3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 Kϖ2‫א‬E6F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
‫א‬ϖ1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 ‫א‬
KE6F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
‫א‬‫א‬E5F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KΚ2‫א‬E1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 KΚ1‫א‬E2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 Kφ2‫א‬E2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 Kφ1‫א‬E2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 Kϖ2‫א‬E2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
‫א‬ϖ2ϖ1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 ‫א‬
KE5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
‫א‬‫א‬E6F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ 5-6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

- 80 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
BX‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬BX‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
KA‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
،E‫א‬F‫א‬
BX‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬BX
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 9
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
KBX‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 10
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬F
 ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
ς‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Φ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
E‫א‬
 ‫א‬F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
ς‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
KA‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
KA ‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬C ‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،  ‫א‬‫א‬ ς‫א‬
،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
KC ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

، Φ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
A‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J
K‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ J
KB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬B ‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬B‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Φ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

D‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J 4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬، Φ‫א‬ς‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬D

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- 84 -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
W‫א‬E1:10000F‫א‬‫א‬،E0.03F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J



- 85 -
 106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 1J ‫א‬‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
 ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬J K
 ‫א‬‫א‬J 2
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K–K–‫א‬K
 W‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FJ 3
 K‫א‬–‫א‬E1419F‫א‬K‫א‬
 K1425‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 4
‫א‬J 1997J ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing J 5
 K
 K(McGraw-Hill) Paul R. Wolf Elements of PhotogrammetryJ 6
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 7
 K‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 8







- 86 -
 106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬
2 ......................................................................................................................... 
- 1 - ............................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
- 2 - .......................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1-2
- 7 - ................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
- 8 - ............................................................................  2-1
- 13 - .................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 2-2
- 18 - ............................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬
- 19 - ............................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
- 20 - ............................................................W‫א‬‫א‬ 3-1
- 21 - ................................................ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3-2
- 25 - ....................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3-3
- 26 - ............................................................. W‫א‬‫א‬ 3-4
- 33 - ............................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬
- 34 - ......................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- 35 - ........................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬ 4-1
- 41 - ............................................................. W‫א‬‫א‬ 4-2
- 46 - ............................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- 47 - ........................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
- 48 - ............................................... W‫א‬‫א‬ 1J 5
- 48 - ............................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2J 5
- 50 - .......................................................... W‫א‬ 3J 5
- 64 - .......... WAnalog instruments ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 4J 5
- 66 - ........................... WAnalytical instruments ‫א‬‫א‬ 5J 5
- 66 - ................................... Digital instruments‫א‬‫א‬ 6J 5
- 68 - .......................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬
- 69 - ..................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
- 70 - ........................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1J 6
- 71 - .............................................. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2J 6
 106  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 1J ‫א‬‫א‬  

- 74 - .............................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3J 6
- 76 - ......................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬ 4J 6
- 80 - .......................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬ 5J 6
- 85 - .......................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬






 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS