Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

Chapter 3

The present chapter describes the technical aspects of the clinker grinding plant,
namely its capacity, imported raw materials, size and type of various equipment,
storage of raw material and finished product, systems design, the plant layout and
flow process.

The rationale leading to the site selection has been elucidated in Chapter 1, sections
1.3 and 1.4, and at section 2.9.1 of Chapter 2.

3.1 Plant Capacity

The plant will have a capacity to produce 1.0 million tonnes of cement per annum
(1.0 MTPA). Three different types of Portland cement1 will be produced in
quantities dependent on market demands:

a) Ordinary Portland cement

This is a high strength cement grade manufactured to meet the needs of the
consumer for higher strength concrete especially for specialized works, such as
highway bridges, prestressed concrete and certain items of precast concrete
structures requiring consistently high strength concrete.

b) Portland Composite Cement

It is a type of blended cement which is produced using pure calcite limestone.
Portland Composite Cement makes concrete more impermeable and denser as
compared to OPC, with advantages of higher degree of workability and reduced
plastic shrinkage. The compressive strength at 28 days is equivalent to that of 42.5

Portland cement, sometimes also called Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is the most common type of cement in
general use worldwide. There are several grades of Portland cement that suit specific purposes.

Chapter 3

c) Blast Furnace Slag Cement

This is a type of blended cement which is produced using granulated blast furnace
slag and has similar advantages of higher degree of workability and reduced plastic
shrinkage. The compressive strength at 28 days is equivalent to that of 42.5 R OPC.

3.2 Raw Material Requirement

The main raw material in terms of quantity will be clinker. This will be imported
from the company’s own supply sources in India and
China, and will not be manufactured on site in
Mauritius. Clinker manufacture is a polluting process
unsuitable for the Mauritian scenario, namely very
restricted land space and the importance of its sectors
like tourism which exacts a pristine island destination.
Figure 3a: Clinker nodules

Table 3a indicates the general raw material requirement in tonnes per annum
(TPA), based on a targeted output of 1.0 MTPA of cement comprising the 3
aforementioned grades.

Table 3a: Raw material requirement

Material Source Transportation mode Requirement TPA
Clinker Imported Sea 840000
Additives Imported Sea 50000
Gypsum Imported Sea 50000
BF Slag Imported Sea 60000

Chapter 3

3.3 Unloading Operations

Figure 3b: Unloading operations

All the raw materials required for plant operations will be sourced from the
company’s clinkering plants in China and India and will be transported overseas in
bulk cargo vessels.

The vessels will carry clinker, additives, slag and gypsum in the same proportion in
which they are expected to be consumed at the plant in Mauritius. Such dedicated
vessels have wide experience in the loading, transportation and destination
unloading of such materials, particularly with regard to pollution control
regulations of their destinations.

Each vessel will be equipped with three to four Grab cranes capable of operating
simultaneously during unloading operations (Ref. Appendix C on page 85).

Chapter 3

The vessels will have a transportation capacity of 40-50000 metric tonnes (MT)
equipped with four grab cranes of 30 MT capacities and a grab capacity of 12m3
each capable of unloading at a rate of 10-12,000 MT per day. Each vessel will thus,
on an average take approximately about 4 days time for emptying. The hourly rate
of emptying will be approximately 600 MT per hour.

Upon arrival of the vessel, four portable hoppers will be placed in position besides
the vessel along the length of the quay. Each of these hoppers will have a capacity
of 20 MT, suiting the grab capacity of the crane, and a gate at the bottom for
controlled discharge. 800 mm width portable belt conveyors will be placed under
each of these hoppers having a capacity of 350 MT per hour each.

The grab cranes will collect the material from the bulk cargo hold of the vessel and
discharge it into the hoppers on the quay, from where the material will be fed onto
the portable belt conveyors through the discharge gates. The portable belt conveyor
will in turn discharge on to one of a series of belt conveyors leading up to the plant.

Once the unloading operations of the vessel are completed, the hoppers and the belt
conveyors would be removed and stored at a suitable area so that the quay is
available for normal operations.

3.4 Frequency of Vessels and Duration of Unloading

Based on the foregoing estimates and operations it is expected that two vessels on
an average would be received in a month and the quay will be occupied for about 8
to10 days for raw material unloading operations.

