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R W A N D A N A T I O N A L L A N D U S E M A S T E R P L A N - T R A N S P O R T A T I O N

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Transportation -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 Guidelines----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19


Introduction-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 REFFERENCES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
Economic Competitiveness------------------------------------------------------------------4
LIST OF TABLES ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
Good and Equal Social Conditions --------------------------------------------------------4
Sustainable Environment---------------------------------------------------------------------4 LIST OF FIGURES---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
Present and Future Travel Patterns--------------------------------------------------------5
Existing Trends----------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
Future Outlook-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
Air Transport ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
Water-bound Transport-----------------------------------------------------------------------13
Lake Kivu ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
Future Directions------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
Transport Strategy----------------------------------------------------------------------------15
Implement Supporting Actions------------------------------------------------------------15
Adjust Service Levels------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Supply Infrastructure-------------------------------------------------------------------------19
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Rapid Transit for Kigali -----------------------------------------------------------------------19
Park and Ride ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Air Transport Infrastructure-----------------------------------------------------------------19
Water-bound Transport Infrastructure--------------------------------------------------19
Future Transport System --------------------------------------------------------------------19
Key Elements-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Land Transport --------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Air Transport -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Water-bound Transport ---------------------------------------------------------------------19
The National Land Use and Development Master Plan is referred to as the Plan in the Text.

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Transportation services, which are provided by the public and private sector alike and
includes bus, taxi and airline services.
Introduction The transport sector contributes considerably towards poverty reduction and
Rwanda is a landlocked country in the heart of Africa and far from the maritime ports economic growth, and serves as support to other economic sectors. It plays a
on the Indian Ocean, with the distance to the nearest port of Dar es Salaam being fundamental role in the economy of Rwanda as it contributes about 7% to the
around 1.400km.The transport sector is a strategic sector for Rwanda, and the GDP, and represents about 15% of total service delivery. Most of the transport
situation of being landlocked has a negative impact on economic growth and infrastructure in the National Economy has been continuously growing since
development of the country. The exceptionally high cost of transport at national as well 1995, and is expected to grow further with the putting in place of the proposed
as international levels, as well as insufficient affordable and accessible modes of policy. There has been a steady increase in the allocation of resources to the
transport for people in both urban and rural areas, constitute a major constraint which transport sector both from internal and external sources of finance, which is a
must be taken into account with the sector policy to achieve the short medium and clear demonstration of the importance that the Government of Rwanda places
long-term development goals that Rwanda has mandated. This poses a major in the development of the sector.(National Transport Sector Policy 2008)
limitation in her national development efforts. With the end of the war, the Rwandan
Government, with the support from development partners, has committed itself to the A transportation strategy is a core element of the Plan. It outlines a series of
reconstruction of the country. transport investment proposals and policy priorities designed to activate and
support wider national spatial development strategies. Importantly, it integrates
Specific importance has been attached to the rehabilitation of transport infrastructure the fields of land use and transport and by so doing it promotes more
and road infrastructure in particular, which are vital for a country whose internal and sustainable travel patterns.
external economic dealings are essentially accomplished over the road transportation
system.Transport infrastructure in Rwanda is comprised of the following: Rwanda has a complex and a difficult transport situation. The demand for
travel and transport is growing fast. This is leading to overloading of existing
Road transport, which until now is the main form of passenger and transport facilities which, in turn, decreases economic productivity and the
goods transportation, with a network of about 14,000 km quality of life. If the recent positive economic development will be geared
corresponding to a road density of 0.53 km/km²; towards a period of sustained economic growth (annual average growth rate
Air transport with, two international airports and five aerodromes of between 7.6 to 9.6 percent over the next 10 years), more traffic in all fields –
spread across the country, and land, water-bound and air – will occur. A solution to meet this challenge is vital.
lake transport, which is limited mainly to Lake Kivu.

Rwanda does not have a rail transportation system, but the rail road systems of the
neighbouring countries (Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya) which are used as transit
routes, contribute in a small way for goods originating or destined for Rwanda in a
multi-modal railwayroad combination. The planned railway connecting Rwanda to the
Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam will provide a direct link to international transit routes.
Over and above physical infrastructure, the sector is also comprised of transport

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Goals Transport networks do not stop at borders. Transport networks provide


essential access across the Rwanda, East Africa, European locations and
Transport is critical to the economic activity and community services of Rwanda. The onward to the rest of the world.
primary goal of the transport system is to move people and goods effectively,
efficiently, safely and reliably within an environmental friendly framework. This supports Good and Equal Social Conditions
long-term sustainable development in the nation in terms of three dimensions Good and equitable living conditions involve opportunities for working, living
economic competitiveness, good and equal social conditions and sustainable and education as well a having a healthy, safe and secure environment.
environment. Serious efforts are needed to:

Ensure safety within the transport system and maintenance of existing assets.
Safety should be the number one concern of all transport system users and
providers.

Offer greater choice in travel modes. This means strategic expansion of public
transport. Cycling and walking should also be recognized as important
components of urban traffic. Continued heavy reliance on the private car is
inefficient from a number of perspectives.

Create an acceptable level of transport service throughout all geographic


areas and for all user groups, including those with special needs.

Sustainable Environment
Economic Competitiveness A long-term sustainable environment implies a built environment which is
Economic growth in the Rwanda is threatened by congestion in key transport corridors healthy and has strong aesthetic and life-style qualities. Transportation is one
and by inadequate connections to the national and global markets by land, water- of the largest sources of air pollution especially in Kigali City. The combustion
bound and air. Inadequate development of transportation infrastructure impedes of fossil fuels to power vehicles and engines – cars, trucks, buses, air and
economic development and has proven to be a cause of poverty in many developing marine – has major adverse impacts on the environment and health of urban
countries. Sustaining and expanding the economic vitality of the nation is dependent areas. Ways to improve matters are:
upon:
Adopting initiatives to reduce emissions from vehicles, engines and fuels can
Providing greater mobility for both passenger and freight traffic by adding more produce significant positive effects on air quality, acid rain, smog and climate
capacity, by better use of existing facilities (e.g. road space), and by upgrading service change. Measures to protect the environment include a host of actions such
levels and integrating transport modes. as developing regulations for vehicles and engines, promoting environmentally
sustainable transportation options, ensuring efficient modes of transportation
Recognizing transport’s wider role at inter-provincial, national and international levels. and promoting improved land-use planning and practices.
What is happening in neighbouring countries impacts Rwanda in a number of ways.

