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Country Profile on

Disability

ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN

March 2002
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Planning and Evaluation Department
Country Profile on Disability
Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Table of Contents

Figures ....................................................................................................................................... ii
Tables ......................................................................................................................................... ii
Abbreviations............................................................................................................................ iii
1. Basic Profile........................................................................................................................... 1
1-1.Basic Indicators ............................................................................................................... 1
1-2.Indicators on Disability ................................................................................................... 3
2. Issues on Disability ................................................................................................................ 5
2-1.Definition of Disability in Pakistan ................................................................................. 5
2-2.Current Situation ............................................................................................................. 5
2-3.Documentation and Surveys on Disability ...................................................................... 6
3. Administration and Policy on Disability................................................................................ 8
3-1. Administration on Disability .......................................................................................... 8
3-2. Laws and Regulations on Disability ............................................................................. 10
3-3. Policies on Disability.................................................................................................... 11
3-4. Measures on Disability ................................................................................................. 11
3-5. Experts and Workers in the Field of Disability............................................................. 16
4. Disability-related organizations and Activities .................................................................... 18
4-1. Activities by Disability-related organizations .............................................................. 18
4-2. Cooperation projects on Disability Organized by International and Other Donors...... 18
5. References............................................................................................................................ 20

i
Figures
Figure 1: Disability-specific data....................................................................................... 3
Figure 2: Area-specific data by gender .............................................................................. 4

Tables
Table 1: Age-specific data, 0-18, and 18 and above. ......................................................... 4
Table 2: Percentage of Persons with Disabilities in the population ................................... 4

ii
Abbreviations

A&C Administration and Coordination


B&A Budget and Account
B.A. Bachelor of Arts
B.Ed. Bachelor of Education (14 years of schooling)
B.Sc. Bachelor of Science
CBR Community Based Rehabilitation
DGSE Directorate General of Special Education
DIR director
F&A Finance and Account
FY Fiscal year
HQR Headquarters
ILO International Labour Organization
MA Master of Arts
M.Sc. Master of Science
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery
NCRDP National Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons
NGO Non-governmental Organization
NISE National Institute for Special Education
NTCD National Training Centre for the Disabled
NWFP North West Frontier Province
P&D Planning and Development
PCRDP Provincial Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons
PWDs Persons with disabilities
TE Training and employment
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund

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1. Basic Profile

1-1. Basic Indicators

Public Sector Expenditure1


Health 0.9% 1996-98
Education 2.7% 1997
Social welfare N/A
Defense 5.7% 1997

Population1
Population (total) 138.1 million 2000
% of women 48.2% 2000
% of urban population 36% 1999
Life Expectancy2 (total) 59.6 1999
Male 59.8 1999
Female 59.5 1999

Medical Care
Medical care personnel2
Population/Doctor 1,754 1990-99
Population/Nurse & midwife 3,125 1992-95

1
World Bank. World Development Report 2000-2001
2
UNDP. Human Development Report 2001

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Education
Education system3
Primary education 5 year
Compulsory education N/A
Adult literacy rate1
Male 58% 1998
Female 49% 1998
Enrollment ratio3
Primary education
(Net enrollment ratio)
Total 96% 1997
Male 91% 1995-99
Female 92% 1995-99
Primary education4
(Gross enrollment ratio)
Total 65% 1991
Male 87% 1991
Female 42% 1991
Secondary education
(Net enrollment ratio)
Total 61% 1997
Male 37% 1996
Female 39% 1996
Higher education
(Gross enrollment ratio)
Total 10.3% 1996
Male 10.0% 1996
Female 10.7% 1996

3
UNESCO. Statistical Yearbook 1999
4
USAID ESDS. GED2000 Retrieved February 21, 2002, from http//qesdb.cdie.org/ged/index.html

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1-2. Indicators on Disability

Disability-specific Data

Figure 1: Disability-specific data

Physical Disability
40%
Overlapping
10%

Physical Disability
Mental Disability
20% Visual Impairment
Hearing Impairment
Mental Disability
Overlapping

Hearing Impairment
10% Visual Impairment
20%

Source: Oracle Research & Information Services. Country Profile Study on Persons with
Disabilities

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Age-specific Data
Table 1: Age-specific data, 0-18, and 18 and above.
Physical Visual Hearing Mentally Overlapping
Disability Impairment Impairment Disability
0-18 years old
2.82(million) 1.41 0.705 1.41 0.705

