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Thesis

Geochronological, structural, isotopes and fluid inclusion constraints


of the polymetallic Domo de Yauli district, Peru

BEUCHAT, Sebastien

Abstract

L'origine des gisements polymétalliques du Domo de Yauli est liée au magmatisme Miocène
ayant affecté les Andes péruviennes. Cette étude met en évidence les relations
géochronologiques et structurales entre les intrusions et les corps minéralisés, ainsi que les
caractéristiques des fluides hydrothermaux. Les âges obtenus sur les intrusions et les
minéralisations indiquent un système pulsé et répétitif durant 9 Ma, alors que les contraintes
associées à la formation des gisements montrent un champ hétérogène probablement lié à
l'influence de linéaments crustaux. Les rapports isotopiques de Sr, Pb, O et H associés à
l'étude des inclusions fluides, par microthermométrie, spectroscopie Raman et LA-ICP-MS,
révèlent l'influence d'au moins trois fluides d'origines et de caractéristiques différentes. Leur
mélange a conduit à la formation des gisements, alors que les éléments économiquement
intéressants ont uniquement été apportés par le fluide s'étant séparé du magma.

Reference
BEUCHAT, Sebastien. Geochronological, structural, isotopes and fluid inclusion
constraints of the polymetallic Domo de Yauli district, Peru. Thèse de doctorat : Univ.
Genève, 2003, no. Sc. 3415

URN : urn:nbn:ch:unige-979762
DOI : 10.13097/archive-ouverte/unige:97976

Available at:
http://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:97976

Disclaimer: layout of this document may differ from the published version.
UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE FA CULTE DES SCIENCES

Département de minéralogie Professeur L. Fontboté

Docteur R. Moritz

Geochronological, Structural, Isotopes and Fluid Inclusion

Constraints of the Polymetallic Domo de Yauli District,

Pern

THE SE
présentée à la Faculté des sciences de l'Université de Genève
pour obtenir le grade Docteur ès sciences, mention Sciences de la Terre

par

Sébastien BEUCHAT
de
Undervelier (JU)

Thèse N° 3415

GENEVE
Atelier de reproduction de la Section de physique
2003
La Faculté des sciences, sur le · préavis de Messieurs L. FONTBOTÉ, professeur
ordinaire (Département de minéralogie), et R. MORITZ, docteur (Département de
minéralogie ) codirecteurs de thèse, U. SCHALTEGGER, professeur adjoint (Département
de minéralogie), et R. TOSDAL, professeur (University of British Columbia, Department of
Earth and Ocean Sciences, Vancouver - Canada), autorise l'impression de la présente
thèse, sans exprimer d'opinion sur les propositions qui y sont énoncées.

Genève, le 20 janvier 2003

Thèse - 3415 -

Le Doyen, Jacques WEBER

Beuchat S.: Geochronological, structural, isotopes and fluid inclusion constrains ofthe polymetallic Domo de Yau li district, Peru .
Terre & Environnement, vol. 41 , 130 pp. (2003)

ISBN 2-940153-40-X
Section des Sciences de la Terre, Université de Genève, 13 rue des Maraîchers, CH-1211 Genève 4 , Suisse
Téléphone ++41-22-702.61 .11 -Fax ++41-22-320.57.32
http://www.unige.ch/sciences/terre/
Table of content

ABSTRACT
-------------------------------------------------------- 1
RESUMEN 5
RÉSUMÉ DES RÉSULTATS 9
Introduction ___________________________________________________ 9

Magmatisme miocène --------------------------------------------11


Métallogénie du Domo de Y auli 12
Le paléo-champs de contraintes miocènes 13
Inclusions fluides 13
Description et microthermométrie des inclusions fluides 13
Analyse des inclusions fluides par LA-ICP-MS 14
Isotopes d'oxygène et d'hydrogène 14
Discussions 15
La répétition d'événements magmatiques et hydrothermaux à Morococha, indique-t-elle
la présence d'une large chambre magmatique sous-jacente? 15
L'influence de linéaments crustaux sur les paléo-champs de contraintes et la formation
de gisements 16
Modèle génétique des minéralisations polymétalliques de San Cristobal 16
Références
----------------------------------------------------- 17
CHAPTER 1: RESOLVING MIOCENE MAGMATIC AND MINERALISING EVENTS
IN THE ZN-PB-AG-CU DOMO DE YAULI DISTRICT (PERU) BY HIGH-PRECISION
GEOCHRONOLOGY 21
Abstract
-------------------------------------------------------- 21
Introduction 22
Geological settin 23
Regional Geology ofthe Domo de Yauli district 23
Miocene igneous activity 23
Ore deposits of the Domo de Yauli district 28
Analytical techniques 31
Microprobe analysis 31
Cathodoluminescence (CL) and secondary electron (SE) images 31
Whole rock analysis 32
Whole rock isotope data 32
U/Pb age and Hf isotope determinations 32
Re/Os age determinations 33
40
ArP 9Ar age determinations 33
Results 34
Whole rock and microprobe analyses ofMiocene intrusions 34
Zircon cathodoluminescence (CL) images 34
U/Pb dating and Hfisotopic composition ofzircons _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ 37
The Anticona diorite: TIC 39
The San Francisco and the Yantac intrusions: TOR and POR 39
The Chumpe intrusion: CHU 39
Re/Os dating of molybdenite 39
40 9
ArP Ar ages of phlogopite and sericite 41
Discussion 43
Two mining districts of different ages in the Domo de Yauli area 43
Do multiple magmato-hydrothermal events reveal the presence of a large underlying
magmatic chamber? 46
Are Precambrian rocks involved in the generation ofMiocene magmatism? 48
Conclusions
------------------------------------------ 49
Acknowledgments _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________ 50
References 50
CHAPTER II: LINEAMENT CONTROL ON MIOCENE ORE FORMATION IN
CENTRAL PERU, THE ZN-PB-AG-CU SAN CRISTOBAL EXAMPLE 55
Abstract
-------------------------------------------------- - - 55
Introduction 56
Regional Geology ___________________________________ 58
Stratigraphy 58
Tertiary igneous activity 59
Andean deformation 60
Ore deposits of the San Cristo bal district 62
Vein ore type 62
Carbonate replacement ore type 66
Paleostress determinations 68
Methodology 68
Results 68
Discussion and conclusions ________________________________________ 69
Acknowledgments _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ 71
References 72
CHAPTER III: THE ZN-PB-AG SAN CRISTOBAL DISTRICT, CENTRAL PERU:
ISOTOPE AND FLUID INCLUSION CONSTRAINTS 75
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7 5
Introduction _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ 76
Geological setting 78
Regional Geology 78
Vein ore type 80
Carbonate replacement ore type 82
Previous S, Sr and Pb isotopie data 84
Analytical methods 86
Fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy 88
Fluid inclusion LA-ICP-MS results 97
H and 0 isotopes 97
Discussion 100
Early vein stages 100
Late vein tage 102
Carbonate replacement ore bodies 106
Conclusions 107
Acknowledgments 108
References 108
APPENDIX I: DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF THE STUDIED ROCKS AND CITED ANALYSES
----------------------------------------------------------- 113
40 39
APPENDIX II: AR/ AR DATING 121
APPENDIX III: MICROTHERMOMETRY AND RAMAN FLUID INCLUSION DATA 123
APPENDIX IV: LA-I CP-MS FLUID INCLUSION DATA 125
REMERCIEMENTS 129
Abstract

The Domo de Y auli contains two of the district, there are multiple small apophyses
major Zn-Pb±Cu±Ag mining districts of of the very altered Chumpe intrusion. The
Peru, the Morococha and the San Cristobal northern monzogranite stocks are related to
districts. They are classical intrusion the formation of four different ore deposit
related ore districts with high temperature, types: Cu-porphyries, Zn-Pb skarns, Zn-
carbonate-hosted base metal deposits and Pb±Ag carbonate replacement deposits,
are a typical of the Miocene metallogenic and veins. In the south, only polymetallic
belt of Central Peru. This study is aimed at carbonate replacements and veins are
three main topics, a geochronological, a associated to the Chumpe intrusion.
structural and an isotope and fluid
inclusion study. These three different U-Pb dating of zircons from the northern
approaches permit us to constrain the intrusions gives concordant ages of 14.11 ±
factors needed to form world-class 0.04 Ma for the Anticona diorite and close
deposits. Indeed, formation of such large to 9 Ma for different monzogranite stocks
districts are linked to the conjunction and related to Cu-porphyry style and skarn
the right timing among magmatic activity deposits. Veins of the Cu-porphyry deposit
providing heat and fluids, structural stress have been dated at 7.9 ± 0.1 Ma by Re-Os
permitting large fluid circulation and on molybdenite and phlogopite from a Zn-
available fluids and elements sources. Pb skarn gives a 40 Ar/39Ar plateau age of
7.2 ± 0.2 Ma. U-Pb analyses ofzircons
The Domo de Yauli is located 100 km east from the southern Chumpe intrusion result
of Lima in the Western Cordillera of Peru. in discordant points defining a lower
The area is mainly composed of Paleozoic intercept age about 6.6 (+1;-3.6) Ma, in
phyllites of the Excelsior Group, Permo- agreement with 40 Ar/39Ar ages of 4.90 ±
Triassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks of 0.15 Ma ·and 4.78 ± 0.16 Ma obtained on
the Mitu Group, Triassic-Jurassic sericite from wall rock alteration selvages.
40
limestones of the Pucara Group, and U-Pb, Re-Os and Ar/39Ar
Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Incaic age determinations reveal the existence of
compression events of Eocene age have three distinct magmatic events at 14.1, 9.1
produced isoclinal folds, ramp thrusts in and 6.6 Ma, with the two later ones related
the sedimentary cover rocks and a NE-SW to a phase of mineralisation. We therefore
fracture system which crosscuts the entire conclude that the northern and southem ore
Domo de Yauli. Major N 120° W oriented deposits bear a different age and that the
lineaments are present in the basement and particularly large abundance of economie
affect the morphology of the whole area. ore bodies at Domo de Y auli is the result
The positions of these lineaments coïncide of successive hydrothermal systems.
with the emplacement of the major ore
deposits of the district. Outcrops of A continuous magmatic activity beneath
magmatic rocks are more abundant in the the Morococha district, sustained by
Morococha district, where numerous small repeated injections of new magma and
stocks of monzogranite intrude the large subsequent melting of the host magmatic
Anticona diorite. In the San Cristobal rock, IS documented by numerous
2

concordant U/Pb ages between 9 and 14 associated with the mineralisation event.
Ma and petrological evidences such as In this study, the inverse method was
reaction rims and plagioclase zonations. applied to determine the local stress
The absence of dissolution textures in tensors of different parts of the Domo de
zircons points out Zr-saturated magmas Y auli area. Determination of paleostress
with temperature as low as 800°C. 1t related to the Miocene magmatic event
implies a rapid cooling and a probable indicates a heterogeneous compression
intermediate composition of the successive field shifting from E-W toN-S from east to
injections of new magma. Isotopie west. The rotation of the main compression
compositions of the magma (87 Sr/86 Sr = orientation occurred across a N 120° W
0.705627 to 0.707453; 143Nd/ 144Nd = oriented basement lineament. lt reveals the
0.512350 to 0.512510; 206 PbP04Pb =18.698 active role of strike-slip movement along
to 18.761; 207PbP04Pb = 15.635 to 15.669; such lineaments as a control for the
208
PbP04 Pb = 38.682 to 38.787) suggest a formation of ore deposits in the Domo de
hybrid melt source of mantle plus crustal Y auli area. The origin of these lineaments
origin compatible with zircon EHr around are difficult to define, nonetheless,
zero. Precambrian inheritances in zircons numerous structural features of the same
and Hf-depleted mantle model ages orientation in the Mitu Group indicate that
of around 1.0 Ga indicate contribution of their origin date back to the Permian
partial melts from the underlying Arequipa rifting.
style basement in the generation of the
Miocene magmatism. Fluid inclusions in sphalerite and quartz
homogenise to the liquid phase between
140 and 330°C and are two-phase (0.4 and
The orientation of the San Cristobal veins
6.7wt% NaCl) at room temperature; rare
are highly variable and rotate from N 30°
inclusions contain an additional crystal of
W easterly to N 90° W westerly. Veins
halite in the early stage (28 to 50wt%
present a paragenesis that can be
N aCl). The vein data show a decrease in
subdivided into 3 phases: (a) an early
homogenisation temperatures concomitant
wolframite-quartz-pyrite stage, (b) a
with a diminishing salinity. Contrary to the
quartz-base metal stage and, (c) a late
vems, the data from the carbonate
quartz-carbonate-barite stage. The
replacement ores show a wide variation in
carbonate replacement ore bodies are
salinity (3.3 to 14wt% NaCl) at constant
generaliy stratiform but show clear features
homogenisation temperature. This can be
of discordance with respect to the
explained either by mixing of the fluid
carbonate host rocks. Three-dimensional
related to the vein system and a hot brine,
representations of ore bodies and
or by boiling of the fluid migrating out of
associated veins show that these discordant
the veins into the carbonate. Wolframite,
features and the highest grades are related
galena and sphalerite from each ore type
to the prolongation of veins into the
yield similar lead isotopie compositions
carbonate rocks. Their mineralogical
assemblage is similar to that of the veins,
e 06
207
PbP04Pb 18.676 to 18.840;
PbP04Pb = 15.615 to 15.649;
with the only difference that the early 208
PbP04Pb = 38.704 to 38.827) ànd
wolframite-quartz-pyrite stage is absent
overlap with those of the Miocene
and an important iron oxide stage is
observed early in the paragenetic sequence.
e
intrusions 06 PbP 04Pb = 18.698 to 18.761;
207
PbP04Pb = 15.635 to 15.669;
208 04
PbP Pb = 38.682 to 38.787). On the
Orientation data were collected for dilatant contrary, strontium isotopie compositions
veins, Miocene dykes and altered striated of carbonate and barite are highly variable
faults in order to define the paleostress and too radiogenic to be explained by
3

magmatic input only (87 Sr/86 Sr = 0.712187 three- and two-phase primary inclusions.
to O. 722782). It may correspond to a The concentrations of the major ore
predominantly magmatic fluid followed by elements, i.e. W, Cu, Zn and Pb, decrease
incoming of 87 Sr-enriched fluids. This through the paragenesis and, W, and to a
evolution in two steps is consistent with lesser extent Cu, show high variations,
hydrogen and oxygen isotope data. associated to a steep decrease in
Isotopie compositions of the fluid concentration with time. The decreasing
associated to the first stages reveal a trend concentrations can be explained by mineral
with constant 8 18 0 values with decreasing deposition and differences in the speed of
8D values (8 18 0 = 3.2 to 5.0 %o SMOW decrease indicate selective precipitation.
and 8D = -60 to -112 %o SMOW), which is On the contrary, fluid inclusions of the last
interpreted as mixing of a dominantly stages show an abrupt increase of Ba and
magmatic component with minor meteoric Sr concentrations. It points out a higher
water equilibrated with the host rocks. On volume of silicate alteration, probably due
the contrary, ending stages bear isotopie to the larger size of the fluid flow cell and
characteristics that define a trend with a is explained by the input of a fluid from a
conjugated decrease of 8 18 0 and 8D (8 18 0 different origin. LA-ICP-MS analyses
= -8.1 to 2.5 %o SMOW and 8D = -57 to - show that the fluids were totally depleted
91 %o SMOW) and is rather explained by in W and Cu before reaching the
large admixture of meteoric water in the carbonates, whereas Zn and Pb were still
system and subsequent mixing with the present in considerable amounts. This is
magmatic component. again due to the selective precipitation and
tells us that the economically interesting
Their different origins are confirmed by metals were dominantly introduced by
laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of the magmatic fluids.
4
5

Re su men

El Domo Y auli contiene dos de los Anticona. Estos stocks monzograniticos


mayores distritos mineros del Peru: estan asociados a la formaci6n de cuatro
Morococha y San Crist6bal. Ambos tipos diferentes de yacimientos: p6rfidos
corresponden a clasicos yacimientos de cupriferos, skam Zn-Pb, dep6sitos de
metales base relacionados a intrusivos de reemplazo en rocas carbonatadas Zn-Pb±
alta temperatura hospedados en rocas Ag y vetas. En el distrito San Crist6bal
carbonatadas, tipicos del cintur6n (sector sur del Domo Yauli), pequefios
metalogénico del Mioceno, en Peru ap6fisis del intrusivo Chumpe,
Central. Este estudio incluye tres aspectas intensamente alterado, son abundantes. En
principales: geocronol6gico, estructural e este distrito se reconocen solo dep6sitos
inclusiones fluidas. Estos tres aspectas polimetalicos de reemplazo en rocas
estudiados, permiten restringir los factores carbonatadas y vetas, asociados al
necesarios para formar un dep6sito de intrusivo Chumpe.
clase mundial. La formaci6n de grandes
yacimientos esta unida a la coexistencia Dataciones U-Pb en zircon de los
entre la actividad magmatica, que intrusivos del sector norte, reportan edades
proporciona calor y fluidos, un stress concordantes de 14.11±0.04 Ma para la
estructural tal que permita una importante diorita Anticona y de casi 9 Ma para
circulaci6n de fluidos, y, una(s) fuente(s) diferentes stocks monzograniticos
de fluidos y metales base. relacionados a dep6sitos de tipo p6rfido
cuprifero y skam. Dataciones en vetillas
El Domo Yauli esta localizado a 100 Km del p6rfido cuprifero, han reportado una
al este de Lima, en la Cordillera Occidental edad Re-Os en molibdenita de 7.9±0.1 Ma,
del Peru. El area esta compuesta de filitas y en el skam Zn-Pb se ha obtenido una
del Grupo Excelsior (Paleozoico ), rocas edad plateau 40 Ar/39Ar en flogopita de 7.2
volcano-sedimentarias del Grupo Mitu ±0.2 Ma. Dataciones U-Pb en zircones
(Permo-Triasico ), calizas del Grupo Pucara para el intrusivo Chumpe, en el sector sur,
(Triasico-Jutasico) y -rocas sedimentarias han arrojado valores discordantes que
(Cretacico ). La compresi6n asociada a la definen un intercepta inferior de 6.6 (+1;-
fase Incaica, durante el Eoceno, produjo 3.6) Ma, en concordancia con edades
40
pliegues isoclinales y rampas de Ar/39Ar de 4.90 ± 0.15 Ma y 4.78 ± 0.16
sobreescurrimiento en rocas de la cobertura Ma, estas dos ultimas ligadas a la fase de
sedimentaria y un sistema de fracturas NE- mineralizaci6rt. De lo anterior se concluye,
SW el cual afecta por completa al Domo que los dep6sitos del sector norte y sur son
Y auli. Lineamientos mayores de de edad diferente, y que el gran tamafio de
orientaci6n 120° estan presentes en el los dep6sitos en Domo Yauli son el
basamento y afectan toda el area. La resultados de sucesiVos sistemas
posici6n de estos lineamientos coïncide hidrotermales.
con el emplazamiento de los yacimientos
mayores del distrito. En el distrito Numerosas edades concordantes U-Pb en
Morococha (sector norte del Domo Yauli), el rango 9-14 Ma y evidencias petrol6gicas
los afloramientos de rocas intrusivas son tales como halos de reacci6n y zonaci6n en
abundantes, aqui numerosos stocks plagioclasas, documentan una actividad
monzograniticos intruyen a la diorita magmatica continua bajo el distrito
6

Morococha, sostenida por repetidas importante etapa temprana de hematita se


inyecciones magmâticas, seguidas de observa en la secuencia paragenética.
fusion parcial de la roca de caja. La
ausencia de texturas de disolucion en Datos estructurales para vetas distensivas,
zircones excluye magmas sobresaturados diques miocenos y fallas, fueron
en Zr e indica temperaturas inferiores a colectados para definir el paleostress
800°C. Lo anterior implica un enfriamiento asociado al evento de mineralizacion. En
rapido y una composicion probablemente este estudio se ha aplicado el método
intermedia, para las inyecciones sucesivas inverso para determinar el tensor local de
de nuevo magma. La compos1c1on stress, en diferentes sectores en el area del
isotopica del magma (87 Sr/86 Sr = 0.705627 Domo Y auli. La determinacion del
to 0.707453; 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.512350 to paleostress ligado al evento magmatico
0.512510; 206 PbP04 Pb =18.698 to 18.761; Mioceno, indica un campo compresivo
207
PbP04 Pb = 15.635 to 15.669; 208 PbP04 Pb heterogéneo que cambia de E-W, en el
= 38.682 to 38.787) sugiere un fundido sector este de Domo Yauli, a N-S, en el
hibrido resultado de un magma de origen sector oeste. La rotacion de la direccion de
mantélico, que ha interactuado compresion principal, ocurrio en tomo a un
intensamente con la corteza continental, eje 120°, que corresponde a un lineamiento
este fundido hibrido es compatible con en el basamento. Tal rotacion pone en
zircon cHf cercano a cero. La participacion evidencia el roi activo de movimientos de
de fundidos de fusion parcial de rocas del rumbo a lo largo de antiguos lineamientos,
basamento de Arequipa en el magmatismo en la formacion de los depositos minerales
del Mioceno, ha sido documen.tada a través en el area del Domo Y auli. La edad de
de zircones heredados de rocas estos lineamientos es dificil de determinar,
precambricas y magmas empobrecidos en no obstante, numerosas estructuras con la
Hf, con edades modelo en tomo a 1.0 Ga. misma orientacion en el Grupo Mitu,
indican que su origen se remonta al menos,
La orientacion de las vetas en el distrito al rifting del Pérmico.
San Cristobal es altamente variable y esta
rotada hacia el oeste, desde N30°W a EW. En el distrito San Cristobal, inclusiones
La paragénesis de estas vetas puede ser fluidas en esfalerita y cuarzo se
dividida en tres fases: (a)Etapa temprana: homegeinizan en fase liquida entre 140 y
wolframita-cuarzo-pirita, (b) etapa 330°C y son bi-fasicas (0.4 y 6.7 %peso
intermedia: cuarzo-rnetales base, y (c) NaCl) a temperatura ambiente; algunas de
etapa tardia: cuarzo-carbonato-baritina. estas inclusiones de la etapa temprana,
Los depositos de reemplazo en rocas contienen un cristal adicional de halita (28-
carbonatadas son generalmente 50 %peso NaCl). Datos provenientes de las
estratiformes, pero muestran claras vetas, muestran un descenso en la
indicaciones de discordancia respecto a la temperatura de homogeneizacion junto a
roca carbonatada de caja. Representaciones una disminucion de la salinidad. A
tri-dimensinales de estos cuerpos diferencia de las vetas, los datos
mineralizados y de las vetas asociadas, provenientes de los depositos de reemplazo
muestran que estas caracteristicas en rocas carbonatadas, muestran una
discordantes y las altas leyes, estan ligadas amplia variacion en la salinidad (3.3-14
a las prolongacion de las vetas en las rocas %peso NaCl) a temperatura de
carbonatadas. Su asociacion mineralogica homogeneizacion constante. Lo anterior
es similar a la de las vetas, con la sola puede explicarse ya sea por mixing de un
diferencia de que la etapa temprana fluido relacionado al sistema de vetas y
wolframita-cuarzo-pirita esta ausente y una una salmuera caliente, o, por ebullicion del
fluido que emigra de las vetas en las rocas
7

carbonatadas. Wolframita, galena y de aguas mete6ricas al sistema y


esfâlerita, provenientes de cada tipo de consecuente miXmg con un componente
yacimiento, reportan similares magmatico.
compos1c10nes isot6picas de plomo
e 06
PbP04Pb = 18.676 a 18.840; 207 PbP04Pb Diferentes origenes para los fluidos han
= 15.615 a 15.649; 208 PbP04Pb = 38.704 a sido confirmados por amilisis LA-ICP-MS
38.827) y son equivalentes a los valores en inclusiones primarias trifasicas y
reconocidos en los intrusivos del Mioceno bifasicas. Las concentraciones de los
e 06
207
PbP04Pb
04
18.698 a 18.761; elementos de interés economico, i.e. W,
PbP Pb= 15.635 a 15.669; PbP04Pb =
208
Cu, Zn y Pb decrece durante la
38.682 a 38.787). Por el contrario, las paragénesis, y tanto el W como (en menor
compos1c10nes isot6picas de Sr en extension) el Cu, muestran fuertes
carbonata y baritina de la etapa tardia, son variaciones asociadas a una disminuci6n
altamente variables y demasiado escalonada de la concentraci6n, en el
radiogénicas para ser explicadas por aporte tiempo. Las concentraciones que
magmati co solamente (87 Sr/86 Sr disminuyen, se pueden explicar por la
O. 712187 a O. 722782). Estos val ores depositaci6n de minerales y las diferencias
pueden corresponder a la evoluci6n de un en la velocidad de la disminuci6n, indican
fluido predominantemente magmatico a un una precipitaci6n selectiva. Por el
fluido rico en 87 Sr. Estas dos etapas son contrario, inclusiones fluidas de la etapa
consistentes con los datos isot6picos de tardia muestran un abrupto incrementa en
oxigeno e hidr6geno. Las composiciones las concentraciones de Ba y Sr. Esto
isot6picas de los fluidos asociados a la precisa un mayor volumen de silicatos
etapa temprana, revelan una tendencia con alterados, probablemente debido al mayor
val ores constantes de o 18 0 y valores tamafio de la célula de flujo fluido, y se
decrecientes de oD (o 18 0 = 3.2 a 5.0 %o explica por un aporte de liquido de origen
SMOW yoD= -60 a -112 %o SMOW), lo distinto. Anâlisis LA-ICP-MS muestran
cual se interpreta como mixing entre un que los fluidos estaban completamente
componente predominante magmatico con empobrecidos en W y Cu, antes de llegar a
proporciones menores de aguas mete6ricas las rocas carbonatadas, mientras que Zn y
equilibradas con la roca de caja. Por el Pb, estaban presentes a-Lm en · cantidades
contrario, las etapas finales presentan considerables. Esto de debe nuevamente a
caracteristicas isot6picas que definen una la precipitaci6n selectiva, e indica que los
tendencia con un descenso simultaneo para metales econ6micamente interesantes
los valores de 6 18 0 y oD (o 18 0 = -8.1 y fueron introducidos predominantemente
2.5 %o SMOW y o D = -57 a -91 %o por fluidos magmaticos.
SMOW) ~ se explica por una gran adici6n
8
9

Résumé des résultats

Introduction et Robinson-Cook ( 1987), Dalheimer


( 1990) et Kobe ( 1990) sont probablement
les études les plus marquantes. Toutefois,
plusieurs questions restent sans réponses.
Cette partie présente un résumé étendu des Ainsi, les relations chronologiques entre
principaux thèmes développés et résultats les différents événements magmatiques,
obtenus lors de 1'étude du district minier de hydrothermaux et tectoniques durant le
Domo de Y auli, situé dans la Cordillère Miocène n'ont jamais été réellement
Occidentale du Pérou central. Cette portion élucidées. Cette méconnaissance a
de la cordillère présente de nombreux notamment mené à une controverse quant à
gisements hydrothermaux miocènes la genèse des minéralisations encaissées
comprenant notamment des porphyres par les roches carbonatées, expliquée soit
cuprifères, des corps de remplacement par un modèle syngénétique (Dalheimer,
dans les roches carbonatées et des veines 1990 ; Kobe, 1990) ou par un modèle
polymétalliques ; ils forment une ceinture épigénétique (Petersen, 1965 ; Bartlett,
qui s'étend sur plus de 900km (Noble and 1984). D'autre part, les différentes
McKee, 1999). Le district minier de Domo interprétations des données d'isotopes
de Yauli est en 1'occurrence représentatif stables (Campbell et al., 1984 ; Heinrich,
de cette ceinture, puisqu'il exhibe la même 1990) ont notamment contribué à ce que
diversité de gisements. Ils sont l'origine des fluides impliqués dans les
principalement exploités pour les métaux événements minéralisateurs et les
de base tel que le zinc, le plomb et le processus de déposition restent également
cuivre, certains d'entre eux présentent en controversés. De telles incertitudes sur la
outre des teneurs en argent élevées. Le genèse des différents types de gisements
nombre, le tonnage et la teneur des corps liés aux intrusions et la chronologie des
minéralisés exploités font du district minier différents événements magmatiques et
de Domo de Y auli un des plus gros hydrothermaux ne sont pas l'apanage du
producteurs de métaux de base du Pérou. seul Domo de Yauli. En effet, si ces
Durant le vingtième siècle, il a produit plus gisements sont généralement localisés
de 1.9 * 106 tonnes métriques de Zn, 6.4 * autour de systèmes porphyriques et que,
105 tonnes métriques de Pb, 4.6 * 105 par conséquent, leur lien génétique semble
tonnes métriques de Cu et 2.1 * 10 onces
8
établi {Titley, 1993), savoir si les différents
d'Ag. types de corps minéralisé sont réellement
liés à un seul système porphyrique central
(Sillitoe and Bonham, 1990 ; Hedenquist
Dû à son importance et à sa longue période and Lowens.tem, 1994) ou si cette diversité
d'exploitation, son début datant de gisements est plutôt le résultat de
probablement de l'époque coloniale plusieurs événements se superposant
(Masias, 1905), le district minier de Domo (Marsh et al., 1997; Ballard et al., 2001;
de Yauli a été intensivement étudié. Gustafson et al., 2001, Munteau and
McLaughlin (1924), Harrison (1943), Einaudi, 2001 ; Bendezu and Fontboté, in
Wilson (1963), Petersen (1965), Bartlett press) reste à éclaircir. D'autre part,
(1984), Campbell et al. (1984), Campbell l'interprétation génétique de districts
10

mmiers similaires aux Etats-Unis et au déformation associes à 1'ouverture des


Mexique et, notamment, 1'importance de la structures minéralisées. La dernière partie
composante magmatique dans le processus de mon travail consiste en 1' étude des
minéralisateur restent débattues. Ainsi, fluides impliqués dans la formation de la
différentes hypothèses sur 1'origine des veine San Cristobal et des corps de
fluides minéralisateurs ont été proposées, remplacement associés. Elle comprend une
telles qu'étant exclusivement magmatique étude d'inclusions fluides, contenues dans
(Sillitoe, 1976), un mélange entre fluides les différentes générations de quartz, par
magmatiques et saumures de bassin microthermométrie, spectrométrie Raman
(Megaw et al., 1996; Smith, 1996), ou et laser-ablation ICP-MS. Un lot
uniquement d'origine non-magmatique de additionnel d'analyses d'isotopes stables
style Mississippi Valley mais modifié (H, 0) a été ajouté à celles obtenues par
ultérieurement par des fluides Campbell et al. (1984). Ma discussion des
magmatiques (Beaty et al., 1990). données d'inclusions fluides et d'isotopes
stables tiendra compte des données
récentes de Moritz et al. (2001).
Afin de répondre aux problématiques
énoncées ci-dessus, les différentes
méthodes appliquées durant 1' étude du En guise de synthèse, trois discussions,
district minier de Domo de Y auli ont été représentatives des trois prochains
pluri-disciplinaires. Je commencerai par chapitres, sont présentées. La première,
présenter le magmatisme Miocène ainsi basée sur les données géochronologiques
qu'un aperçu métallogénique des différents associées aux données isotopiques et de
types de gisements présents. La description microsonde, démontre la superposition de
du magmatisme comprend notamment un plusieurs événements magmatiques et
résumé de l'étude pétrographique, des hydrothermaux dans la région de
données d'éléments majeurs et traces, des Morococha (Fig. 1.1 ). Ceci étant
données isotopiques de Sr, Nd et Pb sur probablement rendu possible par la
roche totales ainsi que les âges U/Pb et les présence continue de petites chambres
rapports isotopiques 176 Hf/ 177 Hf des magmatiques réapprovisiOnnées par
zircons. L'aperçu métallogénique présente injections répétées de magma moins
brièvement les descriptions minéralogiques évolué. La deuxième discussion, centrée
et paragénétiques de chaque type de sur la région de San Cristobal (Fig 1.1 ),
gisement; la description des corps illustre l'importance cruciale qu'ont eu les
minéralisés de la région de San Cristobal a linéaments crustaux dans la formation d'un
bénéficié de 1' apport des travaux de paléochamps de contraintes hétérogène
diplôme de Stucky (2001), Lisboa (2002) responsable de l'ouverture des failles. La
et Sallier (2002). La minéralisation et dernière discussion présente le modèle
1'altération ont été datées par les méthodes génétique déduit des analyses d'inclusions
Re/Os sur molybdenite et 40 Ar/39 Ar sur fluides et d'isotopes stables ; modèle qui,
phlogopite et séricite. Dans l'optique de si il démontre la présence de fluides de
définir les contraintes associees aux différentes ongmes, souligne que le
minéralisations de San Cristobal, j'ai mené principal apport d'éléments
une analyse structurale approfondie en économiquement intéressants est dû aux
plusieurs sites représentatifs. Le traitement fluides d'origine magmatique.
des données par la méthode d'inversion
(Angelier, 1989, 1994) a permis de définir
les paléocontraintes pour chacun de ces
sites et de définir ainsi les paléochamps de
11