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Transport can do much to promote vital and liveable communities by, for example,
arranging efficient access to major activity centres including convenient commuting to Table 1: Number of Registered Vehicles by Category, 2010
work.
Category 2005 2006 2007 2008
Present and Future Travel Patterns
The above goals and objectives represent what can be achieved. Before looking at BUS 15 16 46 91
ways to achieve these goals, it is necessary to appreciate the characteristics of the
CAR 1796 889 1805 1922
existing transport system and its future outlook.
HALF-TRAILER 13 12 12 23
Existing Trends
One of the most basic forces propelling change in Rwanda is a growth in population. JEEP 1793 676 1032 1327

The number of jobs, another basic force driving land transport, is expected to increase. MICROBUS 7 2 13 15
This means that the demands on the transport system – from people travelling to work
– will increase even faster than population. MINIBUS 724 279 212 657

Recent travel patterns from surveys carried out in 2009 and depicted below show that MOTORCYCLE 4893 3347 5115 7735
motorization is already quite high, especially in the Kigali City, and mode split is
switching strongly to private car use. PICK-UP 1497 859 1290 1225

SPECIAL
ENGINE 26 14 83 62

TRAILER 56 68 120 49

TRUCK 276 171 301 198

UNKNOWN 1 1 1

Total: 11096 6334 10030 13305

Source:RRA

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Future Outlook
LAND TRANSPORT

The trend is that traffic is growing quicker than both population and employment and
Rwanda is heading towards a more car dependent society and the public transport
share of all trips will continue to drop. The number of cars is increasing rapidly along
with vehicle-km travelled. The total driving distance can nearly double by 2020 if no
action is taken. Today there are only a few locations in the Rwanda that suffer from
serious congestion at rush hours, but the problem will become much more widespread
in 2020, up to a four-fold increase based on heavily congested roads.

Figure 1: The Public Transport

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Medellin in Colombia with the same hilly configuration as Kigali has introduced a cable
car system integrated with other public systems that works well and is highly
appreciated by the citizens by its fast and environmental friendly mode of Figure 3: National Road Network 2010 (see next page)
transportation.

Figure 2: Cable Car Transport in Medellin-Columbia

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN KIGALI CITY.

Public transport in Rwanda;Transportation by road is the most common mode of Public transport within Kigali is exclusively by “taxi minibus”, with a number of
public transport. The routes radiate between the capital Kigali, other major towns different routes, connecting the main hubs: City centre, Nyabugogo, Kacyiru,
and corners of the country and with neighboring countries Kimironko and Remera. The mini buses frequently stop to pick up and drop off en
Major local transport companies. The major nationwide companies are: route.
ATRACO; Virunga; Volcano Express; SOTRA; Belvedere with minibuses; and,
ONATRACOM, which offers a big bus services. There are also ‘taxi minibus’ The other common means of transport in Kigali are the motor cycle taxis (Motos),
services serving major towns, and making frequent stopovers on the way. mainly used by the majority, and the ‘saloon car taxis’ that are only affordable to
higher income groups.
There are bus companies renowned for the across border services namely:
Jaguar Executive Coaches, which connect Kigali to Kampala via Gatuna to Without any action, the traffic safety picture will remain dismal. There are some
Kayonza and Kagitumba; Regional Coach Services, which connect with Kampala, 1704 reported fatalities a year in the Rwanda today and about 300 resulted into
Nairobi and Dar es Salaam; ONATRACOM Express, between Kigali and death in 2008. With a concerted effort in improving the safety situation, the number
Kampala; and, AMAHORO Couch Express, normally serving between Bujumbura of fatalities can be halved by the year 2020. If nothing is done about the road
and Kampala via Kigali. safety situation the number of fatalities is expected to double in the next 10 years.

Figure 4: Bus Terminal- A busy node within, to and from Kigali City. Despite traffic growth, it is expected that the effects of less-polluting and more fuel
efficient new vehicles will cause a net decline in air pollutants. Technical
breakthroughs in engine design (e.g. fuel cells) will help.

Air Transport
New airport to be located at Bugesera: Rwanda’s main air gateway is Kigali
International Airport, located at Kanombe, approximately 10 km from Kigali City
centre. The airport has international flights to Nairobi, Entebbe, Addis Ababa,
Bujumbura, Johannesburg and Brussels, and is the main airport for the
national carrier Rwanda Air Express. Plans to construct a new international
airport at Bugesera, 40 km south-east of from Kigali CBD using the national road
are in progress.

Figure 5: Rwanda Airports 2010 (next page)

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DOMESTIC AIR TRANSPORT

Domestic air transport passengers have almost tripled from 1,371 to 4,029 in years 2005 Figure 6: Kigali International Airport
and 2006 respectively. This has been a result of the increase in the number of flights by
the national carrier (Rwandair Express) which flies thrice a week to and from Kamembe.

Table 2: Airports and Aerodromes of Rwanda

Runway Runway
ICAO IATA
Town Name Code Code Use Customs (Typ) (m)

Kigali
Internation
Kigali al Airport HRYR KGL Civ Yes Paved 4 800
Butare Butare HRYI BTQ Priv No Paved 930

Gabiro Gabiro HRYO - Priv No Unpaved 800

Gisenyi Gisenyi HRYG GYI Civ No Paved 1070


Kamembe Kamembe HRZA KME Civ No Paved 1630

Nemba Nemba HRYN - Civ No Unpaved 1200


Ruhengeri Ruhengeri HRYU RHG Civ No Unpaved 1600
Source:RCAA

Concerning aircraft movements, over the last five years Kamembe International airport
has had a fluctuating number of air crafts movement with the highest being 2,124 in 2002.
In 2006 the number of aircrafts arriving and departing the airport went as far as 89.0%
increase, while Gisenyi aerodrome saw a decreasing number of aircraft movements for
the last five years. However, there are hopes that the number will rise again due to plans
by Rwandair Express, the local carrier, to open up a scheduled service.