18 and above 2.402 1.201 0.6 1.201 0.6

Area-specific Data
Figure 2: Area-specific data by gender

2000

1800

1600

1400
Number of PWDs

1200
Female
1000

800 Male

600

400

200

0
Punjab Sind Balouchistan N.W.F.P

Areas

Source: Ministry of Women Development, Social Welfare and Special Education, Pakistan
Retrieved March 7, 2002 from http://mowd.gov.pk/index.html

Table 2: Percentage of Persons with Disabilities in the population


Total Punjab Sind Balouchistan N.W.F.P
2.49% 2.48% 3.05% 2.23% 2.12%

Grade-specific Data
N/A
Cause-specific Data
N/A

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2. Issues on Disability

2-1. Definition of Disability in Pakistan


Although there is no widely accepted definition of persons with disabilities (PWDs), two
definitions can be found in the National Policy for Special Education.

1. “Disability” means the lack of ability to perform an activity in a manner that is


considered to be normal.

2. A person with disabilities means a person who, on account of injury, disease, or


congenital deformity, is handicapped in undertaking any gainful profession or
employment, and includes persons who are visually impaired, hearing impaired, and
physically and mentally disabled.

2-2. Current Situation


Persons with disabilities are mostly unseen, unheard and uncounted persons in Pakistan. They
are the most marginalized group. Persons with Disabilities face overwhelming barriers in
education, skills development and daily life. Most currently offered services focus on children,
with little availability for adult Persons with Disabilities.

Persons with disabilities also face multiple social, economic, physical and political handicaps,
hampering their freedom of movement in society. These barriers include stigmatization and a
misunderstanding of the abilities and aspirations of persons with disabilities. There is also a
pronounced lack of informational data, rules and regulations, rehabilitation centers, and
mainstreaming and specialized services for persons with disabilities.

In Pakistan, no single ministry or federal department deals with, issues related to disability.
There is only the ministry, responsible for social welfare, women’s development and special
education, which touches upon person with disabilities issues. However, at the local level,
there are no specific sections or departments responsible for person with disabilities programs
at the local level.

Moreover, Pakistanis believe that persons with disabilities are a social burden and a curse on
the family. These beliefs lead to the misunderstanding of disability. They prevent people from

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obtaining appropriate information and being educated. Employment opportunities for persons
with disabilities are very limited and so they are a financial burden for their families.

2-3. Documentation and Surveys on Disability

Only limited categories of disabilities (physical disabilities such as amputations, foot and leg
deformities, visual and hearing impairments) have been surveyed nationwide and most of the
data has not been categorized by gender. Therefore, quantitative, nationwide, disaggregated
data, by gender and age, is required for comprehensive policymaking and an assessment of
progress. Person with Disabilities-related items taken up by the National Census, specific
theme and regional studies by regional governments, as well as governmental and
international organizations should be collected, and missing information or items should be
surveyed. At the same time, it is important to publish and disseminate the results of these
surveys to persons with disabilities themselves, policy makers, project implementators and aid
donors so that they can be utilized for policy making and international project planning.

The National Population Census is theoretically conducted every 10 years. The latest National
Population Census was conducted in 1998; its predecessor was in 1981.

National Census
【Title】 National Population Census of Pakistan
【Last published】 1998
【Items regarding Person with Disabilities】
Survey on demographic data. A number of persons with disabilities in a household was
identified. Disability was classified into five categories: visual, hearing, physical, mental and
psychiatric.

Other Surveys
【Title】 Census of Disabled Persons of Rawalpindi and Islamabad,
【Last published】
【Conducted by】DGSE, Government of Pakistan Islamabad

【Title】 Survey of Disabled Persons in the North-West Frontier Province


(NWFP)
【Last published】 1997
【Conducted by】Social Welfare Department, Government of NWFP

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【Title】 Survey of Non-institutionalized Civilian Disabled Persons


【Last published】 1974-1975
【Conducted by】Social Welfare Department, Government of Sind

【Title】 An Epidemiological Study Of Disabled Children in Pakistan


【Last published】 1990
【Conducted by】Dr. Shah Gul Hayat Hunzai and sponsored by UNICEF

【Title】 Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Childhood Disability in


Pakistan
【Last published】 1990
【Conducted by】
Mr. Meher Hassan (Department of Neuropsychiatry, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center