Magmatisme miocène préférablement expliqué comme étant


1'emregistrement de plusieurs pulses
magmatiques. Les âges des deux
Le Domo de Yauli, d'orientation nord- intrusions, datées à 8.81 ± 0.06 Ma pour
Yantac et à 9.1 ± 0.1 Ma pour San
ouest, est principalement composé de
Francisco, sont contraints par la
phyllites paléozoïques de l'Excelsior, de
superposition des points concordants les
roches volcani-clastiques penna-triasiques
plus jeunes, ils représentent probablement
du groupe Mitu, des roches carbonatées du
des âges maximums. Alors que le
groupe Pucarà ainsi que de différentes
magmatisme miocène est bien représenté
formations sédimentaires crétacées (Fig.
1.1 ). L'activité magmatique miocène est au nord du Domo de Yauli, au sud du
dôme n'apparaissent que plusieurs
principalement représentée par une large
apophyses d'une intrusion fortement altéré
intrusion localisée près de Morococha et
surnommée l'intrusion du Chumpe. La
surnommée diorite d' Anticona (Fig. 1.2).
forte altération argilique qui 1'affecte rend
Sa minéralogie primaire consiste en un
sa minéralogie primaire obscure et ne
assemblage porphyrique dominé pàr des
laisse que des cristaux arrondis de quartz
plagioclases, des biotites et des
comme témoins de cette dernière. Un âge
hornblendes. De nombreux xénolithes
U/Pb de 6.6 +11-3.6 Ma a été déduit de
noirs, foliés et riches en corindons, sont
1'intercept inférieur définie par
dispersés et proviennent probablement de
1'alignement des points discordants (Fig.
1'Excelsior encaissant. Un âge U/Pb sur
1.9d).
zircon de 14.11 ± 0.04 Ma a été obtenu
pour cette diorite (Fig. 1.9a). La bordure
orientale de cette diorite est recoupée par
les intrusions felsiques de San Francisco, Les rapports isotopiques de Sr et Nd des
Yantac, San Pablo et Gertrudis (Fig. 1.2). intrusions du Domo de Yauli définissent
Leur minéralogie primaire consiste deux groupes. Le premier, contenant les
principalement en orthose, plagioclase, intrusions de Morococha, a des rapports
biotite et quartz et est généralement isotopiques compris entre O. 705665 et
oblitérée par les altérations pervasives liées 0.706070 pour le Sr et entre 0.512459 et
à la formation des gisements. Les 0.512510 pour le Nd, alors que les
phénocristaux de phigioclases de la diorite intrusions proches du camp minier de San
et des intrusions felsiques indiquent de Cristobal donnent des rapports 87 Sr/86 Sr
brusques variations de la teneur en plus élevés (0.706573 et 0.707453) et
143
anorthite (Fig. 1.7). Les datations U/Pb sur Nd/ 144Nd plus faibles (0.51231 0 et
zircons de ces intrusions felsiques donnent, 0.512350) reflétant peut-être une plus
d'une part, de nombreux points nettement grande assimilation crustale (Fig. 1.6). Les
discordants et, d'autre part, un alignement analyses isotopiques de Sr et de Nd
de points analytiquement concordants entre obtenues sur les intrusions du Domo de
9 et 14 Ma (Fig. 1.9b etc). Si les premiers, Y auli correspondent à celles obtenues par
par suite de la présence de xénolithes Soler (1991) et Petford et al. (1996) sur
d'Excelsior, s'expliquent par des zircons d'autres parties de la Cordillère
hérités de roches assimilées par le magma, occidentale. Les rapports isotopiques du Pb
cela ne peut être que difficilement le cas des intrusions proches de Morococha
pour les seconds. En effet, les images en définissent un groupe homogène
cathodoluminescence de zircon ne révèlent CZ06 PbP04Pb = 18.698 à 18.761 ; 207 PbP04Pb
208
pas de noyaux hérités et indiquent des = 15.635 à 15.669; PbP04Pb = 38.682 à
structures concentriques (Fig. 1.8). Cet 38.787) (Fig. 1.13a et b). La moyenne
alignement de points concordants est donc pondérée des rapports 176Hf/ 177 Hf des
12

zircons datés varie autour de EHf = 0 Cette dernière a été datée par 40 Ar/39Ar à
suggérant par là une source hybride de 7.20 ± 0.20 Ma dans le cas du skam de
magma. Toutefois, ces analyses ne sont pas Parvenir et à 6.42 ± 0.19 Ma dans celui du
homogènes, ams1 celles de zircons skam de Gertrudis. Le système de fractures
indiquant un âge U/Pb discordant ont des affectant le Domo de Y auli est
valeurs EHf négatives, alors que celles qui fréquemment minéralisé et d'importantes
donnent des âges concordants montrent des veines comme Manuelita, Andaychagua ou
valeurs positives et donc une influence encore San Cristobal sont exploitées (Fig.
mantellique plus prononcée (Fig. 1.1 0). 1.3). Elles ont généralement un fort
pendage, coupent les phyllites de
l'Excelsior, les roches volcani-clastiques
du Mitu ainsi que localement les intrusions
du miocène et ne sont pas rectilignes mais
Métallogénie du Domo de Yau/i généralement coudées (Figs. 2.4 et 2.6).
Un halo d'altération dominé par la
présence de séricite, quartz, chlorite, pyrite
et argiles se forme aux épontes. La séricite
Deux districts mm1ers sont encore en
d'altération des épontes des veines de San
activité dans le Domo de Yauli:
Cristo bal et d' Andaychagua a été datée par
Morococha au nord et San Cristobal au sud
la méthode 40 Ar/39 Ar à 4.78 ± 0.16 Ma et à
(Fig. 1.1 ). Le district de Morococha est
4.90 ± 0.15 Ma (Figs. 1.1 Oc et d). Ces âges
constitué d'un porphyre à Cu-Mo-(Au)
sont dans la marge d'erreur attribuée à
entouré de skams à Zn-Pb et de corps de
l'âge U/Pb de l'intrusion du Chumpe (6.6
remplacement dans les carbonates associés
+ 11-3.6 Ma) et démontrent ainsi leur
à des veines à Zn-Pb-Ag. Le district de
probable lien génétique. Les importantes
San-Cristobal ne comprend que des corps
marges d'erreur ne peuvent toutefois pas
de remplacement et des veines, aucune
exclure 1'influence d'autres intrusions
minéralisation économique de type
n'affleurant pas à la surface. La paragenèse
porphyre ou skam n'y a été découverte.
des différentes veines est généralement
uniforme et est dominée par un stade
quartz-sulfures et un autre tardif à quartz,
Le porphyre cuprifère de Toromocho est carbonates, argiles et barytine (Stucky,
centré sur l'intrusion de San Francisco 2001; Lisboa, 2002). Les veines associées
(Fig. 1.2), créant un halo d'altération à 1'intrusion du Chumpe contiennent un
potassique et séricitique. La minéralisation stade à wolframite-quartz-pyrite prédatant
économiquement intéressante est associée la minéralisation à sulfures. Les corps de
à l'altération séricitique et consiste en remplacement sont encaissés par les
veines à minéraux de cuivre ou carbonates du Pucara et se situent
polymétalliques. De petites veines de principalement le long du flanc ouest du
quartz et molybdénite sont également Domo de Y auli, leur emplacement
associées à cette altération et ont été datées correspondant à la position de nombreuses
à 7.87 ± 0.07 Ma par la méthode Re/Os sur veines. Ces corps minéralisés sont
molybdénite. L'intrusion des granites de généralement stratiformes mais montrent
Yantac et de Gertrudis dans les dolomies également des structures discordantes par
du Pucara a produit des skams magnésiens rapport aux bancs de dolomie, telles que
à Zn et Pb (Fig. 1.2). Leur minéralogie les brêches, les halos d'altération de
hypogène est dominée par le grenat, le carbonates secondaires et d'argiles et la
diopside, la magnétite, l'épidote, la pyrite, distribution des métaux (Fig. 2.1 0). A
la pyrrhotine, la sphalérite, la galène, le 1'exception d'un important stade à hématite
chrysocale, la chlorite et la phlogopite. prédatant les sulfures (Sallier, 2002), leur
13

minéralogie est très proche de celle des failles ainsi que de leurs stries, linéations et
veines auxquelles ils sont associés. fibres minérales ont été relevées en
plusieurs emplacements du district minier
de San Cristobal (Fig. 2.11). L'orientation
des contraintes Miocènes de chaque
emplacement a été déterminée par la
Le paléo-champs de méthode d'inversion (Angelier, 1989,
contraintes miocènes 1994) et révèle un champ hétérogène. En
effet, le champ de contraintes des
emplacements localisés à 1' est de
l'intrusion du Chumpe indique une
Le Domo de Y auli est composé de deux
compression principalement est-ouest,
zones tectoniques différentes (Fig. 2.3).
alors que celui des localités situées à
Alors qu'au centre la structure des roches
1'ouest montre une composante cr 1 proche
du groupe de 1'Excelsior est influencée par
du nord-sud (Fig. 2.11 ).
la déformation hercynienne (Lepry, 1981 ),
au sud-ouest les roches volcani-clastiques
permo-triasiques du groupe Mitu et les
roches carbonatées mésozoïques montrent
des plis isopaques, kilométriques,
faiblement déversés vers le nord-est et Inclusions fluides
associés à des failles inverses qui
correspondent à la phase fini-éocène de la
déformation andine (Harrison, 1943; L'étude d'inclusions fluides a
Mégard, 1978). Les deux zones sont principalement été menée dans le quartz de
recoupées par un Jeu de failles la veine San Cristobal et des corps de
décrochantes conjuguées, également remplacement associés. La présence de
associées à la déformation andine, mais qui quartz dans chacun des stades
ont rejoué postérieurement à la formation paragénétiques de la veine (Fig. 3.3),
des plis dont ils déplacent les axes. Cela a wolframite-quartz-pyrite, quartz-sulfures et
notamment été le cas lors du magmatisme carbonates-quartz-barytine-argiles, rend
miocène et a ainsi permis la formation de possible de suivre 1' évolution des
nombreuses veines polymétalliques à processus minéralisateurs. Au contraire, les
travers tout le Domo de Yauli. Du à corps de remplacement dans les roches
l'orientation des failles héritées de la carbonatées ne possèdent qu'un seul stade
déformation éocène, les minéralisations quartzeux séparant le stade à oxydes de
miocènes ont toujours été associées à une celui à sulfures (Fig. 3.3).
compression simple (Lepry, 1991), alors
qu'un champ de contrainte totalement
différent pourrait profiter des zones de
faiblesse pré-existantes (Sylvester, 1988). Description et microthermométrie
Afin de définir le paléo-champ de des inclusions fluides
contraintes associées aux minéralisations et
par là-même faciliter la découverte de
nouveaux corps minéralisés, une étude Toutes les inclusions fluides analysées sont
structurale détaillée a été menée. de type H2 0-NaCl-(KCl), le dioxyde de
carbone est en quantité trop faible pour être
détecté par microthermométrie, toutefois,
Les orientations des veines les analyses par spectrométrie Raman en
polymétalliques, des dykes miocènes et des
14

révèlent de faibles quantités variables valeurs (Th = 263 à 320 oc ; salinité = 4.6
jusqu'à 0.6 g/cm 3 (Table 3.4). à 6.2 % pds éq. NaCl). Le quartz
automorphe des corps de remplacement
Le quartz associé à la wolframite présente dans les carbonates contient d'une part des
trois différentes populations (Fig. 3.10 et inclusions primaires de grande taille (Th =
Table 3.4); deux familles d'inclusions de 285 à 290 °C ; salinité = 4 % pds éq.
petite taille (7 à 20 !Jill) sont primaires, NaCl) et des inclusions secondaires avec
l'une formée d'inclusions tri-phasées avec des températures et des salinités montrant
un cristal de halite (Th = 205 à 259 oc ; une très grande dispersion (Th = 166 à 290
salinité = 44.6 à 54 % pds éq. NaCl) et oc; salinité= 0.2 à 4.8 % pds éq. NaCl),
l'autre d'inclusions bi-phasées (Th= 146 à pouvant être le résultat de phénomènes de
237 oc; salinité = 2.9 à 5.1 % pds éq. rééquilibrage.
NaCl). Ces inclusions de salinité élevée
suggèrent un fluide d'origine magmatique
(Bodnar, 1995). Les inclusions secondaires
sont également biphasées, beaucoup plus Analyse des inclusions fluides
abondantes et de taille généralement par LA-/CP-MS
supérieure (8 à 50 !Jill). Elles
homogénéisent entre 157 et 257 °C, alors
que leur salinité varie entre 0.4 et 5.4 % Les teneurs en Na, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag,
pds éq. NaCl. Le quartz laiteux Sn, Ba, W, Pb, Mg, Ca, Mn, As, Rb, Y,
accompagnant la dépôt des sulfures Mo et Ce des inclusions fluides ont été
contient des inclusions fluides bi-phasées analysées par laser ablation ICP-MS
pouvant être reconnues sur la base de leur (Appendix III). Des concentrations de W
morphologie (Fig. 3.13 et Table 3.4); les supérieure à la limite de détection ne se
unes pseudosecondaires et de formes fines trouvent que dans les inclusions fluides du
et tubulaires (Th= 328 à 337 oc ; salinité= quartz associé à la wolframite ; alors que
3.9 à 4.0 % pds éq. NaCl), et les autres, celles des éléments caractéristiques des
secondaires et de formes plus irrégulières minéralisations du Domo de Yauli, comme
(Th = 155 à 256 °C ; salinité = 2. 7 à 4.2 % le Cu, le Zn et le Pb, sont suffisamment
pds éq. NaCl). Les données élevées pour être détectées dans chaque
microthermométriques d'inclusions fluides inclusion, mais décroissent à travers la
dans la sphalérite du stade à quartz- paragenèse (Fig. 3 .18). Par contre, les
sulfures obtenue par Moritz et al. (200 1) teneurs en certains éléments comme le Ba
montrent des températures et salinités et le Sr obéissent exactement à la tendance
équivalentes à celles obtenues dans le inverse en étant plus élevées dans le
quartz. Le quartz associé à la phase tardive dernier stade de minéralisation.
est automorphe et très transparent,
1'identification des trois différentes
familles en est ainsi facilitée (Fig. 3.15 et
Table 3.4). Les inclusions primaires le long
des zones de croissance sont allongées, de Isotopes d'oxygène et
larges tailles (15 à 50 !Jill), homogénéisent d'hydrogène
entre 302 et 322 °C et ont une salinité
variant entre 5.9 et 6.7 % NaCl. Les
inclusions pseudosecondaires et
secondaires ont une taille similaire mais Les analyses isotopiques de deuterium et
possèdent des températures d'oxygène ont été effectuées sur le quartz,
d'homogénéisation et des salinités la wolframite et leurs inclusions fluides,
couvrant une plus large fourchette de sur les argiles et sur les inclusions fluides
15

contenues dans les sphalérites (Tables 3.5 indiquent que les intrusions de San
et 3.6). Elles ont été complétées par les Francisco et de Y antac sont responsables
analyses de Campbell et al. (1984). La de la formation du porphyre cuprifère de
composition isotopique du fluide associé à Toromocho et du skam de Porvenir. Alors
la déposition de la wolframite, la sphalérite qu'à San Cristobal, l'intrusion du Chumpe
et du quartz des deux premiers stades occupe une position centrale par rapport
paragénétiques des veines indique une aux différentes vemes et corps de
grande variation de oD pour un 8 18 0 remplacement ; leur lien génétique est par
constant (Fig. 3.19) ; elle a été interprétée ailleurs démontré par la correspondance de
comme étant la signature de l'interaction l'âge U/Pb sur zircon de l'intrusion (6.6
d'un fluide météorique avec l'intrusion du + 1/-3.6 Ma) et les âges 40 Ar/39Ar obtenus
Chumpe (Campbell et al., 1984) ou par un sur les séricites de l'altération (4.78 ± 0.16
mélange entre des fluides magmatiques Ma et 4.90 ± 0.15 Ma). Ainsi,
dominants et des fluides météoriques en l'accumulation de corps minéralisés au
faible quantité (Heinrich, 1990). Les Domo de Yauli n'est pas le produit d'un
mmeraux représentatifs des stades seul événement magmato-hydrothermal,
paragénétiques tardifs, tel que les mais le résultat de deux : 1'un centré à
carbonates, la barytine ou les argiles, Moro cocha et 1'autre, distinctement plus
définissent une tendance oblique dans la jeune, à San Cristobal.
Figure 3 .19) qui s'explique par un mélange
entre fluides magmatiques et météoriques.
Avec un seul et unique système magmato-
hydrothermal, le district minier de San
Cristobal apparaît relativement simple
comparativement à celui de Morococha où
Discussions plusieurs intrusions felsiques, chacune liée
à un ou plusieurs autres corps minéralisés,
se côtoient et se superposent. En effet, si
La répétition d'événements les deux intrusions datées par la méthode
magmatiques et hydrothermaux à U/Pb, celles de San Francisco (9 .1 ± 0.1
Morococha, indique-t-elle la Ma) et de Yantac (8.81 ± 0.06 Ma), ont
présence d'une large chambre approximativement le même âge
magmatique sous-jacente ? maximum, il n'en va pas de même pour les
corps minéralisés. En effet, 1'âge Re/Os sur
molybdénite du porphyre cuprifère (7 .87 ±
0.07 Ma) ne correspond pas à l'âge plateau
Les datations U/Pb des intrusions du Domo 40
Ar/39Ar sur la phlogopite du skam de
de Y auli mettent en évidence trois
Porvenir (7.2 ± 0.2 Ma). Cela implique que
différentes époques de magmatisme au
le modèle proposé par Sillitoe et Bonham
Miocène, la première correspondant à la
(1990) ou Hedenquist et Lowenstem
mise en place de la diorite d' Anticona à
( 1994), proposant un seul centre
14.11 ± 0.04 Ma, la deuxième aux
magmatique et plusieurs types de
intrusions felsiques de San Francisco et de
gisements à différentes distances, n'est pas
Y antac autour de 9 Ma et, finalement,
valable à Morococha où nous sommes en
l'intrusion du Chumpe à 6.6 + 1/-3.6 Ma. A
présence de plusieurs événements
1'exception de la première, à laquelle
magmato-hydrothermaux se superposant, à
aucun gisement n'est associé, chacune de
l'instar d'autres systèmes porphyriques et
ces époques est liée à la formation de
épithermaux (Marsh et al., 1997; Ballard et
gisements métallifères. En effet, à
Morococha, les relations de terrain
16

al., 2001; Gustafson et al., 2001, Munteau veines ne sont pas rectilignes mais
and Einaudi, 2001 ). changent leur direction (Fig. 2.5), mais
également par 1'orientation des cristaux
automorphes de quartz, qui diffère selon
les veines subissant une composante cr 1
La présence de multiples intrusions
est-ouest ou nord-sud. L'emplacement de
felsiques localisées à 1'est de la diorite
la rotation des contraintes correspond à la
d' Anticona s'explique relativement bien
position d'un linéament crustal qui
par de multiples « cupolas » originaires
influence la géomorphologie du Domo de
d'une chambre magmatique sous-jacente
Yauli et se dessine sur les images satellites
(Gustafson et al., 2001), dont la présence
(Fig. 2.6). L'hétérogénéité du champ de
est d'ailleurs documentée par les zonations
contraintes est donc expliquée par la
des plagioclases (Fig. l. 7). La durée
réactivation de zones de faiblesse crustale
de « vie » de cette chambre magmatique ne
lors du miocène, permettant ams1
se restreint probablement pas aux seules
l'ouverture en trans-tension des failles
intrusions felsiques mais son origine
préexistantes et la création de veines
pourrait remonter jusqu'à la mise en place
polymétalliques (Fig. 2.12). L'influence de
de la diorite d' Anticona. Les datations
ces linéaments crustaux sur la formation
U/Pb sur zircons des intrusions de San
des gisements du Domo de Y auli est
Francisco et de Yantac ont donné plusieurs
également démontrée par le fait que les
points analytiquement concordants entre 9
principaux corps minéralisés sont alignés
et 14 Ma (Fig. 1.9). Les images par
le long de ces structures (Fig. 2.6).
cathodoluminescence des zircons ne
L'influence de ces linéaments d'orientation
montrant aucun cœur indiquant une
120°, d'âge minimum permien, peut
dissolution (Fig. 1.8), cet alignement de
également s'observer dans la zone côtière
points concordants est préférablement
(Polliand, 2002) et devrait se révéler un
expliqué par la continue mise en place de
utile moyen de prospection minière
petites chambres magmatiques qui
péruvienne.
refroidissent, puis sont refondues par
l'apport de nouvelles injections de magma.
Ces apports de magma moins évolué étant
documentés non seulement par les Modèle génétique des
oscillations de la composition des minéralisations polymétalliques
plagioclases mais également par les hautes de San Cristobal
valeurs de E:Hf (Fig. 1.10).

Au contraire du district minier de


L'influence de linéaments Morococha où les événements magmato-
crustaux .sur /es paléo-champs hydrothermaux se sont succédés et
de contramtes et la formation de superposés, celui de San Cristobal est en
gisements comparaison plus simple avec une unique
intrusion responsable des minéralisations
et des corps minéralisés dispersés autour.
Cela semble d'ailleurs confirmé par la
Les relevés structuraux et leur
concordance de l'âge de l'intrusion du
interprétation par la méthode d'inversion
Chumpe (6.6 + 11-3.6 Ma) et de celui de
indiquent une rotation du champ de
l'altération des épontes (4.78 ± 0.16 Ma et
contraintes miocène dans le district minier
4.90 ± 0.15 Ma). L'absence de minéraux
de San Cristo bal (Fig. 2.11 ). Celle-ci est
aptes à être datés par méthode
non seulement confirmée par le fait que les
radiométrique dans les corps de
17

remplacement dans les roches carbonatées dilution d'un fluide chaud et salin par un
ne permet pas de contraindre leur autre plus froid et moins salin (Fig. 3.20).
chronologie exacte. Mais les caractères Les isotopes de Pb des premiers stades de
discordants comme les brèches et la la minéralisation sont homogènes et
distribution de la minéralisation en coïncident avec la signature isotopique du
prolongement des veines (Fig. 2.7), ou magma (Fig. 3.8), alors que les isotopes de
encore la concordance des signatures Sr des barytines tardives indiquent une
isotopiques du Pb (Moritz et al., 2001), grande dispersion ne pouvant pas
soulignent leur lien génétique et réfutent s'expliquer par une signature magmatique
ainsi le modèle syngénétique proposé par (Fig. 3.9). Finalement, les tendances
Dalheimer (1990) et Kobe (1990). contraires des concentrations d'éléments,
avec la diminution du Cu, Zn, Pb et As et
l'augmentation du Sr et du Ba à travers la
paragenèse, illustrent aussi cette évolution
Les études précédentes d'inclusions fluides
d'un fluide à dominance magmatique de
(Bartlett, 1984 ; Campbell et al., 1984)
plus en plus dilué par des fluides
n'ont jamais documenté la présence
météoriques. Cela indique également que
d'inclusions fluides contenant des cristaux
la majorité des éléments économiquement
de halite à San Cristobal et ont ainsi réfuté
importants ont été introduits dans le
l'hypothèse d'une participation de fluides
système par le fluide magmatique, le fluide
magmatiques aux processus
météorique n'ayant pour sa part
minéralisateurs. La découverte de fluides
qu'introduit les éléments se retrouvant
de salinités élevées implique donc la
dans la phase terminale de la
présence d'une probable composante
minéralisation. Celui-ci a cependant
magmatique initiale dans le fluide et mène
certainement joué un rôle important en se
à une réinterprétation des modèles
mélangeant au fluide magmatique et
génétiques et des données d'isotopes
facilitant par là la déposition des minéraux.
stables. Effectivement la grande variation
de 8D pour un 8 18 0 constant définissant
une tendance verticale sur la Figure 3.19
s'explique ainsi plus facilement par
l'addition mineure de fluide météorique
s'équilibrant avec l'intrusion du Chumpe à Références
un fluide majoritairement magmatique. La
quantité d'eau météorique impliquée dans Angelier, J. (1989): From orientation to
les processus minéralisateurs augmente par magnitudes in paleostress determinations
la suite pour former la tendance oblique de using fault slip data. J. Struct. Geol., vol. 11,
mélange observée sur la Figure 3.19. Un p. 37-50.
Angelier, J. (1994): Fault slip analysis and
tel modèle de mélange, avec des fluides
paleostress reconstruction. Dans:
magmatiques prédominant dans les Continental deformation, Hancock P .L. (ed),
premiers stades et des fluides météoriques Tarrytown, Pergamon Press, p. 53-100.
prenant de plus en plus d'importance est en Ballard, J.R., Palin, J.M., Williams, I.S.,
accord avec la microthermométrie des Campbell, I.H. et Faunes, I.H. (2001): Two
inclusions fluides et les isotopes du Pb et ages of porphyry intrusion resolved for the
Sr (Moritz et al., 2001) ou encore super-giant Chuquicamata copper deposit of
1' évolution des concentrations des northem Chile by ELA-ICP-MS and
éléments dans le fluide minéralisateur. La SHRIMP. Geology, vol. 29, p. 383-386.
température d'homogénéisation et la Bartlett, M.W. (1984): Petrology and genesis
of carbonate-hosted lead-zinc-silver ores,
salinité des inclusions définissent une co-
San Cristobal district, Department of Junin,
variation positive s'expliquant par la Peru. Thèse de doctorat non publiée, Oregon
18

State University, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A., ore deposits in the Andes, Berlin: Springer-
272 p. Verlag. p. 267-278.
Beaty, D.W., Landis, G.P. et Thompson, T.B. Lepry, L.A. ( 1981 ): The structural geology of
(1990): Carbonate-hosted sulfide deposits of the Yauli dome region, Cordillera
the Central Colorado mineral belt: Occidental, Pern. Unpub. MSc Thesis, Univ.
introduction, general discussion, and of Arizona, Tucson, 99p.
summary. Econ. Geol., Monograph 7, p. 1- Lisboa, H. (2002): Etude de la veine 722 à Zn-
18 Pb-Ag de la mine San Cristobal (District
Bendezu, R., Fontboté, L. et Cosca, M. (sous minier de Domo de Yauli, Pérou central).
presse): Formation of cordilleran base Mémoire de diplôme, Université de Genève,
metal lodes and replacement deposits post Suisse
precious metal high sulfidation epithermal Masias, M.G. (1905): Estado ctual de la
mineralisation in the Colquijirca district, industria minera de Morococha. Cuerpo de
central Pern. Mineralium Deposita. ingenioros de minas del Peru, p. 1-22.
Bodnar, R.J. (1995): Fluid inclusion evidence Marsh, T.M., Einaudi, M.T. et McWilliams,
for a magmatic source for metals in M. (1997): 40 Ar/39 Ar geochronology of Cu-
porphyry copper deposit. Mineralogical Au and Au-Ag mineralisation in the
Association Short Course, series 23, p. 139- Potrerillos District, Chile. Econ. Geol., vol.
152. 92, p. 784-806.
Campbell, A. et Robinson-Cook, S. ( 1987): McLaughlin, D.H. (1924): Geology and
Infrared fluid inclusion microthermometry physiography of the Peruvian Cordillera
on coexisting wolframite and quartz. Econ. Cordillera, Department of Junin and Lima.
Geol., vol. 82, p. 1640-1645. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., col. 35, p. 591-632.
Campbell, A., Rye, D. et Petersen, U. (1984): Mégart, F. (1978): Etude géologique des
A hydrogen and oxygen isotope study of the Andes du Pérou central. Mémoire
San Cristobal mine, Pern: Implications of ORSTOM, vol. 86, 303p.
the role of water to rock ratio for the genesis Megaw, P.K.M., Barton, M.D. et Falce, J.I.
of wolframite deposits. Econ. Geol., vol. 79, (1996): Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc (Ag, Cu,
p. 1818-1832 Au) deposits of northem Chihuahua,
Dalheimer, M. (1990): The Zn-Pb-Ag deposits Mexico. Dans: D.F. Sangster (ed.),
Huaripampa and Carahuacra in the mining Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits.
district of San Cristo bal, Central Peru. Dans: Society of Economie Geologists Special
Fontboté, L. et al. (eds.), Stratabound Ore Publication, vol. 4, p. 277-289.
Deposits in the Andes, Berlin: Springer- Moritz, R., Beuchat, S., Chiaradia, M., Stucky,
Verlag. P., Sallier, B. et Lisboa, H. (2001): Zn-Pb
Gustafson, L.B., Orquera, W., McWilliams, mant os and veins at Domo de Y auli, Central
M., Castro, M., Olivares, 0., Rojas, G., Peru: two products of one hydrothermal
Maluenda, J. et Mendez, M. (2001): system with common Pb & S sources, but
Multiple centers of mineralisation in the contrasting fluid inclusion characteristics.
Indio Muerto district, El Salvador, Chile. Dans: Piestrzyi'iski, A. et al. (eds), Mineral
Econ. Geol., v. 96, p. 325-350. deposits at the beginning of the 21 st
Harrison, J.V. (1943): The geology of the century. Balkema Publishers, p. 173-176.
Central Andes in part of the province of Munteau, J.L. et Einaudi, M.T. (2001):
Junin, Peru. Bol. Soc. Geol. del Peru, vol. Porphyry-epithermal transition: Maricunga
16, p. 1-97. belt, northem Chi1e. Economie Geology,
Hedenquist, J.W. et Lowenstem, J.B. (1994): vol. 96,p. 743-772.
The role of magmas in the formation of Noble, D.C. et McKee, E.H. ( 1999): The
hydrothermal ore deposits. Nature, vol. 370, Miocene metallogenic belt of central and
p. 519-527. northem Peru. Society of Economie
Heinrich, C.A. (1990): The chemistry of Geologists Special Publication, vol. 7, p.
hydrothermal tin( -tungsten) ore deposition. 155-193.
Econ. Geol., vol. 85, p. 457-481 Petersen, U. (1965): Regional geology and
Kobe, H. W. (1990): Metallogenic evolution of major ore deposits of Central Peru. Econ.
the Yauli dome, central Peru. A summary. Geol., v. 60, p. 407-476.
Dans: Fontboté, L. et al. (eds.), Stratabound
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Petford, N., Atherton, M.P. et Halliday, A.N. Geologists Special Publication 4, p. 255-
(1996): Rapid magma production rates, 263.
underplating and remelting in the Andes: Soler, P. (1991): Contribution à l'étude du
isotopie evidence from northem-central magmatisme associé aux marges actives -
Pern (9-11 °S). Journal of South American Pétrographie, géochimie et géochimie
Earth Science, vol. 9, p. 69-78. isotopique du magmatisme Crétacé à
Polliand, M. (2002): Zn-Pb-Ba massive Pliocène le long d'une transversale des
sulfides at Pernbar, Central Pern. Thèse de Andes du Pérou Central - implications
doctorat, Université de Genève, Suisse géodynamiques et métallogéniques. Thèse
Sallier, B. (2002): Minéralisations stratiformes de doctorat d'état, Université Pierre et Marie
à Zn, Pb, ±Ag dans les calcaires du Pucara Curie, Paris, France, 846 p.
(Domo de Yauli, Andes du Pérou Central). Stucky, P. (2001): La veine de Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag
Mémoire de diplôme, Université de Genève, d' Andaychagua (Domo de Y auli, Andes
Suisse, 170 p. centrales, Pérou). Mémoire de diplôme,
Sillitoe, R.H. (1976): Andean mineralisation: a Université de Lausanne, Suisse.
model for the metallogeny of convergent Sylvester, A.G. (1988): Strike-slip faults.
plate margins. Dans: Strong, D.F., ed., Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.
Metallogeny and plate tectonics, Geological lOO, p. 1666-1703.
Association of Canada Special Paper, vol. Titley, S. R. (1993): Characteristics of high-
14, p. 59-100. temperature, carbonate-hosted massive
Sillitoe, R.H. et Bonham, H.F. ( 1990): sulphide ores in the United States, Mexico
Sediment-hosted gold deposits: distal and Pern. Dans: Kirkham, R.V. et al. (eds.),
products of magmatic-hydrothermal Mineral Deposit Modeling. Geological
systems. Geology, vol. 18, p. 157-161. Association of Canada, Special paper 40, p.
Smith, D.M. Jr. (1996): Sedimentary basins 585-614.
and the ongm of intrnsion-related Wilson, J.J. (1963): Cretaceous stratigraphy of
carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposits. Dans: the cetal Andes of pern. Am. Ass. Petrol.
D.F. Sangster (ed.), Carbonate-hosted lead- Geol. Bull., vol. 47, p. 1-34.
zinc deposits. Society of Economie
20
21

CHAPTER I: Resolving Miocene Magmatic and Mineralising

Events in the Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu Domo de Yauli district (Peru)

by High- Precision Geochronology

S.Beuchat 1, U. Schaltegger 1•2, R. Moritz 1, M. Chiaradia 1, M. Cosca3 and D. Fontignie 1

l Section des Sciences de la Terre, University of Geneva, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland

2 Institute for Isotope Geology and Mineral Resources, Federal Institute ofTechnology ETH, 8092 Zürich,
Switzerland

3 Institute ofMinera1ogy and Geochemistry, University of Lausanne, 2015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Abstract

The Domo de Yauli is one of the major Zn-Pb±Cu±Ag mining districts of Peru and a
classical Miocene intrusion related ore district with high temperature, carbonate-hosted
base metal deposits. Felsic stocks are related to the formation of four different ore deposit
types: Cu-porphyries, Zn-Pb skarns, Zn-Pb±Ag carbonate replacement deposits, and
veins. The U-Pb, Re-Os and 40 ArP 9Ar dating methods allow the definition of a sequence
of magmatic and mineralising events and the duration of mineralisation in the Domo de
Yauli area. U-Pb dating of zircons from the northern intrusions yields concordant ages of
14.11 ± 0.04 Ma for the Anticona diorite and close to 9 Ma for different monzogranite
stocks related to Cu-porphyry style and skarn deposits. Veins of the Cu-porphyry deposit
have been dated at 7.9 ± 0.1 Ma by Re-Os on molybdenite, and phlogopite from a Zn-Pb
skarn gives a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 7.2 ± 0.2 Ma. U-Pb analyses of zircons from the
southern Chumpe intrusion result in discordant points defining a lower intercept at 6.6
(+1/-3.6) Ma, in agreement with 40 Ar/ 39Ar ages of 4.90 ± 0.15 Ma and 4.78 ± 0.16 Ma
obtained on sericite from wall rock alteration selvages. U-Pb, Re-Os and 40 Ar;J9Ar
age determinations reveal the existence of three distinct magma tic events at 14.1, 9.1 and
6.6 Ma, with the two later ones related to a phase ofmineralisation. We therefore
conclude that the northern and southern ore deposit districts bear a different age and that
the particularly large abundance of economie ore bodies at the Domo de Yauli is the
result of successive hydrothermal systems.

A repeated magmatic activity beneath the Morococha district, sustained by several pulses
of new magma and subsequent melting of the magmatic host rock, is documented by
22

numerous concordant U/Pb ages between 9 and 14 Ma and petrological evidences such as
reaction rims and plagioclase zonations. Absence of dissolution textures in zircons
indi~ates Zr-saturated magmas with temperature as low as 800°C. It implies a rapid
coohng and a probable intermediate composition of the successive injections of new
magma. Isotopie compositions of the magma (87 Sr/86 Sr = 0 705627 to 0 707453·
143 144 . . '
Nd/ Nd= 0.512350 to 0.512510; 206 PbP04Pb =18.698 to 18.761· 207 Pb/204Pb = 15 635
. 208 204 ' •
to 15.669,_ . Pb/ Pb~ 38.682 to 38.787) suggest a hybrid melt source ofmantle plus
crustal ongm compatible with DHf values of zircons around zero. Precambrian
inheritances in zircons and Hf depleted mantle model ages of around 1.0 Ga indicate
co~tributions of partial melts from the underlying Arequipa style basement during the
M10cene magmatism.