Chapter 3

3.5 Transportation from Quay to Plant

From the unloading portable hoppers on the quay (Quay I, Terminal II) the raw
materials will be transported to the plant (up to a hopper on site) through a series of
interconnected belt conveyor system with transfer from one belt to another (Ref:
Appendix C on page 86)

Block diagram indicating the steps of the process up to dispatch stage

Quay 1 Conveyor Belt Hopper Tipper Lorry Storage

Ship on site Area
Portable Hoppers
Pay Loader
Grinding Conveyor Belt Mill Conveyor Belt Feeding
Silos Unit Hoppers Hoppers

Packing Local market

plant Dispatch


Figure 3c: Process flowchart

A 1.0 metre wide belt conveyor with a capacity of 800 tonnes per hour (TPH) will
be installed at one side of the quay. This belt conveyor which will be a permanent
structure on one side of the Quay will be fed by the four portable belt conveyors as
mentioned above and discharge onto another belt conveyor for takeoff to the plant.
The belt conveyor will be designed in a manner so as not to obstruct the normal
operations on the quay, whenever raw material of the plant is not being unloaded.

Chapter 3

The takeoff conveying system will consist of a series of belt conveyors with
transfer points in between, the route and elevation of which will depend upon the
alignment of the belt conveyor from the quay to the plant, ground space available
and possible obstructions and belt conveyor design considerations.

A preliminary study of the possible routes has been made and a possible route is
indicated at Appendix C on page 87. The existing road from Quay I to the site (300
m) is quite wide and presents one possibility for the conveyor route.

However a detailed survey will be carried out so as to finalize the feasibility and
design of the conveying system as there could be some obstructions on the
proposed route.

All belt conveyors will be 1.0 m in width, having a capacity of transporting raw
materials at the rate of 800 TPH and mounted on steel trestles and galleries. The
galleries will be fully enclosed and each transfer point will be dedusted with high
efficiency bags type dust filters (Ref. Appendix C on page 88 and 89)

The last conveyor in the series of belt conveyors will discharge into a steel hopper
located inside the plant. The hopper will be enclosed and dedusted with high
efficiency bags type dust filters. This hopper will have a gate for controlled
discharge and will load onto tippers which will transport the material to their
respective storage areas.

To check dust conveyors will be enclosed as far as would be practicable.

Chapter 3

3.6 Storage of Raw Materials on Site

The areas for the storage of raw materials on site are shown in plan at Appendix C
on page 90 and page 91.

The raw materials will be stored at two locations on the site; one for the clinker
with a storage capacity of around 40,000 MT, and one for gypsum, slag and
additives with a capacity of around 10,000 MT.

The drawing at Appendix C on page 88 illustrates the mode of material handling

and storage when it arrives from the quay. A tipper lorry from under the unloading
hopper will transport the material to the storage yard. Throughout the process all
the hoppers of the clinker grinder plant (CGP) are equipped with efficient bag type
dust collectors. This is elaborated in subsequent chapters of this Report.

Pay loader

Figure 3d: Site plan

Chapter 3

The raw material will be stockpiled and a pay loader will collect the material from
the stockpiles to deliver it to the feeding hopper. The stockpiles would be around
6.0 to 7.0 metres high.

Whilst the raw material stockpiles will in the open, they will be covered with
tarpaulins duly secured so as not to be blown away with gusty winds. Since the
moisture content of the raw materials fed to the grinding mill must be controlled,
the stockpiles must be covered so as to protect them from rain. This also eliminates
windborne yard dust.

Additionally, a green belt cover will be developed around the periphery of the
plant, so as to aid in arresting fugitive dust.

3.7 Raw Materials feeding

Ref. plans at Appendix C on page 92

Figure 3e: Raw materials feeding

Chapter 3

A feeding hopper will receive raw materials by pay loaders. A conveyor will next
transport the material to the mill hoppers. The latter will comprise three hoppers
handling clinker, gypsum and additive, in controlled quantities as shown in diagram
above. The conveyor will then transport this mix of materials to the cement mill for

All hoppers and transfer points throughout the process will be enclosed and
dedusted by high efficiency bag type filters, as indicated in the drawings appended
to this Report.