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INTERNATIONAL AIR TRAFFIC +deplaned)

The number of International Aircrafts movement has not been stable for the last five years Domestic Passenger (emplaned +
with the highest being 10,141 recorded in 2002. From that period, the number went on (b) deplaned) 4084 5588
decreasing to the extent that by 2006 it was 6,052. The reason for the decrease is due to
pulling out of some international airlines. (c) Total Terminal passenger (a+b) 221493 253431

(d) Direct Transit Passengers 17416 22684


Total International passenger movements embarking, disembarking and transit have
registered an increasing trend over the last five years. The figures recorded in 2005 Total Passengers(c+d) 238909 276115
showed an extraordinary increase spurred by international conferences taking place in the
country by that time. International air traffic, whether for business, social or leisure III: Cargo (Freight &mail) in Metric tones
purposes, can be closely correlated with the growth of the national economy. Domestic air
traffic is also related to GDP growth and is assumed to be about 2% of international traffic International Freight (Loaded +
in 2008. Based on recent air traffic demand forecasts, the number of international air (a) Unloaded) 5,006.68 6,022.72
passengers is expected to be about 500,000 to one million passengers a year at an inter-
national airport by 2020, compared to about 247,843 now. Domestic passengers would (b) Domestic Freight (loaded + unloaded) 0 1.71
amount to about 20,000 a year compared to some 5,588 now.
(c) Total Freight (loaded +unloaded) 5,006.68 0
Table 3: Aircraft Movements, Commercial Passengers and Cargo
(d) Total Mail (loaded +unloaded) 260.09 2,519.36
I: Aircraft Movements 2007 2008
Total Cargo(c+d) 5,266.77 2,519.36
Passenger and combi (combination) Source: Rwanda Civil Aviation Authority
(a) Aircrafts 5,422 7,719

(b) All Cargo Aircrafts 389 347

(c) Total Air Transport Movements 5,811 8,066

General Aviation and other Aircrafts


(d) Movements 3,595 2,610

Total Aircraft Movements(c+d) 9397 10676

II: Commercial Passenger

(a) 217409 247843


International Passanger (emplaned
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Figure 7: Location of Kigali Master Plan and existing situation site for the New
International Airport 2010.The deadline for finalization is set in 2014?

Water-bound Transport
Lake Kivu
This is by far the largest of Rwanda's lakes, forming the border with the
DRC. There are occasional boat services between the ports of Rusizi,
Karongi and Gisenyi but these do not run to a regular timetable and often
have to be chartered. There are also boats used to ferry people to some of
the islands in the lake, but these also do not run regularly. Local fishermen
operate along the entirety of the lakeshore, usually in dug-out canoes or
other hand-crafted boats. The Rwandan navy operates a few boats on the
lake to protect the country against infiltrators from the Congolese side.
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Figure 8: A boat from RDC with goods for sale arriving early in Rufuwo Future Directions
Future directions in transportation investment can take several paths. In
transportation there are four levers to make changes to attain the desired
path.

LAND-USE LEVER

Control land use (especially where people live and work). The
geographic location of people and economic activities is one of
the most important drivers of transport demand. It determines
how much travel occurs between any two points in the nation,
province, district or town
TRANSPORTATION LEVERS

Adjust transport service levels (e.g. alter the speed,


convenience, frequency or other quality of the service
provided).
Apply transport management measures (i.e. make best use of
The growth in water-bound transport is expected to parallel that of air transport since it is existing infrastructure). Examples include public transport
highly correlated with the growth in the economy. There may be unforeseeable, external priority measures, intelligent highway systems, congestion
effects changing this forecast due to the Rwanda’s ongoing transformation to a market pricing or tolls for automobiles, inter-modal freight facilities,
economy, but these are not expected to be very significant. In terms of cargo flows, the geographic positioning systems, and instrument landing
existing capacity at the ports and programmed improvements will be able to handle the systems for air traffic.
increase in imports. Supply transport capacity (i.e. build more capacity). This
includes a wide range of options. Examples in the land sector
It should be noted that the volume of imports in tons in the nation is overwhelmingly include the addition of traffic lanes to a road network in the form
higher, more than 10 times, than exports. This reflects the trade balance of the country as of an upgrade (e.g. the conversion of an existing two-lane road
a whole. Unbalanced cargo flows can create capacity planning and container storage to a four-lane limited-access highway) or an entirely new link
problems both to land transportation utilities and for port authorities and liner service. (e.g. the extension of an existing road). Air transport examples
Terminal capacity and the carriers must match the direction of heaviest demand. The include airport runway lengthening, apron expansion, and
unbalanced flows represent a challenge for efficient inter-modal cargo transport and additional terminal gates. Construction of terminal facilities and
logistics that need to be accounted for. improving road access are examples for the maritime sector.

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Transport Strategy Support the development of the national road network


A transport strategy comprises a series of transport investment proposals and policy including the East-African and Trans-African Highway
priorities designed to activate and support the spatial development strategy. The Corridors initiatives of Railway line and the
measures to be included in the transport strategy were identified in the following manner. underseacables;
Support the efficiency of international land border
An inventory of potential transport improvements has been done during the Plan crossings ;
preparation. It includes those considered in previous studies ideas presented by others
such as district staff and other public administrations, and entirely new proposals. Enhance the Rwanda’s position as a Gateway to East
Africa by encouraging and strengthening international
The Green Scenario is based on the combination of a balanced development of rural air links from the nation and by supporting the
areas and of large and medium sized towns, on concentrated urban development and continued viability of the nation’s ports and by ensuring
more efficient use of existing urban and urban mixed areas. The transportation strategy to their integration with Transport networks;
support this spatial development pattern is “public transport oriented”. Features of this Support the rail initiative across the country from Isaka
‘green scenario’ transport Strategy include reduced car dependence, rapid transit lines in to Kigali that will provides service to and through
Kigali, bus systems in other big towns, passenger and freight railway connection between Rwanda;
main towns. It also includes increased capacity at a new International Airport while Kigali
Airport will function as a city airport catering mainly for business travellers in smaller planes Ensure that the Transport system maximizes access to
with reduced environmental impacts. the city of Kigali given its capital city functions and
national significance as a major traffic generator or
Implement Supporting Actions attractor.
There are a number of actions that underpin the transport strategy by providing a solid Figure 9: Rwanda Connected to the Region
foundation for its implementation. They are predominantly cross-modal in character,
applying to all modes, land, water-bound or air, and are largely independent of the spatial
development strategy adopted.

INTER-TRANSPORT

Inter-Transport connects Rwanda to neighbouring countries and beyond. These are


important economic linkages. International co-operation and integration is a prerequisite
for creating inter-modal networks. Impediments to trade, commerce and tourist travel
between the Rwanda and the rest of the world need to be minimized. This is highlighted
through the concept of gateways which provide nation-wide connections for goods,
services and passengers.

Specific actions include:

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SECURITY AND SAFETY The design of urban spaces is essential. Existing and new road
construction should be adjusted to the increasing demands of safety,
security and aesthetics. Pedestrians’ need for safety and freedom of
movement should be satisfied when, for example, they are walking to a
bus stop or their final destination such as a school, shop, or recreation
area.

In rural areas it is of extreme importance to decrease the severity of human


errors. Measures to accomplish this include cleaning up roadside areas
from boulders, trees and other solid objects, providing roads with centre
guard rails, grade-separated intersections and crashworthy barrier
systems.