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3. Administration and Policy on Disability

3-1. Administration on Disability


* See Annex 1 for a list of governmental organizations
Central Government
【Organizational chart】
Organizational chart of the Ministry of Women’s Development, Social Welfare and
Special Education
Minister

Secretary

Additional
Secretary/
Director General

Director Director Director Director Director Director


(SE-I/P&D) (SE-I/F&A) (A&C) (Works) (SE-Ⅲ) (SE-Ⅳ)

Deputy Director Deputy Director Accounts Officer Deputy Director Deputy Director
(P&D) (A&C) (Works) (SE-Ⅱ) (SE-Ⅳ)

Accounts Officer Accounts Officer Accounts Officer


(Adult) (B&A) (SE-Ⅱ)

SE: Special Education P&D: Planning and Development


A&C: Administration and Coordination F&A: Finance and Accounts
B&A: Budget and Account

【Availability of national coordination committee】Yes


【Committee name】 National Coordination Committee

【Plan and implemented activities】


The National Coordination Committee implements Plans arranged by the Ministry of
Women’s Development, Social Welfare and Special Education. The National Coordination
Committee includes NCRDP and major NGOs. NCRDP is responsible for formulating
policies on employment and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities and for their execution
through Provincial Councils.

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【Disability-related Central governmental Organizations】


【Name】 【Description】
Ministry of Women’s The National Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons
Development, Social (NCRDP), under the Social Welfare section, conducts person with
Welfare and Special disabilities surveys and provides medical examinations and training
Education for persons with disabilities. It also works to promote vocational
rehabilitation and employment of persons with disabilities. The
Directorate General of Special Education (DGSE) was established to
promote special education .

Local Government
【Organizational chart】
Local Governments have their own governmental body that includes a Governor, Provincial
Assembly, Provincial Cabinet, and Provincial Government. There are four local government
bodies in the Punjab, Sindh, Balouchistan and NWFP governments.
Organizational chart of Social Welfare Department in the Government of NWFP
Secretary
Social Welfare

Additional Secretary
Social Welfare

Deputy Secretary
Social Welfare

Section Section Director Social Section Section


officer (G) Officer (Ⅲ) Welfare Officer (Ⅱ) Officer (Ⅰ)

Asstt DIR Asstt DIR


Asstt DIR Asstt DIR Planning
(Budget and (Orphanages)
account) HQR
Handicapped HQR (Admn) HQR Officer HQR HQR

Social Welfare Field Officer


Officer HQR HQR

Supervisor HQR

Superintendent
HQR

DIR: Director HQR: Headquarters

5
Ministry of Women Development, Social Welfare and Special Education. Retrieved March 7, 2002,
from http://mowd.gov.pk/index.html

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【Disability-related Local Governmental organizations】


【Name】 【Description】
Unknown

3-2. Laws and Regulations on Disability

Although a law on the employment and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities was passed
in 1981, there is currently no comprehensive legislation covering persons with disabilities.
Therefore, laws and regulations on disability-related sectors other than simply employment
and rehabilitation are required. Parallel to these efforts, governmental policies on person with
disabilities welfare must be strengthened with provision of information and responsibility
sharing amongst ministries outside the Ministry of Women’s Development, Social Welfare and
Special Education.

【Title】 Disabled Persons (Employment & Rehabilitation) Ordinance 1981


【Year legislated】 1981
【Purpose】 To provide employment, rehabilitation and welfare for Persons with
Disabilities
【Description】
Sets a quota of 1% (this 1% quota has now been increased to 2% by a special directive of the
Prime Minister) for the public and private sector to employ persons with disabilities.
Organizations which do not comply to the employment quota are required to pay 2000
6
rupees per month per person to the NCRDP. This collection is to be used to support
persons with disabilities and assistive devices. The NCRDP and PCRDP (Provincial
Council for the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons in each province) have been established to
ensure and enhance the employment, welfare and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.
The NCRDP is responsible for policymaking, evaluation and coordination, achievement of
policy objectives, as well as law implementation at the provincial level, project
implementation, training and job referrals, and provincial physical examinations for persons
with disabilities.