3.8 Clinker Grinding Mill

The clinker, gypsum, and additive will next be fed into the grinding mill, to
produce the desired type of cement. Essentially this is a rotating horizontal cylinder
containing steel balls. The materials are crushed by impact and finely ground by
attrition (friction) between the balls. Water sprays are passed through the mill to
keep it cool since the high impacts produce heat and the cement temperature must
be kept below 1000 C. The cooling water does not mix with the cement and
therefore does not produce silt-laden effluents (Ref. Appendix C on page 93)

There are several types of grinding mills, and based on the best technical and
economic options, for the present CGP a closed circuit ball mill has been chosen.

Chapter 3

Figure 3f: Clinker grinding mill

The output from the mill produces both the required fine cement and partially
ground coarse particles. A system incorporating an air separator through a bucket
elevator and air slides separates the fine and coarse constituents. The coarse
product will be returned back into the mill for further grinding.

The air separator will be provided with a dust filter in series into which the fines
will be carried with the air stream, which will collect cement, the finished product.

The air from the cement mill will be dedusted in a bag filter before being vented
out to the external environment.

The cement from the mill will be transported by a series of air slides and belt
bucket elevator to the cement storage silos. As at the previous stages of the process,

Chapter 3

all the material transfer points and process venting will be dedusted with high
efficiency bags type dust filters.

A clinker grinding plant (CGP) for the production of cement is in fact a blending
process of finely ground clinker and additives. It is sometimes misunderstood for
an integrated cement plant which also manufactures the clinker. The integrated
plant process involves very high temperatures and the emission of high volumes of
particulates and gaseous effluent. This is not the case for a straightforward CGP as
in the present proposed project. The main energy input to the mill is the electrical
power to drive the motors that rotate it. And the bag filters, which are known to be
efficient, perform to the required emission standards.

3.9 Cement Storage

Cement from the mill will be transported by a system comprising air slides and a
belt/chain bucket elevator to two storage silos each having a capacity of 5000 MT,
and made of reinforced concrete. They will be equipped with aeration and
extraction systems for cement discharge Ref. Appendix C on page 94.

One silo will contain ordinary Portland cement and the other blended cement.
Discharge points from the silos will deliver cement to the packing plant and to the
bulk discharge section. Dust emissions at discharge points are consistently checked
by filter bags.

3.10 Cement packing

The packing plant will consist of a 16 spout Rotary Packer with double discharge
having a bagging capacity of 4800 bags (50Kg each) or 240 MT of cement per
hour. The entire operation of the packer will be electronically controlled, to ensure

Chapter 3

accuracy and consistency of weights in the individual cement bags (Ref. Appendix
C on page 95).

Cement from the silos will be extracted through a series of air slides to the packer
plant, where it will be fed to the packer hopper with an elevator and through a
vibrating screen. The cement from the packer hopper will be fed to the rotary
packer where it will be bagged into 50 Kg paper/HDPE bags.

The 50 Kg bags will be transported by a series of belt conveyors to semi automatic

loading machines, one for each packing outlet. The loading machines will directly
load the bags onto trucks for onward dispatch to the domestic markets.

For the export despatches, the 50 Kg bags will be stacked into 1.5/2.0 MT sling
bags by making a 5X6 high stack and wrapping the sling around the stack. Higher
or lower capacity slings depending upon market/customer requirement can also be
used in a similar manner.

The packing plant will be equipped with two high efficiency bags type dust
collectors for process venting and dedusting of all transfer points.

Chapter 3

3.11 Cement Dispatch

Figure 3g: Cement packing and dispatch stages

Cement for the domestic market will be either packed in 50 kg bags or loaded
directly onto trucks for dispatch to warehouses/customers or will be loaded onto
bulkers for dispatch of bulk cement to domestic customers, depending upon

It is envisaged that cement for the export markets will generally be required to be
shipped either in 50 kg bags, or 50 kg bags packed in jumbo bags of 1.5/2.0 MT
capacity or in bulk. All these modes of dispatch would require different handling
methods from the plant to the Quay.

A belt conveyor system is proposed to be installed to transport 50 kg cement bags

from the plant to the Quay 3. A suitable arrangement will be provided for handling
the bags, to enable for an optimized loading system into the ships.

