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Problems 15

1.6 Problems
1.6.1 The 3� + 1 Problem
PC/UVa IDs: 110101/100, Popularity: A, Success rate: low Level: 1
Consider the following algorithm to generate a sequence of numbers. Start with an
integer n. If n is even, divide by 2. If n is odd, multiply by 3 and add 1. Repeat this
process with the new value of n, terminating when n = 1. For example, the following
sequence of numbers will be generated for n = 22:
22 11 34 17 52 26 13 40 20 10 5 16 8 4 2 1
It is conjectured (but not yet proven) that this algorithm will terminate at n = 1 for
every integer n. Still, the conjecture holds for all integers up to at least 1� 000� 000.
For an input n, the cycle-length of n is the number of numbers generated up to and
including the 1. In the example above, the cycle length of 22 is 16. Given any two
numbers i and j, you are to determine the maximum cycle length over all numbers
between i and j, including both endpoints.

The input will consist of a series of pairs of integers i and j, one pair of integers per
line. All integers will be less than 1,000,000 and greater than 0.

For each pair of input integers i and j, output i, j in the same order in which they
appeared in the input and then the maximum cycle length for integers between and
including i and j. These three numbers should be separated by one space, with all three
numbers on one line and with one line of output for each line of input.

Sample Input Sample Output

1 10 1 10 20
100 200 100 200 125
201 210 201 210 89
900 1000 900 1000 174
16 1. Getting Started

1.6.2 Minesweeper
PC/UVa IDs: 110102/10189, Popularity: A, Success rate: high Level: 1
Have you ever played Minesweeper? This cute little game comes with a certain op-
erating system whose name we can’t remember. The goal of the game is to find where
all the mines are located within a M × N field.
The game shows a number in a square which tells you how many mines there are
adjacent to that square. Each square has at most eight adjacent squares. The 4 × 4 field
on the left contains two mines, each represented by a “*” character. If we represent the
same field by the hint numbers described above, we end up with the field on the right:
*... *100
.... 2210
.*.. 1*10
.... 1110

The input will consist of an arbitrary number of fields. The first line of each field
contains two integers n and m (0 < n� m ≤ 100) which stand for the number of lines
and columns of the field, respectively. Each of the next n lines contains exactly m
characters, representing the field.
Safe squares are denoted by “.” and mine squares by “*,” both without the quotes.
The first field line where n = m = 0 represents the end of input and should not be

For each field, print the message Field #x: on a line alone, where x stands for the
number of the field starting from 1. The next n lines should contain the field with the
“.” characters replaced by the number of mines adjacent to that square. There must
be an empty line between field outputs.

Sample Input Sample Output

4 4 Field #1:
*... *100
.... 2210
.*.. 1*10
.... 1110
3 5
**... Field #2:
..... **100
.*... 33200
0 0 1*100