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TTS 1053

. Introduction

In this assignment, I will discuss specifically the basic components of computer and
the computer in general. Firstly, I will define each components of the computer and
explain their functions in a computer. Secondly, I will talk about different kinds of
computers, their advantages and disadvantages and also give some examples
respectively. Thirdly, I will highlight about how it affects our life and give the factors
that encourage people to use the service or device. Finally, I will provide a conclusion
about the discussed topic.

. Basic Components of Computer

All computers have the same basic components. Components can be referred as
hardware or parts. There are a number of basic components of a computer. No matter
what type of operating system is loaded onto the computer, the fundamental structure
of the computer is nearly identical. These components were constructed over the
course of decades during the late 1900s, and implemented and standardized by the
early 1990s. Each one of the components is constantly upgraded for greater speed
and storage. Of these components, six major ones are necessary for the computer to
run. The components are the hard disk drive, memory, motherboard, monitor, casing
and input device. Without these components, the computer cannot function.

) Hard disk drive

The hard disk drive (HDD) is a magnetic disk that retains information essentially
the long-term memory of the computer. It is a non-volatile, random access device
for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a
protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read and written on the platter by
read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters.


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SCSI Hard Drive

Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size
over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have
been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose
computers since the early 1960s. They have maintained this position because
advances in their real recording density have kept pace with the requirements for
secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces. For
example such as serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).

) Memory

Memory refers to computer components and recording media that retain

digital data used for computing for some interval of time. Computer data storage
provides one of the core functions of the modern computer, that of information
retention. It is one of the fundamental components of all modern computers, and
coupled with a central processing unit (CPU, a processor), implements the basic
computer model used since the 1940s.

In contemporary usage, memory usually refers to a form of semiconductor

storage known as random-access memory, typically DRAM (Dynamic-RAM)


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but memory can refer to other forms of fast but temporary storage.
Similarly, storage today more commonly refers to storage devices and their
media not directly accessible by the CPU (secondary or tertiary storage)
typically hard disk drives, optical disc drives, and other devices slower than RAM
but more permanent.

Historically, memory has been called main memory, real storage or internal
memory while storage devices have been referred to as secondary
storage, external memory or auxiliary/peripheral storage. The contemporary
distinctions are helpful, because they are also fundamental to the architecture of
computers in general. The distinctions also reflect an important and significant
technical difference between memory and mass storage devices, which has been
blurred by the historical usage of the term storage.


) Motherboard
The motherboard on the computer contains the CPU or central processor. The
motherboard brings all the components together, converting all the information
on the computer and allowing the user to read it. It is the main circuit board of a
microcomputer. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching
additional boards.


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Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass

storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all
the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as
the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that
reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset. On
most PCs, it is possible to add memory chips directly to the motherboard. We
may also be able to upgrade to a faster PC by replacing the CPU chip. To add
additional core features, we may need to replace the motherboard entirely.
Motherboard is sometimes abbreviated as mobo.


) Monitor
A monitor or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) is an electronic
visual display for computers. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry,
and an enclosure. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film
transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel, while older monitors use a
cathode ray tube about as deep as the screen size. Originally computer monitors
were used for data processing and television receivers for entertainment;
increasingly computers are being used both for data processing and


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) Casing
The casing is the shell of the computer that protects the inner workings. Most
casings contain metal sides and plastic fronts and backs. The metal sides stop
the electric charge from building up on the inside of the computer.



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Input device
Input devices such as CD-ROM drives, computer mice and keyboards make sure
the user can interact with the computer. The drives on a computer allow the user
to input information, while the mouse and keyboard allow the user to affect the
computer physically.

CD-ROM Drives

Mouse Keyboards


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. Different Kinds of Computers

Some computers are used to perform special stuffs. They may be programmed to
perform a task, let say for studying earthquake or for controlling some devices.
However, the most common type of computers that we can see everywhere is called
personal computers, used mainly for surfing the net, watching videos, doing admin
task and more. Nowadays a lot of manufacturers are competing with each other,
building the ever-smaller computers. Well, it is the trend now, human like mini portable
stuffs. A good example will be the Mac book air.

Desktop computers are small enough to sit in our desktop, laptop are small and light
enough to be operated on a person’s lap, notebook are portable enough to be carried
everywhere and PDA are small enough to be held on the palm of our hand.

Desktop Computers Laptop

Notebook PDA


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Minicomputers are a computer with processing and storage capabilities smaller than
those of a mainframe but larger than those of a microcomputer, used by small
business in manufacturing processes in scientific research and so on. Minicomputers
are more powerful and to be used by more than one person at a time. For example, all
cash machine in a store maybe connected to a microcomputer which stores all the
financial and inventory data.


Mainframes computer are large powerful and expensive computers, which size of
maybe a refrigerators. They are used mainly by government, FBI, banks, airlines and
so forth.

Mainframes Computer


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On the other hand, supercomputers are the fastest and most powerful computers,
mainly designed to tackle complicated problems that required a lot of computer time
and speed. They may be used for research purposes.


. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Computers

Advantages of Desktop Computer

• Size of Monitor

While the modern technological community is all about the latest and greatest in
micro technology, the traditional desktop computer still has many advantages over
its arguable slimmer and sleeker brethren. The contemporary desktop outdoes
modern laptops in a few main areas, namely potential for customization, and the size
of the monitor. If we were to open up the case of a desktop computer, we would see
all sorts of components, from hard drives to the CPU to the power supply. On a
desktop, it is actually quite simple to swap these parts for upgraded ones, which will


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in turn result in a higher computer performance. All one needs is a basic Phillips
head screwdriver and we can swap any internal component with a similar one. This
customizability allows for continued upgrades as technology becomes more and
more advanced. If we find ourselves needing more RAM or hard disk space, it is a
simple matter to take another part and install it. Note that on a laptop computer, we
would not be able to customize our machine to that degree. The manufacturers of
portable computers must hard-wire everything together to save space, which
virtually eliminates any possibility for upgrades without buying an entire new

Disadvantages of Desktop Computer

• Size of Computer

As technology has increased over the years, the size of our computers and other
devices has gradually diminished. However, we still have one major choice to make
when buying a computer and this is whether to spend our hard earned money on a
desktop or a laptop. Both types have their pros and cons, but as processing power
has increased for smaller components, the disadvantages of desktops have become
more important than the advantages they present.

The number one reason why people buy laptops is because they can take it
anywhere. If we constantly have to go on trips, a laptop will be very useful. Our own
laptop will have all our e-mail, software’s, presentations, sales material and so on.
We can store all of this and much more information that we constantly need, on our
laptop without any problems.


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Advantages of Laptop

• Portability

The number one reason why people buy laptops is because they can take it
anywhere. If we constantly have to go on trips, a laptop will be very useful. Our own
laptop will have all our e-mail, software’s, presentations, sales material etc. We can
store all of this and much more information that we constantly need, on our laptop
without any problems.

• Size and Weight

Laptops are compact. The single laptop contains, our monitor, CPU, speakers,
keyboard, mouse and everything else a normal computer contains. If we do not have
place at home or have little space on our office desk. If our situation is such that we
do not have space to accommodate another computer, then it would be good to go
in for laptop.

• Un-interrupted power supply

In India, once in a while the electricity still does fail. A laptop is kind of a desktop
computer and an in-built UPS. It can be charged with battery and it will stay on so
long as the battery has charge. So, if we act wisely, and keep our laptop charged,
we will never have the problem on not being able to work on our laptop because the
lights have gone.

• Image

Firstly, laptops are cool! But that not a good enough reason. A laptop also gives
credibility. If we go for a presentation with our laptop, then that gives a good
impression to the other party. So, if we are trying to convince people that we are a


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big player and it is worth dealing with you, presentations given on laptops might help
you a little.

Disadvantages of Laptop

• Technology

Because a laptop is pretty compact, some of the recent technology that's been
developed for desktops has yet to be made into thinner and smaller forms and
successfully fitted into laptops. So laptops are always a step behind desktops when
it comes to capability and efficiency. However, the laptop market is growing and this
situation is fast changing.

• Comfort

We will have to get used to using a mouse pad instead of a mouse. Our keyboard
and our monitor are connected, so when we type our face will close to the monitor.
We will not get “sub-woofer” quality sound, unless we externally connect our laptop
to a sub-woofer.

• Upgrading

If we are planning on adding stuff onto our computer, get ourselves a desktop and
not a laptop. Upgrading a laptop is not impossible. But, anybody who knows
anything about computers will tell us that it is impractical to purchase a laptop with
the intention of upgrading it. It is often impossible to add stuff like RAM and hard
drives without sending the entire piece back to the manufacturer. Even if we do
decide to upgrade, we are limited in the selection of extra equipment; most laptops
require we to install parts manufactured by the same company.


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. How Computer Affects Our Life

The computer has changed the modern lives of many. It is very common for a
household to at least have one computer. In addition, computers are essential tools that
help ease daily life. Also, computer comes in various sizes and has many different types
of applications. Computers can affect ones daily tasks, finances, and time.

To begin with, computers can change ones daily tasks. Programs can do various
functions and ease the process of doing it manually without a computer. For instance, a
student may finish most of their assignments online with more accurate answers. In fact,
there is a well known program called," Microsoft Word," that actually corrects many
grammatical errors such as punctuations, capitalization, and the most common
sentence fragments. Thus, ones essay or report can be done at home, which is more
convenient. Since there is a program like the one mentioned it actually reduces errors
and makes ones daily task much easier.

Finances can be very difficult without any tools, but when we have access to a
computer, we can do it virtually online without having to go through the hassle of filling
out paperwork and using stamps. For example, one may pay their bills online with a
credit card in a few clicks. Usually a bill would have the option for the customer to go
through their webpage and log in to their account. After, the customer would then go
through a process in which he or she would enter the confidential information into the
website which would then make the transaction successful. Next, he or she would have
the chance to look at the account balance and statement which would then show the
mathematics without actually having to go through a calculator. Using a computer to do
finances is a very beneficial way for the consumer and the service provider.


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. The Factors That Encourage People To Use The Service Or Device

1. It helps us automate various tasks that we can not do manually.

2. It helps we organize our data and information in a better way.
3. It has much more computing and calculating power then an ordinary human.
4. It may help our work to be a lot easier.
5. It may be the storage of our important data and files.
6. It may be our handy book.
7. It may help we solve problems faster than an ordinary human being can do.
8. It has speed, storage, reliability, consistency and communications.
9. It helps us to find useful information using the Internet.
10. It helps in businesses, factories, offices, schools and homes.

G. Conclusion

Each one of the components mentioned in the paragraphs above make up what is
known as a PC or personal computer. Personal computers have become a part of
everyday life for this generation. Without all of the hardware to store this data
on communication would take a lot longer and jobs would be more tedious. Although
the computer serves to make our lives easier they can also make us lazy and
inefficient. So the next time we get on our computer, remember that each piece of
hardware works together to make our lives a little easier.


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. References