It should be safe and secure to travel in the country. Most of all, an incident management
and response system needs to be improved across all modes. For water-bound transport,
the highest risk is likely a large spill of contaminants creating high environmental hazards.
For air transport it could be a plane crash in an urban area.

For land transport, the number of road accidents with fatalities and severe injuries needs
to drastically decrease. Three key ways to reduce the severity of accidents are abiding by
the speed limit, wearing seat belts and not driving under the influence of drugs. Bylaw
enforcement and action in these three areas can make a significant change in the number
of fatalities and severe injuries. Road safety publicity campaigns should be carried out
targeting the most vulnerable road users and those who have an impact on their safety. It Figure 10: Conditions of Some of National Roads 2010 (next page)
is also important to separate cars from vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and
cyclists by, for example, proper sidewalks, bicycle paths, and pedestrian traffic signals.

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ENVIRONMENT should be genuine investment projects where private investments are likely.
Possibilities include:
For the road sector to be able to enhance the environment in the nation, measures
such as improved public transport, a change in travel habits and new technologies for Intelligent Transport System Master Plan to improve mobility and
cars and fuels are required. Of these, the Plan mainly deals with strengthening the safety
public transport sector and encouraging changes in travel habits.
A Kigali City cable car system, which could serve as a prominent
Congestion is a big problem for the environment. One of transport planning’s basic landmark and symbol in Kigali. Importantly, the cable car system
goals is to make the transport system operate as efficiently as possible. Congestion would be a vital part of the transport system serving all residents,
leads to delays and high environmental impacts. Congestion needs to be tackled by a tourists and others around the hilly urban landscape.
multi-modal system wide approach. Intelligent Transport Systems can help in this.
CUSTOMER ORIENTED TRANSPORT SECTOR
A big environmental concern is transport of heavy and dangerous goods. This type of
transport places special demands regarding safety and security on designated links in
The current approach to planning and project delivery needs to focus more on the
the transport system.
traveller. User needs should be placed at the heart of the transportation system. The
principle is that the transport sector should be designed to serve its customers. It is
Air noise impacts are another concern. The environmental impact of airports in the
modelled after the private sector in which businesses are dependent upon having
nation, for instance, arises mainly from aircraft noise.
satisfied customers in order to sell their products.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
This means that systems, processes, and the organizational make-up are all re-
Good accessibility to and from Kigali City would not only improve its competitive designed to create a customer-oriented transport system. Such a clear customer-
position but also the competitiveness of the Rwanda as a whole. It is an economic oriented strategy will provide a solid economic base and will result in transport
maxim that areas with better access to the locations of input materials and markets will agencies providing a more efficient and useful range of services, offering quality door-
be more productive, more competitive and more successful than remote areas. to-door service, for passengers or freight, with easy transfers between travel modes.
The transport system, in its own sake, can also serve as a tool for generating
FINANCIAL STABILITY
economic activities. Taking the case of a major capital investment such as a new
airport or inter-modal passenger terminal, primary effects are produced by building the
An important consideration in assessing the viability of the transportation strategy is its
facility, secondary effects by running the facility, tertiary effects by using the facility and
cost. How the future improvement projects are going to be funded and by whom is a
perpetual effects by changing the economy.
wide and complex topic. Operations and maintenance expenditures also must be
considered. Governments in many parts of the world are turning towards private
Ideally, the projects create new jobs, attract private investment in the country and
sources of capital such as user charges to help fund transportation improvements.
expand the country’s tax base.

One way to incorporate much needed transport infrastructure and also foster
economic growth is through the implementation of strategic mega-projects. They

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INSTABILITY OF ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES


Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) uses computer
information technology to manage vehicles and routes, The instability of administrative and policy-making structures in the transport sector are
control signals and variable message signs, and provide creating major difficulties in effective future operations, planning and development. For
traveler information. ITS can enhance safety, reduce implementation of the future transportation strategy, unparalleled co-operation among
congestion and travel time, and greatly improve transport agencies is needed along with a more constructive approach to the expansion of
service by all modes. facilities.

EFFECTIVE PLANNING AND PROJECT DELIVERY

INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS If the authorities for air, maritime roads and bridges merge into one agency it would to
effective planning and project delivery and would provide more authority and co-
An ITS Master Plan is recommended be developed for the Rwanda. Its purpose would ordination.
be to define a strategy for using ITS right from the national to local levels. Such a
strategy would improve services to the transport user. This would address a critical Likewise, more coordination is needed by all the bodies with jurisdiction at national
national need regarding improving traffic safety and mobility throughout the country. borders – Ministry of Interior (security), Immigration, Customs, Agriculture, Veterinary,
and Standards – to improve good governance and public delivery and prevent
Themes to include in the plan could include: uncertainties, confusion, and most importantly, delays. A bill of lading, for instance,
needs signatures of all of these jurisdictions which are a time-consuming task.
Traveller information (real time data about the road network such as congestion,
construction areas) ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR

Incident management The trend world-wide is that the private sector is increasing its role in the provision of
transport infrastructure. A good model to follow may be that the infrastructure is
Vehicle operations (e.g. public transport, commercial vehicles) established and managed by the state while the actual passenger and cargo handling
operations (including control and safety systems) are the responsibility of the private
Easing border formalities (visa and customs facilitation) using new information sector. In other words, the state is the infrastructure manager while the private sector is
communication technology. the operator.
MAINTENANCE CULTURE EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Design, operating and maintenance practices must all take into account the strategic Education and training is a foundation for the future. Vocational training opportunities
need to extend the useful life of the infrastructure investments as much as possible. An should be provided as a priority. Airplane and ship maintenance are two activities that
asset management system is a key element. would benefit from this. Along with its new terminal and adopting its role as a gateway
to Africa, Kigali International Airport could become a national centre for airplane
maintenance.

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TRUCKING ACTIVITY BUS LANES

Trucking is vital to the national economy because most goods are transported by truck Devoting road space to exclusive use of public transport, especially during peak hours,
at some stage in their production cycle. Either the entire journey is by truck or if it is should be considered whenever possible. This is an effective way to increase the
hauled by ship or aircraft, truck transport still happens at one or both ends of the trip. status of the bus system. The bus lanes should be for buses only and it is important to
The following are especially important for truck activity: enforce the restriction for cars in this lane.

Efficient border crossings DISCOURAGE DRIVING ALONE


Improved connections to ports and urban freight terminals Incentives should be introduced to discourage driving alone and increase the
Safety regulation and enforcement proportion of people ride-sharing, using transit or in the urban areas walking and
Figure 11: Long cues waiting for protocols to be processed at border crossings. cycling. Measures to do this include enhancing alternatives to driving alone through
attractive pedestrian, cycling and public transport facilities and maximizing the mobility,
through traffic management measures, of these priority modes.