Introduction style deposits, little attention has been paid


to the timing and the duration of
hydrothermal circulation in ore districts
presenting different intrusion related ore
Magmatic-hydrothermal systems are
probably one of the most efficient setting deposit types.
for hydrothermal circulation. They create
The Domo de Y auli is located 11 Okm east
not only numbers of different economie
of Lima in the Western Cordillera of
ore deposit types but also supply a large
central Peru (Fig. 1.1 ). The Morococha and
diversity of base and precious metals. For
San Cristobal districts are two major Zn-Pb
example, low-grade Cu-porphyry deposits
mining districts of Peru with Cu and Ag as
pro vide more than half of the world supply
by-products. Their cumulate metal
of copper and molybdenum. Recent . d .
pro ductlon unng the 20th century attains
geochronological studies have found
1.~ * 10 MT Zn, 6.4 * 10 MT Pb, 4.6 *
6 5
evidences for multiple magmatic-
10 MT Cu and 2.1 * 108 Oz Ag (Bendezu,
hydrothermal events in Cu-porphyries and
pers. comm.). They are two classical high-
epithermal environments such as
temperature, carbonate replacement ore
Chuquicamata, Indio Muerto or Maricunga
districts but are also the host of other
(Marsh et al., 1997; Ballard et al., 2001;
deposit types, including a Cu-porphyry,
Gustafson et al., 2001, Munteau and
Einaudi, 2001; Bendezu et al., in press). skams and veins. The location of the
carbonate-hosted ore deposits nearby
Such evidences raise two questions. The
Miocene intrusions was interpreted as
first, how multiple magmatic events can
evidence for replacement processes
be generated in such a short period of time
(Petersen, 1965). A different model, based
and if this implies the presence of a major
on the stratabound to stratiform
underlying magma chamber. The second,
morphologies, invokes synsedimentary
whether overprinting hydrothermal events
processes, as for instance in the Domo de
associated to discrete intrusive pulses are a
Yauli area (Dalheimer, 1990; Kobe, 1990).
pre-requisite to form a world-class district
Moritz et al. (200 1) have shown that
or if a single intrusion event is sufficient to
carbonate replacement deposits, commonly
produce the necessary volume of
called mantos, and veins have similar
hydrothermal circulation (Sillitoe and
sulfur and lead isotopie compositions
Bonham, 1990). In order to answer these
suggesting that they were deposited from a
questions, knowledge of timing and
fluid with a similar isotopie composition.
duration of magmatic and mineralisation
Moreover, this isotopie ore composition is
events is necessary. If previous studies
concordant with the Miocene intrusion
have been principally focused on porphyry
23

one. Therefore, the regional geological this area, but in the Eastern Cordillera,
setting of Domo de Y auli provides an Harrison (1943) estimated its thickness to
adequate environment for investigating be around 2000m. The first deformation
chronological relationships among that affected the Excelsior Group is related
Miocene magmatic activity, ore formation to the Variscan orogeny (Lepry, 1981).
and a possible underlying magma chamber. Two main lithologies are recognised in the
In this study, we present zircon U-Pb ages Mitu Group; they consist of red beds with
in order to define the crystallization ages of conglomerates, sandstones and shales, and
the Miocene intrusions, a molybdenite Re- of intercalated alkaline lavas and
Os age that precises the mineralisation age pyroclastic flows of probable continental
of the Cu-porphyry, and 40Ar/39Ar ages of origin (Mégard, 1987). Extreme lateral
skarn phlogopite and sericite from wall variation in thickness can be related to the
rock alteration. They allow the definition Permo-Triassic extensional tectonics as
of a sequence of overprinting magmatic suggested by Kontak et al. ( 1985). The
and mineralising events and point out the Triassic-Jurassic Pucara Group limestones
difficulty of estimating the duration of rest uncomfortably on the Mitu Group
fluid circulation in the Domo de Yauli (Rosas, 1994) and is overlain by different
area. Additional whole rock chemistry, Cretaceous carbonate formations (Szekely,
microprobe analysis, Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf 1967).
isotopie compositions and zircon
cathodoluminescence imagery help in the Many different stages of volcanism are
interpretation of the magma evolution and recorded in the Domo de Yauli area
point out a repeated magmatic process over including the Permian volcanism of the
5 My at the Morococha district. Mitu Group, the Montero basait hosted by
Pucara limestone (Rosas, 1994) and the
early Cenozoic volcanism which is
developed on the western flank of the
Geological setting Domo de Yauli. As mentioned previously,
ore formation is directly linked to the
Miocene igneous activity that create by far
the most important volume of magmatic
Regional Geology of the Domo rocks in the area (Table 1.1, Petersen,
de Yauli district 1965; Noble and McKee, 1999).

The northwest-trending Domo de Yauli is Miocene igneous activity


mainly composed of Paleozoic phyllites of
the Excelsior Group, Permo-Triassic
volcaniclastic rocks of the Mitu Group,
Triassic-Jurassic limestones of the Pucara Miocene igneous activity in the Morococha
Group, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks area is mainly expressed by a large stock
(Fig. 1.1 ). The Excelsior Group is the of quartz diorite that occupies the western
oldest rock unit exposed in the district and portion of the mining district and is locally
it crops out in the core of the Domo de known as the Anticona diorite (Fig. 1.2).
Yauli (Fig. 1.1 ). This is a heterogeneous This quartz diorite has a porphyritic texture
group that includes shales, phyllites, with a groundmass composed of
limestones, quartzites and basaltic flows plagioclase, quartz and oxides. Phenocrysts
where pillow lavas can be recognized in consist of plagioclase, biotite and
places (Kobe, 1990). The thickness of the hornblende whereas accessory minerais
Excelsior Group cannot be estimated in include apatite and zircon (Fig. 1.4a).
24

STUDY
AREA
0 10km
•• • ••••••
+ + +j
i
+++
l__±_±_-1:: Tertiary Intrusions

1 1 Tertiary formations

l:l;i;i;i;i;il Cretaceous formations

f {tl Pucarà group


lv vv1Mitu group
Excelsior group
Fig. 1 1: Simp1ified geo1ogica1 map of the Domo de Yauli area.

The plagioclase phenocrysts are euhedral tourmaline, clay minerais and pyrite.
and their diameter can reach up to 2.5mm. Crosscutting relationships between the
Biotite and hornblende are partly replaced Anticona diorite and the intrusion located
by an assemblage of chlorite, epidote on its eastern side indicate a younger age
andcalcite and can be as large as 1.5mm for the latter.
(Fig. 1.4a). Rare sphene and rutile have
been found. Development of pervasive
sericite in plagioclase is highly variable but More felsic intrusions occur east of the
is generally higher in the eastern part of the Anticona diorite; they include the San
intrusion, close to the Morococha mining Francisco, Yantac, Gertrudis and San
center. A fine-grained dark breakdown rim Pablo stocks (Fig. 1.2). The primary
consisting predominantly of oxides and mineral assemblages are in sorne cases
accessory pyroxene occurs around difficult to determine due to the intense
amphibole and in sorne cases biotite (Fig. pervasive alteration. The least altered
1.4a). The Anticona diorite contains samples of the Yantac intrusion show
numerous black foliated xenoliths that can phenocrysts of K-feldspar, plagioclase,
vary in diameter from a few centimeters to biotite, hornblende and quartz set in a
one meter (Fig. 1.4b). They are generally microgranular assemblage of quartz and
composed of microgranular assemblages of plagioclase.
plagioclase, epidote, corundum, quartz,
25

SIMPLIFIED GEOLOGICAL MAP


OF THE MOROCOCHA DISTRICT

1 km

Simplified geology: Ore deposit types:

1 Quaternary . _ . . Cu-(Mo) porphyry style deposit


~~
ft;+;4Tertiary felsic intrusions Zn-Pb skarn type deposit
1 1 Tertiary formations . . . . Zn-Pb-Ag Carbonate
replacement (manto)
1 : 1: 1: 1l Cretaceous sediemnatry formations

Zn-Pb-Cu-(Ag) veins
R \' 1 Pucarà carbonate Group

1 v 1 Mitu vocaniclastic Group


- Excelsior phyllites Group
~ Fault and thrusts

Fig. 1 2: Geological map of the mining districts ofMorococha with the location ofthl bodies. See locations on
figure 1.1.
26

SIMPLIFIED GEOLOGICAL MAP


OF THE SAN CRISTOBAL DISTRICT
,

1 km

Simplified geology: Ore deposit types:


1 Quaternary ~ Zn-Pb-Ag Carbonate
~~
f~+~4 Tertiary felsic intrusions replacement (manto)

1; 1: 1: 1! Cretaceous sediemnatry formations Zn-Pb-Cu-(Ag) veins

R X 1Pucarà carbonate Group


1 v 1Mitu vocaniclastic Group
- Excelsior phyllites Group
~ Fault and thrusts

Fig. 1 3.: Geological map of the mining districts of San Cristobal with the location of the major intrusions and
ore bodies. See locations on figure 1.1.

Accessory minerais include euhedral chlorite and senc1te alteration affecting


apatite and zircon. Phenocrysts of K- biotite and plagioclase of the Yantac
feldspar can reach up to 2 cm and, in intrusion (Fig. 1.4c), to different pervasive
places, include smaller crystals of alteration assemblages consisting sericite
plagioclase and biotite (Fig. 1.4c). Quartz and kaolinite on plagioclase sites and
is commonly rounded and shows clear shreddy biotite on rare hornblende sites in
dissolution features. The alteration is the San Francisco intrusion. Eyzaguirre et
highly variable, it can range from minor al. (1975) reported wh ole-rock KI Ar ages
27

Fig. 1 4: A. Photomicrograph of Anticona diorite,


showing altered crystals of hornblende (hbl) and
biotite in chlorite (chi) and carbonate (carb.). Note
the oxide reaction rim. By contrast phenocrysts of
plagioclase appear to be "fresh". Sample TIC-15. B.
Black foliated xenolith hosted by the Anticona
diorite. C. Photomicrograph of the Yantac intrusion
showing the typical texture with K-feldspar
embracing plagioclase and biotite crystals. Sample
POR-5. D. Photomicrograph showing the pervasive
alteration affecting the Chumpe intrusion with
relies of biotite and plagioclase. Sample CHU-18.

of 8.2 ± 0.2 Ma for a dyke cross-cutting


t23 ± 0.3 Ma for the Yantac intrusion. At
the south end of the Domo de Yauli
district, Miocene magmatic activity is
represented by two intrusive bodies, named
the San Cristobal and the Chumpe
intrusions (Fig. 1.3). The third Carahuacra
intrusion is affected by lncaic folding
(Lyons, 1968) and have been dated by K-
Ar method at 43.5 ± 1.6 Ma by Bartlett
(1984); it is therefore much older than the
studied Miocene magmato-hydrothermal
systems. Faults that crosscut both
intrusions produce a displacement of tens
of meters on the San Cristobal intrusion
and the associated dykes, no displacements
of such amplitude have been found for the
Chumpe intrusion. This may indicate an
older age for the San Cristobal intrusion in
comparison to the Chumpe one. The San
Cristobal intrusion consists of a small
body, which is largely covered by alluvial
sediment and its shape is principally
known from exploration drilling. The
primary magmatic mineral assemblage is
composed of plagioclase, quartz and biotite
with accessory hornblende and apatite.
This rock is pervasively altered; the
alteration mineral assemblage consist of
sericite, illite, chlorite and tremolite. Dykes
crosscutting limestones of the Pucani
Group and rocks of the Mitu Group are
associated to this intrusion. The Chumpe
intrusion consists of series of small
apophyses and dykes parallel to the axis of
the Domo de Yauli anticlines. The width of
28

Table 1.1: Miocene magmatism in the Domo de Ya uli area

Intrusion, location Magmatic mineral Tentative of Alteration Ore deposit structurally Previous
Figs. 1.2 and 1.3 assemblage classification related KJAr age

Anticona diorite Plagioclase. hornblende, Quartz Diorite Biotite and Hornblende --> Uneconomic magnetite 8.2 ± 0.2 Ma 'l
biotite, quartz (apatite, Chlorite , epidote, ca lcite; weak skarn type carbonate
zircon) sericrtisation on plagioclase , replacement close ta the
pyrite dissemination Ticlio pass

San Pablo intrusion Quartz, Feldspar?, biotite? Granite? Very intense sericitisation, Victoria Cu, Zn, Pb
chlorite carbonate rep lacement and
Potosi skarn

San Francisco intrusion Plagioclase, quartz, K- Gran rte? Potassique alteration in places Cu-(Mo) Toromocho
feldspar, biotite, rare with formation of K feldspar porphyry
hom blende (zircon) and shreddy biotite, overprin t
by strong quartz-sericite
alteration

Gertrudis intrusion Quartz. Feldspar?, biotite? Granite? Very intense sericitisation, Gertrudis skarn and San
chlorite Antonio Zn, Pb , Ag veins

Yantac intrusion Orthose, Plagioclase, Granodiorrte Biotite and Hornblende --> Porvenirskarn and Zn, Pb, 8.3 ± 0.3 Ma"
quartz. hornblende and Chlorite , calcite; weak Ag veins
biotite (sphene, zircon) sericrtisation on feldspar,
pyrite dissemination

San Cristobal intrusion Plagioclase, quartz, biotite Granodiorrte lili te, chio rite , pyrite and Uneconom ic skamoïds
(hornblende, apatite, zircon) trema lite

Chumpe intrusion Quartz, K-feldspar, Gran ite? Intense pervasive atteration San Cristobal and 5.4 ± 0.3 Ma''
plagioclase, biot le characterise by illite, kaolinite, Andaychagua Zn, Pb, Ag, W
(hornblende, apatite. zircon) pyrite, sericite and sorne veins system, Huaripampa
alunite and Toldorumi Zn. Pb, Ag
carbonate replacement

a) Eyzaguirre et al. (1975)


b) Bartlett (1984)

these dykes ranges from severa! decimeters Ore deposits of the Domo de
to tens of meters. The largest dykes show Yauli district
assimilation of large xenoliths from the
host Excelsior phyllites. The primary
mineralogical composition is obscured due With the exception of the small and
to intense alteration. Primary minerais uneconomic magnetite-bearing carbonate
include quartz eyes and highly altered replacements, the Anticona quartz diorite
phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar is not linked to any type of mineralisation.
set in an aphanitic groundmass consisting Major ore bodies are ali related to the last
predominantly of quartz, sericite, kaolinite, stages of the Miocene magmatic activity.
illite, pyrite and very fine alunite (Fig. The ore deposits can be classified in four
1.4d). The !east altered samples are types (Table 1. 1):
characterized by a chlorite and epidote
alteration. In such sam pies, relies of biotite A Cu-(Mo) porphyry style deposit is
and sorne amphibole can be recognized. centered on the San Francisco intrusion
(Fig. 1.2), producing a large potassic and
sericitic alteration halo affecting the
surrounding rocks. The potassic alteration,
characterized by the formation of K-
feldspar and shreddy biotite, is
29

accompanied by discontinuous granular The crosscutting fracture system that


quartz A veinlets (following the affects the entire length of the Domo de
terminology of Gustafson and Hunt, 1975), Yauli is commonly mineralised and hosts
which contain only trace amounts of pyrite important Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag veins such as the
and chalcopyrite. These A veinlets are Andaychagua, Manuelita- Sulfurosa, San
crosscut by quartz-pyrite-molybdenite Antonio and San Cristobal veins systems
veins up to lem width (Fig. 1.5a), a halo of (Figs. 1.2 and 1.3). The veins are steeply-
sericite alteration is not always present. dipping and crosscut rocks of the Mi tu and
Quartz-sericite alteration and severa! D Excelsior Groups, and locally Miocene
veins (Gustafson and Hunt, 1975) intrusions. The wall rock alteration
obliterate almost all traces of the earlier outwards from a vein in rocks of the Mitu
assemblage on the site of the mining Group and of the Miocene dykes consists
activity. D veins can be separated in two mainly of an assemblage of sericite,
generations on the basis of their secondary quartz, carbonate, chlorite,
mineralogy and crosscutting relationships. pyrite and clay minerais. X-ray analyses
The first (Dl) small sulfides veins (<lem) indicate that the clay minerais are a
consist principally in pyrite and mixture of kaolinite and illite. Dickite is
chalcopyrite. They are overprinted by late and fills small vugs. The primary
sul fides veins up to 10 cm thick (D2) with mineralogy has totally disappeared in
a more complex mineralogy that includes samples showing intense alteration
pyrite, chalcopyrite, bomite and enargite whereas crystal shapes of feldspar and
(Fig. 1.5b). Chalcocite is of supergene biotite may still be recognized in less
origin and occurs as rims on pyrite and altered samples (Figs. 1.5g and h). In the
others sulfides. Finally large polymetallic phyllites, wall rock alteration is mainly
veins crosscut earlier assemblages and restricted to silicification and bleaching.
extend outside the sericite alteration. Their The principal mineralogy consists of
mineralogy is more complex with pyrite, quartz, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite,
chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite galena, tetrahedrite and different types of
and small amounts of tetrahedrite (Figs. carbonate with small amounts of oxides,
1.5c and d). barite, pyrrhotite and marcasite in places
(Bartlett, 1984; Lavado, 1996; Stucky,
The Y an tac and Gertrudis intrusions have 2001 ). Successive breccia events can be
produced magnesian Zn-Pb ore skarns on recognized and concretion textures are
dolomites of the Pucara Group (Fig. 1.2). common (Figs. 1.5i and j). While the
The prograde assemblage consists mainly principal mineral ogy of the veins is similar
of gamet, diopside (Fig. 1.5e). The ore in the entire Domo de Y au li district, small
minerais comprise pyrite, pyrrhotite, differences in ore components exist
sphalerite, galena and tetrahedrite, and between north and south. Veins in the
trace amounts of chalcopyrite, notably as southern San Cristobal area contain an
inclusions in sphalerite. Magnetite also early pyrite-wolframite-quartz paragenesis
occurs, notably with Fe-rich sphalerite and that predates the base metal deposition
sphene. The sulfides are commonly (Campbell et al., 1984; Campbell and
intergrown with retrograde minerais of the Robinson-Cook, 1987). This early
skam, including hypogene chrysocole, wolframite paragenesis is absent in the
chlorite, phlogopite, talc and clay minerais. northern Morococha area, which is in
Phlogopite may form massive aggregates contrast richer in Mn mineralisation with
in places (Fig. 1.5f). massive rhodochrosite and allabandite.
Detailed description of the San Cristobal-
Andaychagua system is given in chapter
III.
31

the mantos. A complete description of the


Fig. 1 5: A. Quartz-pyrite-molybdenite vein of the
carbonate replacement ore bodies is given
Toromocho porphyry. Sample DY-17F. B. Narrow
in chapter III. Alteration of limestone of
pyrite vein (D 1) crosscut by pyrite-chalcopyrite-
the Pucara Group consists mainly of
bomite D2 vein, halo of sericite alteration,
secondary Fe-rich carbonates associated to
Toromocho porphyry. C. Decimetric polymetallic
kaolinite, illite and chlorite (Sallier et al.,
vein very rich in enargite, Toromocho porphyry. D.
2000). Tuff horizons intercalated in the
Reflected light image of late base metals veins
Pucara Group are generally silicified but
crosscutting the Toromocho porphyry (cp:
still show their initial texture. They seem
chalcopyrite, enr: enargite, sl: sphalerite, td:
to have played a role of impermeable layer
tetrahedrite). Sample TOR-7. E. Prograde
and have therefore controlled fluid
assemblage of diopside and gamet replacing the
circulation during mineralisation
dolomite of the Pucara Group. Small veinlets rich
processes.
in galena (ga) brecciate the dolomite and the
prograde assemblage. Sample GER-8. F. Massive
phlogopite of Zn-Pb skam associate to quartz.
Sample GER-3. G and H. Transmitted light image
of wall rocks alteration outwards the Zn-Pb-Ag
veins in the San Cristobal district (722 vein). The Analytical techniques
rim of the biotite is altered in muscovite but the
core is still unaltered. On the other hand,
plagioclases are entirely recrystallized in an Microprobe analysis
aggregation of carbonate and sericite. Sample SC-5.
1. Brecciation of the main sulphide stage, consisting
in that case of quartz (qz), sphalerite (si) and galena
Electron microprobe analyses were
(gn) cemented in that case by late ankerite (ank).
performed on carbon coated thin section
Sample SC-1. J. Reflected light image of a
using 5 spectrometers SX-50 Cameca at
concretion showing crystals of pyrite (py) set in a
the University of Lausanne. Instrumental
chalcopyrite (cp) matrix and concretion texture
conditions were set to an accelerating
showing spahlerite (sl), galena (gn) and very fined
voltage of 15 kV, a bearn current of20 nA,
layer of tetrahedrite. Sample SC-11.
and a magnification of200'000 K.

Zn-Pb-Ag high-temperature carbonate


replacement deposits, usually called Cathodoluminescence (CL) and
mantos, are hosted by the basal limestones secondary electron (SE) images
of the Pucara Group along the contact with
the underlying Mitu Group. The
emplacement of the mantos coïncides with Cathodoluminescence and secondary
locations where base metal veins crosscut electron images of zircons were
the carbonate rocks. These ore bodies are photographed on a CamScan CS 4
generally parallel to the bedding but show scanning electron microscope at ETH in
clear features of discordance (chapter 11). Zürich operating at 13 kV. The SEM is
Mantos have a mineralogical composition equiped with an ellipsoïdal mirror which is
and paragenetic sequence close to that of located close to the sample within the
the veins, although with a higher contents vacuum chamber and can be adjusted by
of hematite preceding the sulfide stage, electro-motors. The sample can thus be
early hematite is commonly replaced by located in one focal point while the second
later pyrite, sphalerite and magnetite. focal point lies outside the sample
Barite tends also to be more abundant in chamber. The CL-light enters a highly
32

sensitive photo multiplier through a quartz Lead isotope analyses were determined,
glass-vacuum window and a light channel. using the methods of leach and residue
The signal of the multiplier is then used to fractions described in Chiaradia and
produce the CL-picture via a video- Fontboté (in press). Fractions of the
amplifier. The SE-pictures were produced purified lead (residue) were loaded onto a
simultaneously with the CL-pictures using MAT-Finnigan 262 mass spectrometer at
a different detector. In general, strong CL the University of Geneva. Lead isotope
mean high abundance of trace elements. ratios were corrected for fractionation
SE images were performed to define the based on more than 100 analyses of the
shape of cracks and ho le of the zircons. NBS981 standard. The analytical
uncertainties (2cr) are 0.05% for
206
PbP04Pb, 0.08% for 207PbP04Pb and
Who/e rock analysis 0.10% for 208 PbP04Pb.

Major and trace elements were analysed by U/Pb age and Hf isotope
X-ray fluorescence at the University of determinations
Lausanne using a Philips PW 1400. Rare
earth elements were analyzed by atomic
absorption at the University of Geneva, Investigated rock samp1es consisted of 3 to
following the procedure of Voldet (1993). 8 kg of material. Zircon and other heavy
The relative 2cr precision of REE analyses minerais were separated after crushing and
ranges between 5 to 10% depending on the sieving using a Wilfley table, heavy liquids
concentration of the elements. and magnetic separators. Ten to thirty
suitable grains (transparent, inclusion and
crack-free) were selected from a non-
Who/e rock isotope data magnetic zircon fraction, mostly according
to morphological and color criteria, and air
abraded to remove marginal zones of lead
loss. Groups of 3 to 6 abraded grains were
Sr and Nd were extracted from the same washed in warm 4N nitric acid and rinsed
sample using dissolution and extraction several times with distilled water and
procedures following the method described acetone in an ultrasonic bath. Dissolution
by Schilling et al. (1994). The Sr and Nd and chemical extraction of U and Pb were
isotope measurements were undertaken in performed following the procedure of
a dynamic mode at the University of Krogh (1973), using miniaturized bombs
Geneva on a seven-collector Finnigan and anion exchange columns. Spiking with
MAT 262 thermal ionization mass mixed 205 Pb- 235 U was done prior to
spectrometer using double Re filaments. dissolution. Total procedural blanks were 2
The Sr isotope ratios are normalized to the ± 1 pg Pb. Pb and U were loaded with Si-
E&A standard with 87 Sr/86 Sr = 0.708000 gel and phosphoric acid on single Re
using an average of O. 708028 ± 5 (2SE, filaments and measured at ETH Zürich on
n=52) measured during the period of a Finnigan MAT 262 mass spectrometer
analyses, whereas Nd isotope ratios are equipped with an ion counting system. The
normalized to the La Jolla Nd standard performance of the ion counter was
143
( Nd/ 144Nd = 0.511830) using an average continuously monitored by measuring a
of0.511838 ± 6 (2SE, n=28). NBS 982 standard solution. Regressions
were computed using the program of
Ludwig (2000).
33

The Hf fraction was isolated usmg an the residual solution of the first Os
Eichrom™ Ln-spec resin, and measured in distillation step by solvent extraction. Re
static mode on a NuPlasma™ multi- and Os isotopie compositions and
collector ICP-MS using a MCN-6000 concentrations were measured on a Nu
microconcentric nebulizer for sample Plasma multicollector ICP-MS at the
introduction. Zircons are commonly Institute of Geology of the University of
characterized by extremely low 176Lu/ 177Hf Bem (see Schoenberg et al., 2000). In-run
ratios ofless than 0.005. Hf isotopie values fractionation correction of the 185 Re/ 187 Re
were therefore not corrected for in-situ ratio was performed by measuring the
radiogenic ingrowth from 176 Lu, because 191 Ir/ 93 Ir ratio of an Ir standard solution
corrections for young zircons are within added to the sample (Schoenberg et al.,
the analytical uncertainty of the measured 2000). Re was measured in time-resolved
176Hf/ 177 Hf ratios. The Hf isotope ratios mode in order to limit memory effects.
were corrected for mass fractionation using
a 179Hf/ 177 Hf value of 0.7325 and Besides measuring ali Os isotopes, the 12
normalized to 176Hf/ 177Hf= of0.282160 of Faraday collector Nu Plasma ICP-MS
the JMC-475 standard (Blichert-Toft et al., allows simultaneous monitoring of the
1997b). Errors of the measured 176 Hf/ 177 Hf isotopes
182
of potentially
186
interfering
ratios are either given as extemal 2a elements: W for W-7 0s, 185 Re for
186
187Re-71870s, I94Pt for t9oPt-7t9oOs and
reproducibility of standard measurements
(± 0.3 G units) or individual 2a errors,
1nPt~--, t920 s. The 192 0 s;t880s rat.10 was
whatever is larger. Epsilon Hf values were used for in-run fractionation correction of
calculated with e 76 177
Hf/ Hf)cHUR(O)
0.282772 (Blichert-Toft and Albarède,
the other Os isotope ratios measured. Ali
isotopes were measured in Faraday
1997). Mean ages and mean Hf isotopie collectors. Total procedure blanks were <
values are given at the 95% confidence 20 pg for Re and < 1 pg for Os.
level.

40
Arl9Ar age determinations
Re/Os age determinations

Samples from altered ·wall-rocks


For Re/Os age determinations, a few containing abundant hydrothermal sericite
milligrams of molybdenite and appreciable and from ore skam with abundant
amounts of a 185 Re spike and an ICP phlogopite were crushed. Different grain
standard Os solution (Johnson & Matthey, size fractions were separated by sieving
Karlsruhe, Germany) were weighed into and centrifugation. After electrostatic
Carius tubes and wetted with 1Oml of separation, hand picking and ultrasonic
inverse aqua regia. Sample dissolution, cleaning, the purity of the samples was
oxidation of Re and Os, as weil as controlled by X-ray diffraction. The 20-
homogenization was achieved by heating 125flm fraction for sericite and the 125-
the closed Carius tubes in an oven at 250f.!m fraction for phlogopite where
225°C for three days. After cracking the packed in copper foil and placed in Cu
Carius tubes, Os was directly distilled from disks along with Fish Canyon sanidine
the digestion solution into HBr, using the (FCs) as neutron fluence monitor. Samples
techique described by Nagler and Frei were irradiated for 18 MWH in the Triga
( 1997), and puri fied, using the reactor at Oregon State University.
microdistillation described by Roy-Barman Analyses were made using a low blank,
and Allègre (1995). Re was separated from double vacuum resistance fumace and
34

metal extraction line connected to a Mass 1.6). Pb isotope determinations have only
Analyzer Products-215.5 mass been performed on the three least altered
spectrometer at the University of samples of the Anticona diorite and the
Lausanne. Y antac and San Francisco intrusions
(Table 1.3). The three residue results are in
agreement with data obtained from other
Miocene intrusions of the Peruvian
Western Cordillera (Gunnesh et al., 1990;
Results MacFarlane and Petersen, 1990; Soler,
1991; Fontboté and Bendezu, 2001).

In most intrusions, phenocrysts are


Who/e rock and microprobe generally too altered to be analyzed by
analyses of Miocene intrusions microprobe (Fig. 1.4). However, sorne
samples of the Anticona diorite and the
Yantac intrusion only show uniquely a
The Miocene intrusions in the Domo de weak propylitic alteration that affects
Yauli area are highly altered and elements principally the hornblende and biotite
su ch as K, Na, Ca and Sr, easily mobilized phenocrysts and leaves the feldspar
by hydrothermal fluids, show large unaffected. The feldspar compositions of
variations in concentration when plotted the Anticona diorite range between An52
against Si0 2. Unaltered or slightly altered and An 37 , and their K content remains
samples indicate a high K calc-alkaline between 1.2 and 2.4 wt %. Biotites of the
magmatism with Si0 2 between 63.82 % same sample have mg-numbers ranging
and 66.82 %, Na20 between 2.96 % and from 0.55 to 0.57 with low Al contents
4.31 % and K 20 between 2.60 % and 3.23 (Ahot 2.50 - 2.57). Plagioclases of the
% {Table 1. 2). At Morococha, crosscutting Yantac intrusion range in composition
relationships indicate an increase in silica between An 35 and An 23 and biotites have
content through time with the evolution similar Al contents than those from the
from the Anticona quartz diorite to the Anticona diorite but have a slightly higher
more felsic Yantac granodiorite. The Sr mg-number between 0.60 and 0.62.
and Nd isotopes {Table 1. 3) define two Analyses of plagioclases from both
groups, one group contains the intrusion of intrusions reveal perturbed evolution with
the Morococha district with lower Sr and several discrete steps in the An content
higher Nd isotope ratios compared to the followed by normal zoning (Fig. 1.7). One
second group containing the intrusions of of those is associated with a spike of the
the San Cristobal district (Fig. 1.6). Ba content (0.024), whereas this element is
Strontium isotope ratios of the Chumpe generally below limit of detection for the
and San Cristobal intrusions should be rest of the profile (Fig. 1. 7).
taken with caution since no samples
without alteration features have been
found. However, the observed alteration Zircon cathodoluminescence
may not have any influence on the (CL) images
143 d/144 .
N Nd raho and therefore do es not
affect the distinct signature between the
two groups of intrusion. The isotopie The zircons of Miocene intrusions are
composition of both groups fall on the typically 50 to 200 J.lm long, pink,
s?s r-enne
. h ed and 144Nd-depleted end of prismatic, euhedral and long except in the
the Miocene intrusion trend observed by case of the Anticona diorite where they are
Soler ( 1991) and Petford et al. (1996)(Fig. generally shorter. Zircons from the
35

Table 1.2: Representative whole-rock geochemistry of the Miocene intrusion

Anticona diorite San Francisco intrusion Yantac intrusion San Cristobal intr. Chumpe intrusion
TIC-1 TIC-10 TOR-10 TOR-13 TOR-14 TIC-6 POR-2 SC-12 SCW2-340 CHU-2 CHU-3 CHU-9

Si02 65.86 63.82 71.32 65.26 66.82 66,00 66.65 60.21 62.46 68.22 67.48 75.56
Ti02 0.54 0.52 0.61 0.51 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.69 0.40 0.43 0.44 0.47
Al203 16.49 15.92 15.67 16.16 16.01 16.22 16.14 15.67 14.13 15.64 15.95 14.34
Fe203 2.39 5.05* 1.24* 4.58* 1.78 1.65 4.03 5.64* 7.60* 1.60 2.34 1.64
FeO 2.39 n.d. n.d. n.d 1.78 1.59 0.35 n.d. n.d 5.05 4.95 0,00
MnO 0.05 0.20 0.01 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 1.10 0.12 0.09 0,00
MgO 1.66 1.60 0.80 1.63 1.68 1.63 1.51 1.49 0.64 1.36 1.15 0.33
CaO 4.04 3.42 0.05 3.87 3.38 2.80 2.75 2.09 0.32 0.12 0.18 0.03
Na20 3.57 3.62 0.17 3.44 2.96 4.31 4.21 1.43 0.20 0,00 0,00 0.03
K20 2.60 2.97 7.71 2.78 3.17 3.23 3.11 5.25 6.68 3.84 4.15 4.37
P205 0.20 0.19 0.07 0.19 0.23 0.22 0.21 0.23 0.13 0.12 0.15 0.05
LOI 0.38 1.18 2.20 1.10 1.70 0.76 0.68 4.80 5.92 3.01 3.39 3.41
Cr203 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
NiO 0 00 000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 00
Somme 100.17 98.48 99.84 99.58 100 .13 99.01 100.22 97.53 99.57 99.5 100.28 100.23

Rb 135 113 376 124 116 114 112 265 187 253 279 230
Ba 654 693 430 622 758 899 686 564 170 278 328 561
Th 13 13 16 14 14 13 12 9 <2 3 <2 6
u 4 2 3 6 2 <2 <2 7 5 3 5 4
Nb 9 9 8 10 12 11 11 9 8 5 5 9
Pb 14 18 308 16 21 25 20 61 43 15 17 24
Sr 364 346 94 404 640 712 652 202 32 7 5 26
Zr 111 103 161 113 138 110 121 143 126 140 149 165
Hf 4 5 <1 4 5 5 4 6 <1 3 3 3
y 18 19 <1 20 15 11 12 16 28 3 3 4
Sc 13 11 5 11 11 8 7 10 6 <2 3 4
v 73 81 58 BD 92 81 73 105 32 58 59 57
Cr 14 14 13 15 19 17 19 55 15 10 9 10
Ni 4 4 3 3 5 3 4 5 12 2 <2 <2<
Co 109 36 192 58 41 62 48 29 32 34 29 172
Cu 7 6 146 17 57 113 21 189 81 11 7 7
Zn 51 129 53 66 56 57 55 87 111 113 90 17
As 4 7 119 7 12 8 5 28 27 4 16 12
s 65 <3 6243 131 1424 234 171 16077 10659 70 519 7781

La 19.9 25 15 25 28.7 27.1 25 25.6 13.5 21 20.5 19.6


Ce 41.9 38 32 46 58.1 55.6 35 58.2 25.8 42 46.1 44.6
Pr 4.8 6.1 6.4 6.9 3.4 5.5 5.3
Nd 18.1 14 21 22 25.2 25 17 26.7 14 19 2.2.4 21.4
Sm 3.9 4.8 4.6 5.5 3.7 4.5 4.5
Eu 0.98 1.08 1.11 0.9 0.78 1.25 0.98
Gd 3.1 3.2 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.3 2.5
Tb n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Dy 2.8 2.4 1.8 2.1 2.8 1.5 1.8
Ho 0.53 0.46 0.36 0.43 0.6 0.31 0.32
Er 1.4 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.6 n.d. n.d.
Tm 0.2 0.17 0.15 0.16 0.22 0.11 0.13
Yb 1.2 1 0.8 0.8 1.3 0.6 0.6
Lu 0.17 0.13 0.1 0.09 0.15 0.06 0.07

*total Fe as Fe 3 '
Major elements as oxydes and in wt%. Trace elements in ppm.

