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Food For Bunnies

Important information about good and harmful foods for rabbits.

- Hay - Pellets - Fresh Vegetables - Water - Fresh Fruit -

- Harmful Treats - Commercial Food Concerns -
Poisonous Plants - The Rabbit Digestive System -


Perhaps the single most important item in the rabbit diet is GRASS HAY, and it should be fed in
unlimited quantities to both adults and baby rabbits. A rabbit fed only commercial rabbit pellets
does not get enough long fiber to keep the intestines in good working order. The long fibers in
the hay push things through the gut and keep the intestinal muscles in good tone. In addition to
keeping the intestinal contents moving at the rate at which nature intended, hay may also help
prevent intestinal impactions caused by ingested hair or other indigestible items. Alfalfa or
clover hays, although tasty for the rabbit, are too rich in protein and calcium to be fed ad
libitum. Instead, offer fresh grass hays such as oat, coastal, or wheat. hay is lower in fiber, but
some rabbits who refuse to eat the high-fiber first cut will often eagerly accept second cut hay.
Less fiber is better than none at all!

Alfalfa (Lucerne) hay may only be given in small amounts or mixed with other hay for variety as
it can lead to urinary tract problems in adult rabbits if that is the only type of hay they are given.
Alfalfa Hay can be used as an appetite stimulant when an animal is ill or for post surgical
patients or given to young bunnies to give them the calcium necessary for growing bones.
Because it is high in fibre, a small pinch can be given as a treat.

Unfortunately Lucern is the type of hay most pet shops only sell.

Oaten Hay Clover Hay Timothy Hay

Please see our recommended products page.



A good-quality commercial rabbit pellet provides trace nutrients, vitamins and minerals that a
rabbit might not get if fed only hay and fresh foods. However, very little pelleted food is required
for good health. Many experienced rabbit veterinarians are now recommending no more than
1/2cup of quality pellets per 2.5kg. of rabbit per day, and some even consider commercial
pellets a "treat food" that can promote obesity in spayed/neutered adult rabbits. A rabbit fed
too many pellets will often ignore his hay, to the detriment of his intestinal system!

A good quality rabbit pellet DOES NOT contain dried fruit, seeds, nuts, colored crunchy things or
other things that are attractive to our human eyes, but very unhealthy to a rabbit. Rabbits are
strict herbivores, and in nature they rarely get fruit, nuts or other such fatty, starchy foods. The
complex flora of the cecum can quickly become dangerously imbalanced if too much simple,
digestible carbohydrate is consumed--especially if the diet is generally low in fiber. The result is
often "poopy butt syndrome," in which mushy fecal matter cakes onto the rabbit's behind. This a
sign of Cecal dysbiosis which can foment much more serious health problems.

A good quality rabbit pellet should have at least 22% crude fiber, no more than approximately
14% protein, about 1% fat and about 1.0% calcium. Check the label on the rabbit pellets before
you buy. Most commercial pellets are alfalfa-based, which means they're higher in calories and
lower in fiber than timothy-based pellets. The latter are available from quality feed companies .

Baby rabbits may be fed unlimited pellets, as their bones and muscles need plenty of protein
and calcium for proper growth. However, the calories and nutrients of commercial pellets fed
ad libitum exceeds the needs of a healthy adult rabbit, and will not only promote obesity, but
discourage the rabbit from consuming enough hay to ensure intestinal health.

The wise "bunny parent" will begin to gradually taper the quantity of pellets once the rabbit is
about eight to twelve months old. and feed no more than 1/2 cup per day for every 2.5kg of
rabbit (you can give a little bit more if the pellets are oaten hay-based).



You may have heard it from a breeder, pet store owner, or even a veterinarian who is not as
familiar with recent rabbit health information as one might hope: Fresh vegetables will give your
rabbit "diarrhea." Nothing could be further from the truth than this old myth. In fact, fresh greens
help keep intestinal contents hydrated, which makes them easier for the bunny to pass. Trace
nutrients, fiber, and just plain old tastiness are other benefits of fresh greens. After all, what do
you suppose wild rabbits eat?

Fresh, moist greens are about as important as hay in maintaining a healthy intestine. Try
broccoli, kale, parsley, carrots (with tops!), endive, dill, basil, mint, spinach, tomato, celery (cut
up into 1" pieces, to avoid problems with the tough strings getting stuck on the molars!). Almost
any green, leafy vegetable that's good for you (including fresh-grown garden herbs such as
tarragon and various mints, are good for a rabbit. Experiment and see which types your rabbit
likes best! Rabbits love fresh, fragrant herbs fresh from the garden. (read our herbal bunnies

Give starchy vegetables (e.g., carrots) in moderation, and use bits of fruit only in very, very small
quantities, as special treats. Too much sugar and starch can cause cecal dysbiosis, and all its
associated problems.