PARKING COSTS

Today it is more or less free to park in the centre of the towns in the nation. In this
strategy, parking charges are introduced in the major settlements in the nation to
decrease car traffic in the city centres and to increase public transport usage. To be
effective, the new parking costs should be enforced by special assigned traffic
wardens. This action will reduce the congestion in city centres.

HIGHER FUEL PRICES


CONTROL LAND USE
By placing a tax on fuel, it becomes more expensive to drive a private car and which
This spatial development option with its concentrated urban development offers a good will make more people chose public transport or other more environmental friendly
base for increasing public transport usage. People are likely to use public transport modes. The tax should be transferred back to the road users, for example for road
when employment is concentrated in centres. Secondly, higher densities decrease trip maintenance or public transport.
lengths.
TELECOMMUTING FROM HOME
APPLY TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT
By building up an information society, new possibilities arise. One outcome is that
Transport management measures applicable to Kigali City and other major urban people can start to work from their own homes. Although the empirical evidence on the
settlements are outlined below. They must be designed carefully in order to attain impacts of telecommuting on transport is unclear, the number of trips made during
maximum benefit. peak periods is expected to drop, which leads to less traffic congestion.

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PROMOTE FLEX-TIME WORKING located within the roadway reserve, the provision of greenways or landscaping within
the corridors and how the location for that relates to the utility infrastructure, and lastly,
Flex-time working is a way to flatten out the morning and afternoon peak hours in the provision of pedestrian, bicycle, and motorcycle areas within the roadway reserve.
dense urban areas. This leads to less congestion and consequently shorter travel Each type of roadway will have specific needs that should be considered when
times and less pollution. planning the corridor, rather than after construction.

CYCLING AND WALKING The main ideas illustrated in this plan are as follows:

Cycling and walking should be recognized as important components of urban traffic. The design and location of a new parkway following the Nyabugogo river that
Safe bicycle paths (and bicycle parking spaces) and walking paths should be provided. would improve linkages between Bugesera District and the Nyabugogo Bus
The attractiveness of these modes of travel should be enhanced by ensuring proximity Terminal without having much of an impact on the existing urban area.
of work places and services to residential areas, as well as by beautification such as A northeastern bypass road connecting the road to Byumba and the road to
tree planting. Rwamagana. This road would provide much better accessibility to the interior
of Gasabo District, and would continue south through the Masaka Sector
Adjust Service Levels where it would be able to connect with the new Airport or Lake Mugesera.
BUS SYSTEM Creating a regional road hierarchy through the upgrading of existing roads,
and the construction of new roads.
Internal bus systems are proposed for all the main towns. The existing bus system in The closure and redevelopment of the Nyanza Landfill into a regional park
Kigali is adjusted in line with the introduction of a rapid transit system (as described in and the location of new landfills located in one of the new proposed sites
“supply Infrastructure” below). There will be fast connections from the new main identified in the Plan. These sites were identified using general site selection
railway station to city centre and to the airport. criteria that take into account transportation, land use, public acceptability and
safety, along with geologic, hydrologic, and geomorphic conditions. Before a
The Transportation and Infrastructure Plan locates Transportation and Infrastructure site is chosen, a detailed environmental assessment should be preformed to
recommendations which would best serve the needs of Kigali as it grows and develops determine the appropriateness of these or any other sites before developing a
in the future. It also aims to support the vision of Kigali as a regional hub for Rwanda landfill.
and a continental hub for Africa. Infrastructure and transportation networks need to be The construction of a new dam at the upper end of Lake Muhazi. The existing
structured in such a way to connect and serve proposed major regional and economic dam on Lake Muhazi is inadequate as it is located on an observed fault-line
centers such as the new Bugesera International Airport and the new City Center with and does not adequately regulate flood control of the watersheds draining into
existing centers of economic activity such as Central Business District, Greater Kigali the lake.. A new dam should be built in more geologically stable area that can
Circulation Concept and Kigali Regional Circulation Plan. better regulate flooding along the Nyabugogo River. If a new dam was
constructed, Lake Muhazi could also serve as an increased water source to
Within the overall transportation and infrastructure plans, thought needs to be given to sustainably and efficiently meet the infrastructure needs for Kigali in the future
the total road reserves for the transportation corridors. Establishment of a (Kigali city master plan 2009)
transportation corridor also includes the establishment of utility infrastructure locations For other major towns, the bus systems focus on the connection between the city
as they are typically located in the same corridor or reserve. As these corridors are centre and the railway station. The bus system in these towns will, clearly, also be a
planned, consideration needs to be provided for future people moving (such as rail) major asset for those who are “transit captive”, i.e. they do not own or have access to a
along the boulevard corridors, utility infrastructure within all corridors and where that is
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car. It is also important for equity reasons, e.g. for the young and the elderly, to be able
to travel on their own.

Intercity bus service is expanded. There are routes between Kigali and most of the
settlements in the nation. (MAP) Their frequency varies from one to four buses during
the morning peak hour. Since there can be many different bus lines on one link, some
settlements have especially good accessibility to Kigali and to neighbouring towns.

MOTO TRANSPORT

Motor cycle taxis are a means of commonly used transport mode in Kigali City and
other major towns in Rwanda, they are easily accessible and convenient during the
rush hour and through the traffic jams, they are used in rural areas where other public
transport is not available, however they are relatively costly compared to the minibus
and sometimes also can cause accidents at main road junctions and major crossings.
In Kigali they serve about ??% of person transport s (data not found).

Figure 12:Moto and Bicyoto

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Supply Infrastructure classified road transport network consisting of National and District roads and a dense
PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORTATION PROJECT OF unclassified feeder road network. The average road network density for the entire
NATIONAL INTEREST country is estimated to be about 0.53km/sqKm. The high rainfall regime and rolling
terrain in Rwanda cause erosion on the roads to be very severe, increasing
The proposal comes from Ministry of Infrastructure: maintenance frequencies, which subsequently increase road maintenance costs. The
importance of road maintenance is well known and understood and the Rwandan
Mulitnational Railway project ; Government has placed high emphasis on the development and maintenance of roads
in the country as a vehicle for socio-economic development.
Rehabilitation of Ruhengeri - Gisenyi Road (Works about to be completed) For the road network to provide an acceptable Nation wide level of service and to
New Bugesera Airport ; reduce congestion close to urban areas, some new road links are required. In addition
there are many roads in the road network that are proposed to be upgraded.
Improvements to Kigali International Airport ;
Figure 13: Ideas for National Road System Improvement
One Stop Border post at Nemba - Gasenyi (Burundi). This opened in April 2009 ;

Rehabilitation of Kigali – Ruhengeri Road (83.5km) (tender process ongoing);

Rehabilitation of Kigali Urban Roads (36km) These works began in July 2009 and
are scheduled to last 2 years;

Rwanda Road Signage project ;

Transport Master plan, to be approved by Cabinet by the end of 2011 (tender


process ongoing);

Construction of Multinational Road Project, Rwanda – Burundi, Nyamitanga-


Ruhwa-Ntendezi- Mwityazo- Karongi (273km): construction expected to start in
2010.