Anticona diorite show an uniform central patterns m the centre but are on the
domain (TIC 30, 34 and 37; Fig. 1.8), contrary characterized by continuous
sorne with sector zoning (TIC 13; Fig. 1.8), oscillatory zoning (TOR 30, POR 32; Fig.
that are surrounded by a thin layer showing 1.8). None of the Anticona, Yantac and
oscillatory zoning. Zircons from the San San Francisco zircons photographed show
Francisco and Yantac intrusions never embayment or patterns that could be
have a pronounced homogeneous CL interpreted as dissolution textures, with
36

Table 1.3: Whole rock isotopie composition

Br Sr/a6Sr 143 Nd/ 44 Nd

TIC-1b Anticona diorite 0.705665 (7) 0.512459 (15) 18.698 15.635 38.682
TOR-14 San Francisco intrusion 0.705979 (8) 0.512487 (8)
TOR-14b San Francisco intrusion 0.706070 (13) 0.512468 (14) 18.761 15.645 38.787
TIC - 6 Yantac intrusion 0.705627 (9) 18.739 15.669 38.787
POR-2 Yantac intrusion 0.705764 (7) 0.512510 (6)
SC-12 San Cristobal intrusion 0.707453 (14) 0.512350 (20)
CHU-3 Chumpe intrusion 0.706573 (9) 0.512310 (40)
DY-31 A Mttu detrictic 0.713030 (15) 0.512419 (10) 19.563 15.643 39.071
DY-31C Mttu volcanic 0.713559 (12) 0.512443 (10) 18.961 15.627 39064
DY-31 E Mttu volcanic 0.725776 (11) 0.512460 (6) 19.095 15.678 39.018
DY-31 1 Excelsior Phyllttes 0.755418 (14) 0.512036 (14) 25.241 15.992 45.648
DY-31 L Excelsior Phyllttes 0.740893 (9) 0.512057 (26) 22.317 15.847 41.111

0.5134

OMM
0.5130 Andean mantle •• •
Il
Hl 0.5124
Miocene intrusions

0.5126 [)

-o
.,..,.z
.__
-o
z
";!: 0.5122

0.5118

0.5114
0.70 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.75

Morococha intrusions San Cristobal intrusions Literature data


• Anticona diorite L San Cristobal intrusion 1$ Miocene intrusions,
• San Francisco intrusion o Chumpe intrusion Western Cordillera (Soler, 1991)
..a. Yantac intrusion ~'» Miocene intrusions,
Eastern Cordillera (Soler, 1991)
" Cordillera Blanca
(Petford et al., 1996)

Fig. 1 6: 143 Nd/ 144 Nd vs 87 Sr/86 Sr from Domo de Yauli intrusions compared to literature data of Miocene
intrusions from Soler (1991) and Petford et al. (1996). Precambrian rock (grey square) is from James (1982),
analyses of the Mitu group and the Excelsior2tudy (Table 1. 3).
37

36

32

c
<(
~
0
28 l re

24
50 J..lm
20

Fig. 1 7: Anorthite content transverse deduced from microprobe analysis of a plagioclase set in a K-feldspar
matrix, Yantac intrusion. Note the coïncidence between a major increase of%An and a spike ofBa.

maybe one exception (TIC 37; Fig. 1.8).


U/Pb dating and Hf isotopie
Additionally, no older cores were detected.
composition of zircons
Zircons of the Chumpe intrusion indicate
similar thin oscillatory zoning than the
Yantac and San Francisco intrusions, but
show partly dissolved cores that may be Since zircon may reflect the crystallization
interpreted as inherited zircons (CHU 30 age of an intrusion, U-Pb ages have been
and 31 ; Fig. 1.8). used to establish the magmatic succession.
Relatively low radiogenic/common lead
ratios, due to the elevated common lead
concentration in the zircons and the very
small amount of radiogenic Pb (due to low
U and young age), causes large
uncertainties on the 207PbP 35U ratio.
38

Fig. 1 8: Cathodoluminescence (on the left) and secondary electron (on the right) pictures of
zircon from the Anticona diorite (TIC 13, 30, 34 and 37), the San Francisco intrusion (TOR
30), the Yantac intrusion (POR 32) and the Chumpe intrusion (CHU 30 and 31).
39

Therefore, only the 206PbP38 U ages are and Yantac intrusions, respectively. The
significant. This leads to apparently San Francisco and Yantac intrusion yield
concordant analysis even in cases of lead similar weighted mean cHf within error
loss or inheritance. Repeated analyses have than the Anticona diorite, -0.1 ± 0.5 and
been carried out to reproduce the age and 0.0 ± 1.4 respectively (Fig. 1.1 0).
to insure that the 206PbP38 U ratios represent However, due to inheritances, their mean
the crystallization age. The U/Pb ages values do not have a geological
reveal the existence of three distinct significance since low cHf correspond to
intrusion groups. inherited zircons and high cHf to
concordant points (Fig. 1.1 0). As a
consequence for the Yantac intrusion, the
best estimate of the magmatic EHt{T) is
The Anticona diorite: TIC given by the multigrain analyses 2 at cHf=
3.1 ± 1.2 (Table 1.4).
Three multigrain analyses yield well
reproducible concordant points and define
a mean 2o6Pb/23s U age of 14.11 ± 0.04 Ma The Chumpe intrusion: CHU
for the Anticona diorite (Table 1.4, Fig. U/Pb analyses on zircon from the Chumpe
1.9a). These multigrain analyses yield intrusion yield discordant points defining
uniform initial 176 Hf/ 177Hf ratios, with a two discordia lines (Table 1. 4, Fig. 1.9d).
weighted mean cHfof0.6 ± 0.2 (Fig. 1.10). The upper intercept ages of these lines are
at 57 ± 25 Ma and 216 ± 42Ma. The age of
the Chumpe intrusion (6.6 +11-3.6 Ma) is
The San Francisco and the Yantac defined by the lower intercept; the + 1 Ma
intrusions: TOR and POR errors is also constrained by the youngest
concordant point at 7.6 Ma, which is
Analyses of zircons from the San
considered as a maximum age and the -3.6
Francisco and the Yantac intrusions show
Ma error is defined by the intercept
variable ages and degrees of discordance
uncertainty. On the contrary to the San
(Table 1. 4, Figs. 1.9b and c). They define
Francisco and the Y antac intrusion,
lines with upper intercept showing multiple
inheritance does apparently not influence
inherited components of different ages.
the initial 176 Hf/ 177 Hf of zircons (Fig. 1.1 0).
Two zircon analyses from the San
The weighted mean cHf is -0.1 ± 0.5 (Fig.
Francisco intrusion show a strong
1.1 0).
discordance with upper intercepts at 777 ±
170 Ma and 1706 ± 150 Ma, which
indicates the presence of old cores. Re/Os dating of molybdenite
Analyses on zircons from the Y antac
intrusion indicate an inheritance of ca. 240
Ma which may correspond to the Permian Two molybdenite samples from the quartz-
volcanism. The majority of analyses are molybdenite veins of the Toromocho Cu-
situated along the concordia between 9 and porphyry were dated by the Re/Os method.
14 Ma, nonetheless the large 207PbP 35 U Re and 187 Os concentrations and the Re-
uncertainties and high-angle interceptions Os ages are shown in Table 1.5. Analyses
with mixing lines from young inherited on these two samples overlap and give a
components, render the "quality of weighted mean value of 7.9 ± 0.1 Ma.
concordance" statement very difficult. The
analytically concordant results of 9.1 ± 0.1
Ma and 8.81 ± 0.06 Ma represent therefore
the maximum ages for the San Francisco
40

.0025
A
Anticona Diorite
Concordant Mean Age=
14.11 ±,0.04 Ma
.0020
:J
ro 12
--
"'"'
..0
a_
<D
0.00220
0

"' 10
.0015

0.00216 ...___ __.___ _ ___,

0.012 0.014 0.016

.0010
.008 .010 .012 .016 .018 .020

.0025
~B

.0020

San Francisco intrusion


.0015 Concordant Age= 9.11 ±. 0.10 Ma
lntersects at:
8.94 ±. 0.38 Ma & 1706 ±. 150 Ma
8.7 ±. 1.2 Ma & 777 ±. 170 Ma

.0010
.008 .010 .012 .014 .016 .018 .020
207Pbt235u

.006 c
Yantac intrusion
Concordant Mean Age=
8.81 .±. 0.06 Ma 30
lntersects at:
5:!:,11 Ma &240:!:,150Ma
:J .004
"'""<::L.....
..0
a_
8 0.00136
"'
.002

0.00132
0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012

0 .01 .02 .03 .04 .OS


2a1PbF35U
41

0.006
./~ ~-·~~ -··

Chumpe intrusion .-<!··.·...·· D


Age = 6.6 (+1.0;-3 .6) Ma 30 . (.·'.>"
lntersects at: " · · · . ··
6 (+4.7/-12) Ma & 57 (+30/-25) Ma / .<- · .·
0.004 6.6 :!:,3.6 Ma & 265 ±57 Ma • .(.-:.··
::::> /~:. · · ·
"'"' 20 .,.:1·:>0.00130 ..
<::!.....
..0 ,--:: .·
a.. ...
/~.,.

"'
0
N A. . ~ ~.:--··'
••

0.002 ,.:· 0.00122


10 , /(• '
....
,r 0.00114 ,__.:..._
/ _ _ __
7•.. 7
6' -

__J

..,•-'/
..:r
0.0074 0.0082 0.009
.:/
.::y
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
207Pbf35u
Fig. 1 ~: U/~b Concordia diagram of zircons from the Anticona diorite (A), the Toromocho porphyry (B),
Yantac mtrus10n (C) and the Chumpe intrusion (D).

40
Arf3 9Ar ages of phlogopite and 16b, Fig. 1.11a). The age of 6.42 ± 0.19
sericite Ma obtained on the phlogopite sample in
the Gertrudis skarn is a minimum age since
it does not fulfill requirement for a plateau
40A /39 . (Fig. 1.11 b ).
r Ar spectra from phlogoplte samp1ed
in the Morococha ore skarns indicate an
increasing apparent age during the low Sericite samples from wall rock alteration
temperature steps which stabilize more or of the San Cristobal and the Andaychagua
1ess quick1y (Figs. 1.11 a and b). Phlogopite veins indicate more complex 40 Ar/39Ar
grains are pristine and homogeneous under spectra (Figs. 1.11 c and d). As for the
. 40 Ar/39 Ar spectra, the apparent
phl ogoplte
the microscope and have uniform major
and minor element concentrations (Table age of sericite samples increase with
1.6). No chlorite nor any mixed phases increasing temperature (Figs. 1.11 c and d).
have been detected by microprobe (Table An intermediate plateau can be observed
1.6) and X-ray diffraction. Nevertheless, before the apparent age decreases slightly;
one microprobe traverse (Fig. 1.12) on an important increase of the apparent age
phlogopite from sample DY-16b exhibits occurs at the end of the gas release. The
higher F values and lower K20 value "hump-shaped" spectra of sample SC-5
towards grain edges. This variation of F (Fig. 1.11 d) and less prominent in sample
and K20 could indicate crystal overgrowth 810-lm (Fig. l.llc) is probably due to
or diffusion pro cesses (Phillips, 1991) by recoil effects (Dong et al., 1995). Indeed, if
thermal resetting or fluid alteration. Due to the smallest fraction (<20)-lm) was
the homogeneous habits of crystal in thin removed during mineral separation, very
section, diffusion processes are a preferred thin interlayered clay minerais can be
. . 40 39
mterpretatwn. An Ar/ Ar plateau age of observed in the sericite crystal lattice. The
7.2 ± 0.2 Ma for 80% of the released Ar steep increase of apparent ages at the end
can be defined for the Parvenir skarn (DY- of the gas release is probably due to the
presence of relie K-bearing phases of the
.j:::..
Table 1.4: Analytical results of U-Pb age determinations. N

N urn, De$ription " Weight Na of Conœnl"i ions Ttv U ' A lamie ratios A ppa·ent '!J65 [ M ~ error Hf isotopes
[mg] gn;ins U Al ra:l . Al n ra:l , 2061204 '2061235 a. Error 2071235 • Error 21)71206 u En-or 206123& '207 / 235207 / 206' corr. 1761177 epsHf epsHf ± 2sT(CM)
[ppm] [ppm] [pg] 2s[%] 2s[%] 2s[%] norm. (0) (T) (Ga)

A ni ica na diorite, TIC


pr incl 0 .0264 5 198 0.44 1.84 0.9 411 0.00219 0.44 0.01388 1.25 0 .04589 1.12 14.13 14,00 - 0.46 0 .28278 0.2 0.5 0 .5 0 .99
2 Ige frags 0 .0362 356 0 ,8 11.34 0.19 176 0.00219 0.41 0.01396 2.28 0 04632 2 .21 14.07 14 08 14.28 0 .26 0 .28278 0.4 0.7 0 .5 0 .98
3 pr ind 0 0115 5 915.7 1,96 44.31 0.1 52 0 0022 1 .1 0.01409 10 .28 0 .04649 10.22 14.15 14 .21 23 .17 0 .11
4 pr ind 0 .28278 0.1 0 .5 0.5 0 .99

Sen Frmci~o intruSon, TOR

2 .1 "''ta a~b 0 .0076 6 358 0.53 1.58 0.07 171 0 .00141 0.72 0.00916 5.46 0.04694 5.22 9.11 9.25 46 .21 0 .39 0 28275 -0.9 -0.7 0 .5 1.06
2,2 pr 0.013 5 517 1,07 7.97 0,01 128 0 ,00206 0 56 0.01855 3,28 0 .06519 3 .11 13.29 18 .67 780 .63 0 .38 0 .28274 -1,0 -0.8 1 .8 1 .06
16,1 pr 0 .28279 0.6 0 .7 1.1 0 ,97
16.2 lpr la prisn 0.0192 5 405 0.85 2 ,14 0.05 491 0 .00207 0. 6 001359 2 .17 0 .04767 2 .02 13.32 13 .71 82.73 0.38 0 ,28279 0.8 1,0 2.8 0 ,96
16.3 pr 0.0156 5 630 2.54 27 .6 0.03 112 0.00413 0.59 0.02916 3.75 0 .05117 3 .66 26.59 29 .19 248 .6 0 .23 0 .28275 -0.9 -0.7 0 .5 1 .05
16.4 lpr 0.0229 3 470 1 01 15.46 01 112 0 .00214 0.55 0.01378 3,61 0 .04665 3.6 13 .8 13 .9 31.41 0 ,09 0 .28278 0 .1 0.3 0 .5 0.99
16 5 pr 0 0118 4 452 0 89 2.24 0.34 311 0 .00196 0.53 0.01242 2 .94 0 .04606 2.42 12.6 12.53 0 .98 0 28277 0,0 0.2 0 .5 1,00
16 6 lgepr 0 0382 4 423 0 74 11.2 0.09 177 0 ,00176 0.44 0.01125 231 0 .04646 2.24 1132 11 .36 21.42 0.25 028278 0 .1 0 .3 0 .5 0 .99

Yanta::: intruSon, FOR


1 lprind 0 .0032 4 919 4.98 18.82 0 .05 76 0 .0056 0.73 0.03802 5 .69 0 .04923 5.64 36 .01 37.89 158 .59 0.13 0 .28274 -1.1 -0.9 0 .5 1 .07
2 snalllpr 0 .0029 186 0.27 1.2 0 .07 57 0.00136 1.86 0.00887 22.86 0.04718 21.94 8.79 8.97 58.25 0.52 0 .28285 2.9 3 .1 1.2 0 .83
3 lprind 0 .0041 5 637 1,04 1 ,65 0. 15 176 0.0016 0.76 0.01016 5 .62 0 .04617 5 .36 10.28 10 .26 6.3 0 .4 0 .28281 1.4 1.6 0 .5 0 .92
4 lpr 0 .0062 854 2 .07 0.75 0.02 1134 0 ,00251 1 09 0.01692 1.1 0.04895 1 .02 16.144 17 .03 145.3 0 .57 0.28276 -0.6 -0.4 0.5 1 .04
5 lpr 0 0055 6 2748 5.28 2.8 0.02 84 0 .00192 1.02 0.01312 9 .2 0 .04955 8 .95 12.37 13.23 173.7 0.3 0.28275 -0.7 -0.5 0.5 1 .04
6 snalllpr 0 0018 3 390 0.81 0.6 0 .02 167 0 .00203 0.69 001494 5.4 0 .05331 5 .12 13.09 15 .06 341.96 0 .5
7 snalllpr 0 .0086 4 278 0 .38 2 .69 0 .08 94 0.00137 0,76 0,00872 5.74 0.04626 5.6 8.8 8.81 11.24 0.25
lpr ind 0 .0045 5 387 1. 64 0.41 0.03 1157 0.00428 0.44 0.03072 0.82 0 .05201 0 .71 27 .55 30.55 285.79 0 .5

Chumpe intruSon, CHU


lpr euh 0.0102 6 1545 3 .78 5 .62 0.07 465 0.00253 0,34 0. 01633 1.01 0,0439 0 .94 16.26 16 .45 44.01 0.37 0.28277 -0.1 0,0 0 .5 1 .01
0.0099 5 1053 3 .03 1.43 0 .1 1359 0 .00291 0.39 0.01883 0.76 0.0469 0 .63 18.75 18 .95 44.38 0.56 0 28275 -0. 7 -0,5 0 .5 1 ,04
3 "''
frags of lpr 0.012 687 0.8 1.14 0.05 549 0 ,00118 0.5 0.00755 1 .84 0.04655 1.72 7.58 7.63 26.07 0.37 0 28277 -0.2 -0.1 0.5 1.02
4 lpr euh 0 .0186 4 1019 2 .67 6.9 0 .03 481 0 .00252 0.44 0.01704 1.15 0.04901 1.03 16.23 17 .15 148.4 0.45 0.28277 0 .1 0 .2 0 .5 1,00
5 lprlr 0 0069 6 883 1.14 0.65 0 .02 768 0 ,00128 0 92 0 00849 1.87 0.04823 1 .75 8.23 8.59 110.35 0.37
6 lp1 ind 0,0154 4 861 5.14 1,0 0 ,09 4566 0.0056 0.42 0.03914 0 ,51 0.05065 0 .33 36.03 38 99 225,00 0.76

a) lpr long priSTlatic; euh euhedra; frags fragments; spr S'lort priSTlatic; Ige large; pr priSTl; incl indus on; wb SJbround; tr transparent
208 206
b) Calcul<ied on the ba::is of radiogenic Pb/ Fb ratios, as;uming concordancy
c) Corrected for fractionation and spike
d) Corrected for fractionation ( .09%), spike, blank and common lead (Staœy & Kramers, 1975)
e) Corrected for initial Th Disequilibrium, usng an estimated Th/ U ratio of 4 for the melt
43

ANTICONA SAN FRANCISCO YANTAC CHUMPE


DIORITE INTRUSION INTRUSION INTRUSION
protoliths overprinted by sericite alteration. 14.11 ±0.04 Ma 9.10 ~ 0.10 Ma 8.81 ~ 0.06 Ma -6 Ma
4
If the volcanic rocks of the Mi tu Group are
generally entirely altered into an ,0.

assemblage of sericite and quartz, sorne 3.a..


discrete relicts of the former rocks have 3 1.
been detected (Figs. 1.5g and h). The
. .a.
dtsturbed appearance of the 40 Ar/39Ar
spectra does not allow determination of 4

plateau ages, nevertheless flat portions of 2.~ o..

~
the spectra indicate ages of 4. 78 ± 0.16 Ma 6
(65% gas release) and 4.90 ± 0.15 Ma
.1.
(25% gas release) that agree with
integrated ages (Figs. 1.11 c and d).