Baby rabbits may start receiving greens very gradually at the age of about two months. Add
one item at a time, in small amounts, and if you see no intestinal upset, add another. Carrots,
romaine lettuce and kale are good starters. A five pound adult rabbit should receive at least
four heaping cups of fresh, varied (at least three different kinds each day) vegetables per day.
Be sure to wash everything thoroughly to remove pesticide and fertilizer residues as much as
possible. Even organic produce should be washed well to remove potentially harmful bacteria,
such as E. coli.

Serve the vegetables wet, as this will help increase your rabbit's intake of liquid. This helps keep
the intestinal contents moving well, and the bunny healthy.

Please don't make the mistake of serving less-than-fresh vegetables to your rabbit. A rabbit is
even more sensitive to spoiled food than a human is. If the vegetables smell stale or "on the
fringe", they could make your bunny sick. Follow the Emerald Rule of Freshness when feeding
your rabbit friend: "Don't Feed it to Your Bunny if You Wouldn't Eat it Yourself."

Types of Veges

- Beetroot - Broccoli - Cabbage - Carrot - Celery -

- Chicory - Lettuce - Bok Choy - Peas - Spinach -

Excerpts by Author Joshua Benbrook from 

Green Patch Rabbits


Beetroot is a rich source of antioxidants. Feed raw beetroot to your rabbits to help them put on weight for
the winter months. Both the leaves and roots should be feed in conjunction with each other to balance
out the beetroots properties. Feed only in moderation.
Warning: Only to be feed SPARINGLY. Betanin is the natural die found in beetroot. It may well turn
your rabbits urine red due to an inability to break it down.


The leaves of the Broccoli plant are the best part to feed to your rabbits. However the flowers (part we
eat) and the stalk can still be used although they are not as nutrient rich for rabbits.


Cabbage is a good source of vitamins A, C & K as well as sulphur, silicon, calcium and chlorine.
The darker leaves of the plant constitute a higher nutritional value. Feed only in moderation.
Warning: Only to be feed SPARINGLY, can cause diarrhoea.
Bloating may occur if feed in excess.


Carrot (Tops)

Carrots make an excellent occasional treat for your rabbits due to the high sugar content (this
means your rabbit will love it). The green tops of the carrot are the most nutritional part of the
plant. There are many different varieties of carrot, available in different sizes and colours; go out
in search of these for something different for your rabbit and yourself.

Warning: Feed in moderation due to high sugar content.



This is a tasty treat that your rabbits will love you for. It is also naturally rich in potassium. Both the
leaves and the stalks can be feed to your rabbits. The leaves can also be dried and added to

Warning: Only to be feed SPARINGLY, can cause diarrhoea.

When drying make sure it is free from mould before feeding.


Chicory (Witloof)

The green parts of the plant are a favourite treat to rabbits and increase the flow of bile in the
digestive tract, thus acting acts as an appetite stimulant. Dried Chicory root contains inulin
(prebiotic substance) which aids good bacteria in the gut.


Lettuce has a bad reputation as food for rabbits and not without reason, it can cause bloat.
However lettuce does contains some very important vitamins and minerals such as folic acid,
calcium, iron, chlorine, sulphur, bromine, potassium, and vitamin A. Due to the high water
content it makes an excellent food during hotter weather. There are many different varieties of
lettuce, and as a general rule the darker the green (or ever red/purple) the more nutritious it is.

Warning: Only to be feed SPARINGLY, can cause diarrhea.

Bloating may occur if feed in excess.


Bok Choy (Chinese Cabbage)

It is an excellent source of many vitamins and minerals.

Pak Choy & Wong Bok are also other suitable varieties of chinese cabbage.
Warning: Feed in moderation.


Peas and Snow Peas, pods, leaves and all can be feed to your rabbit in small amounts.

Warning: Only be feed SPARINGLY.



This is a favorite amongst rabbits and is great picked fresh from the garden. It is also great
source of vitamins and minerals


The importance of adequate water intake cannot be overstated. A rabbit who does not drink
sufficient water will gradually begin to suffer desiccation of the intestinal contents. Skin tenting, a
common method used by veterinarians to gauge the state of hydration in many animals, is not
a good gauge of hydration in rabbits. It seems that even when the tissues of the rabbit appear
to be well-hydrated, the intestinal contents may not be, perhaps because the rabbit is so
efficient at sequestering necessary fluids from its own intestine. When this happens, the ingested
food in the stomach and intestine becomes dry and difficult for the normal muscular motions to
push through. This can start a downhill cascade into a condition known as ileus, which can be
life-threatening if not recognized and treated.

A rabbit will usually drink more water from a clean, heavy crock than from a sipper bottle. The
rabbit caregiver may wish to provide both, but it's important to be sure that the crock, if
porcelain, is lead free, and that the water is changed daily and the crock washed thoroughly
with hot water and detergent to prevent bacterial growth in the water source.


