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Today’s and Tomorrow’s Meaning of Power

Electronics within the Grid Interconnection

EPE 2007, Alborg, DK

A. Rufer
Laboratoire d’Electronique Industrielle
Ecole polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Ch-1015 Lausanne / Switzerland
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Content

- Introduction

- Flexible AC Transmission Systems

- HVDC Transmission

- New Concepts of Decentralized Generation

- Redefining the Local Grid Concepts

- New Flexible Structures for Power Distribution

- Conclusions
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Introduction

Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity

50 years of joint activities

22 European countries

450 million people are supplied with electric energy

approx. 2100 TWh annual electricity consumption


equiv. to 239 GW
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Introduction

The political map


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Introduction
The Control Blocs / Areas
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Flexible AC Transmission Systems


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Flexible AC Transmission Systems


Beginning with series connection of thyristors for Reactive Power Compensation
(Low Risk, because (silicon) short circuit current equals rated current!)

SS1 SS2

Q Q

G2 G1
SS3

G3

- Inductive and Capacitive Compensation in the context of Transmission

- Compensation of Voltage variations (Flicker) for Industry/Utility


interface problems
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Flexible AC Transmission Systems

25 Years later: To the use of a better adapted converter topology

HV PWM VSC

- Inductive and Capacitive compensation with the same converter

- Series connection of a large number of turn-off devices

- The same topology to be used for fundamental and hamonic waves


(Active Filter)
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Flexible AC Transmission Systems


Influence of the behaviour of a transmission line:
UPFC Universal Power Flow Controller

A high potential for solving problems of congestion


Topology can also be used as a DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer)

=> Here again: the advantages of VSC based systems!


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Flexible AC Transmission Systems


Another solution: the IPFC (Interline Power Flow Controller)

⇒The problem of AC lines and transportation over longer distances


not yet solved
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

- HVDC Transmission
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

HVDC Transmission
Energy transportation over long distances (an increasing tendency)

- SCR’s in rectifier and inverter mode, 12 pulse connections


- « Easy » series-connection of thyristors for the upper 100 kV range
- Inherent problem of the consumed reactive power by thyristor converters
- Often completed with VAR sources (TCR + TSC)
- Possible Power level near to the GW! (1’000’000 kW)
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

HVDC Transmission
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

VSC based HVDC Transmission

- Similar tendency as for STATCONs

- Brakethrough of the series connected stacked IGBTs


- Independent 4-Quadrant operation at both ends of the line

- Realizations of several 100 MW / with a voltage > 100 kV


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

VSC based HVDC Transmission


Common bipolar DC- bus and Extended system without increasing
Multiterminal systems the short circuit power

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=
=
~
~
~ =
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

VSC based HVDC Transmission

Source: ABB
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Power Electronic Applications


of unconventional dimensions …
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

…using specific technology

Source: STRI / ABB


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Dreaming of ideal ultrafast / high blocking


devices:

« Solid State Substations » using a High Frequency Resonant Matrix Topology?

+150 kV

-150 kV

(EPE Papers from Dresden and Portoroz)


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

New Concepts of Decentralized Generation

Two pictures to illustrate the (growing) unconventional


dimensions of RES
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

(Source: Rhonéole)
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Photovoltaic plants of unconventional size

Erlasee 12 MW

Bolanden 40 MW

Moura 64 MW
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

New Concepts of Decentralized Generation

Storage
DC-Bus Main Grid
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RES Users

- RES assisted by energy storage means

- A well defined frontier between Grid and Microgrid


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

A possible definition of the interface between Grid and


Microgrid

Pref Active and reactive power


regulation
Qref Upper Control
PQR

Vref Automatic Voltage


regulation
AVR

Lower Control
PWM

PCC
DC Voltage
Source
POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM
~
GRID

(Source: Kusagava, Baba, Ohshima, Masada, Niigata 2005)


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

A chance to redefine the Local Grid Concepts

MVAC Local Grid

G
~ =
= ~
Existing
technology

G
~ =
= ~
AC Grid

G ~
=
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

(Source: Nysted, Dk)


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

(Source: Nysted / DONG Energy , Dk)


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Dedicated DC-Grids for Energy Collection and


Distribution
MVDC Grid

~ =
G
= =

MF Based DC-DC Converters =


~

G
~ = AC Grid
= =

G ~
=
Global considerartions made for distribution: Konishi H. IPEC 2005
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Reversible DC-DC converter for the interface


with a MV DC Grid
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

New Flexible Structures for Power Distribution

Three Port Configuration of a UNIFLEX Converter


(UNIFLEX-PM EU FP6 )

Possibility of isolating, blocking or compensation of transient and harmonic


phenomena between nodes of the grid
EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

New Flexible Structures for Power Distribution

MF - Transformer based Multilevel Converters


EPE 07 Prof. A. Rufer

Conclusions

- High Power Electronics plays today a significant role in


Transmission, and Distribution of Electrical Power

- Incremental and disruptive R&D is expected to play a significant


role in the context of the evolution of Centralized and Decentralized
Power Generation

- Active and passive Components of Power Electronic Systems are


evoluting, together with Material Sciences and Information Technologies.