t
0 .8

- ~~~
04

~
I
(/)
0 --

~~
o. Mun""0.6.±02
(l) .Q
.4

Discussion
.Q.8

12..
~~ ~ Mean =·0,1.;t.05

1.6 Mai!n 2 0 1 ± 1.-'

Two mining districts of different 20

ages in the Domo de Yauli area 24...

Mean =-0. 1j;O 5


2.8
!),0

This study allows distinction of at least YANTAC

~B
4.0 INTRUSION
9.81 ±. 0.06 Ma
three Miocene rnagrnatic pulses in the
3.0
Domo de Y auli area. The structurally
.
o 1dest Antlcona d.wnte
. y1e
. ld s a 206Pb/23su - 2.0
I
mean age of 14.11 ± 0.04 Ma. This early li 1.0.
(l)
rnagrnatic stage is followed by several
0.0..
more felsic stocks (San Francisco and
Y antac). The age of the later· intrusions is -1 o_ 8 8 8
poorly constrained because of the multiple -2.n
1 1
inheritances and the apparent analytical 0 10 20 30 40
Age '"'Pbf3"U (Ma)
concordance of U/Pb analyses.
Nevertheless the few possible concordant Fig. 1 10: Compilation of EHr values of zircons from
points associated to the lower intercepts the dated Miocene intrusions.
allow determination of maximum U/Pb
ages around 9 Ma (Fig. 1.9), whereas the and Yantac (Table 1) and since ore-bearing
minimum age of the San Francisco veins of the San Cristobal area crosscut
intrusion is on the other hand defined by the Churnpe intrusion, the ore deposits of
the Re/Os age of rnolybdenite et 7.9 ± 0.1 both rnining districts are therefore not of
Ma. Analyses of zircons from the southem the same age. This rneans that ore deposit
Churnpe intrusion result in a lower from Morococha and San Cristobal belong
intercept age of 6.6 (+ 1/-3.6) Ma (Fig. to different hydrothermal systems. This
1.9). Since major ore deposits from the difference in age between the two rnining
Morococha area are structurally related to districts is also supported by 40 Ar/39Ar
the intrusions intrusions of San Francisco
44

Table 1.5: Re/Os data for molybdenites from quartz evins of the Toromocho porphyry

N échantillon weight(mg) Re (ppm) 187 Os (ppb) 187 Os*/ 187 Re Age (Ma) 2s (Ma)

TOR-15 151 .8 139.9 11.34 5 .07E-05 7.77 0.11


DY-17 F 381 .7 156.2 12.98 5.19E-05 7.97 0.11

data, i.e. 7.2 ± 0.2 Ma for the Porvenir comparison of duration generally admitted
skarn and ages of about 4.78 Ma in veins since numerical modeling and
of the San Cristobal district (Fig. 1.11 ). geochronological studies point out that
The difference in ages could therefore be hydrothermal cells are not expected to last
one cause of sorne differences in for more than a couple of 1OO'OOOs years
mineralisation types, such as presence of (Cathles et al., 1997; Ballard et al., 2001).
an earl y W stage and absence of porphyry This can be explained by overestimating
mineralisation and economie skarn in the the magmatic age, as explained in the
southern San Cristobal area. description of the results section (see
above). Nonetheless, the formation of the
Porvenir skam is somewhat younger than
Crosscutting relationships indicate that the the Toromocho porphyry. The Morococha
Anticona diorite is the oldest Miocene mining district is not restricted to these two
intrusion in the Domo de Y auli district and intrusion-ore bodies systems, sorne
is not related to any type of mineralisation, intrusions and related ore bodies have not
except formation of hornfels and small been dated largely due to their intense
magnetite bodies in the host limestone. alteration, the San Pablo-Victoria system
This absence of ore-bearing skam and (Table 1. 1), or the small scale of the
associated hydrous mineral alteration outcrops, the Gertrudis intrusion. These
suggests the absence of large fluid multiple successive events may also
circulation during the emplacement of the explain the typical diffusion profile of the
diorite body at 14 Ma. On the contrary, Y antac and Gertrudis phlogopites
emplacement of the felsic intrusions of San interpreted as Ar loss (Fig. 1.11). The
Francisco and Yantac are accompanied by felsic magrÙa bodies of the Morococha
abundant hydrothermal fluid circulation mining district were then emplaced in
revealed by considerable alteration around temporally distinct pulses, driving
the different ore bodies. Our data point out successive ore-forming hydrothermal
successive magmato-hydrothermal events systems. Such pulsed, temporally and
including a porphyry style system, spatially linked intrusive centers and
constrained by the 9.1 MaU/Pb maximum hydrothermal systems have already been
age of zircon and the 7.9 ± 0.1 Ma Re/Os demonstrated in porphyry-style deposit
age of molybdenite, and a skarn deposit, districts, such as the Potrerillos district
bracketed by the 8.8 Ma U/Pb maximum (Marsh et al., 1997), the Indio Muerto
age of the intrusion and the 7.2 ± 0.2 Ma district (Gustafson et al. 2001) and the
40
ArP 9Ar plateau age obtained on Chuquicamata mine (Ballard et al., 2001 ).
phlogopite. The U/Pb ages very likely It suggests that overprinting hydrothermal
reflect magmatic activity, and Re-Os and events is, at least in Morococha, an
40
ArP 9Ar ages reflect age of the associated important condition to produce a mining
mineralising event. The differences district with large abundance of economie
between the magmatic and the mineralising ore bodies. Even if Morococha do not look
ages are definitively too long m like these giant porphyry-style deposit by
45

the small s1ze of Toromocho and the deposits in the limestones of the Pucani
abundance of Zn-Pb ores, its economie Group. 40 Ar/39Ar age determinations on
attractiveness has also be increased by the sericite from wall-rock alteration indicate
pulsed magmo-hydrothermal activity. an age of 4.78 ± 0.16 Ma and 4.90 ± 0.15
Ma (Fig. 1.11) which overlap within errors
with the U/Pb age of the Chumpe
intrusion. However, caution on the relation
To our knowledge, the younger San
between the Chumpe intrusion and the
Cristobal system is to the contrary to
mineralisation has to taken since the large
Morococha an example where overprinting
error obtained on the U/Pb age of the
magmato-hydrothermal did not occur and
Chumpe intrusion do not permit to
where ali mineralisation are linked to the
decipher between dyke of different ages. It
same Chumpe intrusion. Indeed, the
could therefore be that the so called
Chumpe intrusion (6.6 + 1/-3 Ma) is at the
Chumpe intrusion is in fact a mix of felsic
origin of the hydrothermal event that
dykes close in age and that the magmatic
created veins and by inference high-
was also pulsed.
temperature carbonate replacement

10~-----------------------------, 10~-----------------------------,
A B
co
8
l"'
7.2 2:. 0.2
.. , co
8
6.42 2:.0.19
:2 ~
l" "'1
&6
Cil
.....
c
.....
c
~ 4
Cil
~ 4
co
o. c..
o. c..
<( <(
DY-16b GER-3

lntegrated Age= 6.9 :t 0.2 lntegrated Age= 5.78 ~ 0.17


0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
39 39
Cumulative % Ar released Cumulative % Ar released
10 10
c D
8
Cil co
~ ~
Cl.> 4.78 2:. 0.16 4.90 + 0.15
&6
0>
co co 14 - "'1
.....
c
.....c
~ ~ 4
Cil Cil
o. o.
o. o.
<( <(
2
810-1 m SC-5
lntegrated Age= 4.87 ~ 0.15 lntegrated Age= 4.87 ~ 0.15

0 20 40 80 100 20 40 60 80 100
39 39
Cumulative % Ar released Cumulative % Ar released

Fig. 1 11: 40Ar/39Ar spectra from phlogopites from the Yantac (DY-16b) and the Gertrudis (GER-3) skams and
sericites fi:om vein alteration of the San Cristobal vein (SC-5) and the Andaychagua vein (810-lm).
46

F (wt%) probably in the Y erington district, where


2.0 Tertiary tectonics and subsequent erosion
allowed exposition of the vertical
2 dimension to more than 6 km paleodepth
1.5
2
~
(Dilles and Profett, 1995). To avoid rapid
~ 2 ~ !
2 solidification, such magma chambers are
1.0 ! dependent of their sustaining by injection
ofnew magma (Marsh et al., 1997). These
injections are docurnented in all intrusion
0.5 type by fine-grained dark breakdown rirns
consisting of predominant oxides and
accessory pyroxene occurring around
0.0 1 amphibole and in sorne cases biotite (Fig.
0 100 200 300 1.4a), but also by rnicroprobe traverses of
distance (~--tm) plagioclases revealing perturbed evolutions
with several discontinuities in the An
content followed by normal zoning (Fig.
1.7). If these two petrological
12.0- r - - - - = : - - - - - - - - - --, characteristics may also be produced by
other processes such as magma degassing,
the association of the increase of the An
content with a high Ba spike (Fig 1. 7)
11 .0 argues strongly for at least one injection of
new magma during the crystallization of
the plagioclase analyzed. The presence of

o+-----..--r------r,-~--.-"""'iÏr=-.. .,.--'
an active parental magma charnber lasting
a few 100 Ka, during the intrusion of San
1o.
Francisco and Y antac stocks, is then more
0 100 200 300
than probable.
distance (!l-m)
Fig. 1 12; : Variation of K20 and F content along
traverses in phlogopite microprobe analysis, open
U/Pb analyses of zircon from the San
square traverse bl2, black square traverse b4.
Francisco and the Y an tac intrusion indicate
nurnerous analytically concordant points
between 9 and 14 Ma (Figs. 1.9b and c),
which may be interpreted as zircons
Do multiple magmato-
inherited from the Anticona diorite body or
hydrothermal events reveal the
presence of a large underlying continuously cristallising in a long-living
magmatic chamber? rnagmatic system. Therefore, the question
rernains whether the source of the
Anticona diorite is the sarne magma
charnber as for the later felsic intrusions or
Multiple felsic intrusions on the eastern not. It would suggest a long living magma
flank of the Anticona diorite (Fig. 1.2), charnber of over 5 My, akin to the Indio
each with related hydrothermal alteration Muerto district where Gustafson et al.
and polyrnetallic ore bodies (Table 1), are (200 1) proposed a magma chamber lasting
best explained as multiple cupolas rising 3 My. In contrast to zircon of the Churnpe
above a parental magma charnber. The best intrusion, catholurninescence images do
analogy of such a composite system is not reveal any dissolution textures or cores
47

207 Pbl04 Pb
in the zircons of the northem intrusions
(Fig. 1.8). This indicate first that, in case of 16.0
Anticona diorite partial melting, its zircons
15.9
have not been dissolved. However the
Anticona diorite zircons have a distinctive
15.8 o! tn,~
feature in their uniform center (Fig. 1.8),
which does not appear anymore in zircon 15.7
from the Yantac and San Francisco
intrusions (Fig. 1.8). Therefore, the 15.6
interpretation of massive zircon inheritance
from the Anticona diorite can be rejected. 15.5
16 18 20 22 24 26
206 Pbl04 Pb

The absence of dissolution textures in the 20sPb/'04p b

San Francisco and Yantac zircons indicate 42


also that zircons had no contact with a
magma undersaturated in Zr between 14 41 ph ji ,<2,z;.

and 9 Ma ago. Due to the chemical


composition of the Domo de Yauli
40
intrusions (Table 2), and especially their
low Zr concentration, the temperature of
zircon saturation remained below 800°C 39
(Watson and Harrison, 1983). Such low
temperatures of magma imply a very rapid 38
cooling. To keep a magma chamber above 16 18 20 22 24 26
the solidus temperature but below 800°C, 216 04
P b/' Pb
continuous injection of new magma is
necessary, which is probably not
reasonable. The hypothesis of a long-living Fig. 1 13: 207PbP 04Pb vs 206 PbP 04Pb and 207PbP 04 Pb
magma chamber lasting from the Anticona vs 206PbP 04Pb plot summarizing Pb data of Peru.
diorite to the Yantac events is therefore Precambrian rocks and Quatemary volcanic rocks
doubtful. The multiple concordant ages from the Arequipa Massif data are from Tilton and
between 9 and 14 Ma (Figs. 1.8b and c) is Barreiro (1980), Coastal Batholith data are from
then best exp1ained by inheritance from Mukasa (1986b), Miocene data are from Gunnesh
successive magmatic bodies partially et al. (1990), MacFarlane and Petersen (1990),
molten by temporally distinct pulses, one Soler (1991) and Fontboté and Bendezu (2001).
of them resulting in the formation of the Data from the Mitu Group, Excelsior phyllites and
magma chamber and its related San the Domo de Yauli intrusions (black square) are
Francisco and Y antac cupolas. The from this study (Table 1. 3). Orogene and Upper
resulting magma has never attained a Crus t curves are from Zartman and Doe (19 81).
temperature above 800°C, suggesting
incoming of an intermediate to acidic
component.
48

Are Precambrian rocks involved Neodymium and strontium isotope data


in the generation of Miocene from Domo de Y auli intrusive rocks lie
magmatism? along the trend defined by analyses from
Soler (1991) and Petford et al. (1996) for
other Miocene intrusions of the Western
Cordillera (Fig. 1.6). These authors have
The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of explained this trend either by modification
the Chumpe zircon indicate presence of of mantle derived magmas by AFC-MASH
inherited cores (Fig. 1.8), that must processes or heterogeneities from the
probably linked to the U/Pb analyses subcontinental lithospheric mantle.
indicating zircons with inherited However, mixing trend defined between
components of different age range from 57 the depleted mantle (DMM), or the
to 265 Ma (Fig. 1.9d and Table 1.4). "Andean mantle" pole as defined by
However, U/Pb analyses of the Chumpe Lucassen et al. (2002) on one hand, and
intrusion are not the only ones analyses of "South American Precambrian
demonstrating presence of inherited cores crust" (James, 1982) on the other hand,
since sorne analyses of the San Francisco plot close to our analyses (Fig. 1.13). A
and Y antac intrusions also reveal mixing trend between mantle and granulite
discordias with upper intersect ages up to rocks as described by DePaolo et al. (1982)
1706 Ma (Figs. 1.9b and c). These cores would even fit closer with the analyses.
were not detected by the The three Pb isotopie analyses of Miocene
cathodolumiscence, it must be due to the magmatic rocks plot closely together into
small number of CL images (Fig. 1.8) in the field of "Miocene intrusions" (Soler,
comparison to the number of analysed 1991; Peford et al., 1996). Therefore, they
zircons (Table 1A). Paleozoic ages can be do not indicate any influence of
explained by zircon incorporated from the Precambrian rocks in the generation of
surrounding rocks, as evidenced by Domo de Yauli magmatism (Fig. 1.13),
foliated xenoliths in the Anticona diorite which can be due to the very low
(Fig. 1.4b), probably originating from the concentration of Pb in Precambrian rocks
metamorphosed detrital sequence of the (15 ppm; James, 1982) in comparison of
Paleozoic Excelsior Group. However a the upper crust rocks. On the other hand,
Precambrian inheritance remains more an influence of the highly radiogenic
enigmatic. Indeed, a Precambrian phyllites from the Excelsior Group can be
basement has never been documented in excluded in view of the isotope data shown
the Western Cordillera of Central Peru and in Figure 1.13. Precambrian rocks
the closest Precambrian basement known influence is moreover confirmed by initial
to date is located in the Eastern Cordillera Hf isotopie compositions of the dated
(Dalmayrac et al., 1980). However, the zircons, which scatter around an ~::Hf of
upper intercept of discordia lines and zero (Fig. 1.1 0); they thus suggest a hybrid
decreasing initial 176Hf/ 177 Hf ratios with melt source of mantle and crust
increasing 206PbP 38 U ages (Fig. 1.1 0) argue components, which remained virtually
strongly in favor of a Precambrian origin identical throughout 8 million years of
for sorne zircon cores. Old cores can be magmatism. Despite high-~::Hr melt inputs,
explained in two ways, either rocks of the contribution of partial melts from
Precambrian age exist underneath the the underlying Proterozoic basement in the
Domo de Y auli or the cores represent generation of the Miocene magmatism of
detrital zircons derived from the Excelsior the Domo de Y auli is documented by
Group. relatively uniform Hf depleted mantle
modelages of around 1.0 Ga (Table 1. 4).
49

1140 ~ '" Ma (U/Pb)

:~~
....
525 '' Ma,16Q4 • 60:H Ma
(U/Pb inter.) ------'~

395 ' ' ' ·'• Ma, 1147 •.,_.,. Ma (U/Pb •••
••
1198 ·•.-• Ma, ca. 1900 Ma (U/Pb into•r""'r"""

1918'" Ma (Rb/Sr iso.)


720 ' ~ Ma, 1910 , ,. Ma (U/Pb inte
970 ~ 23 Ma, ca. 1900 Ma (U/Pb
152 ' ' Ma, 1697 "''"·"r Ma (U!Pb inter.)

Fig. 1 14: Map of Peru showing Precambrian outcrops of the Eastern Cordillera and the Arequipa Massif, the
Coastal batholith and Cenozoic intrusions, modified after Pitcher and Cobbing (1985). Precambrian age data
from Shackleton et al. (1979), Dalmayrac et al. (1980), Mukasa (1986a), Mukasa and Henry (1990) and
Wasteneys et al. (1995). inter: intercept, iso: isochrone.

Conclusions intermediate compositiOn and relatively


low temperature (<8ûû 0 C) as indicated by
the absence of dissolution textures on
zircon. Petrological features, such as
The intrusion of the Domo de Yauli area reaction rims or plagioclase zonations,
and their related ore deposits have different point out the presence of a magmatic
ages indicating successive short-lived chamber sustained by repeated injections
magmato-hydrothermal systems. Those of new magma which may have generated
pulses are the results of a continuous the successive mineralising felsic cupolas.
magmatic activity, characterized by We therefore conclude that the particular
successive injections of new magma of
50

high abundance of economie orebodies at


Morococha is the result of overprinting Acknowledgments
hydrothermal systems of different ages. As
multiple centers of intrusion and
mineralising fluid have already been We gratefully acknowledge the Volcan
demonstrated in other porphyry-style Compania Minera which provided access
deposits (Marsh et al., 1997; Ballard et al., to underground exposures and support
200 1; Gustafson et al., 2001 ), it seems to during fieldwork. We thank also Les
be a important condition to form districts Oldham and the Anglo-Peruana company
with high abundance of economie ore for advice, criticism and help during
bodies. fieldwork. The help of I. Ivanov during
separation of zircon, A . von Quadt for
U/Pb analyses and Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes TIMS maintenance, M . Frank for Hf
evidence that old inherited zircon cores analyses and D . Gebauer for zircon
have their origin in Precambrian rocks cathodoluminescence are kindly
likely present underneath the Domo de acknowledged. This study was supported
Yauli area. The question remains if this by the Swiss National Science Foundation
underlying basement is part of the (Grant n°2000-062000.00).
Arequipa or the Amazonian craton .
Extensive regions of old basement are
exposed immediately south of the A ban cay
deflection but do not crop out to the north
(Fig. 1.14). However, an extremely thin References
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Metallogeny and plate tectonics, Geological Watson, E.B. and Harrison, T.M. (1983):
Association of Canada Special Paper, vol. Zircon saturation revisited: temperature and
14, p. 59-100. composition effects in a variety of crustal
Soler, P. (1991 ): Contribution à 1' étude du magma types. Earth Planet. Sei. Lett., vol.
magmatisme associé aux marges actives - 64, p. 295-304.
Pétrographie, géochimie et géochimie Zartman, R.E. and Doe, B.R. (1981):
isotopique du magmatisme Crétacé à Plumbotectonics the model.
Pliocène le long d'une transversale des Tectonophysics, vol. 75, p. 135-162.
Andes du Pérou Central - implications
géodynamiques et métallogéniques. Thèse
54
55

CHAPTER II: Lineament control on Miocene ore

formation in Central Peru, the Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu San

Cristobal example

S.Beuchat and R. Moritz


Section des Sciences de la Terre, University of Geneva, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland

Abstract

Due to several overprinting tectonic events, lineaments are striking features of the
Andean Cordillera of Central Peru and their influence as channel-ways for rising magma
or fluids is documented from the Coastal to the Subandean Zones. However, structural
models of the Miocene metallogenic belt of Central Peru fail to show their control on ore
formation. The Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu San Cristobal district, localised in the Domo de Yauli
structure, is typical of this belt with numerous polymetallic veins and carbonate
replacement ore bodies. The area is mainly composed of Paleozoic phyllites of the
Excelsior Group, Permo-Triassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Mi tu Group,
Triassic-Jurassic limestone of the Pucara Group, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks.
Incaic compression everits have produced isoclinal folds, ramp thrusts in the sedimentary
cover rocks and a NE-SW fracture system which crosscuts the entire Domo de Yauli.
This fault system was mineralised in association to the intrusion of the Chumpe magma
during Late Miocene. The orientation of the veins is highly variable and rotates from N
30° W easterly toN 90° W westerly. The carbonate replacement ore bodies are generally
stratiform but show clear features of discordance. Three-dimensional representations of
ore bodies and associated veins show that these discordant features and the highest grades
are related to the prolongation of veins into the carbonate rocks. Finally major lineaments
are present in the basement and affect the morphology of the who le area. The position of
a 120 oriented lineament coïncides with the emplacement of the major ore deposits of the
San Cristobal district.

Orientation data were collected for dilatant veins, Miocene dykes and altered striated
faults in order to define the paleostress associated with the mineralisation event. In this
study, the inverse method was applied to determine the local stress tensors of different
parts of the Domo de Yauli area. Determination of paleostress related to the Miocene
magmatic event indicates a heterogeneous compression field shifting from E-W to N-S
56

from east to west. The rotation of the main compression orientation occurred across a
120° ~riented basement lineament. lt reveals the active role of strike-slip movement along
su~h.lmeaments as a control for the formation of ore deposits in the Domo de Yauli area.
Ongms of these lineaments are difficult to defme, nonetheless, numerous structural
features of the same orientation in the Mitu Group indic ate that their origin probably date
at least back to the Permian rifting.

Introduction This study is focused on the San Cristobal


district located in the Domo de Yauli
'
11 Okm east of Lima in the Western
Cordillera of Peru (Fig. 2.1 ). This mining
The Andean Cordillera has been subject to
district is part of the Mio cene metallo genie
numerous orogenie periods from the
belt of Central Peru (Noble and McKee,
Proterozoic to the present (Mégard, 1984
1999) and is close to other polymetallic
and 1987; Jaillard et al., 2000). These
districts such as Morococha and Casapalca
multiple periods of deformation have
(Petersen, 1965). It is a classical vein and
formed lineaments that are believed to be
carbonate replacement polymetallic ore
the surface expression of deep-crustal
deposit district. Initially, Petersen ( 1965)
structures, which may provide channels for
and later Bartlett (1984) suggested that
magmas and fluids (Richards, 2000). In the
veins and carbonate replacement deposits
Andes, lineaments of numerous
were contemporaneous and Miocene in
orientations have played a role during
age. Due to the stratiform geometry of the
geodynamic processes and are generally
ore bodies, also called mantos a
revealed by alignments of volcanoes '
synsedimentary model was more recently
(Matteini et al., 2002) or intrusive bodies
invoked, suggesting a Mesozoic syngenetic
(Petford and Atherton, 1992). In Central
origin for the mantos followed by Tertiary
Peru, structures with a 120° orientation are
vein formation (Dalheimer, 1990; Kobe,
often documented. During the Late
1990a). However, recent studies in the
Cretaceous, normal faults of this
Domo de Yauli area (Moritz et al., 200 1)
orientation may have formed channels for
have shown that carbonate replacement
rising magmas in the Coastal Zone (Fig ..
deposits and veins have similar sulfur and
2.1; Polliand, 2002). Whereas, on the
lead isotopie compositions suggesting that
eatem side of the Cordillera, in the
they were deposited from the same
Subandean Zone (Fig. 2.1 ), faults with the
hydrothermal fluid. This contrasts with the
same orientation have controlled the
previous synsedimentary interpretations by
deposition of sedimentary rocks of the
Dalheimer (1990) and Kobe (1990a).
Pucara Group (Hasler, 1998) and displaced
Polymetallic veins yield 40 Ar/39Ar ages of
ore bodies of the MVT type deposit of San
4.90 ± 0.15 Ma obtained on sericite from
Vicente (Davila et al., 2000). Therefore
wall rock alteration selvages (Beuchat et
120° lineaments may exist across the
al., 2001 b) that attribute the formation of
whole Andean Cordillera of Central Peru
' ore deposits to the late Miocene
however they have never been documented
compressional tectonic phase named
in the Western Cordillera and their
Quechua 3 or F5 according to Sébrier et al.
influence on Miocene ore formation has
(1988).
never been demonstrated.
57

only based on the orientation of the


different faults, which, in most cases, were
not created during mineralisation processes
but only reactivated preexisting faults.

This study uses a detailed structural


analysis to constrain the paleostress
associated to the formation of ore deposits
in the San Cristobal district and helps to
discriminate between the Coulomb-
Anderson model of pure shear and the
Riedel model of simple shear (Fig. 2.2). It
also points out the influence of the 120°
lineament on ore formation and shows how
such a structural analysis can help in
identifying predominant structural features
in ore formation. Finally, the lineaments
origin and their influence are discussed.

Fig. 2.1: Structural zoning of the Peruvian Andes


after Mégard (1987) and location of the study area.

The San Cristobal district and the Domo de


Yau li area have been the subject of
numerous stratigraphie (McLaughlin,
1924; Harrison, 1943; Wilson, 1963;
Szekely, 1967; Rosas, 1994) and
metallogenic studies (Petersen, 1965;
Bartlett, 1984; Campbell et al., 1984; A. Coulomb-Andeson model of pure shear
Kobe, 1990a; Dahleimer, 1990; Moritz et
al., 2001; Stucky, 2001; Lisboa, 2002;
Sallier, 2002). In contrast, the structural p
evolution of this region and the paleostress

1
associated to the ore formation have been
poorly studied. Lepry (1981) studied the


Devonian deformation in Paleozoic rocks
located in the central part of the Domo de
Y au li and the Eocene deformational pulses
that affected the entire Domo de Yauli
region producing north-northwest trending
folds and ramp thrusts in the sedimentary
cover rocks. Nevertheless, this author paid
B. Riedel madel of simple shear
less attention to the stress regime
associated to ore formation. The structural Fig. 2.2: A. Coulomb-Anderson madel of pure
model associated to the mineralising period shear, proposed by Pastor (1970) and Rivera and
generally admitted is a Coulomb-Anderson Kobe (1983) for the San Cristaobal district. B.
model of pure shear (Pastor, 1970; Rivera Riedel modelof simple shear. Modified after
and Kobe, 1983). However, this model is Sylvester (1988).
58

76°10'

o 5km
•••••
~ampthrust
E:+:+:J Tertiary Intrusions

1 1 Tertiary Formations
11; 1; 1; 1; l; 1li Cretaceous Formations
Pucarà Group

Mitu Group

Excelsior Group
Fig. 2.3: Simplified geological map of the Domo de Yauli area with location of the two mining districts and the
ramp thrusts of the fold and thrust belt. Location of Figure 2.4 is marked with blue dashed line.

Regional Geology The thickness of the Excelsior phyllites


cannot be estimated in this area. At Tarma,
Harrison (1943) estimated the thickness to
Stratigraphy be close to 2000m. The oldest identified
deformation that affected the Excelsior
phyllites is related to the Variscan orogeny
The Domo de Yauli is mainly composed of which "transformed portions of the
Paleozoic phyllites of the Excelsior Group, Devonian phyllites into tectonites pervaded
Permo-Triassic volcaniclastic rocks of the by passive folds, mullion structures and
Mitu Group, Triassic-Jurassic dolomitic crenulations cleavage" (Lepry, 1981). A
limestones of the Pucara Group, distinct angular unconformity exists
Cretaceous carbonate rocks and Miocene between the Excelsior phyllites and the
felsic intrusions (Fig. 2.3). The Excelsior overlying Mitu volcanic rocks. The Mitu
Group is the oldest rock unit exposed in Group is divided in two contrasting
the district and it crops out in the core of lithologies, it consists of red beds with
the Chumpe Anticline (Fig. 2.4). This is a conglomerates, sandstones and shales,
heterogeneous group, which includes intercalated with alkaline lavas and
shales, phyllites, limestones, quartzites, pyroclastic flows of probable continental
and basaltic flows where pillow lavas can origin (Mégard, 1978). A stratigraphie
be recognized in places (Kobe, 1990b). sequence of the Mitu Group can be
established in the San Cristobal area
59

showing an evolution from breccias with Tertiary igneous activity


numerous Excelsior clasts to andesite lava
flows with large phenocrysts, dacitic and Igneous rocks of Tertiary age are well
rhyolitic ash flows and finally aphanitic exposed in the Domo de Yau li area and are
lava flows (C. Astorga, pers. corn.). best represented in the Morococha mining
However this sequence cannot be district (Fig. 2.3). At San Cristobal, three
recognized in other places of the Domo de different intrusions have been recognized
Yauli area. Extreme lateral variations in namely the Carahuacra, San Cristobal and
thickness can be related to the Permo- Chumpe intrusions (Fig. 2.4). The
Triassic extensional tectonics as suggested Carahuacra intrusion bas been described by
by Kontak et al. (1985). The Triassic- Lyons (1968) and Bartlett (1984) and
Jurassic carbonate of the Pucara Group consists in a quartz monzonite, which
rests uncomfortably on the Mitu Group and shows seriate and porphyritic textures.
is composed of the Chambara, Aramachay Phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene
and Condorsinga Formations (Rosas, are set in a groundmass of plagioclase,
1994). The thickness of the Pucara Group pyroxene, quartz and orthoclase. The
is extremely variable, in the Domo de Carahuacra intrusion is altered to a
Yauli area it is close to 400m along its propylitic mineral assemblage with
eastern flank and can be as thin as 120m in formation of calcite, chlorite, sericite,
the San Cristobal district (Rosas, 1994). epi dote and clay minerais. Lyons ( 1968)
This difference in thickness bas raised the postulated that the Carahuacra intrusion
controversy whether the two lowest fed the flows of the Permian lava flows of
formations of the Pucarâ Group are present the Mitu Group, this assumption was
at the Domo de Yauli or not. According to contradicted by Lepry (1981) who found
Szeleky and Grose ( 1972) and Lepry crosscutting relationship between the
( 1981 ), the supposed absence of the intrusion and volcanic rocks. The unique
Chambara Formation could be explained radiometrie age existing on this intrusion is
by the result of non-deposition and/or post a whole rock K-Ar age of 43.5 ± 1.6 Ma
Chambara Formation erosion. Due to its obtained by Bartlett (1984) and is difficult
more clastic composition, the Aramachay to interpret due to the alteration. The San
Formation bas usually a higher content of Cristobal intrusion crops out in the vicinity
titanium than the two other formations of the mining camp (Fig. 2.4) and bas also
(Rosas, 1994). Therefore, the low titanium been recognized below the mining camp
concentrations in the carbonate rocks on by a recent drilling program. It consists of
the western flank of the Domo de Yauli an assemblage of plagioclase phenocrysts
may confirm the absence of the and relies of biotite and hornblende;
Aramachay and, by inference, the intense silicification and sericitization
Chambara Formations (Sallier, 2002). affect the whole intrusion. The Chumpe
Stratigraphie markers such as tuffs and intrusion consists of a "series of small plugs
basalts are hosted by the Pucara Group and and dykes which have been intruded in the
can be recognized over the whole Domo de core of the Excelsior Group (Fig. 2.4). By
Yauli area (Bartlett, 1984; Rosas, 1994; crosscutting relationship, it is the
Rosas et al., 1997). The Pucani Group is structurally youngest intrusion of the
overlain by different Cretaceous units of district and also the most altered. The
carbonate composition (Wilson, 1963). primary mineralogy cannot be defined due
to the intense sericitic alteration. Less
altered samples show rounded crystals of
quartz and relies of biotite and amphibole
entirely altered to chlorite, epidote and
60

carbonate. The Chumpe intrusion has been and usually with a normal displacement.
dated at 6.6 (+ 11-3.6) Ma by the U/Pb These major transverse faults are
method on zircon (Beuchat et al., 2001 ). associated to a set of conjugate faults with
See Chapter I for more detailed strike-slip motion (Fig. 2.4). The
descriptions of the Miocene intrusions. development of faults is highly influenced
by the rheology of the host rock. For
example, transverse faults are more
Andean deformation common in competent lithologies such as
andesites of the Mitu Group than in the
ductile phyllites of the Excelsior Group.
The orientation of these faults is highly
During the Eocene, the Incaic pulses of variable and rotates from N 30°E easterly
deformation affected the Domo de Y auli to N 90°E westerly (Figs. 2.4 and 2.5).
area producing north-northwest trending Deformation of the Domo de Y auli may
folds and ramp thrusts in the sedimentary either be influenced by old structures
cover rocks (Harrison, 1943; Mégart, inherited from the Variscan Orogeny
1978). The crosscutting fracture system (Lepry, 1981 ), from the Permo-Triassic
that affects the entire length of the Domo extensional tectonics (Kontak et al., 1985)
de Y auli may have been formed during the or from the Andean deformation. The pre-
same period. Two structural domains can existence of such structures are revealed by
be distinguished on Figure 2.3: (1) a fold the presence of regional scale lineaments.
and thrust belt located on the southwestem The more obvious ones are
flank of the Domo de Yauli, and (2) a geomorphologie features with a 35°, 50°
domain within the core of the Domo de and 120° orientation that can be clearly
Y auli, characterized by an overprint of the traced on satellite images (Fig. 2.6). Faults
pre-existing Paleozoic fabrics. The fold with these orientations are rarely
and thrust belt is oriented N 25° W and encountered on the ground and are only
deformation affects all formations younger found in Paleozoic rocks; the 120° ones are
than the Excelsior Group. This belt generally accompanied by a meter large
contains a large number of ramp thrusts alteration halo. The relative motion of
that can be traced throughout the whole these 120° faults cannot be determined in
region and are named Ticlio, Poma, Ruri most cases, except east of Oyama (Fig.
and Pancar according to Lepry (1981) (Fig. 2.4) where slickenside. lineations indicate
2.3). They trend north-northwest and dip left lateral strike-slip. The importance of
steeply (50-80°) to the southwest. The these 120° structures as fluid channel-ways
displacement measured along the fault is emphasized by their alteration and by the
planes are generally on the order of 0.5km, fact that major ore bodies of the Domo de
with the exception of the Pancar thrust Y auli area are aligned along this lineament
which shows a displacement of up to 2km (Fig. 2.6).
(Lepry, 1981 ). Such displacements have
resulted in the juxtaposition of the Pucara
limestones and locally the Mitu volcanic
rocks in the upper plate against Cretaceous
carbonate rocks in the lower plate (Fig.
2.3). Folds are parallel to thrust faults.
Most anticlines and synclines generally
display near-vertical axial planes. The
folds are intimately associated to the major Fig. 2.4: Simplified geological map of the San
transverse faults of the region, which are Cristobal district and location of the principal ore
steeply dipping, perpendicular to fold axes bodies.
-1 ·"1 ,., --1 •1 ·1

'1...,

-v -
'1 -1 "1 -1 ...., -1 '1

~
~
#:2..
~
'1/ _, "~~
...··
- / , __/ ' 7 ~
'1 ,,
-1
-1 -1 '1 '1
" -1 '1
.....
;/;~u-:.
__....__., ;•.;p_C:>
-:;;;;.-

-L
-"1
'1 "
r ··:
'1
~
"-~
!

_,·
·"'
'1

_..
'
·'1 -'1
-
-1
-1
-1

•1
·'1

.,
.-1

•1
-~..,
'1

.
·1

,,

...., -'1 '1 ·1

'1 -1 ...., ".

•1" -, -1
'1 "

·1 ' 1 '1 "'1 ·1 ·1 '1 •1


' '1 '1
-; ·1 -1 ....,
"1 '1 ~
•1
- .....

A
.,.,. + ....."' .......
A~P
~-A
~- ....x ~'tJ.c ...................
.._
N "' k "'1
"'
' '
.....
-?<-.;t;;...
..v$
' .....

"
1
" " '1
- - '1
11
1
1
/
1
1
1
1
1
1 km 1
1
1

~~~
~
RS> - .:..--:.;.,j
~-
Tertiary Intrusions

Chulec Formation (Cret inf)


~
1 ~ \ '1
Pucan:\ Group (Tr,Ju)

Mitu Group (Permian)


----- Mineralized faults

Unmineralized faults
\~'>'-"/
/;;_ç_ô:>
-""'''''/ Name of principal ore bodies

Na me of Tertiary intrusions

~j_~f..··(:.f Goyllarisquizga Group (Cret inf) l_________ _j Excelsior Group (Pal. inf.) ~ Carbonate replacement ore bodies A-B: Figure 2.7 0\
62

and, and (3) a final quartz-carbonate-barite


stage (Fig. 2.8). Whereas faults crosscut
rocks of ali lithologies (Figs. 2.3 and 2.6),
Excelsior phyllites, Mitu volcanic rocks
and Tertiary intrusions host the large
majority of ore grade mineralisation. The
San Cristobal district can be subdivided in
two zones displaying veins with economie
importance: the Andaychagua and the San
Cristobal vein systems (Fig. 2.4). The
Andaychagua system is located on the
eastern flank of the Chumpe anticline,
immediately southeast of the intrusion
(Fig. 2.4). It is mainly composed of the
Fig. 2.5: Diagram (lower hemisphere, equal
Andaychagua vein, which crosscuts
projection area) with major transverse fault poles.
volcanic rocks of the Mitu group with a
Note their variable orientation from the Chumpe
mean orientation· of 120/80. Toward the
anticline western flank (white circle), to its crest
southwest, the vein, which can be as large
(gray circle) and toits eastern flank (black circle). as four meters in volcanic rocks, is hosted
by the Excelsior phyllites and tends to split
in numerous centimetric veinlets. This
horse-tail structure of the vein is not only
Ore deposits of the San associated with a change in the host
Cristoba/ district lithology but also with a small change in
orientation, since its orientation in phyllites
is doser to 150/70. Other accessory veins,
such as the Veta Prosperidad or Veta Puco
Two ore deposit types are recognized in
Urco, are part of the Andaychagua vein
the San Cristobal district: Zn-Pb-Ag veins
system (Fig. 2.4). By contrast, the San
and carbonate replacement bodies that are
Cristobal vein system is located on the
distributed around the Chumpe intrusion
western flank of the Chumpe Anticline and
(Figs. 2.3 and 2.6). See Chapter III for a
northwest in comparison to the
complete description of the different ore
Andaychagua vein system (Fig. 2.4). It is
types.
composed of severa} sub-parallel veins,
where the most important are the San
Cristobal and the 722 veins (Fig. 2.1 ). Due
Vein ore type to the higher competence of the volcanic
rocks, these veins have been preferably
exploited in the latter, where veins form
Nearly ali-major transverse faults present large and straight parallel structures.
in the San Cristobal district are mineralised However, old mining activity and surface
to sorne extent and the larger are exploited mapping in the Excelsior phyllites reveal
for Zn, Pb, Cu and Ag. The central part of changes in vein orientation in the central
the mining activity, where tungsten ore is part of the Chumpe Anticline (Figs. 2.3
prevalent, is nowadays no more exploited and 2.6). This orientation change may be
and inaccessible. Each vein has a similar related to the different vein opening
ore and alteration mineralogy. The direction that is indicated by crystal
paragenetic sequence can be separated in orientation of late stage (Fig. 2.8). The late
three main stages: (1) an early wolframite stage are antitaxial massive veins of
stage, (2) an important base-metal stage carbonate and quartz III with sharp
63

DIST!liTO MINERO YAULI - TICLIO

Fig. 2.6: Satellite imagery of the Domo de Yauli with the position of one of the 120° geomorphologie features
and the location of the principal ore deposit of the sou them Domo de Yauli.
64

A B
sw NE
sc:_oom !~UY._êL 120
, , _NIVEL 170
' , NIVEL 220
' ,. NIVEL270
NIVEL320
NIVEL 370
NIVEL 430
• !:Jl'((OL 500
NIVEL 580
NIVEL 630

NIVEL 730
SAN CRISTOBAL INTRUSION CHUMPE
INTRUSION

E:~=~~ Tertiary Intrusions 1,. ,. " "1 Mi tu Group 1·-·· · ) 1 Quaternary

Pucara Group Excelsior Group Mineral extracted

Fig: 2,-7: ~on~itudinal section of the San Cristobal vein and composite map of the minèd levels revealing the
vanahon m onentation of the San Cristobal vein. See location on Figure 2.4.

boundaries. Unfortunatly the large amount model of pure shear (Fig. 2.2), which does
of secondary fluid inclusion has strongly not explain such a variation on vein
disturbed the crystals and no trails orientation. Moreover, the vein orientation
representing the crack seal events have change is not the only features unexplained
been discovered. Quartz III oblique by the model proposed by Pastor (1970)
crystals in comparison of vein selvage and Rivera and Kobe (1983). For example,
orientations indicate constant direction in the lithology displacements along the
each studied vein. They are then thought to major transverse faults display contrary
represent the opening direction of the vein. sinistral and dextral sense of motions
A probable N-S opening for the depending on the side of the Chumpe
Andaychagua vein and an approximately Anticline (San Cristobal vein, Fig. 2.3).
E-W opening for the Veta 722 is therefore Accesory small vein systems occur at the
deducted (Fig. 2.9). Data are scarce and are SE of the San Cristobal-Andaychagua
only indicative on the quartz crystallization district; they are named Aerolito and
that pertains to the last stage of the Soraya (Fig. 2.6).
paragenesis (Fig. 2.8). No data are
available for the earlier stages of
mineralisation due to the irregular grain
fabrics. However, it raises doubts about the
65

Quartz
....____
......................._....
lia lib Ill

WoJran'ite
MU$è(Wite

Chabopyrte
Arseoo pyrtte
Sp hal erite

Gal ena
-
Frelleqjte Il
Pyrarwrite
Bismulhinite

·-·
Argentite

MIHioh siderite,
ankerte,nhôdochnJSie
DicWt~ lill
Modifiad aftar CampbaJI (1984),
Bari te stuoky (2001) and Lisboa (2002)

EARLY 1 BASE METAL LATE


STAGE STAGE STAGE
Fig. 2.8 : Paragenetic sequence of the San Cristobal vein.

ANDAYCHAGUA VEIN

722VEIN

Fig. 2 9: Diagram (lower hemisphere, equal projection area) showing the orientation of la te automorphous quartz
from the Andaychagua vein (crosses) and Veta 722 (black diamonds).
66

-
· Distribution of Zn grade Distribution of Pb grade
2to 5 %Zn 0.25 to 0.50 %Pb
5to 10%Zn 0.50 to 1.00 %Pb
> 10 %Zn 1.00to 2.00 %Pb -
>2.00%Pb -

+ 9•0! 00
+
i=' J:::tn!l!f~lJIJ.:Oeo!.
::!~14::,.

llmJJI .___ _.__


c=::=Joom
__._ _. . . _ _....._ _...__ _.__ ___.

lw:llOJ» ltlŒU» 1rxo.œ

Distribution of Cu grade Distribution of Ag grade


0.1 to 0.2 %Cu 1 to 2 Oz/TM Ag CJ
0.2 to 0.3 %Cu - 2to50ziTMAg -
>0.3%Cu - >50z!TMAg -

+ +
Ptl'YH.''t iMr ~.-.rf~•
)':i-11:

16Qû

Fig. 2.10: Plan view illustrating the position of carbonate replacement ore bodies with respect to the orientation
of the major Toldorumi vein. Isovalues of the carbonate replacement ore (Toldorumi Sur, see location on Fig. 2.
1) are obtained by krigeage on 315 drillcore samples (black dots) . The orientation of the Toldorumi vein system
is extrapolated from surface mapping information and exploration drillholes intersection.

veins. The emplacement of mantos


Carbonate replacement ore type coïncides with the location where veins
crosscut the carbonate rocks (Figs. 2.3 and
2.6). Ore bodies are generally bed-parallel
Zn-Pb-Ag carbonate replacement deposits
but show clear features of discordance
are hosted by the basal limestone of the
such as breccia pipe-like characteristics
Pucani Group along the contact with the
(Sallier, 2002). Three-dimensional
underlying Mitu Group (Fig. 2.1), and have
representations of ore bodies and
a close mineralogical composition as the
67

associated veins show that these discordant Y auli area, indicating that carbonate
features and the highest grades are related replacement deposits and veins have
to the prolongation of veins into the similar sulfur and lead isotopie
carbonate rocks (Fig. 2.1 0). It may indicate compositions suggesting that they were
the role played by veins as fluid channel- deposited from the same hydrothermal
ways during mineralisation. This confirms fluid (Moritz et al., 2001 ).
recent isotopie studies m the Domo de
n n
~ ü
A/\ /}:"'--, / 0 i
/l' '·\ // f.....~-;"'"1:'>., -;, ·-, --- ' -,, : 1
/ \ ///--~-:, ~:-~-- ~>·., ("-0 ' ,.__, '-. . ,' 1 /
/ \ l:~;;J;{/:;;--\ 1 ' ~' ·~> 'Jl' ! /

~
1 \i-:/:·1_- '-f // /A::::> \ -\... ,_Y;:/1\ / /
i f(/ \ -t;//f/ _____.- ' - \ \ ~'l~y \
.,. 9;:·(;,(~(--
« --;-/
j <~ \~ \, ----l~,
'-.!; \ / ~,::r--~:-- -. //
\,\
\, Y;
//, \ • /' '-. \,.--// " ).(1/
/; '<.\_ / .><.:>-~ _____/ \
""-.. . ._J''1!?' 0 '~r-------/
\ //.

:::r
·-..::-
... ___

-- Tf -
Hua ri ~m a

_,

0 a1
D a2
.6. o-3

Fig. 2.11: Map showing orientation of compression during the Miocene in the San Cristo bal district. Fault slip
data: diagrams (lower hemisphere, equal area projection) with fault as thin curves and slickensides lineations as
dots with double arrows (left or right lateral) or simple ones (normal or reverse fault) . Filled and open arrows
filled or not indicate high and medium confidence levels, respectively. Direction of compression and extension
are indicated as large gray arrows. Map symbol as in Fig. 2.4.
68

Paleostress determinations indicators as a function of the geologie unit


and the location about the Chumpe
anticline and the 120° lineament (Fig.
2.11 ). Thus, we have obtained Miocene
Methodology paleostress information on a surface of 20
km E-W by about 10 km N-S, covering
geological units from Excelsior Group to
Orientation data were collected from Mesozoic carbonate rocks and crosscutting
dilatant mineralised veins, dykes and the 120° lineament (Fig. 2.1 0). Three
striated faults. They were collected from locations are located far away from the
underground workings at San Cristobal and mineralised area (East of Oyama, East of
Andaychagua (Fig. 2.4) and they were Andaychagua, Pomacocha; Table 2.1 );
compared to data collected on surface. In they permit to test whether the paleostress
order to evaluate only the paleostress calculated in the mining area are perturbed
regime associated with Miocene by the magmatic and mineralising systems.
mineralisation processes and avoid data The location Soraya is one of the small
associated to earlier tectonic regime, data vein system located at the SE of the San
were only collected on fault planes Cristobal-Andaychagua district on the 120°
showing the same mineralogical lineament. Its determined paleostress
characteristics as the major polymetallic permits, first, to test again the consistency
veins. Indeed, faults opened during the of the paleostress at a large scale and,
Miocene mineralising event are secondly, to control the influence of the
recognizable due to the presence of 120° linement in an other location than the
mineral infill (especially quartz and the San Cristobal-Andaychagua district.
carbonate) and the alteration halo in the
adjacent wall rock (principally chlorite
and/or kaolinite, illite assemblages). Resu/ts
Particular attention was also paid to the
orientation of mineral development and
their relationship with brittle deformation.
The analysis is based on the concepts of Numerical results of paleostress
mechanical relationships between brittle determinations are summarized in Figure
features and paleostress orientation. In this 2.11 and Table 2.1. Miocene paleostress
study, regional paleostress orientations located on the eastern flank of the Chumpe
were determined on the basis of fault slip anticline, such as Oyama, east of Oyama
data using the inverse methods of Angelier and east of Andaychagua, corresponds to
(1989, 1994), after a solution of Sperner et an E-W compression (Fig. 2.11 and Table
al. (1993). The principle of the method is 2.1 ). The Soraya paleostress, which is the
to find the best fit between observed easternmost location on the 120° lineament
directions and senses of slip on faults and (Fig. 2.6) indicates a similar compression.
theoretical shear stress induced on these In contrast, the Miocene paleostress
planes by a common stress tensor. This located on the western flank indicates a cr 1
method has been applied in 11 different orientation close to N-S. This N-S
locations (Table 2.1 ); the selection of these compression is recognised regionally oon
locations has been principally based on the the western flank of the Domo de Y auli as
accessibility and the quality of the stress evidenced by analysis on the remote
tensor indicators. They have also been Pomacocha area (Fig. 2.3 and Table 2.1 ),
selected m order to provide a located 10 km west of San Cristo bal in the
representative network of paleostress fold and thrust belt. However, paleostress
calculations based on the Pomacocha data
69

Table 2.1: Paleostress results determined at the San Cristobal district

Location Rock Number of data a1 a2 a3 cp Angle

East of Oyama Mitu 29 079"/04" 185"/76" 348"/13" 0.28 4


East of Andaychagua Mitu 14 075" /01" 344"/46" 166"/34" 0.34 17
Laguna Chumpe Excelsior 14 218"/"12 125"/16" 343"/70" 0.41 14
Huaripampa Pu ca ra 17 176"/11" 038"/76" 268"/09" 0.55 11
Moises Pu ca ra 13 226"/19" 317"/02" 053"/71" 0.30 18
Veta San Cristobal Mitu 12 197"/11" 090"/56" 293"/31" 0.40 12
Pomacocha Cretaceous 12 008"/09" 271"/37" 110"/51" 0.42 7
Oyama Mi tu 11 056"/30" 158"/21" 278"/52" 0.67 12
Soraya Mitu 11 097" /05" 006"/07" 224"/81" 0.17 4
Veta 722 Mitu 10 356" /18" 127"/64" 259"/18" 0.47 24
Toldorumi Mitu and Pucara 10 191"/17" 068"/60" 289"/24" 0.07 3

Location as on Figure 7, <Il= (cr2-a3}/(al-a3), Angle: Mean value of angle between data and paleostress orientation

should be taken with care. As explained magma. Up to 95% ofdata collected are in
above, data are only collected where agreement with the paleostress calculated
alteration and/or mineralisation indicate for each location. Nevertheless, in sorne
that the analyzed fault acted as a channel locations, the inverse method of
for fluids during the studied period. Even if calculation finds a few data that may
the structures observed in Pomacocha ohey indicate a paleostress with permutation of
to these two criteria, their timing remains cr1 and cr3 axes. Such data are in ali cases
ambiguous. Indeed, Pomacocha is located issued from fibers of carbonate, which are
not only 10 km west of the studied San generally interpreted as the latest
Cristobal district but also 10 km south of movement since carbonates appear at the
another major mmmg district, the end of the mineral paragenesis (Fig. 2.8). It
Morococha district (Fig. 2.3). Since the could be a sign of the paleostress
Morococha and San Cristobal districts are relaxation at the end of the mineralising
of different ages (Beuchat et al., 2001a), pro cess.
the timing and the origin of the fluid
channel-ways, and by inference the
paleostress calculation, are then Discussion and conclusions
ambiguous.