Chapter 3

The proposed route is tentatively indicated at Appendix C and this would be

finalised after detailed surveys.

The sling bags, which will be packed in the plant and stored in a covered shed with
a capacity to store and handle about 10000 MT, will be transported by trucks to the
Quay and will be loaded onto the ships by their cranes.

Pipelines through which cement will be pneumatically conveyed from the plant to
the Quay 1 (or possibly Quay 3) along the same route as the conveyors has also
been considered and provided for.

3.12 Plant System and Machinery

All plant items and machinery will be acquired from suppliers reputed for their
experience, high global standards of workmanship and state of the art technology.
The clinker grinding plant would thus be ensured of its eco-friendly performance
and compliance with environmental standards.

All the handling operations of raw materials are proposed to be carried out on local
contract. These will include loading and unloading of raw materials and cement
into trucks/tippers, handling during storage, feeding from storage and transportation
within the plant and from the plant to the Port.

A broad description of the plant items to be used is listed in Table 3b. Their
selections are based on reliability and matching capacities between different
sections of the plant. Certain items are indicative and may be changed at detailed
design stages.

Chapter 3

Table 3b: Description of plant items

Name of Equipment Type Size Capacity
Clinker Weigh Feeder Apron W-1000mm, L3500 mm 120 tph
Gypsum Weigh Feeder Belt W-1000 mm, L-3000 mm 10 tph
Additive Weigh Feeder Belt W-1000 mm, L-3000 mm 10 tph
Cement Mill Ball Mill Dia- 4.2 m, L-14.5 m 110 tph at 3400
Elevator for Separator Chain Centre Distance - 41 m 400 tph
Air Separator O-Sepa RotorDia – 2500mm 1,60,000m3/hr,
Venting Bag - House for Bag Filter 4 chambers, 1,60,000 m3/hr
O-Sepa Separator
Separator Fan Centrifugal Fan Impeller Dia- 2000 mm 160,000 m3/hr
Bag - House for Mill Bag Filter 6 chambers, 60,000 m3/hr
Mill Vent Fan Centrifugal Fan Impeller Dia- 1972 mm 60,000 m3/hr
Elevator for Product Belt Centre Distance - 61 m 140 tph
Elevator for Packer Belt Centre Distance - 24 m 300 tph
Rotor Packer Double Discharge 16 Spout 240 tph
Truck Loading Machine Rail mounted 2400 bags/hr
Type jumbo

Chapter 3

3.13 Storage Capacities

The storage capacity of the proposed plant for the respective raw materials and
finished goods are indicated in Table 3c.

Table 3c: Storage capacities

Raw Material Description Storage Capacity Days
Clinker Open yard 40,000 MT 18
Cement 2 No. Silos 10000 MT 3
Gypsum Storage yard 3000 MT 22
Additives Open yard 2x 3000 MT 20
Packed cement Shed 10000 MT -

Bag storage Godown 18 Lac Bags 31

3.14 Quality Control

The proposed plant will comprise a modern, technologically advanced laboratory to
ensure the quality control of its finished products and maintain the high standards
which the company aims at worldwide.

Highly accurate weighing systems will be used for controlling input materials to
the cement mill, and for ensuring uniform and constant plant operations. These are
essential requirements for maintaining sound and uniform quality cement. The
laboratory will include the following equipment shown in Table 3d.

Chapter 3

Table 3d: Laboratory equipments

Equipments Number
Xray Analyser 1
Electronic Balance Capacity 0-220 gm LC = 0.0001 gm 2
Spectrophotometer 1
Flame Photometer 1
Furnace ( 0- 1450 oC ) 1
Oven ( 0- 400 oC) 1
Photometer for SO3 2
Platinum Crucible cap.40 ml approx wt. 40 gm with lid 2
Compressive Strength Machine 0-500 KN (With 250 & 500 KN Pressure 2
Proving ring 0-500 kN 1
Vibration Machine 2
Tachometer (upto 20000 rpm) 1
Autoclave Machine 2
Ball Mill Cap. 10 kg 1
Flat Top Pan Balance Cap. 1.0 kg, L.C. 0.1 g 2
Length Comprator 1
Dead Weight Pressure Gauge 1
Window AC(1.5TON) 2
Jaw Crusher 1
Pulveriser 1
Room Cooler 2
Tensile Tester (For Bag Testing) 1