[Laws related to anti-discrimination measures, protection of human rights]

6
1 rupee = 1.788 yen (as of end March 2002)

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【Title】 Zakat 7 & Ushr Ordinance


【Year legislated 】 1980
【Purpose】 Utilization of Zakat Fund
【Description】

【Title】 Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration & Control)


Ordinance
【Year legislated 】 1961
【Purpose】 Registration of NGOs / Welfare Agencies
【Description】

【Title】 Charitable Endowment Act


【Year legislated 】 1980
【Purpose】 Registration/ notification of trusts and foundations in both the public
and private sectors. The National Trust for Disabled in Pakistan is
registered under this Act.
【Description】

3-3. Policies on Disability

National Development Plan


【Title】 Five-Year Plan
【Period】 1994-1998 (the eighth plan)
【Items regarding Person with Disabilities】
There are no items or policy that deal with persons with disabilities issues.

3-4. Measures on Disability

Prevention, Identification and Early Intervention


【Current situation】
The National Institute for the Handicapped, which is a government-owned hospital, has been
set up for the prevention of disabilities and provides the following services to persons with

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Muslims are required to pay a religious tax known as Zakat, which is two and a half percent of
year-end savings, cash or assets. Zakat is meant to benefit only the indigent. The state also deducts
Zakat on all savings bank accounts on the first day of Ramadan (the month of dawn to dusk fasting).
The 12-month Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar.

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disabilities.
1. Coordinates national efforts to prevent disabilities, plans and develops an integrated
referral system throughout the country and serves as a training center for those
involved in the prevention of disabilities;
2. Plans and develops an early disability detection system for children;
3. Plans and develops a multi-professional assessment and diagnostic system at the
district and divisional level;
4. Plans and develops a health surveillance system through existing institutions;
5. Coordinates and supports services for persons with disabilities through various
institutions;
6. Provides treatment to people with various disabilities;
7. Provides medical rehabilitation services for people with extensive disabilities;
8. Carries out research on artificial limbs (manufacture and assembly) and hearing aids;
9. Provides dormitory and convalescent facilities to 120 hospitalized patients;
10. Forming a primary health care system

【Policy/program title】 The National Health Policy


【Implementation year】 1990
【Description】
Emphasis on mental health disorders, blindness, traffic accidents leading to physical disability,
and improvement of prenatal care.

【Policy/program title】 National Social Welfare Policy


【Implementation year】 1994
【Description】Prevention, Education and Rehabilitation (p. 8-9)

Medical Services and Rehabilitation


【Current situation】
DGSE is responsible for the formulation and implementation of a national policy and
programs for assistive devices. Major future programs for assistive devices are as follows:
1. Provision of low-vision aids;
2. Establishment of special education centers at district headquarters;
3. Establishment of orthotic-prosthetic workshops;
4. Assembly of hearing aids;
5. Establishment of a regional institute of training and research on special education.

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The Government does not impose duties or taxes on motorized wheelchairs and special
vehicles. Pakistan produces all prosthetic and orthotic devices indigenously and is able to
meet the “official” demand for these devices. However, many persons with disabilities,
especially in rural areas, have not been identified and are unaccounted for in the “official”
demand8.

Students enrolled in the national or provincial special education centers are fitted with hearing
aids, aids for visual correction, white canes, braces, corrective boots and crutches
free-of-charge.

National Training Center for Disabled Persons


Manages a multi-functional center which conducts orthopedic surgery, physiotherapy,
artificial limb center, vocational training, workshop and education.

Education
【Current situation】
The Directorate General of Special Education has established 46 special education centers,
and the National Trust for the Disabled has set up 3 special education centers. Assessment,
diagnostic and special education services are provided, personal aids and devices are
distributed, curricula are developed and sports and recreational activities are planned.

The Directorate General of Special Education runs 11 centers for persons with visual
impairment, 12 for those with intellectual disabilities, 12 for those with hearing impairments
and 11 for those with physical disability. Provincial governments have also set up special
education institutions.

The National Institute for Special Education (NISE) was established in 1986 to develop expert
training programs, long-term and short-term certification courses, build partnerships with
universities, research centers and international organizations as well as develop and publish
instructive materials.

Special education faculties have been established within the Universities of Karachi and

8
United Nations, Production and Distribution of Assistive Devices for People with Disabilities.

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Punjab. At the same time, school teachers were trained and integrated education promoted
despite some objections from parents of non-disabled children.

There are private Braille libraries in Lahore and Karachi. In Islamabad, there is a National
Talking Book Center and similar private sector centers in Lahore and Karachi. In addition,
there are governmental Braille publishers in Karachi and Bahawalpur as well as a modern
publishing facility in Islamabad.