The rotation of the cr 1 orientation is


probably the most distinctive feature on The paleostress orientations calculated
Figure 2.11. In addition the data in Table 1 from the collected data over the whole San
also show: ( 1) the permutation of the cr2 Cristobal district indicate a distinct change
and cr3 axes at Oyama, Laguna Chumpe in cr 1 orientation whether they are located
and Soraya (Fig. 2.11 and Table 2.1) and, on the western (cr1 ~ N-S) or eastern flanks
(2) ~ values, (cr2-cr3)/(cr1-cr3), are higher (cr 1 ~ E-W) of the Chumpe Anticline (Fig.
for data collected close to the Chumpe 2.11 ). This paleostress rotation is
intrusion (Figs. 2.3 and 2.1 0). It indicate an corroborated by the fact that the vein
increase of stress component parallel to the structures are not straight, but show
orientation of the Chumpe related dykes changes in their direction (Figs. 2.4 and
(Fig. 2.11) and may correspond to regional 2.6). Based on the regional geology (Fig.
effect due to the perturbation of the 2.4), this paleostress heterogeneity may
paleostress field by the intrusion of the have two different ongms: (1) the
70

difference in rheology between volcanic zone (Lacombe et al., 1993). From a


rocks of the Mitu Group and phyllites of metallogenic point of view, the importance
the Excelsior Group and, (2) the presence of such preexisting structures is confirmed
of crustal lineaments. As explained above, by the location of the principal ore deposits
if the change in cr 1 orientation is the most of the southern Domo de Yauli (Fig. 2.5)
obvious feature (Fig. 2.11 ), paleostress and also by the fact that faults parallel to
determinations also indicate a cr2 and cr3 this structure display an alteration halo.
permutation for the Laguna Chumpe, This may indicate that these structures
Oyama and Soraya location (Fig. 2.11 and have played an important role as fluid
Table 2.1 ). At the Laguna Chumpe channel-ways during mineralisation
location, the rocks are Exce1sior phyllites processes. Finally, the 6.6 Ma old Chumpe
(Table 1), therefore the cr2 and cr3 intrusion is strongly structurally oriented
permutation may effectively be imputed to and is mainly located on the western side
the lower ductility of such rocks. of the 120° lineament (Fig. 2.4).
Alternativelly, it coul be a result to a local Paleostress relative to this compartment
heterogeneity due to the emplacement of indicates a cr3 orientation concordant to the
the Chumpe intrusion. However, these two Chumpe intrusion dykes. It may indicate
explanations cannot be applied to the two InJection of the magma along an
other places, since they are composed of extensional fault. The presence of this
volcanic rocks of the Mitu Group and far intrusion close to the lineament may also
away from Miocene intrusion. On the other tell us that the magma has taken advantage
band, the three locations of axe of the high crustal permeability channels
permutations correspond roughly to the for ascent.
location of the 120° lineament and may be
interpreted as a result of its influence. As mentioned previously m the
Finally, this compression change across the introduction, lineaments of 120°
lineament is also documented by variations orientation are a common feature in
in orientation of quartz III of the late ore Central Peru. They have played a major
stage (Figs. 2.9 and 2.12), which indicates role as channels for Late Cretaceaous
aN-S opening at its eastern side and an E- magma emplacement in the Coastal Zone
W opening at its western side. However, (Fig. 2.1; Polliand, 2002) or as control on
this vein opening direction is only the deposition of sedimentary rocks of the
significant for the late ore stage and cannot Pucara Group (Hasler, 1998). Therefore,
be confirmed for the previous principal ore their influence can be shown over the
stages (Fig. 2.8). The calculated whole Andean Cordillera from the Coastal
paleostress from fault slip data being in zone to the Eastern Cordillera and from the
good agreement with the vein opening Cretaceous to the present. However, their
direction (Fig. 2.11 ), polymetallic ore of age and ongm remain difficult to
the San Cristobal district have been formed determine. While a study on the San
in a heterogeneous field of stress. Since the Cristobal district cannot answer alone to
rotation of the later coïncide to a 120° these questions, sorne constraints can be
lineament observed on satellite image (Fig. drawn. First of all, faults with a 120°
2.6), we therefore interpret the paleostress orientation are common in the Mitu Group
heterogeneity as a consequence of but absent in the younger formations. It
reactivation of this preexisting zone of may indicate a minimum age for this brittle
weakness. Such an influence of preexisting deformation. On the other side, such an
fractures or zones of weakness on strength orientation has not been documented in the
anisotropies have already been ductily deformed rocks of the Excelsior
demonstrated in other geological settings, Group (Lepry, 1981) suggesting at least a
such as the in the Rhine-Saone transform negligeable role of these structures during
71

the Variscan Orogeny. This age bracket districts are needed before drawing any
may suggest an origin of these 120° conclusion. In addition, such studies would
structures during the Permian rifting also define the compressional stress axis of
(Kontak et al., 1985; Sempere et al., 2002) the Quechua F5 phase and may help to
that propagated southward to Bolivia until understand the different shortening
the Dogger, but an older origin cannot be direction proposed for the W estem
excluded. Cordillera and the Altiplano, i.e. E-W and
N-S respectively (Sébrier et al., 1988).
This difference can have its ongm m
underlying deeper structures.

In conclusion, the influence of a lineament,


at least Permian in age, resulted in a strong
paleostress heterogeneity during Miocene
tectonics, which is both indicated by a
rotation of the cr 1 compression and by the
opening vein direction across the 120°
lineament (Fig. 2.12). This heterogeneous
Miocene paleostress is in agreement with
the other structural features, such as
orientations of vein and quatz III growth,
and, tends to indicate that the San Cristobal
Mean paleostress of each compartment represented as
focal mechanism,calculated from data in Table 2 1 veins and carbonate replacement systems
Shearing sense as indicated by fault slip data (Fig 2.11), were formed during a trans-tensional
lineament sense of shearing is deduced from faults parallel

1.---
to this structure stress. It reveals the active role of sinistral
strike-slip movement along such
Fig. 2.12: Structural sketch indicating principal
lineaments as a control for the formation of
structural components involved in the San Cristobal
ore deposits in the Domo de Yauli area.
Miocene paleostress. Not in scale.
This contrasts with the previous structural
Based on its mineralogy and age, the San model of simple shear by Pastor (1970).
Cristobal district belongs to the Miocene Influence of these 120° structures is
metallogenic 'belt of Central Peru ·(Noble common in Central Peru and date back at
and McKee, 1999), it differs with respect least to the Permian rifting.
to the majority of other deposits by the fact
that it is structurally located deeper.
Indeed, the majority of the other Acknowledgments
polymetallic are hosted by much younger
rocks than the phyllites of the Excelsior
Group (Petersen, 1965). This deep
We gratefully acknowledge the Volcan
structural setting, due to the dome structure
Compania Minera, which provided access
of the Domo de Yauli (Mégard, 1978),
to underground exposures and support
may have favored the influence of deep
during fieldwork. We thank also Les
crustal structures on the formation of the
Oldham and the Anglo-Peruana for the
San Cristobal ore deposits. Therefore it is
excellent mapping and help during
not certain that these 120° lineaments
fieldwork. Discussions and reviews by M.
influence is a common feature of the
Sartori are kindly acknowledged.
Miocene metallogenic belt of Central Peru
and detailed structural studies on other
72

Hasler, C.A. ( 1998): Facies Characterization


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75

CHAPTER III: The Zn-Pb-Ag San Cristobal district,

Central Peru: Isotope and Fluid inclusion constraints

S.Beuchat 1, R. Moritz 1 and T. Pettke2

1
Section des Sciences de la Terre, University ofGeneva, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland
2
lnstitute for Isotope Geochemistry and Mineral Resources, Federal Institute ofTechnology ETH, 8092 Zürich,
Switzerland

Abstract

The Zn-Pb±Ag±Cu San Cristobal district is located 100 km east of Lima in the Western
Cordillera of Peru. It is centred around the Chumpe intrusion (U/Pb age of 6.6 + 1;-3.6
Ma) and is composed of a vein type and a carbonate replacement ore type. Veins present
a paragenesis that can be subdivided into 3 phases: (a) an early wolframite-quartz-pyrite
stage, (b) a quartz-base metal stage and, (c) a late quartz-carbonate-barite stage. The
carbonate replacement ore bodies have a mineralogical assemblage that is similar to that
of the veins, with the only difference *at the early wolframite-quartz-pyrite stage is
absent and an important hematite stage is observed earl y in the paragenetic sequence.

Fluid inclusions in sphalerite and quartz are two-phase at room temperature, homogenise
to the liquid phase between 140 and 330°C and their salinities range between 0.4 and
6. 7wt% NaCl; rare inclusions contain an additional crystal of halite in the earl y stage and
yield a salinity of 44 to 50wt% NaCI. The vein data show a decrease in homogenisation
temperatures concomitant with a salinity decline. Additionally, the data from the
carbonate replacement ores show a wide variation in salinity of 3.3 to 14wt% NaCl at
constant homogenisation temperature. This can be explained either by mixing of the fluid
related to the vein system and a hot brine, or by boiling of the fluid migrating out of the
veins into the carbonate. Wolframite, galena and sphalerite from each ore type yield
e
similar lead isotopie compositions 06 PbF 04Pb = 18.676 to 18.840; 207PbF 04 Pb = 15.615
to 15.649; 208 PbF 04Pb = 38.704 to 38.827) and overlap with those of the Miocene
e
intrusions 06 PbF 04Pb = 18.698 to 18.761; 207PbF 04Pb = 15.635 to 15.669; 208 PbP 04Pb =
38.682 to 38.787). On the contrary, strontium isotopie compositions of carbonate and
barite are highly variable and too radiogenic to be explained by magmatic input only
76

87
( Sr/86 Sr = 0.712187 to 0.722782). lt may correspond to a predominantly magmatic fluid
followed by incoming of 87 Sr-enriched fluids. This evolution in two steps is consistent
with hydrogen and oxygen isotope data. Isotopie compositions of the fluid associated to
the first stages reveal a trend with constant &18 0 values with decreasing &D values (& 18 0 =
3.2 to 5.0 %o SMOW and &D = -60 to -112 %o SMOW), which is interpreted as a mixing
of a dominantly magmatic component with minor meteoric water equilibrated with the
host rocks. By contrast, ending stages bear isotopie characteristics defining a trend with a
conjugated decrease of &18 0 and &D (& 18 0 = -8.1 to 2.5 %o SMOW and &D =-57 to -91
%o SMOW) and that is rather explained by large admixture of meteoric water in the
system and subsequent mixing with the magmatic component.

These different fluid origins are confirmed by laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of the
three- and two-phase primary inclusions. The concentrations of the major ore elements,
i.e. W, Cu, Zn and Pb, decrease through the paragenesis and, W, and to a lesser extent Cu,
show high variations, associated to a steep decrease in concentration. The decreasing
concentrations can be explained by mineral deposition and differences in the rate of
decrease indicate selective precipitation. Fluid inclusions of the last stages show an
abrupt increase of Ba and Sr concentrations. lt points out a higher volume of silicate
alteration, probably due to the larger size of the fluid flow cell and is explained by the
input of a fluid from a different origin. LA-ICP-MS analyses show that the fluids were
already depleted in W and Cu before reaching the carbonates, whereas Zn and Pb were
still present in considerable amounts. This is again due to the selective precipitation and
tells us that the economically interesting metals were dominantly introduced by magmatic
fluids.

Introduction these deposits can be clearly shown to be


carbonate replacement deposits at the
periphery of igneous centres and, therefore,
they have been interpreted to be
High-temperature, carbonate-hosted genetically related to each othei- (Megaw et
massive sulfide ore deposits constitute a al., 1988; Bookstrom, 1990; Sillitoe and
distinctive genetic class recognized in Bonham, 1990; Titley, 1996). This
Cordilleran orogenie systems in the magmatic model has been disputed by
Western United States, Mexico and Peru sorne authors. For instance, Beaty et al.
(Einaudi, 1977; Megaw et al., 1988; Beaty (1990) have suggested that sorne
et al., 1990; Titley, 1996). Their carbonate-hosted base metal deposits ofthe
metallogenic characteristics are similar; Central Colorado Mineral Belt, U.S.A.
most consist of pyritic-rich ore with base- were initially formed by MVT-like
and precious-metal sulphide, they are processes and were later modified by
typically invariably hosted by carbonate igneous hydrothermal processes. A
rocks and are stratabound in character, but different model invokes synsedimentary
with clear features of stratigraphie processes based on the stratabound to
discordance, such as veining and breccia stratiform geometry of the carbonate-
pipes. Their genetic interpretation has been hosted deposits, as for instance in Central
a matter of debate, and a variety of Peru (Dalheimer, 1990; Kobe, 1990a).
different models have been invoked. As in Recent geochronological, isotopie and
the San Cristobal district, Peru, sorne of structural studies has demonstrated that the
77

SIMPLIFIED GEOLOGICAL MAP


OF THE SAN CRISTOBAL DISTRICT

N
-/
./
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
1 km

Tertiary Intrusions Mineralised veins

Chulec Formation Unmineralised faults

Goyllarisquizga Group Carbonate replacement ore bodies

Pucara Group Name of principal ore bodies

Mitu Group Na me of Tertiary intrusions

Excelsior Group A-B: Section of Figure 3.2

Fig. 3.1: Location of the San Cristo bal district, simplified geological map of the San Cristo bal district and
location of the vein systems and principal ore bodies.

entire San Cristobal district in Peru is product of a single hydrothermal fluid


related to Miocene magmatic activity evolving with distance from an intrusive
(Beuchat et al., 2001ab; Moritz et al., center (Sillitoe, 1976). However, recent
2001), syn-sedimentary and MVT-like field and geochemical data from a number
processes can then be excluded in this of North and Central American districts
case. have been interpreted in terms of magmatic
fluid and basinal brine mixing (Megaw et
al., 1996; Smith, 1996). Mineral
precipitation mechanisms have also been
In settings with an obvious magmatic subject to controversy as previous stable
genetic link, such deposits have isotopie data can be interpreted in terms of
traditionally been considered to be a mixing or fluid-rock interaction (Campbell
78

A 8
sw ~ <- 5000m
NE
:;;~e;=~::t~•_.:::r~ ~ ~ ~:0~~ ~~g ,
~~:::::==~:0..:.,,
:"'
' ,NIV EL 220
KWEl 270
•. NIVEL320
"i"""'f'""'"'-- KWEL370
"""""~..__ !:'!'{~L430
~------ N['i!':LSOO
_NI'{~L580
4500m. hJ'{i;_L 630

NN EL 730
SAN CRISTOBAL INTRUSION CHUMPE
INTRUSION

Tertiary Intrusions Mitu Group ::. : F.; 1 Quaternary

Pucarà Group Excelsior Group ,~ Mined mineralization

1 km

Fig. ~.2: Synthetic longitudinal section of the San Cristobal vein with location of fluid inclusion samples.
Locatton of the cross section on Figure 3.1.

et al., 1984; Heinrich, 1990). The San sedimentary rocks and Miocene intrusions
Cristobal district in Peru presents an (Fig. 3.1). The Excelsior Group is the
excellent opportunity to test whether fluids oldest rock unit exposed in the district and
of different origins are present or not, and, it crops out in the core of the Chumpe
on the other hand, the depositional Anticline (Fig. 3.1). This is a
mechanism involved in the precipitation of heterogeneous unit, which includes shales
phyllites, limestones, quartzites, and
'
ore. In this paper, we present a large set of
new isotopie and microthermometric and basaltic flows where pillow lavas can be
LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion data that argue recognized in places (Kobe, 1990b). A
strongly in favor of multi fluid-mixing distinct angular unconformity exists
processes. However, this study shows that, between the Excelsior phyllites and the
if fluids from different origins have overlying Mitu volcanic rocks. The
affected the entire area, base metals in that Triassic-Jurassic carbonate of the Pucara
district were mainly provided by a Group rests unconformably on the Mitu
magmatic fluid. Group, it is intensively brecciated at its
base. The Pucani Group is overlain by
different sedimentary Cretaceous units. See
Chapter II for a more detailed description
Geo/ogical setting of the different units.
Igneous rocks of Tertiary age are well
exposed in the Domo de Yauli area and are
Regional Geology best represented in the Morococha district.
At San Cristobal, three different intrusions
have been recognized: these are the
The San Cristobal district is located Il 0 Carahuacra, San Cristobal and Chumpe
km east of Lima in the Western Cordillera intrusions (Fig. 3.1). 40 Ar/39Ar and
(Fig. 3.1 ). It is mainly composed of structural data indicate that ore processes
Paleozoic phyllites of the Excelsior Group, are temporally related to the Chumpe
Permo-Triassic volcaniclastic rocks of the intrusion dated at 6.6 (+ 11-3.6) Ma by
Mitu Group, Triassic-Jurassic carbonate U/Pb of zircons (Beuchat et al., 2001 ). It
rocks of the Pucani Group, Cretaceous consists of a series of small plugs and
79

lia lib Ill


Quartz
1 • •1111
• ------.ça----~-·
_ _ __
Pyrite

Wolf ra mite

Muscovite

Chalcopyrite

Arse no pyrite

Sphalerite

Gale na
-
Freibergite Il

Pyrargyrite

Bismuthinite

Argentite

Mn-rich siderite,
ankerite, rhodochrosite
~--
Dickite 1111
Modified after Campbell (1984),
Ba rite Stucky (2001) and Lisboa (2002)

EARLY 1 BASE METAL LATE


STAGE STAGE STAGE

Mn-rich siderite

Hematite

Quartz

Pyrite
Fe rich Fe poor
Sphalerite 11111111
Chalcopyrite

~~----1
Gale na

Pyra rgirite 1111111


Tertahedrite 1111111
Marcasite

Magnetite

Ba rite

Dickite
Native silver
-
1111111111111111

Covellite
Modified after Bartlett (1984)
Mn oxides and Sallier (2002)

EARLYI
1STAGE BASE METAL THIRD
1SUPERGENE 1
STAGE STAGE STAGE

Fig. 3.3: Paragenetic sequences from veins (up) and carbonate replacement ore bodies (down)
80

Fig. 3.4: Ore sample of the veins. (a) Early stage showing vein of quartz and wolframite crosscutting massive
pyrite. Sample CHU-1 . (b) Small crystals ofwolframite (wf) hosted in chalcopyrite (cp) ofthe base metal stage.
Sample DY-603. (c) and (d) Typical concretion texture on two different scales indicating repetitive mineral
deposition. Samples 722-1, SC-11 . (e) Breccia texture with clast of the base metal stage consisting of sphalerite,
gal ena and quartz, set in a matrix of carbonate and trace amount of barite. Sample SC-1 . (f) Breccia texture on a
small scale showing becciation event during the time of the base metal stage. Sample CARMEN-2.

dykes which have been intruded along the 105 MT Pb, 4.6 * 105 MT Cu et 2.1 * 108
axis of the Chumpe anticline (Fig. 3.1). oz Ag (R. Bendezu, pers. comm.).
See Chapter 1 for a more detailed
description of the Tertiary intrusions. Vein ore type
Two ore deposit types are recognized in
the San Cristobal district: Zn-Pb-Ag veins
and carbonate replacement bodies. Their Nearly ali-major transverse faults present
cumulative production during the 20th in the San Cristobal district are mineralised
century attained 1.9 * 106 MT Zn, 6.4 * to sorne extent and the larger ones are
81

presently exploited for Zn, Pb, Cu and Ag. pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and
Whereas faults crosscut rocks of ali quartz (Figs. 3.3 and 3.4c-f). Accessory
lithologies (Figs. 3.1 and 3.2), vein ore minerais include marcasite, pyrrhotite,
type is restricted to Excelsior phyllites, arsenopyrite, freibergite, boulangerite,
Mitu volcanic rocks and Tertiary allabandite, bismuthinite, argentite,
intrusions. The San Cristobal district can pyrargirite and stannite (Stucky, 2001;
be subdivided in two zones displaying Lisboa, 2002). Brecciation and concretion
veins with economie importance, the textures are common (Figs. 3.4c-f), and the
Andaychagua and the San Cristobal vein sequence of precipitation within the base
systems (Fig. 3.1). These vein systems are metal stage is partly repetitive (Fig. 3.3).
composed of series of sub-parallel veins, During the year 2000, ore grades were
see Beuchat and Moritz (in prep.) for a around 6.1 wt% Zn, 1.1 wt% Pb, 0.24 wt%
detailed description of the vein system and Cu and 3.5 oz/T Ag (Volcan, 2001). These
the structural features. Veins from the ore grades are highly variable, since the
Andaychagua and the San Cristobal ore minerais are not equally distributed.
systems have a similar mineralogie and For example, Cu ore is highly enriched at
paragenetic sequence (Fig. 3.3). However the contact between the volcanic rocks of
studies on specifie veins reveal small the Mitu Group and the Excelsior phyllites.
discrepancies in the accessory phases, such However, zonation of ore grade, as pointed
as presence of wolframite or Ag-bearing out by Pastor (1970), was not confirmed by
sulfosalts (Campbell et al., 1984; Stucky, detailed studies on the 722 and
2001; Lisboa, 2002). This is probably due Andaychagua veins (Stucky, 2001; Lisboa,
to the position of the studied locations 2002). Finally, the last stage is mainly
relative to the Chumpe intrusion. Detailed composed of large crystals of
investigations of hand-specimen, polished automorphous quartz associated to the
and thin sections indicate a depositional deposition of carbonates such as
sequence that can be subdivided in three rhodochrosite, Mn-rich siderite and
main stages (Fig. 3.3). The early stage, ankerite (Figs. 3.3, 3.4c and 3.4e). Close to
known as tungsten ore, is characterized by the contact between volcanic rocks and
tabular crystals of wolframite and limestones, they crystallize in vugs and
automorphous crystals of pyrite, generally develop nice rhomboedric crystals and may
enclosed in quartz (Fig. 3.4a). The quartz be followed by deposition of barite. In
is milky and shows undulatory extinction other locations they form rather colloform
in thin section. Sorne crystals in pressure textures and, instead of barite,' small
shadows of pyrite and/or wolframite show pockets of dickite are present.
no sign of deformation. Trace amounts of
sericite and augelite can be observed in
places (Campbell et al., 1984). The
Hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic
distribution of this early stage is directly
rocks of the Mitu Group and the Miocene
linked to the proximity with the Chumpe
intrusion adjacent to the veins consist
intrusion, as already observed by Pastor
principally in two types of alteration,
(1970). For example, tungsten ore is totally
defined sericite-argillic and chloritic. The
absent in veins that do not crosscut the sericite-argillic alteration is recognized in a
Chumpe intrusion. In the rare places where
zone of a few meters and results in the
very small wolframite grains are observed,
conversion of primary plagioclase, biotite
they show brecciation textures and are
and amphibole into sericite, kaolinite and
surrounded by the base metal stage (Fig.
dickite (Fig. 3.4g). Sericite has been dated
3.4b ). The base metal stage is
by Beuchat et al. (200 1b) at 4. 78 ± 0.16
volumetrically by far the most important
Ma. This zone is also correlated with the
and is dominated by the precipitation of
82

pervasive development of pyrite. As


already noted by Pastor (1970), the volume Carbonate replacement ore type
of the sericite-argillic alteration decreases
westwards. The chloritic alteration is up to
tens of meters wide and characterized by Zn-Pb-Ag high-temperature carbonate
the development of chlorite and carbonate. replacement deposits are hosted by the
carbonate rocks of the Pucarâ Group and
14
occur along the contact with the underlying
Mitu Group; their position coïncides with
300
the location where veins extend from the
Mitu rocks into the Pucarâ limestones (Fig.
250
3.1) (Bartlett, 1984; Dalheimer, 1990).
Ê0.. Even if the early tungsten ore present in
200 8 veins crosscutting the Chumpe intrusion is
ë<J)
ë
0
totally absent in the carbonate replacement
0
150 <J)
0
ore bodies, they have a very close
~ mineralogical composition to the veins
4 with a main stage characterized by the
deposition of pyrite, sphalerite and galena.
2 This base metal stage is preceded by the
deposition of specular hematite and
crystals of automorphous quartz up to 1 cm
0 5 10 15 long (Figs. 3.3 and 3.6a). Bodies of
Distance from vein (m) hematite occur preferably close to the
1~ •1~ •1 contact with the volcaniclastic rocks of the
SERICITE- CHLORITE
ARGILLIC ALTERATION Mitu Group. This early stage is associated
ALTERATION
to the pervasive alteration of the dolomitic-
Fig. 3.5: Elements variation in the volcanic rocks of limestones of the Pucarâ group converted
the Mitu Group at contact of the Andaychagua vein. into manganosiderite (Bartlett, 1984;
Sallier, 2002). This alteration is best
These two alteration zones are less developed close to the major ore bodies
developed m phyllites but are still and decrease outward producing a zoning
observable. Additionally strong with an hematite center and an outer zone
silicification can occur in phyllites. of manganosiderite altertation.
Chemical analyses confirm this zonation Beginning of the base metal stage is
with a strong increase of iron and rubidium marked by the replacement of hematite by
contents and decreasing contents of pyrite (Figs. 3.6a and b), Bartlett (1984)
strontium, calcium and sodium content has also observed replacement by
towards the vem (Fig. 3.5). This pyrrothite. Following this replacement, the
corresponds to the crystallization of major sulfide stage began with
sericite and pyrite and the dissolution ·of precipitation of dark brown, iron-rich
feldspar. sphalerite. This sphalerite replaces early
hematite and pyrite and fi11s voids in the
ore. Bartlett (1984) noted a decrease of
iron content of sphalerite with the
paragenesis. The early, iron-rich sphalerite
contains numerous chalcopyrite blebs (Fig.
3.6c) whereas the later, iron-poor
sphalerite is free of them (Sallier, 2002).
83

Fig. 3.6: Ore sample of the mantos. (a) Early stage of massive hematite and automorphous quartz filling voids,
replacement by pyrite. Sample S04-76.8. (b) Pyrite replacing needles of hematite. Sample DY-443 . (c)
Chalcopyrite blebs in iron-rich sphalerite.Sample DY-463. (d) Botryoidal pyrite. Sample DY-444. (e) Mineralised
tuff with hematite, pyrite, sphalerite and dickite filling vugs. Sample LYD-2. (f) Polished section in reflected
light showing needles of hematite replaced by magnetite at the contact of carbonate. Sample DY-473.

The presence of chalcopyrite completely with iron-poor sphalerite (Bartlett, 1984).


replacing sphalerite may explain the blebs Severa! events of brecciation occur and
by replacement processes as suggested by sorne cracks in iron-poor sphalerite and
Barton and Bethke (1987). Only minor galena are filled by later iron rich
galena is associated to the iron-rich sphalerite indicating repetitive stages. Due
sphalerite, whereas it systematically to this observation and the texture of the
accompanies the later iron-poor sphalerite. deposited mineral, i.e. void filling or
The galena contains a few inclusions of colloform texture (Fig. 3.6d), Sallier
sulfosalt, but the majority of pyrargirite (2002) proposed two principal sulfide
and tetrahedrite is located at grain contacts stages. Sallier (2002) also pointed out that
84

the succession from void filling to


colloform textures are inverse in sorne Previous S, Sr and Pb isotopie
locations. However, in our opinion, this data
separation cannot be applied to an entire
ore body and may reflect local phenomena.
Dickite crystallizes as vug filling during Previous studies (Bartlett, 1984; Campbell,
the end of the base metal and the third 1987; Moritz et al., 2001; Stucky, 2001;
stage (Fig. 3.3 and 3.6e). By contrast with Lisboa, 2002; Sallier, 2002) have produced
the carly hematite-manganosiderite stage, a considerable amount of S isotopie data
no zoning has been pointed out in the base on the San Cristobal district. The study of
metal stage. Campbell (1984) was restricted to the San
Cristobal vein and principally pointed out
an increase of 8 34 S values with time. The
A third mineralisation event is recent studies have done a representative
characterized by predominant precipitation sampling over the whole district (Tables
of carbonate, barite and marcasite. Siderite 3.1 and 3.2), which indicate that if 8 34 S
and marcasite were deposited as small values obtained in the vein system are
veinlets crosscutting massive ore and restricted to a narrow range (8 34 S between
filling vugs within the ore (Bartlett, 1984). 0.5 and 9.2 %oCDT), that range becomes
Barite was deposited slightly later and its wider in carbonate replacement ore bodies,
distribution is more irregular; it seems to especially toward lower 834 S values (8 34 S
be more important in distal ore bodies between -3.5 and 7.9 %oCDT) (Fig. 3.7).
relative to the Pucani-Mitu contact.
Lead isotopie data have been obtained
Crystallization of barite ceased before
mostly on galena and accessorily on
botryoidal carbonate was deposited.
sphalerite and wolframite from vein and
Magnetite pseudomorphically replaces
carbonate replacement ore bodies (Table
specular hematite; Barlett ( 1984) pointed
3.3). Their Pb isotopie compositions are
out that this occurs mostly in contact with
siderite (Fig. 3.6f). Ail phase depositions
homogeneous e 06 PbP 04 Pb = 18.676 to

18.840; PbP Pb = 15.615 to 15.649;


207 04
are associated with minor precipitation of 208 PbP 04 Pb = 38.704 to 38.827) and
sphalerite. Finally a supergene event took
overlap with those of the Miocene
place with precipitation of native silver,
covellite, manganese oxides and
e
intrusions 06 PbP 04 Pb = 18.698 to 18.761;
207PbP 04 Pb = 15.635 to 15.669; 208 PbP 04 Pb
rhodochrosite. As mentioned previously,
= 38.682 to 38.787) (Fig. 3.8). This is
the alteration affecting the Pucara
consistent with a predominant magmatic
limestones consist principally of secondary
lead input from the Miocene intrusions into
carbonates. Abundant layers of
the early and base metal stages of ore
volcaniclastic tuffs in the Pucara Group
deposits (Moritz et al., 2001).
underwent alteration to dickite, kaolinite,
illite and chlorite (Sallier, 2002)(Fig. 3.6e). Unlike lead, Sr isotopie ratios of late barite
are highly variable (87 Sr/86 Sr = 0.712187 to
0.722782) and too radiogenic to invoke
Miocene magmatism as a main source of
Sr, and by inference Ba (Fig. 3.9). The
influence of the host rocks is particularly
evident since the most radiogenic barites
are hosted by phyllites of the Excelsior
Group (Fig. 3.9).
85

Table 3.1: Sulfur isotopie values of sulfides

834S 834S 834S


Sample Mineral ("'oo COD Sample Mineral (%o CDT) Sample Mineral (%o CDT)