NEW ROAD LINKS RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE

Road infrastructure is the most important means of transportation in Rwanda and a Rwanda is facing Transport high prices due to its landlocked situation. This situation
significant contributor to socio-economic development. The country has a very dense results in deficit of its commercial balance and its continuous dependence vis-à-vis
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external assistance. At the internal level, the achievement of goods and services Figure 14: Previous Inter-African railways proposals from Indian Ocean that
exporting promotion is impossible without the amelioration of Transport and never reached Rwanda
Communications infrastructures which necessarily need rehabilitations and
modernisations.

With the financial support of the African Development Bank (AfDB), the three
neighbouring countries of the United Republic of Tanzania, the Republic of Rwanda
and the Republic of Burundi are planning to implement a railway connection to provide
an efficient access to the Port of Dar-es-Salaam (DSM) for the landlocked countries.

The sector objective of the project is to contribute to the implementation of an efficient


and economical community transport program which fosters regional economic
integration, opening-up and development of areas with a high mining and industrial
potential and the agricultural production areas of Rwanda, Kagera and Shinyanga
Regions in Tanzania, Burundi, the East Region of the Democratic Republic of Congo
and Southern Uganda.

The specific objective of the study project is to find the optimal solution to the
construction of a railway line, between Isaka in Tanzania and Kigali in Rwanda, with a
link to Burundi. The results of the topographical, alignment, hydrologic and structures
Figure 15: Proposed Railway Line
studies linked with the transport demand analysis and traffic forecasts have led to the
recommendation of the final routes in Rwanda (Isaka – Rusumo – Bugesera –Kigali) Figure 16: Main Roads and Proposed railway 2010
and Burundi (Keza – Ruvubu – Gitega – Musongati).
(See next pages)
The approved alignments mean railway lengths of 494 km and 197 km for Isaka –
Kigali and Keza – Musongati respectively, and 35 stations and stops. On the Burundi (
link, four mines are connected via branch lines to Nyabikere, Mukanda, Waga and
Muremera.

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Rapid Transit for Kigali Light Rapid Transit (LRT) which offers an intermediate solution with lower costs
In a densely populated Kigali there is a good opportunity to develop a high and capacity than a metro but with a better image and higher capacity than a bus
capacity public transport system. Rapid transit lines would typically have to cater to way. Tunis, for instance, has a modern at-grade tramway system with priority at
demands in the range of 5,000 to 10,000 persons per hour in each direction. To signals and full segregation from other traffic.
achieve capacity at this level will require dedicated transit facilities. These may be
provided by dedicated bus way or rail transit. The exact technology to be used will The cheapest and easiest system to start with is the bus-rapid-transit (BRT). This
depend on the physical feasibility and the most cost-effective solution. system consists of normal buses (usually seating more than 50 persons) which
are running on separate lanes or separate streets. The system has a high capacity
Figure 17: Bus Rapid Transit System with relatively low cost. In the Rwanda case they can be utilize powered by gas
from Lake Ruvu. There is no need for expensive infrastructure like railway tracks;
the only thing needed is separation from the ordinary car traffic. Another
advantage is that the system is relatively easy to upgrade to light rail or tram. Since
the buses already are running in separate lanes one just needs to add the railway
track and extend the platforms to create a light rail or tram system.

At the other extreme, bus ways which have good carrying capacity, have flexibility
and are inexpensive to install but may have a poor image. Examples of highly
successful ones are in Curitiba, Brazil, the transit way in Ottawa, Canada, and the
bus rapid system in Bogotá, Colombia. Also South Africa, BRT is being introduced
in major towns.

Park and Ride


Parking facilities, park-and-ride lots, connected by high frequency public transport
services, should be provided at strategic locations at the outskirts of Kigali.

Air Transport Infrastructure


Here two alternatives for 2020 should be considered:

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NEW INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AT BUGESERA BEFORE 2020. ¾ Rapid transit connection from the city centre to the airport;
¾ New navigation aids;
¾ Improved logistic facilities for cargo;
¾ New hotel in the near vicinity of the airport.
It appears that a new runway will not be required within the planning
period. But as it is impossible to predict all the conditions under which
the transport system will operate in 10 years’ time and since a new
runway will be required at some point in the future, the land area
required for the new runway should be reserved.

Water-bound Transport Infrastructure


Coastal shipping for freight and passengers can be introduced and would be a
good candidate for a pilot study.

New water and sewerage systems are required in the ports.

In the future direct rail connection is desirable with the port’s berths being directly
served by rail sidings.
The new proposed Kigali International Airport located in the Eastern District of
Bugesera, South east of Kigali busness district is at about 40 km, this airport will Future Transport System
serve as the main embarkation point for Rwanda’s Tourism and a major source of The following table lists all the new or improved transportation connections along
commerce. with the policy commitments required in order to realize the 2020 Transport
Strategy. The actions are roughly divided into two areas – infrastructure and
NO NEW INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AT BUGESERA BEFORE management. Infrastructure is the additional physical transport capacity that is
2020 added. The amount, type and location are specified. For the management actions,
the most important ones, other than supporting the proposed spatial strategy, are
Kigali International Airport remains as Rwanda’s main international and domestic introducing transport demand measures (both “carrots” and “sticks”) and supplying
airport. Due to its strategic location, it will build on its existing gateway function and management at the national level.
become a East African hub for both passenger and freight traffic. To attain this
status, new features for 2020 include:

¾ New passenger terminal for international flights. The existing


terminal will serve domestic flights;

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Table 4: Transport Strategy,Infrastructure Actions, 2020 Table 5: Transport Strategy, Management Actions, 2020

Sector Action
Sector Action
Road New roads
Transport Upgraded roads Cross-modal Supporting actions
Bypasses
Public Railway for freight and passenger traffic Land Provision of bus priority measures (separate bus lanes)
Transport Transport
Inter-city bus system covering major settlements in Higher and more extensive parking charges
Rwanda
Internal bus system within major settlements, minibuses Higher fuel prices

Bus Rapid Transport system in Kigali in combination with Promotion of telecommuting


cable-car system
Air Transport Kigali International Airport is a national hub for air traffic
Park-and-ride lots in major settlements operations and maintenance
New International Airport or improved existing
Training and expertise of workforce
Air Improved logistic facilities for cargo
Transport Raise maritime administration to same status as air and road
Logistic centre at Kigali Airport
agencies
Extended runway at ??? airfields Water-bound
Transport Incident management – emergency response
Coastal shipping for freight and passengers
Road access to ports Private public partnership arrangement; infrastructure managers
(the state) and operators (private)
Ship repair facilities

The presentation of the Transport strategy below is based on the extensive


analysis of the above infrastructure and management actions in a computerized
model that predicts travel behaviour. International experiences were used to
assess the results of many possible changes in spatial land-use structure,
transport networks and policies. A typical model output is depicted in Figure below.