【Policy/program title】 National Social Welfare Policy


【Implementation year】 1994
【Description】Education (p. 8-9)

【Policy/program title】 National Policy For Special Education


【Implementation year】 1999
【Description】
Expansion of educational services, involvement of community, mainstreaming (p. 20)

Social Service
【Current situation】
N/A
【Policy/program title】 Unknown
【Implementation year】
【Description】

Vocational Training and Employment promotion Services


【Current situation】
The National Training Centre for the Disabled (NTCD) conducts specialized skill training
programs for Persons with Disabilities. The purposes of NTCD are as follows:
1. Provide vocational training and rehabilitation services. Skills training in welding,
bench-fitting (machinists), knitting, tailoring and electrical and electronic equipment
production.
2. Facilitate employment through placement services
3. Educate the community regarding person with disabilities contributions to society;
4. Help persons with disabilities contribute to, and become productive members of

Retrieved from http://www.dinf.org/doc/intl/z15/z15002p2/z1500201.htm

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society.

The NTCD provides vocational training and rehabilitative services to Persons with
Disabilities in various trades, assisting successful trainees in finding suitable jobs.

Two vocational training centers have also been established in Karachi and Lahore, providing
the same services as the NTCD9.

The NCRDP was established in 1982 to coordinate policies on employment, rehabilitation and
welfare for persons with disabilities. The Disabled Persons Employment and Rehabilitation
Ordinance coordinates and evaluates the implementation of these policies.

Managed by the private organization Pakistan Retintis Pigmentosa Society, is the vocational
rehabilitation center for women in Darakhshan, women with visual, physical and light
intellectual disabilities are taught daily routine skills, income generating skills, mobility skills,
adult and religious education for half a year and is the only facility that targets women with
disabilities.

【Policy/program title】 National Social Welfare Policy


【Implementation year】 1994
【Description】

【Policy/program title】 Office Directive for "Enhancement Quota for Disabled Persons"
【Implementation year】
【Description】To raise the quota for Persons with Disabilities in the government sector
from 1 to 2 %.

Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR)


【Current situation】
• UNICEF and the Pakistani government provide outreach services in medical,
education rehabilitation in the North-East Province.
• CBR for the polio disabled in Karachi slums is provided by a branch of the Marie
Adeliade Leprosy Center.

9
United Nations. Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons: Mid-Point ~ Country Perspectives,
1999.

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• An outreach program in the Gulberg slums is provided by the Pakistani association


for mentally disabled children.

【Policy/program title】 Unknown


【Implementation year】
【Description】

Communication Tools
【Current situation】
No information available.

【Policy/program title】 Unknown


【Implementation year】
【Description】

3-5. Experts and Workers in the Field of Disability

Training of guides for the visually impaired takes place at a national center for mobility and
self-training10.

【Job title】 【Qualification system】 【Training system】


Doctor (General Duty MBBS (Bachelor of 5 years of basic medical and clinical
Medical Officer) medicine, Bachelor of science education in all clinical subjects
Surgery) in teaching hospitals during years 3-5.
This is usually followed by 6 to 12
month internships ("House Job") in one
or two clinical disciplines.
Special Education MA (Social Sciences), 5 years training as a junior teacher in a
Teacher M.Sc. (Science), or BA + normal education institution
B.Ed. (Bachelor of
Education)
Audiologist M.Sc. (audiological Three-month internship with dissertation
medicine or audiological on a specific subject during academic
engineering); session
duration-one year

10
Nakanishi, Yukiko. Ajia no Shougaisha (PWDs in Asia) Gendaishokan. 1996

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Speech Therapist Post Graduate Diploma in One-year compulsory clinical training