San Cristobal vein system Andaychagua vein system Carbonate replacement

ML-3 Pyrite 5.8 810 Om Arsenopyrite 5.7 DY-444 Pyrite -1.8


SC-7 Pyrite 7.3 869 A rs:nopyrite 6.9 DY-459 Pyrite 7.0
DY-5A Pyrite 3.8 816 c A rs=nopyrite 6.2 DY-473 Pyrite 5.5
DY-5 B Pyrite 6,0 DY37C Pyrite 4.5 DY-12 B Pyrite 5.3
DY-7 C Pyrite 6.7 815 Pyrite 4.7 DY-12 F Pyrite 6.2
DY-7 0 Pyrite 6.8 816 c Pyrite 5.2 DY-12 Hb Pyrite 7.3
DY-7 E Pyrite 5.5 816 b Pyrite 7.3 TOL-2 Sphalerite 5.4
DY-7 F Pyrite 5.8 825 Pyrite 8.3 TOL-1 Sphalerite 1.7
DY-7G Pyrite 6.0 853 Pyrite 7.0 504-91.5 Sphalerite 5.7
DY-8 Pyrite 6,0 859 Pyrite 6.1 DY-494 Sphalerite 7.0
DY-15A Pyrite 5.3 816 e Pyrite 5.9 DY-470 Sphalerite 7.6
DY-15 B Pyrite 5.8 824 cd Chalcopyrite 9.0 DY-91S Sphalerite 5.6
DY-15 C Pyrite 5.9 861 Chalcopyrite 9.2 DY-2 Sphalerite -0.8
DY-626 Pyrite 4.3 871 f Chalcopyrite 6.6 DY-4 Sphalerite 5.3
DY-610a Pyrite 4.5 870 Chalcopyrite 8.8 DY-12 F Sphalerite 7.3
DY-629 Pyrite 4.7 810 Om ~halerite 6.5 DY-12 G Sphalerite 7.5
DY-7A Chalcopyr~e 5.7 821 Om ~halerite 5.6 DY-12 Hb Sphalerite 6.1
DY-7 E Chalcopyr~e 5.1 815 ~halerite 6.0 DY-121 Sphalerite 6.9
DY-7G Chalcopyrrte 7.3 814 ~halerite 0.5 DY-4 Sphalerite 5.8
DY-14 Chalcopyrrte 5.6 816 e ~halerite 7.1 DY-533 Gal ena 2.6
DY-15 B Chalcopyrrte 6,0 871 b ~halerite 9.2 DY-411 Gal ena 3.1
DY-603 Chalcopyrrte 7.8 825 ~halerite 8.9 DY-2 Gal ena -3.5
DY-5 B Sphalerite 6.1 825 ~halerite 7.9 DY-121 Gal ena 4.1
DY-7A Sphalerite 5.8 840 ~halerite 8.1
DY-7 C Sphalerite 6.7 824 cd ~halerite 9 .7
DY-8 Sphalerite 6.3 824 cd ~halerite 9.7
DY-10A Sphalerite 5.9 853 ~halerite 7.9
DY-11 Sphalerite 6.6 856 ~halerite 7 .8
DY-14 Sphalerite 7.7 861 ~halerite 7.6
DY-15 C Sphalerite 5.7 871 f ~halerite 6.9
DY-677 Sphalerite 5.5 871 d ~halerite 9.4
DY-8 Sphalerite 6.3 871 c ~halerite 9.2
DY-605 Galena 3.2 870 ~halerite 8.5
DY-646 Gale na 4,0 DY-37 C ~halerite 5.1
DY-5 A Gal ena 4.5 DY-13 A ~halerite 6.2
DY-6 Galena 3.3 DY-13 B ~halerite 5.9
DY-8 Galena 4.4 832 ~halerite 9.3
DY-10 A Galena 3.3 DY-13 A ~halerite 5.9
DY-11 Galena 3.6 832 ~halerite 9.7
OY-14 Galena 3.6 DY-13 A Ga ena 3.5
821 Om Ga ena 2.7
825 Ga ena 7.9
825 Ga ena 4 .9
832 Ga ena 6.7
869 Ga ena 5.3
871 d Ga ena 5.5
871e Ga ena 5.9
871 b Ga ena 5.9

data are from Moritz et al. (2001 ), Stuc ky (2001 ), Lisboa (2002) and Sa !lier (2002); uncertainities are equal to.:!: 0.2 %o
86

Table 3.2: Barite isotopie compositions

s7Sr/sssr
0180 o34S
Sample Location Host rock (%o SMOW) (%o CDT)

Vein type
M-1 Veta Prosperidad Excelsior 0.720721 (7) 9.5 24.6
M-2 Veta Prosperidad Excelsior 0.719662 (7) 11 .1 24.9
DY-681 Veta 722 Mi tu 0.718703 (8) 8.3 14.6
OYA5 Veta San Cristobal Excelsior 0.722782 (9) 16.6 23.4
OYA6 Veta San Cristobal Mi tu 0.712187 (8) 9.4 11 .9

Carbonate replacement type


M-3 Manto Toldorrumi Pucara 0.722311 (10) 12.7 22.7
M-4 Manto Toldorrumi Pucara 0.719459 (8) 6.3 29.4
Esc 1 Manto Escondida Pucara 0.719593 (7) 6.9 13.6
Esc 2 Manto Escondida Pucara 0.719523 (7) 12 .6 17,1
Moises A Manto Moises Pucara 0.715302 (8) 3.6 17.5
Moises B Manto Moises Pucara 0.715648 (11) 3.6 16.8
Gavilan R-1 Manto Gavilan Pucara 0.712867 (5) 11.4 17.7
Gavilan R-1 b Manto Gavilan Pucara 0.713281 (8) 11.7 17.5

data are from Moritz et aL (2001); uncertainties are equal to::. 0.7 %o for o'4 S and ::t 0.4 o/oo for o"O

Analytical methods The C0 2 content of the fluid inclusions


was determined using the method of Rosso
and Bodnar (1995). Our experiment was
For the microthermometric fluid inclusion performed on a Labram Raman microprobe
with a modified Olympus microscope.
study, 100 !-lm thick double polished
wafers were prepared for quartz samples. Raman spectra were recorded using the
Measurements were performed on a 534 nm line from a Coherrent DPSS 534
Linkam THMSG-600 heating-freezing Nd-YAG laser.
stage mounted on a DMLB Leica
microscope equipped with a Nikon 100x
long working distance lens. The system The used LA-ICP-MS consists of an Elan
was calibrated with synthetic fluid 6000 ICP-MS instrument (Perkin-Elmer)
inclusions at - 56.6°C, 0.0°C and 374.1 oc combined with a 193-nm excimer laser
(Stemer and Bodnar, 1984). Low (Compex 110 I, ArF, Lambda Physics;
temperature measurements have a Günther and Heinrich, 1999). Fluid
precisiOn of 0.1 °C, whereas high inclusions of this study tended to
temperature ones have a precision of 1°C. decrepitate during analysis, as one tried to
Salinities were calculated from the final ice ablate them directly with a large bearn size.
melting temperature for bi-phase H2 0- This was avoided by opening the analyzed
NaCl-(KCl) inclusions (Potter et al., 1978). inclusion with a pit much smaller than the
In the case of tri-phase inclusions, inclusion and then by increasing the size of
salinities were calculated either by halite the pit in severa! steps as soon as the first
dissolution (Stemer et al., 1988) or by signal appeared. It allowed us to improved
volume ratios (Shepherd et al., 1985), for reproducibility for elements that are
cases where fluid inclusions decrepitate present in daughter crystals (Günther et al.,
prior to the final dissolution ofhalite. 1998). Pits of 4, 10, 20, 40 and 60 !-lm in
87

diameter were used. The resulting signais Hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses on
were integrated and compared to signal minerais and fluids were performed at
intensities from reference material (NBS Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.
61 0 glass from NIST), allowing calculation Sphalerite samples in which fluids were
of relative elements abundances in the analyzed, have been carefully selected in
inclusion (Longerich et al., 1996). The order to avoid as much as possible
elemental ratios were transformed into secondary fluid inclusion trails. The values
absolute concentration by using an internai are reported as per mil deviations relative
standard with the aid of the equivalent to the SMOW standard. Errors reported are
salinity determined by microthermometry. ± 0.2 %o for oxygen in minerais and ± 2 %o
The NaCl equivalent value was corrected in fluids. The error for hydrogen is ± 5 %o.
for other major cations present in the
inclusion (K, Fe and Mg) according to
Heinrich et al. (1992). In fluids that are 208 Pbl04 Pb
dominated by Na, the uncertmmty 41.3 . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - :

associated with this correction is estimated


to be around 10 to 20 % (Audétat et al., 41 .1
Excelsior
2000). phyllites

py cp si gn bar i
30 /
San Cristobal 1
38.9 'R-~niary
vein system
..
iY1agïral;ç.l/
20

10
[J rocks
,. ., /
/
/
M itu volcanic rocks

38.7

'-----------··-----
38.5 -~--~-~--.--..--~---.t•~----1
18.6 18.8 19.0 22.3 22.5
206 Pb/:<D4Pb
Early vein stage
A Wolframite of the San Cristobal vein

Base metal vein stage


.t. Galena of the San Cristobal vein system
• Ga lena of the Andaychagua vein

Base metal stage from the carbonate


replacement
o Sphalerite of the carbonate replacement ore bodies
• Gale na of the carbonate replacement ore bodies

Fig. 3.8: 208PbP 04Pb vs 206PbP 04Pb diagram for


=c: Minimum- Maximum galena, sphalerite and wolframite from ore deposits
D 25%-75% of the San Cristobal district. Tertiary magmatism,
• Median value Mitu volcanism and Excelsior Group fields are
Fig. 3.7: Box plot of D 34 S values from the San from Moritz et al. (2001).
Cristobal vein system, the Andaychagua vein
system and the carbonate replacement ore bodies.
py: pyrite, cp: chalcopyrite, si: sphalerite, gn:
galena and bar: barite. Data are from Moritz et al.
(2001), Stucky (2001), Lisboa (2002) and Sallier
(2002).
88

Table 3.3: Lead isotopie compositions

Sample Ore type Mineral 205 Pb/204 Pb 207Pb/204Pb 20sPb/204Pb

Early vein stage


CHU-1 San Cristobal vein wolframite 18.840 15.642 38.793
SC-13 San Cristobal vein wolframite 18.737 15.649 38.824

Base metal vein stage


DY-13 Andaychagua vein ga lena 18.676 15.642 38.707
DY-13 A Andaychagua vein ga lena 18.760 15.640 38.783
DY-14 Andaychagua vein ga lena 18.753 15.631 38.760
DY-OSA San Cristobal vein gal ena 18.777 15.634 38.794
DY-06 San Cristobal vein ga lena 18.742 15.641 38.786
DY-08 San Cristobal vein ga lena 18.772 15.647 38.818
DY -10a San Cristobal vein ga lena 18.771 15.646 38.825
DY -11 San Cristobal vein gal ena 18.783 15.644 38.827

Base metal stage from carbonate replacement


DY-02 Carbonate replacement ga lena 18.726 15.636 38.761
DY-121 Carbonate replacement ga lena 18.722 15.637 38.767
804-91,5 Carbonate replacement sphalerite 18.727 15.615 38.704

data are from Moritz et al. (in prep); unœrtainties are 0.07% for '""Pb!"'' Pb, 0 14% for '"'Pb!"" Pb and 0.10% for ·o:'Pb!''"Pb

Fluid inclusion petrographv, Chumpe


microthermometry and Raman intrusion

spectroscopy --+
Condorsingua Excelsior phyllites
formation 0.741 -0.755

The analyzed fluid inclusions of this study


are trapped in quartz from vein and
carbonate replacement ore bodies. The
0.706 0.710 0.714 0.718 0.722
paragenetic sequence of the veins indicates " Sr/'' Sr
three successive quartz stages related to a
different type of mineralisation; quartz 1 is f--] Hosted in Mitu volcanic rocks
associated to the early W stage, quartz II to
the base metal stage and quartz III to the ~ Hosted in Pucara limestones

late stage (Fig. 3.3). Unfortunately, quartz Il Hosted in Excelsior phyllites


is rare in the carbonate replacement
paragenesis and only present at the end of
the early stage (Fig. 3.3); therefore it may Fig. 3.9: Histogram ofbarite 87 Sr/86Sr ratios (Moritz
just give information of the beginning of et al., 2001). Data of the Chumpe intrusion, Mitu
this mineralisation process. Table 3.4 gives volcanics and Excelsior phyllites are from Moritz et
an overv1ew of the fluid inclusion al. (2001). 87Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the Condorsingua
characteristics. formation is from Moritz et al. (1996).
89

1 mm

Type Ail:
Tri-phase primary fluid inclusions,
n° 1-7

Type Alli:
Bi-phase primary fluid inclusions,
n° 8-24

.,
0

Fig. 3.10: Petrography of the early vein stage representing the five types of inclusion present in quartz I. Typical
large inclusions of type Ail, Alli and AIV are represented by photomicrograph. Inclusions are not to scale.
\0
0

Table 3.4: Summary table of the fluid inclusions recognized in this study, including the descriptive properties, microthermometry and C0 2 content
deduced from Raman spectroscopy.

Family Number Location and terminology* Morphology Size N Salinity Homog. T.** co2
of phases (~~m) (wt % NaCI equiv.) (oC) (g/cm' )

Early vein stage (wolframite-pyrite-quartz /), samp/e FPE-4a

Ail 3 Clusters of few inclusions within grains; prima ry rounded 7 to 15 7 44 to 54 205-259


Alli 2 Clusters of few inclusions within grains; primary rounded 8 to 20 17 2.9to 5.1 146-237 Ota 0 .6
Al V 2 along !rails crosscutting grain edges; secondary irregular 8 to 50 35 0.4 to 5.4 154-257 Ota 0 .5

Base-metal vein stage (base metal su/fides-quartz//), samples DY-37C, 816c, OYA-1

BI 2 along trail within grains; pseudosecondary thin and tubular 8 to 20 3 3.9to 4.0 328-337 Ota 0 .3
Bll 2 along !rails crosscutting grain edges; secondary elongated, irre gualr 5 to 15 15 2.7to 4.2 155-256

Late vein stage (carbonate-barite-quartzJ/1), sample 722-10

Cl 2 along grow zone; primary elongated 15 to 50 8 5.9 to 6.7 302-322 0 to 0.4


Cil 2 Sm a Il cluster within grains; primary rounded 20 to 60 3 5.4to6.2 263-275
Cl li 2 along crosscutting ribbon; secondary irregular 15 to 50 11 4.6 to 6.2 274-320 0 to 0.4

Carbonate replacement, samp/e, samples DY-554 and TOL-2

Dl 2 along grow zone; primary elongated and rounded 30 to 70 2 4.0 285-290 Ota 0.1
011 2 Small !rails within gra in; pseudosecondary irregular 7 to 25 8 0.2 to 4.8 166-290 Ota 0 .1

* Terminology according to Roedder (1984).


**Ali inclusions homogenize to the liquid phase.
91

The quartz I associated to the early W An, but they are bi-phase and have
stage is generally milky and it contains a more angular morphology (Fig.
fluid inclusions along grow zones that are 3.10). Their homogenization
generally decrepitated and form series of temperatures cover a larger range
dotted black lines (Fig. 3.10, Type AI); few (146 to 238°C) and salinities vary
inclusions have preserved their fluid from 2.9 to 5.1 wt% NaCl equiv.
content but since they are connected by C02 was detected by Raman
thin tubes and present variable phase ratios spectroscopy in two 20 J..lffi sized
at room temperature, they were probably inclusions (inclusions n°11 and 17,
necked down and therefore avoided. Intact 0.6 g/cm\ but the majority of the
fluid inclusions could only be found in Raman analyses did not reveal any
pressure shadows of coexisting wolframite presence of C02.
and pyrite crystals. In such zones, four
different types of H20-NaCl-(KCl) Type Aw inclusions are by far the
inclusions can be recognized (Fig. 3.10, most abundant. They are bi-phase
Table 3.4): and clearly secondary since they
form large ribbons which crosscui
Type AII are tri-phase rounded grain edges. They are strongly
inclusions and have a diameter irregular and their size is generally
between 7 to 15 J..lffi. They form larger, from 8 to 50 J..lffi, than the
isolated small clusters of few previous types (Fig. 3.10).
inclusions within grains, never Homogenization temperatures vary
form trails and their locations are from 155 to 257 °C, while salinities
free of secondary inclusions; they are between 0.4 to 5.4 wt% NaCl
are therefore interpreted as primary equiv. Raman spectra of type A 1v
inclusions. Homogenization inclusions indicate variable
temperatures range between 206 amounts of co2 with a density
and 259 oc and the salinity varies ranging from 0 to 0.5 g/cm 3,
from 44.6 to 54.0 wt% NaCl equiv. inclusions where no co2 was
Total dissolution of halite in order detected are the smallest ones,
to calculate the salinity was below 15 J..lffi in diameter (Fig.
obtained for only one inclusion 3.11 ). It indicates that the mass of
prior to decrepitation (Appendix co2 contained in the smallest
III, inclusion n°3 at 436°C). For the inclusions is too low to be detected
other inclusions (Appendix III, and this must therefore not be
inclusions n° 4 to 7), the salinity interpreted as an absence of
calculated on the basis of carbonic gas.
decrepitation temperature
represents only a minimum value. Finally ·type Av inclusions consist
In order to preserve sorne of numerous trails that crosscut ail
inclusions for LA-ICP-MS other inclusion assemblages. They
analyses, salinity were determined were not analyzed due to their very
on the basis of phase ratios in two small size, below a few microns.
cases (Appendix III, inclusions no 1
and 2). Raman spectroscopy did not
permit to detect any co2 in the tri-
The wolframite and quartz fluid inclusions
phase inclusions.
of this early vein stage were already
Type Am inclusions have a similar studied by Campbell and Robinson-Cook
size and location as those of type (1987). As discussed below, their data on
Am and Arv types indicate similar salinity
92

but higher homogenization temperature base metal stage samples. They


than those measured in this study (Fig. have a size between 5 to 15 ~-tm and
3.12). if they are also elongated as type
B 1, they are more irregular in
0,6 . - - - - -- ---------,
• • • shape. They were only analyzed in
~E 0.4
samples contammg the largest
u
-..
~
• inclusions, homogenization
ON 0.2 • • • temperature cover the whole range
ü • between 155°C and 256°C and
1 salinities from 2.7 to 4.2 wt% NaCl
0,0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 eqmv.
Size (~-tm)

Fig. 3.11: C02 content of AIV fluid inclusions


versus their size A large set of fluid inclusion data exists on
sphalerite associated with quartz II
deposition, where criteria for primary
The base metal stage is accompanied by
origin are easier to determine (Stucky,
abundant quartz II deposition (Fig. 3.3).
2001; Lisboa, 2002; Moritz et al., 2001). If
Probably due to the successive brecciation
primary inclusions in sphalerite cover more
events, this quartz is milky and intensively
or less the same range of temperatures than
fractured with the consequence that few
secondary inclusions observed in quartz II,
inclusions survived and none of them are
their salinity appears to be slightly higher
unequivocally primary. The few of them
(Fig. 3.14). The quartz secondary
remaining can be divided in two types of
inclusions probably post-date ore
bi-phase and H20-NaCl-(KCl) inclusions
deposition.
(Table 3.4). With one exception no C02
was detected in fluid inclusions of quartz
II, this may be due to its absence or to the Salinity wt% Na Cl equ.
smaller size of these inclusions as observed 8 , - - - - - - - - - - -- - --.
for type A1v inclusions (Fig. 3.11):
6

Type B1 corresponds to thin tubular
inclusions of a maximum length of
4 ('
10 ~-tm (Fig. 3.13). They form trails R
but do not crosscut grain edges,
hence they are classified as 2
pseudosecondary inclusions
• •
according to Roedder (1984). They 0~--~0---~---~--~
have only been found in sorne 150 250 350

samples of the Andaychagua vein Homogenisation temperature (° C)


and their shapes rend their
microthermometric measurement ('· Type A, 11 fluid inclusions
difficult. The very few data o Type A,v fluid inclusions
obtained indicate homogenization e Quartz data, Campbell and Robinson-Cook (1987)
temperatures between 328°C and • Wolfram~e data, Campbell and Robinson-Cook (1987)
337°C and salinities ranging around
Fig. 3.12: Sa1inity versus homogenization
4 wt% NaCl equiv.
temperature of type Alli and AIV fluid inclusions
Type Bff inclusions are numerous, in comparison with data obtained by Campbell and
secondary and are found in each Robinson-Cook ( 1987).
93

They are isolated, far away from


secondary inclusion trails and
growth zones, and may then also be
considered as pnmary. Their
homogenization temperatures range
from 263°C to 275°C and salinities
vary between 5.4 to 6.2 wt% NaCl
equiv. (Table 3.4).

Fig. 3.13: Photomicrograph of pseudosecondary Type C111 inclusions are located


tubular inclusions of sample 816c. along trails starting from the crystal
border (Fig. 3.15) and are therefore
secondary m ongm. They
homogenize between 253 and
The latest stage of the vein paragenesis 319°C and have a salinity ranging
consists of quartz III, Mn-rich siderite, from 4.6 to 6.2 wt% NaCl equiv.
rhodochrosite, ankerite and barite (Fig. (Table 3.4).
3.3). Unlike quartz I and II, quartz III is
automorphous and very clear, permitting Salinity wt% NaCI equ.
reliable distinction among different types 8~--------------------------~
of inclusions (Fig. 3.15, Table 3.4). All
inclusions of this stage are bi-phase, are 6 .. ..
composed of H 20-NaCl-(KCl) fluids and
contain variable amounts of dissolved co2 4 Il..
with a density of 0 to 0.5 g/cm 3 :
2
Type Cr consists of large elongated
inclusions (up to 50 mm) along
0+-----~-------r------~----~
primary grow zones (Fig. 3.15). 150 250 350
Numerous of the inclusions located
Homogenisation temperature CC)
m these grow zones are
decrepitated and it may be • Pseudosecondary fluid inclusions in quartz Il, type ~
interpreted as possible
o Secondary fluid inclusions in quartz Il, type B,
reequilibration of inclusions.
.A Sphalerite data (Moritz et al., 2001; Stucky, 2001 ;
Careful observations reveal cracks Lisboa, 2002)
close to the decrepitated inclusions.
Fig. 3.14: Salinity versus homogenization
However, part of the growth zone
temperature of fluid inclusions contained in quartz
are far from such breaks and have
II in comparison with primary inclusions in
escaped such resetting since phase
associated sphalerite (Stucky, 2001; Lisboa, 2002;
ratios are constant. Furthermore
Moritz et al., 2001)
homogenization temperatures and
salinities are within a narrow range,
from 302°C to 323°C and from 5.9 Inclusions in quartz III appear to indicate
to 6.7 wt% NaCI equiv., very variable data, Lisboa (2002) report
respectively (Table 3.4). They are primary inclusions of quartz III
estimated to be primary in ongm homogenizing between 150°C and 246°C
and not necked down. with salinities ranging from 2.4 to 4.5 wt%
NaCl equiv. Whereas no fluid inclusions of
Type Cu consists of three large
sufficient size have been found m
rounded fluid inclusions located at
associated carbonates, barite crystals
the center of a crystal (Fig. 3.15).
94

Type Cl:
Bi-phase primary fluid inclusions
n' 1 to 8

/.. /""'


T

• •

-,-

•,.
.:
301-'m

f
- Type CUl: '
Bi-pnase secondary ,
1 mm
fluid inclusions
n• 12 to 22
If: /l

Fig. 3.15: Petrography of the late vein stage representing the three different types of inclusion. Largest inclusions
of each types are shown on photomicrograph. Inclusion are not to scale. Qz: quartz, Rho: rhodochrosite, Anlc
ankerite.
95

Fig. 3.16: Petrography of the earl y stage of


carbonate replacement ore bodies representing the
three different types of inclusion. Typical
inclusions of two first types are shown on
photomicrograph. Qz: quartz, Sph: sphalerite.

contain large inclusion (up to tens of


microns) that homogenize between 136°C
and 159°C and have a salinity ranging
from 1.6 to 3.5 wt% NaCl equiv. (Lisboa,
2002). However, none of these inclusions
. .
are pnmary m ongm.

The paragenetic sequence of the carbonate


replacement ore bodies contains only one
/ quartz generation which is associated to
the early hematite stage and prior to
sphalerite (Figs. 3.3 and 3.16). This quartz
contains three different types of fluid
0.5 mm inclusions; all of them being bi-phase, with
an H2 0-NaCl-(KCl) compositiOn and
Type Dl:
Bi.phase primary
contain very low densities of co2 (0 to 0.1
fluid inclusion g/cm 3) compared to A1v and C inclusions:
n•1 and 2

Type D1 inclusions are rounded and


very large, up to 70 J.liD in size, and
are located along growth zones of
automorphous crystals (Fig. 3.16).
They are therefore primary in
ongm. Homogenization
temperatures range between 285°C
and 290°C and salinities are around
4 wt% NaCl equiv.

Type D11 are aligned irregular


inclusions located within grains
(Fig. 3.16). These trails contain
only few inclusions and do not
crosscut grain edges nor typical
secondary fluid inclusions trails.
They are then interpreted as
pseudosecondary fluid inclusions.
Their homogenization temperatures
Type 011: and salinities are however very
pseudosecondary
ftuid inclusion
variable within the same cluster,
n•3 to 6 166 to 290°C and 0.2 to 4.8 oc
30 respectively. Due to this large
96

range, reequilibration cannot be As already mentioned above, fluid


excluded, even if liquid/vapor inclusions in carbonate replacement quartz
ratios are constant. are only representative of the early part of
the hydrothermal system (Fig. 3.3).
Type D111 consists of trails of However we can compare the data
secondary inclusions. These obtained in quartz to those obtained in the
inclusions are very small in size, a later sphalerite (Moritz et al., 2001 ). The
few microns, and were therefore homogenization temperature display more
not analyzed. or less the same range, but the vertical
trends observed in clusters of sphalerite
Salinity wt% NaCI equ. fluid inclusion and interpreted as
16 - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , intermittent boiling of the moderately
saline fluids (Moritz et al., 2001) is not
12
observed in the earlier quartz-stage.
8

4 As pointed out by Hedenquist and Henley


0 0 [J

( 1985), salinity estimates based on final ice


0
150 250 350
melting measurements are frequently
Homogenisation temperature CC) biased by the presence of volatile solutes
such as C02. The amount of C02 dissolved
+ Primary fluid inclusions in quartz from carbonate in the fluid inclusions of this study is very
replacement, type D,
low and variable, but certainly led to
u Secondary fluid inclusions in quartz from carbonate
replacement, type D, misjudge the sodium chlorine content.
L Sphalerite data (Moritz et al., 2001) However Raman spectrometry do not
Fig. 3.17: Salinity versus homogenization allow us to detect co2 in the smallest
temperature of fluid inclusions contained in quartz inclusions, as pointed out by the example
of carbonate replacement ore type (primary of A1v inclusions (Fig. 3.11). Correcting
inclusions: black square, secondary inclusion: white salinity on the basis of Raman
square) in comparison with primary inclusions in spectrometry would therefore add an
associated sphalerite (grey triangle)(Moritz et al., additional factor of error, due to the
2001). different sizes of the fluid inclusions.

Table 3.5: Oxygen isotope compositions

Sample Mineral Ore type

CHU-1 Wolframite Ear!y vein stage 2.8


CHU-1 Quartz 1 Early vein stage 13.8
722-4 Quartz Il Base metal vein stage 12.3
DY-644 Dickite Late vein stage 9,0
SC-3 Dickite Late vein stage 8.7
722-10 Quartz Ill Late vein stage 17.7
DY-494 Quartz manto Ear!y stage from carbonate replacement 13.9
LYD-2 Dickite Base metal stage from carbonate replacement 13.4
DY-498 Kaolinite Third stage from carbonate replacement 6.6

Uncertainties are equal ta .:. 0.2 %o for ô" O


97

Fluid inclusion LA-/CP-MS to the vein ore type and have therefore
results excluded the carbonate replacement ore
bodies. The isotopie compositions of
wolframite, quartz and sphalerite of
Campbell et al. (1984) show a well defined
An-tv, Bn, Ct-m, Dt-Il inclusion types were vertical trend, which is confirmed by our
analyzed for Na, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag, Sn, analyses (Fig. 3.19). Indeed, the
Ba, W and Pb whereas Mg, Ca, Mn, As, wolframite and quartz I samples are within
Rb, Y, Mo, and Ce were only determined error close to the field defined by
for a minority of fluid inclusions Campbell et al. (1984) and quartz II has
(Appendix IV). Y, Mo and Ce were even lower bD values, which tend to
generally below limit of detection (LOD) increase the vertical trend (Fig. 3.19).
and are therefore not reported in Appendix However, hydrogen isotope analyses of
IV. Inclusions with significant W content fluid inclusions remain difficult to
are exclusively hosted by quartz I (Fig. interpret, while samples of quartz I and III
3.18). On the other hand, Cu, Zn, Pb and could be selected in order to avoid a
As, distinctive elements of the base metal maximum of secondary fluid inclusion
stage, are detected in all inclusion types; (Figs. 3.10 .and 3.15), this was nearly
their content decreases through the impossible for quartz II, in which
paragenetic sequence and secondary secondary inclusions form the great
inclusions indicate lower concentrations majority. The bD values from inclusions in
than their primary counterparts (Fig. 3 .18). quartz II should be taken with care; it may
Sorne elements, such as Ba and Sr, obey be interpreted as resulting predominantly
the exactly inverse tendency since their from secondary fluid inclusions.
concentration is higher in quartz III than in
quartz from earlier paragenetic stages (Fig.
3.18). K, Fe, Mn and Rb are elements that
were detected in all paragenetic stages, In comparison to quartz I and II, quartz III
their concentrations do not show any and quartz of the carbonate replacement
obvious variations between the different appear to be heavier in b 18 0 (Fig. 3. 19).
quartz stages. However these elements can Hydrogen isotopie signatures of quartz are
show a disparity in a single quartz stage, as systematically lower than the ones of
for example the Mg concentrations in associated sphalerite and wolframite; it
inclusion hosted by quartz III where C1 could be due to the influence of
type inclusions contain thousands of ppm structurally bound water within quartz
Mg whereas this element was not detected (Simon, 2001) but the vertical trend
in secondary Cm inclusions (Appendix IV). observed for the two early stages remains
Finally, numerous elements, such as Ca, valid even without the quartz data.
Ag and Sn, were in the majority of the Hydrogen isotopie compositions of fluid
cases below LOD. inclusions hosted by sphalerite are in the
same range as those of Campbell et al.
(1984). The oxygen isotopie compositions
could not be determined since the amount
H and 0 isotopes of water (0.0 1 to 0.2 mole fraction of
water) was too low to permit precise
analyses. This is principally due to the
Hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses selection of small amounts of sphalerite to
(Tables 3.5 and 3.6) were performed in insure that it contained a large majority of
order to complete the isotopie study of primary inclusions. Fluid in equilibrium
Campbell et al. (1984) that was restricted with late dickite and kaolinite are close to
98

Mante ore type


Qz 1 Qz Ill D,
A, c, c,
10000

1000

100

e.
10

• •
1000

100

10

0
1000

100

10

1000

100

10

1000
~:::: 0

100
0 u 0
0
[]

10

1000

100

10

1000

Cl 0
100

10
99

the field of paragenetically associated


Fig. 3.18: Evolution of the fluid W, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb,
carbonate as defined by Campbell et al.
Sr and Ba concentration reconstructed from LA-
(1984) and by Sallier (2002). No hydrogen
ICP-MS analysis and microthermometric study of
analyses have been performed on
inclusions of the three successive quartz of the vein
carbonate fluid inclusions since in our
and the single quartz stage of the carbonate
samples they are principally filled with
replacement ore type. Plain lines represent LOD
secondary inclusions.
and dotted line represent mean value of secondary
fluid inclusion of each stage. Inclusions are sorted
according interpreted petrographie timing and
decreasing homogenization temperature.

80 (o/oo SMOW)
0 1
1

2
-40
1
u
·=
-80
; •testage •
/

carbonate
Wolframit;

:2
:::>
ü:
, . ,b.