These are considered treats, and should be fed in very limited quantities (no more than two
tablespoons a day for a five pound rabbit!), if at all. Safe choices are apple, apricot, banana,
cherries, mango, peach, plum, papaya, pineapple, apricot, berries....just about any fruit you
would like is okay for your bunny. Be very careful not to overdo these treat foods, as they may
promote cecal dysbiosis, other intestinal problems and create a desire in the bunny to eat treats
instead of his/her normal, healthy foods.



Remember: a rabbit is a lagomorph, not a rodent or a primate. The rabbit digestive tract is
physiologically more similar to that of a horse than to that of a rodent or primate, and the
intestine and related organs can suffer from an overindulgence in starchy, fatty foods.

NEVER feed your rabbit commercial "gourmet" or "treat" mixes filled with dried fruit, nuts and
seeds. These may be safe for a bird or rats--BUT THEY ARE NOT PROPER FOOD FOR A RABBIT. The
sole function of "rabbit gourmet treats" is to lighten your wallet. If the manufacturers of "gourmet
rabbit treats" truly cared about your rabbit's health and longevity, they would not market such

Don't feed your rabbit cookies, crackers, nuts, seeds, breakfast cereals (including oatmeal) or
"high fiber" cereals. They may be high fiber for you, but not for your herbivorous rabbit, who's far
better able to completely digest celluose ("dietary fiber") than you are. Fed to a rabbit, the high
fat and simple carbohydrate content of "naughty foods" may contribute to fatty liver disease,
cecal dysbiosis, obesity, and otherwise cause health problems.



Corn & Other Seeds?

Some types of seeds (especially things like "Canadian peas" and corn kernels) have hulls that
are indigestible to a rabbit, and can cause life-threatening intestinal impactions or blockages.

Corn, fresh or dried, is NOT safe for rabbits. The hull of corn kernels is composed of a complex
polysaccharide (not cellulose and pectin, of which plant cell walls are more commonly
composed, and which a rabbit can digest) which rabbits cannot digest. We know of more than
one rabbit who suffered intestinal impactions because of the indigestible corn hulls. After
emergency medical treatment, when the poor rabbits finally passed the corn, their fecal pellets
were nearly solid corn hulls! Those rabbits were lucky.


In recent years it has been a trend for rabbit dry foods to contain molasses.

This is of great concern as rabbits and guinea pigs gain most of their nutrients through hind gut
fermentation of complex carbohydrates and fibre. The feeding of molasses, a sugar compound
not normally available to these animals may in some circumstances encourage the overgrowth
of clostridial bacteria to occur. These bacteria produce toxins that can result in death of the
Rabbits on molasses containing diets are most vulnerable to clostridial toxicity during periods of
stress. In our experience stresses that may induce this toxicity include pregnancy, hot weather,
surgical recovery, illness and injury.

Therefore rations containing molasses are not a suitable diet for rabbit’s and should not be fed.

Read the label carefully before making a purchase to make sure the mix is free of molasses,
sugar and dried fruit.



Some poisonous plants are :

NO Rhubarb NO Caster oil plant 

NO Raw Potatoes and peels  NO Bracken 
NO Chrysanthemum NO Belladonna
NO Poppies NO Oak leaves
NO Lupines-Impatience-Lobelia  NO Chinese lantern 
NO Cherry tree bark or leaves. NO Clematis 
NO Egg plant leaves. - the fruit is ok NO Rhododendrons 
NO Peach/Apricot branches or leaves. NO Daphne 
NO Sprayed plants. NO Foxglove
NO Plants with a bulb NO Parsnip
NO Holly berries. NO Hydrangeas 
NO Asparagus. NO Buttercup
NO Wisteria NO Holly berries 
NO Lilly of the valley NO Avocado leaves
NO Oleander NO Morning glory
NO Gloxalis NO Iceberg lettuce 

For a larger list of plants that rabbits should not eat visit:



Rabbits are herbivores, meaning that they dine only on plant material. A rabbit has an
oesophagus, stomach, and intestinal tract like other mammals. However, because they often
dine on plants that are high in fibre, they have developed a strategy for dealing with this called
hind gut fermentation. This is where the indigestible materials break down into manageable

The various types of fibre in a rabbit's diet is not only there to be used for nutrition, but is they are
vital to keeping the rabbit's gastrointestinal tract in excellent working order. The indigestible
fibre is particularly important in making the intestines move along smoothly. You could think of it
as sort of "tickling" the lining and keeping things moving smoothly. A diet that is low in
appropriate types of fibre and too high in rich carbohydrates can lead to a sluggish intestine
and cecum and subsequent serious disease.

Please also read our rabbit health problems section!

For more info about digestion visit:

Exploring a Rabbit's Unique Digestive System

Kirsten Smit


C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 0 8 N ib b l e N u r se r y