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The results of the land transport plan (including all of the infrastructure and Figure 18: Example on Comprehensive Road System Standards for Land Use
management actions listed in Tables) compared with the situation today is Planning: Section, Photo example and Road Classification
depicted in Figure below. As also can be seen below, the projected growth in
population and the economy between 2010 and 2020 means more traffic of all
types. Under the ‘green scenario’ spatial development pattern and its transport
concept, the nation would become more public transport oriented. Under this
scenario, during the morning peak hour the total trips by car would be higher that
in 2010, but public transport riders would increase more rapidly. Public transport
share of all trips would increase by nearly 90percent.

Key Elements
Land Transport
A core emphasis is necessarily on roads; high quality roads replacing the existing
roads and with new or upgraded roads connecting settlements. Roads and road
right-of-ways are the most important element of the transport system, and their
safety is a prime characteristic. So far the Plan preparation has not come across a
set of Nation Road Standards that should be applied for new roads and upgrading
of roads. It is there recommended for national sector planning as well for District
and Urban Development Plan that standards for the road system are agreed on
and applied in the future.

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There is a similar case for rail. The geographic extent of the country and the
concentration of population, agriculture, industry and other activities in particular
corridors and places mean that the Rwanda is inherently suitable for the operation
of a railway system. Quality, comfort and frequency of service are required for
passenger and freight traffic alike.

There are adequate roadside services along the main road network.. The roadside
service area would include a parking area with other services such as toilets,
restaurants, fuel, tourist information services, accommodation, and full 24-hour
service.

The provision of bypasses around major settlements will ease traffic movement
and enhance safety.

Within the capital city and its metropolitan area, better quality roads are only part of
the solution. A high quality, public transport system will reduce congestion and
cater for future rapid population growth. A high-capacity transit system is required
and Kigali has the opportunity to establish an ultra-modern and attractive one,
leapfrogging over old technologies. The new system could take full advantage of
modern technology such as computer applications allowing for driverless rapid
transit. There would be no need to re-fit old technology. This would be
complemented by traffic management measures such as bus priority lanes and
intersection treatments (where warranted) to give higher priority to public transport,
make it more attractive and build up usage.

Inter-city bus service will run along Quality Bus Corridors (QBC) that will be
established. QBCs are an important step in improving public transport services.
This involves the introduction of a series of measures designed to improve bus
reliability and enhance passenger facilities along inter-city links by measures such
as new vehicles, increased frequencies, reduced bus journey times, more reliable
bus services, improved passenger facilities at terminals and other bus stops, better
passenger information, and a safer environment.

Taxis would complement the bus service by focusing on settlements that are
remote from bus (and in the future rail) service. It is important that these two
modes are structured as complementary services to the buses, not competitive
ones.
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Electric motored ‘Motos’ should be the final leg of the public transport service with
orderly pick-up stops.
Lack of Data
Air Transport
A high quality, efficient aviation sector is critical to the capacity of the economy. It is Data to use for important comparative indicators showing distribution,
an important industry in itself; it is also important for high-tech modern industries, quality, performance, etc. have not been found. Consequently it is not
business and cargo (high value goods), for social integration and for tourism. possible to compare inequalities of, for example, proportion of the
population that use public transport, persons /car ratio and persons /
The sector should be positioned for growth if it is to enhance, and promoted rather moto ratio BETWEEN Districts, which is a fundamental comparative
than hindered. Growth in air traffic in the nation, both passenger and freight, is analysis in a National Plan. It is therefore recommended that the sector
expected due to economic growth and trends towards lower fares, integrated authority make such data available so it can be accessible for District
networks (alliances and mergers), and liberalization. Development Plan revision that is due in 2012.

The new Bugesera International Airport, as a regional aviation hub, will be


completely equipped into a world-class airport with new passenger terminal,
concourses, parking facilities, public transport service to the city and all logistics
support. It will serve as a landmark in the country, functionally and aesthetically.

Kigali Airport could fulfill one of three roles ranging from full commercial domestic
operations to complete closure. The final decision is mainly dependent on noise Guidelines
impacts and urban development pressure. In 2020 it is envisaged that Kigali A transportation strategy comprises a multi-modal package of policy actions that
Airport will function as a city airport catering mainly for business travelers in smaller are working together and mutually supporting one another; (1) common policies
planes with reduced environmental impacts. across all modes, and (2) the four policy levers of controlling land use, applying
demand management, adjusting service levels, and supplying infrastructure. They
Improvements to terminal facilities in 2010 as a tourist destination and in 2020 as a need to be implemented together.
provincial logistics centre are supported as well.

Water-bound Transport
Ports can become an importand link in the supply chain and hold a market share
of the Rwandan foreign trade to Congo.

The 2020 Green Scenario increases the efficiency of the Rwandan transport
system, encourages growth of trade with other countries, overcomes congestion of
the main land corridors to the ports, enhances transport links with other countries,
introduces coastal shipping, and strengthens the multimodal aspect of the national
transport system.

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Guidelines – Transportation structures to enable more effective planning and project delivery, increasing
the role of the private sector, and upgrading vocational training
opportunities.
General
Land Use
External transport linkages that extend beyond the borders of the nation
should be strengthened in order to meet the needs of inter-provincial, Road system standards for national sector planning as well for District and
national and regional travel. urban development planning are agreed on and applied in the future.