3.15 Water Requirements

The total daily requirement of water for the proposed plant is estimated to be 125
cubic metres as shown in Table 3e

Table 3e: Water requirements

Water requirements M3/day
Water spray in mills for temperature control 65.0
Evaporation loss (cooling water for mills and auxiliaries) 10.0
Evaporation loss (cooling water for compressors and packing plant) 20.0
Drinking and sanitation (50 Litre per capita per day) 5.0
Washing and miscellaneous cooling 25.0
Total 125.0

Chapter 3

The water requirement of the plant shall be met from the existing water supply
network of the harbour area. The water storage capacity at the plant will meet the
requirements for 3 days.

3.16 Electricity Supply

Ref. Appendix C on page 96 for electrical details in single line diagram

The power demand of the proposed plant is estimated at around 5.5 MW. The
Table 3f illustrates the power requirement for producing one tonne of cement.
General specifications of E&I equipment, machinery and systems are at Appendix
C on page 97.

Table 3f: Power requirement to produce 1 Ton of cement

Power requirement KWH/T Cement
Cement mill main motor 32.0
Cement mill auxiliaries 5.0
Packing plant 1.5
Raw material handling 1.5
Utilities, buildings and Lighting 0.5
Total 40.5

Basically, the plant will have a total connected load of about 6.25 MW and an
average operating power of 4.5 MW. Fort George power station (Central Electricity
Board) has sufficient surplus capacity to meet the power demands of the proposed
plant, and arrangements will be made with the Central Electricity Board to finalise
the supply modalities.

Power supply to the plant will require the following:

1. Extension work at the power station relating to dedicated power feeding to the

Chapter 3

2. Laying of 22 kV High voltage (HV) underground cables from the power

station to the plant
3. Installation of HV metering switch gear panels.

Salient power features that would be incorporated to ensure safety, energy

efficiency and conservation will include:

• Intelligent power and motor control centres.

• Power factor improvement
• Double earthing and lightning conductor for the entire plant
• Power saving variable voltage/frequency drives

• Emergency push buttons and pull cord switches

• Appropriate lighting levels in all areas in conformity with norms

3.17 Compressed Air Requirement

The overall compressed air consumption of the plant is estimated to be 900m3/hr as
laid out in Table 3g. To provide this requirement the plant will have 2 screw
compressors (one standby), each of capacity 926m3/hr.

Table 3g: Compressed air requirement

Name of equipment Flow (m3/hr) Pressure (kg/
Dust collector at Main Belt form Port 24.48 7
Dust collector at Junction 12.24 7
Dust collector at Hopper Feeding Junction & Hopper Top 24.48 7
Air blaster –No. 2 12
Diverting gate 1 7
Dust collector at Feed Belt 12.24 7

Chapter 3
Dust collector of Mill circuit –No.2 24.48 7.
Bag house of Mill Vent 185 7
Bag house of Separator venting 185 7
Dust collector at Cement Silo Top – No.3 36.72 7
Water injection for Mill outlet 30 0.5
Bottom gate 1 7
Bottom gate 1 7
Packing plant 220 7
Margins 130.36
Total 900

3.18 Working Hours of the Plant

The viability of the proposed clinker grinding plant rests on its output volume (1.0
MTPA of cement) and several economies of scale, as laid out at Section 1.3 which
elaborates the Economic Feasibility of the project.

The hours of unloading and storage of raw materials would be dictated by ship
arrival schedules, as in most similar industrial sectors.

The cement production would be dictated by local and foreign demands, and, by
the targeted 1.0 MTPA. Grinding operations would therefore necessarily be carried
out 24 hours a day through three eight hour shifts for 365 days a year.

The packing plant is planned to operate 24 hours a day through three 8-hour shifts,
365 days a year. Although this may vary according to market requirements, it is not
expected to fluctuate significantly. The port is manned 24 hours, 7 days a week,
and 365 days a year. Bulk cargo vessels operate on a 3-shift basis round the clock,
at the MPT from Monday to Saturday, and one shift on Sundays and public