Speech Language (after the diploma) on handling patients
Therapy;
Duration-one year
Social Case Worker M.A. (Social Work); Field casework study (1 year) during
Duration: two years academic period
Vocational Teacher Matric 11 with 2 year One year of compulsory teacher training
diploma in a vocational field after diploma
Occupational B.Sc. (Occupational One year of clinical training during
Therapist Therapy); duration-three academic period for a total of three years
years
Job Placement Officer M.A. (Social Work) Field casework study (1 year) during
academic period, i.e., one year classroom
study and one year casework study
Orthotist & Prosthetist B.Sc. (Orthotics & Six-month internship after completion of
Prosthetic Technology); degree. One year clinical training during
duration-four years the four year academic period
Physiotherapist B.Sc. (Physiotherapy); One year of clinical training during the
duration-four years four year academic period
Nurse Matric (10 years of high One year of training in gynecology and
school) plus Diploma in obstetrics after completion of diploma
Nursing; duration-three
years
Mobility Instructor M.Sc. (Applied 3 years of training in a visual impairment
Psychology) or M.A. institution after completion of degree
(Special Education)
Social Welfare Officer M.A. (Social Field casework study (1 year) during
Work/Sociology) academic period, i.e., one-year
classroom study and one-year casework
study

11
Matric is 10 years of high school

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4. Disability-related organizations and Activities

4-1. Activities by Disability-related organizations

*See Annex 1 for a list of organizations


Current State of Organizations
1. Association of Physically Disabled Persons
Established in 1991 and has three branch offices.

2. Pakistan Association of the Blind


Established in 1958 and provides library services, produces and supplies educational equipment,
conducts eye camp, provides medical eyeglasses and scholarships.

4-2. Cooperation projects on Disability Organized by International and Other


Donors

Assistance by Multilateral/Bilateral Organizations and International NGOs


The ILO and the government of Pakistan implemented the project, “Training and Employment
for Rural Women in NWFP,” which aims to increase the participation of women in the economy
of the NWFP region. This project also intended to strengthen the capacity of existing
organizations and institutions to provide technical support and training to women involved in
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income-generating activities in rural areas .

In 1992, the ILO and UNDP started the “Project of Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment
of Disabled Persons” in order to improve employment opportunities for Persons with
Disabilities. It is an innovative project in terms of shifting the policy from disability-benefit,
charity-based services, to the integration of Persons with Disabilities in the local labor market.
The programs and activities of this project are13:

1. Identification of approach and platform channels.


2. Contact with key persons and involvement.
3. Formation of groups (students, parents of disabled persons, teachers, traders).

12
ILO. Thematic Evaluation: ILO Projects on Training for Employment. Retrieved from
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb280/pdf/tc-1-ax.pdf
13
Ministry of Women Development, Social Welfare, and Special Education. Vocational Rehabilitation
and Employment of Disabled Persons. Retrieved from http://mowd.gov.pk/social_welfare/vredp.htm

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4. Exploration of community resources. (institutional, financial, social, human,


employment).
5. Identification and registration of persons with disabilities in the community.
6. Evaluation of persons with disabilities for vocational rehabilitation.
7. Provision of counseling and guidance for clients and their families.
8. Preparation of an individual training and employment plan (TE plan) for registered
disabled persons.
9. Provision of loans to self-employed persons with disabilities.

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Assistance by Japan
Japan’s assistance in FY 2000
1. Project-type Technical Cooperation: The Maternal and Child Health Project in Pakistan
2. Grant Aid: The Project for Expansion of Immunization against Neonatal Tetanus
3. Grant Aid: National Disability Research Institute Construction Project (18 million yen)

14
See: http://www.jica.go.jp/english/publication/annual/2001/pdf/216_234.pdf

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5. References

This report is based on a report by a local consultant.

Main source:
Oracle Research and Information Services. Country Profile Study on Persons with
Disabilities.

Other references:
International Labor Organization. Thematic Evaluation: ILO Projects on Training for
Employment. Retrieved from
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb280/pdf/tc-1-ax.pdf

Ministry of Women Development, Social Welfare and Special Education, Pakistan. Retrieved
March 7, 2002, from http://mowd.gov.pk/index.html

Nakanishi, Yukiko. Ajia no Shougaisha (Persons with Disabilities in Asia) Gendaishokan.


1996

United Nations. Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons: mid-point ~ country
perspectives, New York: United Nations publication. 1999.

United Nations, Production and Distribution of Assistive Devices for People with Disabilities.
Retrieved March 8, 2002, from http://www.dinf.org/doc/intl/z15/z15002p2/z1500201.htm

UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) Report on the Global HIV/AIDS
Epidemic, June 2000

United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2001

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Statistical Yearbook. 1999

U.S. Agency for International Development. ESDS. GED2000 Retrieved February 21, 2002,
from http//qesdb.cdie.org/ged/index.html

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World Bank. World Development Report 2000-2001

21