Safety and security should be secured by reducing serious and fatal Concentration of economic activity should be encouraged. Growth should
accidents. A road safety program should be strengthened in order to reduce be clustered in centres and along high-density corridors that can be targeted
the unacceptably high accident rates by focusing on controlling speeds and for intensive public transport services. (Umudugudu)
the use of seat belts.
New urban areas should be as self-sufficient as possible and be
An emergency response system should be established across all modes. discouraged from becoming “bedroom communities” with high commuting
to the central business district(s).
The environment should be enhanced by supporting measures to control
and reduce noise, air pollution and other emissions. Pedestrian and bicycle-friendly urban design should be supported through
mixed use developments, so residents can find more of their services and
Economic development should be supported by improving accessibility to jobs closer to home.
commercial and retail sector activities and promoting circulation of people
and goods. The implementation of some landmark transport-related national Demand Management
development mega-projects should be considered in order to spur
development. Efficiency and capacity of transportation infrastructure and facilities should
be improved by supporting transport management activities such as
Transport customers, the users, should be put at the heart of the transport signalisation, pricing strategies, public transport priority measures, aiming at
system. maximum efficiency of the existing system.

A maintenance culture should be imposed. Existing transportation systems Implementation of pricing alternatives should be investigated to encourage
should be maintained in a safe and usable state. An Asset Management more sustainable travel patterns.
System should be developed and implemented to manage the infrastructure
needs and to optimise the investment in maintenance and rehabilitation. Telecommuting should be encouraged as a means of reducing peak period
travel.
An acceptable level of accessibility should be provided throughout all
geographic areas to all user groups, including those with special needs, of Service Level
the transport system. Efficient multi-modal access to national gateways and inter-urban facilities
Institutional development should be promoted by reducing the instability of should be promoted, such as airports, ports, inter-city rail stations and
administrative and decision-making structures, streamlining organisational border crossings.

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The potential for heavy rail for goods and passenger traffic should be Measures to reduce through traffic (e.g. bypasses or ring roads) should be
exploited. considered since congestion and pollution problems and their damaging
effects are concentrated to inner-city areas.
“Quality Bus Corridors” between settlements should be established.
Rail transport should be supported to achieve greater efficiency of goods
Trucking activity should be supported through more efficient border movement.
crossings, improved road connections to terminals, and safety regulation
and enforcement. Park-and-ride lots should be provided at strategic locations around Kigali
which are connected by high-frequency shuttle express bus service.
Education (particularly vocational training) and research should be actively
supported. Use of ports for coastal shipping and short-water-bound shipping services
should be encouraged.
Border crossing transport infrastructure should be improved, as well as
operational procedures, reducing delays. Airport modernization and expansion plans should be supported, like a new
international terminal and preservation for a future new runway.
Roadside services should be provided along the nation’s main road
network. Air services from Rwanda into the network of international destinations
should be strengthened.
Supply Infrastructure
Equipment handling and interchange facilities at water-bound ports should
All major towns should be supplied with a high-quality public transport be improved. Inter-modal transports should be promoted.
system and Kigali with a high capacity transit system.
Capacity should be added to the existing transportation system by
constructing new highways and upgrading existing ones. The road networks
should be expanded to ensure that acceptable service standards are met.
Figure 19: Area of National Interest in Transportation (next page)
Guidelines for all classes of roads and right-of-way standards should be
developed, maintained and applied.

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REFERENCES
1. Rwanda Vision 2020, Pillar number four, Infrastructure Developement LIST OF TABLES
2. MINICOFIN, 2007, Economic Developement and Poverty Reduction TABLE 1: NUMBER OF REGISTERED VEHICLES BY CATEGORY, 2010..............................5
Strategy for Rwanda (EDPRS) TABLE 2: AIRPORTS AND AERODROMES OF RWANDA....................................................11
TABLE 3: AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS, COMMERCIAL PASSENGERS AND CARGO ...............12
3. MININFRA, 2008, National Transport Sector Policy TABLE 4: TRANSPORT STRATEGY,INFRASTRUCTURE ACTIONS, 2020 ..........................19
TABLE 5: TRANSPORT STRATEGY, MANAGEMENT ACTIONS, 2020 ...............................19
4. MINICOFIN, RRA, 2008, Number of Registered Vehicles by Category

5. MININFRA, 2010, National Road Network

6. MININFRA, 2009, Rwanda Civil Aviation Authority (RCAA) LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE 1: THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT---------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
7. MINALOC, 2008, Integrated Development Program (Infrastructure) FIGURE 2: CABLE CAR TRANSPORT IN MEDELLIN-COLUMBIA ------------------------------------------ 7
FIGURE 3: NATIONAL ROAD NETWORK 2010 (SEE NEXT PAGE)---------------------------------------- 7
8. MININFRA, 2009, Transport Development Agency (TDA)
FIGURE 4: BUS TERMINAL- A BUSY NODE WITHIN, TO AND FROM KIGALI CITY.------------------------ 9
FIGURE 5: RWANDA AIRPORTS 2010 (NEXT PAGE) ----------------------------------------------------- 9
9. RWANDA NATIONAL POLICE, 2010, Road Safety
FIGURE 6: KIGALI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT ----------------------------------------------------------- 11
FIGURE 7: LOCATION OF KIGALI MASTER PLAN AND EXISTING SITUATION SITE F ------------------- 13
10. NISR, 2009, Statistical year book, www.statistics.gov.rw
FIGURE 8: A BOAT FROM RDC WITH GOODS FOR SALE ARRIVING EARLY IN RUFUWO-------------- 14
11. Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2005 FIGURE 9: RWANDA CONNECTED TO THE REGION ---------------------------------------------------- 15
FIGURE 10: CONDITIONS OF SOME OF NATIONAL ROADS 2010 (NEXT PAGE) ---------------------- 16
12. NISR, 2008, Rwanda Deveopement Indicators, 2006, FIGURE 11: LONG CUES WAITING FOR PROTOCOLS TO BE PROCESSED AT BORDER CROSSINGS. - 19
FIGURE 12:MOTO AND BICYOTO------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19
13. The World Bank, 2009, www.worldbank.org FIGURE 13: IDEAS FOR NATIONAL ROAD SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT ----------------------------------- 19
FIGURE 14: PREVIOUS INTER-AFRICAN RAILWAYS PROPOSALS FROM INDIAN OCEAN ------------- 19
14. Kigali City Conceptual Master Plan, 2009, FIGURE 15: PROPOSED RAILWAY LINE----------------------------------------------------------------- 19
FIGURE 16: MAIN ROADS AND PROPOSED RAILWAY 2010 ------------------------------------------- 19
15. Kigali City Council , February 2007, www.kigalicity.gov.rw FIGURE 17: BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM ------------------------------------------------------------- 19
FIGURE 18: EXAMPLE ON COMPREHENSIVE ROAD SYSTEM STANDARDS FOR LAND USE--------- 19
16. Rwanda Development Board, doing busness statistics, 2008 FIGURE 19: AREA OF NATIONAL INTEREST IN TRANSPORTATION ------------------------------------ 19

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