"0

~1
~~
ro m
-a ..a
c
o c
u
._
(])
(])
-120

-160
V ' Quartz

<>

-20 -1 0 Carbonate 0 1 20
Ba rite Qz Ill 0180 (o/oo SMOW)

Early vein stage Early stage from the carbonate replacement


e Wolframite of the San Cristobal vein <> Quartz of the carbonate replacement ore bodies
+ Quartz 1 of the San Cristobal vein
Third stage from the carbonate replacement
Base metal vein stage [:,_ Dickite and kaolinite of the carbonate replacement ore bodies
<) Quartz Il of the San Cristobal vein

Late vein stage


.Â. Dickite of the San Cristobal vein

Fig. 3. 19: Hydrogen vs oxygen isotopie composition offluids in equilibrium with wolframite, quartz, sphalerite,
bari te, carbonate and diekite according fluid inclusion data and equation of Clayton et al. ( 1972), Kusakabe and
Robinson (1977), Land and Dutton (1978), Rosenbaum and Sheppard (1986), Carothers et al. (1988), Zhang et
al. (1994) and Gilg and Sheppard (1996). Baritt'l 8 18 0 bar is from Moritz et al. (2001) and carbonate one from
Sallier (2002). Grey fields of wolframite, quartz, carbonate and sphalerite and barite 8D barite bar are from
Campbell et al. (1984).
100

Table 3.6: Hydrogen isotope compositions

Sam pie Mineral Ore type 60 (%oSMOW)

CHU-1 Fluid in wolframite Early vein stage -97


CHU-1 Fluid in quartz 1 Early vein stage -107
722-4 Fluid in quartz Il Base metal vein stage -137
DY-677 Fluid in sphalerite Base metal vein stage -79
DY-644 Dickite Late ve in stage -110
SC-3 Dickite Late ve in stage -101
DY-494 Fluid in quartz Early stage from carbonate replacement -109
LYD-2 Dickite Base metal stage from carbonate replacement -57
DY-12 Fluid in sphalerite Base metal stage from carbonate replacement -72
SCW2-302.2 Fluid in sphalerite Base metal stage from carbonate replacement -65
DY-494 Fluid in sphalerite Base metal stage from carbonate replacement -62
S17-87 Fluid in sphalerite Base metal stage from carbonate replacement -87
S04-91.5 Fluid in sphalerite Base metal stage from carbonate replacement -75
DY-470 Fluid in sphalerite Base metal stage from carbonate replacement -65
DY-498 Kaolinite Third stage from carbonate replacement -91

Uncertainties are equal to ~ 5%o


quartz I (Au and A111), with more or less
similar homogenization temperatures but
Discussion different salinities (Fig. 3.20). The
coexistance of these high and low salinity
phases is not demonstrated since these two
inclusion types have not been found in the
Early vein stages
same growth zone. However, the fact that
these inclusions are both isolated in center
of quartz I crystals (Fig. 3.1 0) suggest a
With the exception of the diagenetic model close timing between the high and low
of Dalheimer (1990) and Kobe (1990a) salinity fluids. It may suggest splitting
that was discarded by several authors within the immiscibility field (Bodnar et
(Moritz et al., 2001; Sallier, 2002), the al., 1985), and thus a probable initial
genetic model associated to the formation magmatic fluid component (Bodnar, 1995).
of the San Cristobal district have However, such interpretation of these two
traditionally been explained by a single different primary inclusion types is not
fluid migrating outward from the Chumpe without contradiction. First, no
intrusion. It was suggested to be either a significative change in the liquid vapor
dense magmatic brine mixed with cooler phase has been discovered as it may be
meteoric water at distance (Bartlett, 1984) expected in the case of separation in the
or a single meteoric fluid with isotopie immiscibility field (Bodnar et al., 1985).
exchange with a granite at low water to Afterwards, type Au inclusions halite
rock ratios (Campbell et al., 1984). Such melting temperatures indicating with
models were principally based on the fact salinities between 44 to 54 wt% NaCl
that fluid inclusion data indicated only low equiv indicate fluid trapped at high
salinity fluids. The only inclusions with pressure and temperature over 400°C
higher salinities detected previous to this (Stemer et al., 1988; Bodnar, 1994; Fig.
study were secondary inclusions hosted by 3.21) or post-entrapment changes. High
quartz-eyes in the Chumpe intrusion pressure (>3kbars) and temperature
(Bartlett, 1984). However, this study reveal (>400°C) can be rejected since these
two different primary inclusion types in conditions imply a ductile environment
101

(Fournier, 1999; Fig. 3.21), that is not admixture of meteoric water to a


compatible whith vein ore filling large dominantly magmatic fluid and
opened structures. Additionally, post- reequilibration of this mixture with the
entrapment changes were not detected. granite (Fig. 3.23), rather than by
Therefore, the proposed explanation is that equilibration of a meteoric fluid with the
these two fluid inclusion types reflect an Chumpe intrusion. The influence of a law-
heterogeneous trapping. Effectively, Na/K temperature and low-salinity meteoric fluid
and Fe/K ratios of An and Am fluid is also strongly documented by the general
inclusions are very variable (Fig. 3.22); it trend of microthermometric data (Fig.
could therefore indicate fluid already 3.20). Homogeneous lead and sulfur
saturated in chlorine solids before quartz isotope data from Moritz et al. (200 1) point
crystallization. These two fluid inclusion out a predominant magmatic source and
types (Au and Am) reflect therefore a are consistent with the model proposed by
probable unique fluid of bulk salinity Heinrich (1990) (Figs. 3.7 and 3.8).
ranging between the eutectic of the NaCl-
water system (26.2 wt% NaCl equiv) and
the lowest salinity of the three phases fluid
LA-ICP-MS results from the fluid
inclusion (46.1 wt% NaCl equiv, FPE-4a-
inclusions show that this model is probably
2), that was saturated in chlorine solids due
valid for at least the two earliest vein
to temperature and/or pressure decrease
stages where concentrations of W, Cu and
before quartz I growth. Such an high
Zn, the major mineralising components,
salinity fluid has probably been created by
and 8D values decrease whereas 0, S and
the passage between a lithotastic to an
Pb isotopie compositions remain constant
hydrostatic pressure as proposed by
throughout the two paragenetic stages
Fournier (1999). If there is no evidence of
(Figs. 3.7, 3.8, 3.18 and 3.19). While W,
fluid inclusion trapping the steam in the
Cu and Zn concentrations decrease
vein, it is due to its escape before the
throughout the paragenesis due to mineral
quartz 1 started to cristallise. However,
precipitation and vary relative to the total
sorne relies of this fluid can be the
salinity of the fluid, they do not decrease at
secondary vapor-rich inclusion described
the same rate and W deposition seems to
by Bartlett (1984) in quartz eyes of the
be more efficient compared to the base
Chumpe intrusion. Na/K and Fe/K ratios
metal ones (Fig. 3.18). By contrast, Na,
do not vary only in Au fluid inclusions but
Mg, Mn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb are relatively
also in the two phases fluid inclusions, it is
nonreactive elements (Ulrich et al., 2002)
probably due to undetected solids during
during the two first stages. This
the microthermometric measurments.
demonstrates selective mineral
precipitation (Ulrich et al., 1999) and that
large quantities of ore metals were flushed
The input of a saline magmatic fluid into out of the vein system and introduced in
the San Cristobal system lead to a the carbonate replacement ore bodies. The
reinterpretation of the hydrogen and early fluid composition, with thousands of
oxygen isotope data proposed by Campbell ppm of W and base metals (Fig. 3.18),
et al. (1984) and favors the one suggested indicates that the economically interesting
by Heinrich (1990). Indeed, the vertical metals were dominantly introduced by
trend A in Figure 3.19, with a constant magmatic fluids. The same conclusion was
8 18 0 value consistent with a high- deduced from porphyry system data
temperature magmatic source, but variable (Heinrich et al., 1992; Bodnar, 1995;
8D extending to ones that are lower than Ulrich et al., 1999).
magmatic values, is explained by minor
102

60

50
• Primary inclusions in quartz 1
IEl Primary inclusions in quartz 11
D Primary inclusions in quartz Ill
:::i
C'"
40 e Primary inclusions in quartz
<Il
of the carbonate replacement ore bodies
X Secondary inclusions in vein quartz
ü(13
z + ofSecondary inclusions in quartz
the carbonate replacement ore bodies
?F.
~ 8
..?;-
:5
"iii
(/) 6

x
100 200 300 400
Homogenisation temperature (° C)

Fig. 3.20: Salinity vs Homogenization temperature of quartz hosted fluid inclusions determined by
microthermometric measurements. Salinities are calculated with equation ofPotter et al. (1978).

On the contrary to what might be expected of degrees. Therefore it is preferably


in the model described above, fluid interpreted as temperature inversions
inclusion homogenization temperatures do caused by high level flows as shown in
not decrease through the paragenesis, they active geothermal systems (Hedenquist et
even increase from the early to . the al., 1992). Such an interpretation cannot be
intermediate stage (Fig. 3.20). Moreover tested in the early paragenetic stage since
variation of tens of degree occur in the this part of the mining activity is totally
same stage. For example in the early one inaccessible at present, however it 1s
where data from Campbell and Robinson- clearly revealed by the late vein stage.
Cook ( 1987) indicate homogenization
temperatures approximately 50°C higher
than data of this study (Fig. 3.12). Late vein stage
Temperature disparity due to the difference
in elevation (Fig. 3.2), and by inference in
pression, can be excluded since altitude
Fluid inclusions in quartz III of sample
variation do not exceed a thousand meters
722-10, located at the Mi tu - Pucara
and can at most explain a difference of tens
contact (Fig. 3.2), have homogenization
103

temperatures between 253 and 323°C and W and base metals in success1ve
salinities ranging from 4.6 to 6. 7 wt% fluid inclusion generations can be
NaCl equiv.(Fig. 3.20). Nevertheless, as explained by mineral deposition,
described previously, fluid inclusion data the abrupt increase of Ba and Sr
of this late quartz stage are not constant. concentrations in the last stage can
Lisboa (2002) reported thermometrie data only be explained by the input of a
on two samples with homogenization fluid from a different origin or, at
temperatures between 150°C and 246°C least, migrating through a different
and salinities from 2.4 to 4.5 wt% NaCl pathway. Such an increase in Ba
equiv., which are both distinctly lower than and Sr concentrations was also
data obtained on sample 722-1 O. Samples observed in the porphyry
described by Lisboa (2002) come from the environment by Ulrich et al.
same level as 722-1 0 and are located close (2002), which interpreted this as
to the contact between the volcanic rocks the response to the destruction of
of the Mitu Group and the phyllites of the Ca and Mg silicates but with no
Excelsior Group (Fig. 3.2). Therefore evidence of meteoric water. In the
variation in homogenization temperatures case presented here, increasing Ba
and salinities may be interpreted as a and Sr concentrations may
gradient originating at the Mitu - Pucara probably be linked to the
contact. A high temperature anomaly along destruction of silicates such as
the Mitu - Pucara contact is consistent plagioclase and amphibole as is
with field observations since the base of demonstrated by profiles through
the Pucara Group is composed of arenites the wall rock (Fig. 3.5).
(Sallier, 2002) which have a higher
permeability than surrounding rocks and, The homogenisation temperatures
its intensively brecciate texture may be a and salinities measured in quartz III
favourable channel-way for the circulation fluid inclusions are much higher
of a hot fluid. than the low-temperature and low-
salinity meteoric fluid (Fig. 3.20).

And major influx of fluid from a


A distinct upflow zone at the end of the different origin than the previously
paragenesis, and therefore an influx of a called meteroic and magmatic
third fluid from a different pathway, is fluids is also suggested by highly
consistent with the geochemical data of the variable 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios of vein
fluid for four reasons: barite (Fig. 3.9). The 87 Sr/86 Sr
ratios of barite appear to be
The fluids associated to the correlated with the host rock, since
deposition of the late quartz stage barites hosted by the Excelsior
are enriched in co2 in comparison Group are generally more
to earlier fluids. radiogenic than the ones hosted by
the Mitu Group (Fig. 3.9). The very
LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion
analyses of the two first stages, the high 8 18 0 value of quartz III may
early and the base metal ones, are be related to the same phenomenon.
characterized by high
concentrations of base metals,
whereas high Sr ~nd Ba However, magmatic and meteoric fluid
concentrations are rather typical for influences are still strongly suggested by
the late vein stage (Fig. 3.18). isotopie data, since, in contrast to the two
While decreasing concentrations of first stages, oxygen and hydrogen isotopie
104

composition of dickite and late stage It must also be pointed out that fluid
carbonates define an oblique trend (trend inclusions hosted by quartz III do not have
B; Fig. 3.19). This oblique trend may the same composition as secondary fluid
correspond to mixing of magmatic and inclusions of the earlier stages. For
meteoric fluids, as defined by ()D values of example, secondary fluid inclusions of
secondary fluid inclusions trapped in barite quartz I contain lower W, Cu or Zn
(Campbell et al., 1984). Nevertheless, concentrations than primary inclusions pf
mixing with a third fluid of a unknown quartz I (Fig. 3.18), but these
origin can not be rejected for the reasons concentrations remain definitively higher
exposed above (Fig. 3. 23). than primary inclusions of quartz III. It
may indicate that secondary inclusions in
quartz I are earlier in the paragenesis than
5 the late stage, and therefore, that
hydrothermal activity has totally ceased in
the central part of the vein system whereas
it was still active along the Mitu-Pucani
contact.
4

3,0,.....---- - - - - - - -- ---.

FPE-4a-2

FPE-4a-16 FPE-4a-9
~ ~
a..
2
6,0 8,0 10,0 12,0 14,0

Na/K
+ Primary three phases fluid inclusions
in early quartz, type A, 1
ô Primary two phases flu id inclusions
in early quartz, type A, 11

Fig. 3.22: Fe/K vs Na/K diagram for primary fluid


inclusion of quartz 1.
0
0 200 400 600
Whereas cooling and slight mixing for the
first two stages of mineralisation and then
Fig. 3.21: Temperature-pressure diagram. L-V-H important mixing for the last stage were
and L-V curves after Bodnar (1992); liquidus probably the most efficient mechanism of
curves after Bodnar (1994); isochore field after deposition in the San Cristobal vein
Bodnar and Vytik (1994); change in isochore slope system, a subsequent mechanism may be
across the liquidus not evaluated; brittle-ductile C02-degassing during the last stages. As
limit after Fournier (1999). mentioned before, fluid inclusions hosted
in quartz III generally indicate higher C02-
contents, however this content is highly
variable and is linked for example to the
Mg content of the fluid (Fig. 3.24). The
105

Meteoric f/uid Early vein stage


T < 100°C
Low salinity liquid phase (< 2 wt %Na Cl equiv.), Low water/rock ratio
8'80- -18 (%oSMOW), 50--140 (%oSMOW)

Magmatic fluids

T = 200 to 250°C
Coexistance? of a low salinity liquid phase (4 to 6 wt
%NaCI equiv.), a high salinity liquid phase (- 30 to 40
wt% NaCI equiv) halite saturated
5' 8 0 - 4 (%oSMOW), 80 - -40 (%oSMOW) 206Pbi""'Pb
-18.7-18.8, 207Pbt"'Pb -38.7-38.8 87Srf"Sr -0.707
High W. Cu, Zn and Pb contents

Meteoric f/uid Late vein stage


T < 100°C
Low salinity liquid phase (< 2 wt %NaCI equiv.),
8'8 0- -18 (%oSMOW), 50- -140 (%oSMOW)

Magmatic fluids

Thirdf/uid T = 200 to 250°C


Coexista nee? of a low salinity liquid phase (4 to 6 wt
=
T 300 to 320°C %NaCI equiv.), a high salinity liquid phase (- 30 to 40
Low salinity liquid phase (4 to 6 wt %NaCI equiv.) wt% NaCI equiv) halite saturated
5'8 0 - 4 (%oSMOW), 5D - -40 (%oSMOW) 206 Pbf"'Pb
Variable 87Srt"Sr- 0.712-0.724 -18.7-18.8, 207Pbf"'Pb -38.7-38.8 87Srf"Sr -0.707
High Ba and Sr contents High W. Cu, Zn and Pb contents

Fig. 3.23: Schematic sketch of the different fluids involved in the early and the late vein stage. San Cristobal
vein cross section as on figure 3.2.

paragenetic sequence of the last stage ankerite grow on the periphery of the large
indicates deposition of carbonates slightly automorphous crystals of quartz (Fig.
later than the associated quartz (Fig. 3.3), it 3 .15). Primary fluid inclusions contain
is particularly obvious in sample 722-100 higher C02 and Mg contents than
where crystals of rhodochrosite and secondary ones (Fig. 3.15), it is therefore
106

concluded that co2 degassing has played a observed in fluid inclusion trails hosted by
local influence and may have acted an sphalerite (Fig. 3.17). Such vertical trends
important role during the deposition of the were interpreted by Moritz et al. (200 1) as
carbonate by pH increase. Unfortunately, intermittent boiling of the moderately
other carbonate cation-related, i.e. Ca or saline fluids. The absence of similar
Fe, are generally below LOD to control vertical trends in the earlier quartz stage
this assumption (Appendix IV). implies that these processes seem to be
likely restricted to the later base metal
stage. In contrast to the early vein stage,
Mg content (ppm) fluid inclusions from carbonate
replacement minerais do not indicate any
100000
presence of W but still present similar
10000
• concentrations of Zn and Pb (Fig. 3. 18).
Fluid inclusion metal concentrations is
1000 •• then representative of the mineralogy as it
100
was already underlined by Ulrich et al.
(1999).
~
10

1
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Hydrogen and oxygen isotopie
C0 2 (g/cm 3) compositions of the fluid in equilibrium
• Primary inclusion (Qz Ill) with quartz are close to the ones observed
o Secondary inclusion (Qz Ill) during the two early vein stages (Fig. 3.
D Limit of detection of inclusion with Mg content
to low to be detected
19). Fluids associated to deposition of
quartz in the carbonate replacement ore
Fig. 3.24: Concentration of Mg vs C02 dissolved in bodies may then be close to fluids of the
fluid inclusions from quartz III. According Rosso early and base metal vein stage vein stages,
and Bodnar (1995) error on C02 content is equal to except that they were already depleted in
± 0,25 (g/cm3) and error on Mg content figure in W and to a smaller extent in Cu. The base
Appendix IV. metal stage, where boiling processes were
pointed out (Moritz et al., 2001 ), remains
dominated by the influx of magmatic fluid
as shown by S and Pb isotope systematics
Carbonate replacement ore (Figs. 3.7 and 3.8). However o34 S values of
bodies carbonate replacement ore bodies are not
as homogeneous as the ones from the
veins. Indeed, sulphides and barite sulphur
On the contrary to the vein where isotopie compositions tend to have lower
successive generations of quartz permit to o34 S values in comparison to the veins
trace the entire mineralising process, (Fig. 3.7). This would be expected for a
carbonate replacement ore shows a unique mineralising system evolving toward more
quartz event, which is indicative of the oxidising conditions (Ohmoto and
early stage before the main sulfide ones Goldhaber, 1997). Nevertheless such an
(Fig. 3.3). Microthermometric data on assumption is contradicted, on the first
quartz fluid inclusions indicate similar hand, by the paragenetic sequence that
homogenisation temperatures than the later moves from hematite to pyrite and finally
sphalerite inclusions (Fig. 3.17). However magnetite (Fig. 3.3), and on the other hand,
no vertical trend with large salinity by the vein sulphur isotopie composition
variation has been put forward as it is that tends toward higher values through the
107

paragenesis (Campbell, 1987). Carbonate determination of the fluid ongm that is


replacement sulphides with the lowest 834S hidden by the meteoric and magmatic
values belong to the end of the paragenesis components.
(lib in Fig. 3.3) or are located in ore bodies
remote from the Mitu-Pucara contact. It
may suggest the premise of the late stage 30 • o " O (%o SMOW)

with influence of different S sources. The
late stage is effectively strongly influenced 20
0 o"'S (%o CDT)
• • ••
by three different fluids. First, hydrogen •• • •• 0

and oxygen isotopie data on dickite 10 ~ oo ~ 0


0
0
indicate a probable major mixing of @
0
magmatic and meteoric waters (Fig. 3.19). 0
But, as for the vein system, growing 0.712 0.716 0.720 0.724
importance of a third fluid is also indicated Sr/6S r
87

by the augmentation of the Ba content in


secondary fluid inclusions (Fig. 3.18) and
by barite samples revealing large ranges of Fig. 3.25: 8 180 and o34 S vs 87Sr/86Sr ratio for barite
0, S and Sr isotopie compositions (Figs. from vein and carbonate replacement ore.
3.7, 3.9 and 3.19). For example, 87 Sr/86 Sr
barite ratios from the carbonate
replacement ore bodies range from
0.712867 to 0.722311 (Table 3.2), which Conclusions
are ali too radiogenic in comparison with
the Chumpe intrusion signature (Fig. 3.9).
However, this large range of 87 Sr/86 Sr The two different ore types of the San
ratios is not observed in each ore bodies, Cristobal district, i.e. vein and carbonate
on the contrary barite from specifie ore replacement ore bodies, are linked to the
bodies indicate much more homogeneous Chumpe intrusion and present a similar
87 Sr/86 Sr ratios. Barites from ore bodies
paragenetic sequence. Their principal
located at the periphery of the San mineralogie differences can be observed in
Cristobal district, such as Gavilan or their respective early stage; the early vein
Moises (Fig. 3.1), have low 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios, stage is principally composed of
while the ones from the principal ore wolframite, quartz and pyrite, which is
bodies at the centre of the district, such as totally absent in the carbonate replacement
Toldorumi or Escondida (Fig. 3.1), yield ore. Nonetheless, these two different ore
definitively higher 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios (Table types present similarities in their fluid and
3.2). Since ail these four ore bodies are metal origins.
located in the Pucara limestones and close
to the contact with the Mitu volcanic rocks,
these variations cannot be attributed to the
influence of the carbonate rocks. In Highly saline fluid inclusions and the
contrast it indicates equilibration with the isotopie compositions of the fluids,
more radiogenic underlying formations, i.e. variable 8D values with constant 8 180
Mitu volcanic rocks or Excelsior phyllites. values and Pb isotope ratios overlapping
However this equilibration has probably with the isotopie composition of the
been partial and not homogeneous since intrusion, argue strongly in favor of a
correlation or distinctive patterns are major magmatic input and a slight
difficult to reveal in multi-isotope diagram meteoric fluid admixture in the two earliest
(Fig. 3.25). Hydrogen and oxygen isotope vein stages. LA-ICP-MS analyses of fluid
data (Fig. 3.19) do not help in the inclusions indicate that the bulk of the
108

economically attractive elements are during fieldwork. We thank also Les


provided by the t1uid exsolved from the Oldham and the Anglo-Peruana for advice,
intrusion. The fluids associated to the late criticism and help during fieldwork. C.
stage have very different characteristics. Heinrich is kindly acknowledge for the
With variable 8 180 and 8D values, this access to his laboratory at ETH Zürich.
stage can probably still be interpreted as a This study was supported by the Swiss
magmatic-meteoric mixing, but with a National Science Foundation (Grant
larger increase of the meteoric component. n°2000-062000.00).
Variation in 87 Sr/86Sr ratios of barite and
enrichment in Ba and Sr may be attributed
to the incoming of a the third fluid from a References
undetertnined origin.

Audétat, A., Günther, D. and Heinrich, C.A.


(2000): Causes for Large-scale metal
Isotopie data of the carbonate replacement zonation around mineralised plutons: fluid
ore bodies tell us that the fluid responsible inclusion LA-ICP-MS evidence from the
for their formation of the carbonate Mole Granite, Australia. Econ. Geol., vol.
replacement has followed a similar 95, p. 1563-1581
evolution. While no W ore exists in the Bartlett, M.W. (1984): Petrology and genesis
carbonate rocks, and while Cu contents are of carbonate-hosted lead-zinc-silver ores,
strongly depleted in comparison to the San Cristobal district, Department of Junin,
Peru. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Oregon
veins, it is mainly due to the selective
State University, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.,
mineral precipitation with the result that 272 p.
the fluids reaching the carbonate rocks Barton, P.B. and Bethke P.M. (1987):
were already depleted in these elements. Chalcopyrite disease in sphalerite:
Mineralisation processes, as happened in Pathology and epidemiology, American
the San Cristobal district where fluid Mineralogist, vol. 72, p. 451-467
m1xmg was the principal deposition Beaty, D.W., Landis, G.P. and Thompson, T.B.
mechanism, indicates selective (1990): Carbonate-hosted sulfide deposits of
precipitation with a far higher efficiency the Central Colorado mineral belt:
introduction, general discussion, and
for W minerais in comparison to base
summary. Econ. Geol., Monograph 7, p. 1-
metal ones. 18.
Beuchat, S. and Moritz, R. (in prep): The Zn-
Pb-Ag-Cu San Cristobal district, Central
Large vanatton in homogenization Peru: A case of lineament influence on
Miocene ore formation.
temperatures is thought to be the result of
Beuchat, S., Moritz, R., Sartori, M., Chiaradia,
temperature inversions caused by high M. and Schaltegger, U. (2001a): High
level flows in particular locations. This is precision geochronology and structural
notably revealed at the Mitu-Pucani constraints on the Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu Domo de
contact during the influx of a large quantity Yau li district, Central Peru. Extended
of the third fluid. abstract, 6th biennial meeting of the SGA,
Krakow, Poland, 26-29 August 2001.
Beuchat, S., Schaltegger, U., Cosca, M.,
Moritz, R. and Chiaradia, M. (2001b): High-
Acknow/edgments precision geochronology constrains on
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in the Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu Domo de Yauli district,
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data acquisition and analyte concentration à Zn, Pb, ±Ag dans les calcaires du Pucara
calculation. Journal of Analytical Atomic (Domo de Yauli, Andes du Pérou Central).
Spectrometry, vol. 11, p. 899-904 Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of
Megaw, P.K.M., Barton, M.D. and Falce, J.I. Geneva, Switzerland, 170 p.
(1996): Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc (Ag, Cu, Sheperd, T., Rankin, A.H. and Alderton,
Au) deposits of northern Chihuahua, D.H.M. (1985): A practical guide to fluid
Mexico. In: D.F. Sangster (ed.), Carbonate- inclusion studies. Blackie, Glasgow and
hosted lead-zinc deposits. SEG Special London, UK, 239p.
Publication, vol. 4, p. 277-289. Sillitoe, R.H. (1976): Andean mineralisation: a
Megaw, P.T., Ruiz, J. and Titley, S.R (1988): madel for the metallogeny of convergent
High-temperature, carbonate-hosted Ag-Pb- plate margins. In : Strong, D.F., ed.,
Zn(Cu) deposits of northern Mexico. Econ. Metallogeny and plate tectonics, Geological
Geol., vol. 83, p. 1856-1885 Association of Canada Special Paper, vol.
Moritz, R., Beuchat, S., Chiaradia, M., Stucky, 14, p. 59-100.
P., Sallier, B. and Lisboa, H. (2001): Zn-Pb Sillitoe, R.H. and Bonham, H.F. (1990):
mant os and veins at Domo de Y auli, Central Sediment-hosted gold deposits: distal
Peru: two products of one hydrothermal products of magmatic-hydrothermal
system with common Pb & S sources, but systems. Geology, vol. 18, p. 157-161.
contrasting fluid inclusion characteristics. Simon, K. (200 1): Does oD from fluid
Extended abstract, 6th biennial meeting of inclusion in quartz reflect the original
the SGA, Krakow, Poland, 26-29 August hydrothermal fluid? Chemical Geology, vol.
2001. 177, p. 483-495.
Moritz, R., Fontboté, L., Spangenberg, J., Smith, D.M. (1996):Sedimentary basins and
Rosas, S., Sharp, Z. and Fontignie, D. the origin of intrusion-related carbonate-
(1996): Sr, C -and 0 isotope systematics in hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposits. In: D.F. Sangster
the Pucara basin, central Peru. Mineral. (ed.), Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits.
Deposita, vol. 31, p. 147-162. SEG Special publication, vol. 4, p. 255-263
Ohmoto, H. and Goldhaber, M.B. (1997): Sterner, S.M. and Bodnar, R.J. (1984):
Sulfur and carbon isotopes. In: Bames Synthetic fluid inclusions in natural quartz:
HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal 1. Compositional types synthesized and
ore deposits, 3rd ed Wiley, New York, p. applications to experimental geochemistry.
517-611. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 48, p.
Pastor, J.A. (1970): The mineralisation in San 2659-2668.
Cristobal mine. Unpublished MSc thesis, Sterner, S.M., Hall, D.L. and Bodnar, R.J.
University of Arizona, U.S.A., liSp. (1988): Synthetic fluid inclusions. V.
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(1978): Freezing point depression of H20 under vapor saturated conditions.
aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Econ. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 52, p.
Geol., vol. 73, p. 284-285 989-1005.
Stucky, P. (2001): La veine de Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag
d' Andaychagua (Domo de Y auli, Andes
111

centrales, Pérou). Unpublished MSc thesis,


University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
Titley, S.R. (1996): Characteristics of high
temperature, carbonate-hosted replacement
ores and sorne comparisons with Mississippi
valley-type ores. In: D.F. Sangster (ed.),
Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits. SEG
Special publication, vol. 4, p. 244-254.
Ulrich, T., Günther, D. and Heinrich, C.A.
(1999): Gold concentrations of magmatic
brines and the metal budget of porphyry
coèèer deposits. Nature, vol. 399, p. 676-
679.
Ulrich, T., Günther, D. and Heinrich, C.A.
(2002): The evolution of a porphyry Cu-Au
deposit, based on LA-ICP-MS ana1ysis of
fluid inclusions: Bajo de la Alumbrera,
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Volcan compafia minera S.A.A. (2001):
Memoria annual2000. 149 p.
Zhang, L.-G., Liu J.-X., Chen, Z.-S. and Zhou
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150-157.
112
,,
SamJJie · ····· ······ 'locatÏoÏ1 Unit (or host) DescriJltion Mineralo!JV )1.
w date hy
(\)
Cl
c (/) :::s
>.
.c: ·-
'(;! Cl
c ~
Klc.. Klc.. Kl · Kj Kl Kl .S · cC:.
ë.. a.

' Q) Cl
c.. ' ..c c "C ·- ' Kl ~
~ '(;! c..
"'c,
Q
i:
c..
~
"C
<(
~
"C
~ ë
Q Q Q
ë ë ...
c.. c.. c.. c..
Q Q
... Q Q Q
...
"' u
tl E '"l' H
Q
..c .!!! .!!! Q Q Q ë 1§ 1~ :::i
ë L.J..
c::
.c:
c.. x
ti c..
::i :::,
.!
<(
<l
0
~
' 1
.!!!
~
Vl
' "C
%
..c
c..
· ~
:
1
·- ·-(/)
:E
~ .!!!
0
.!!!
::1: u:: u:: u::
1

0
722-1 03!05!1999 SB Vein 722, Nv 820, Tj 020 Mttu volcanics Mineralised sample, si++, car++, x (\)

722-4 03.o0511999 SB Vein 722. Nv 820. Ti 020 Mttu volcanics


concretions
Brecci wtth clasts of sulphide and
gz+
car ++, qz+, si+, qz 1 qz 1
,en
n
quat1z cemented by carbonate, ,py+, ba -5'
-+
1722-ii:J .. 0311012001 SB IVein 722, Nv 820, Bp 960 · Mrtu volcanics
..... smallpockets of barrte
:centimetric automorphous crystal of qz++,rho, dol qz 1 qz qz qz <'
(\)
!quartz, deposrtion of carbonates at
..Mrtu volcanics ..
thepetiphery
iii'
8'10 Om ocl-98 PS ·AndaychagLta vein, Nv 770, Tj ·Wall rock sericrtized qr++, ser+ , plg, -+
'680, Pz 4 py, cal, sid
0
:810 1m oct-98 PS 1!l.ndaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj Mrtu volcanics 'Wall rock sericrtized

1814 oct-98
680, Pz 4
. PS 'Andaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj · Mttu volcanics IVeinlets qz+, SI+
""""
-+
::r
(\)
680,Pz4 ........................................ ... .,........................ .......... ....
'815 ocl-98 · PS !Andaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj !Mitu vo1canics ' Veinlets en
680, Pz 4
c-+
PS IAndaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj Mrtu volcanics Breccia wrth colcanics clas1s
a.
'680, Pz 4 ji'
816 c ocl-98 PS ' Andaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj
a.
:680, Pz 4
•• · ~ .>M
sid
,0
1816 e oct-98 PS :Andaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj · Mrtu volcanics Breccia w rth colcanics clasts n
1821 Om oct-98
1680,Pz 4
PS ;!l.ndaychagLta vein, Nv
1680, Pz 5
770, Tj · Mrtu volcanics Small veinlets in sericrtized
volcanics
"
en
Q
:::s
'824 cd oct-98 PS ' Andaychagua vein, Nv
I171,Pz 10
720, Tj Excelsior phyllrtes Breccia w rth phyllrtes clasts
a.
825 ocl-98 PS ;AndaychagLta vein, Nv 720, Tj Gabbro Small veinlets
n
AOO, Pz 5 =+
(\)

832 oct-98 PS AndaychagLta vein, Nv 720, Tj ·Veinlets


a.
Gabbro
400, Pz 5
Q
:::s
840 oct-98 PS Anclaychagua xein,NxJ 20, TL Mrtu volcanics Contact between volcanics and Q
853
856
oct-98
ocl-98
PS ' AndaychagLta vein, Nv soo,
PS 'AndaychagLta vein, Nv 720 , Tj
........ •E~celsiorp~yUrtes Small veinlets
Mrtu volcanics Veinlets
-<
en
(\)
1211, Pz '10
en
859 ocl-98 PS 1AndaychagLta vein, Nv 720, Tj Mrtu volcanics Replacement ot pyrrte by base metal py+ , si+, gn, epy
211, Pz 10 sulfides
86'1 oct-98 PS :Andaychagua vein, Nv 720, Tj Mrtu volcanics :Veinlets epy+, SI+
1211..•
,_
w
w Cl
>.
.:
= = rs:l rs:l
·-
'(;!
Cl ci. CFJ
~
(1) Cl
= ·-= ·-'(;! rs:l VI
= ·-
-- ..s =
1:1. .c rs:l rs:l
~ 1:1. 1:1. rs:l
1:1. rs:l c..
...c.. '(;!.Q:-=t.n .9 = = .9
.s = .9 =
1:1.
Cl , ...u E
1:1. 1:1. 1:1. ~ u
= b ~ ~.! q .!!!= .!!!= .!!!=- .!!!= -~= ~ .~0 .!!!= ·e c:
"C
<i:
C')
~
0 u.. ...J

c: Vi -=
.: c: ·- ' <( (1)
c.. x ::! ::::1' ~ z
iDY-7 F 01 !D6t1998 i RM Vein 722, Nv 580, VI 230 Excelsior phyll~es Disseminated sultides
,DY-7G 011D6t1998 , RM Vein 722, Nv 580, YI 230 iExcelsior phyll~es ' Disseminated suif ides py, epy

DY-8 01 ID611998 , RM Vein 658, Nv 820, YI 020 :Mttu volcanics •Brecciated host rocks in massive •qz++, si++, py+,
ore gn+

iDY-10 i'' o1 Aï6/1ssà ' RM Vein 722, Nv820 Mttu volcanics :Banded sulfides-carbonate vein :car++, si+ , gn,
• ···· ·············································· py
Vein 722, Nv820 :Mttu volcanics ,Massive galena ore, voids filled wtth ,gn++, car+, qz+,
<quartz and tate carbonates ·si
· · !i'ucaré
litneSiones Attered limestones kao, ill, PY
PLtcara limestones .Mineralized limestones gn+, si, py

DY -12 F Cara!)uacra open-p~ Pucara limestones 'Manto ore py+, st

DY-1 2 Carahw'lcra open-ptt Pucar~ iirÏÏeStones 'Hemattte ore in manto :hm, si


G
DY-12 CarahLtacra open-ptt Pucara timèS!onês .. •orê in rmirù) near tüiï iqz, hm, py
Hb
DY-121 021D6t1998 RM Carahuacra open-ptt TPucarti litneStënïes rv ein close to marrtos si

'DY -13 ' 021D611998 RM Andaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj :Mrtu volcanics


, 4l35,Pz6
DY-13 021D611998 RM Andaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj ;M~Lt volcanics :Vein ore si
A 465, Pz 6
DY-13 021D6!1998 RM .i\ndaychagua vein, Nv 770, Tj Gabbro ·srïïan veinleis ·· si+, gn
B ,........... .. . ... . 465,Pz 6
DY-14 . 031D6t1998 RM ??? ??? ???

DY-15 San Cristobal vein


iA
'DY-15 San Cristobal vein
'B
'DY-15 '??? 'Small veinlets py, si, qz
c
DY-16 PLicari.lirÏÏeStones 'Skarn in limestones phi
B
DY-17F Toromocho porphyry 'Miocene <Molybdentte vein crosscutting qz, mo
magm~tism porphyry
DY-3 1 Victoria M~u volcanics
A
DY-31 V ictoria ·Mrtu volcanics
c VI
........
w date hy C) ........
>. = C) V) 0\
.c Q) C) i"1:3 = f!l f!l :::!
c.. ..c =
ec.. i"1:3 $ i"1:3 c.. ëc.. c:.
"'c, ë
Q Q
!d
.s LJ..
Q
ti ..c "'• .!:2 ·-
1/)
:3
Q
.c c:: c,. cl: "1:3
c. x ~ ::::1 Oi z:
DY -31 E 081'1 Ot1998 RM V ictoria Mitu volcanics wr wr

DY-311 0811011998 RM ,Victoria Excelsior phyllites wr wr


................................
DY-31 L 08t1011998 [ RM [Victoria Excelsior phyllites • wr wr

DY-37 16!D5t1999 RM ;Prosperidad vein Exeelsior phyllites


c
DY-91 ??? RM ??? ·??? ~ ??? ???
s
DY-411 ·1SID911998 BS :carahuacra open-pit ,Pueara limeStones ·Manto ore [hm+ , gn+, sid, si, [
[epy
DY -443 23!D811998 BS [Carahuacra open-pit Pucar.Ï iim~Stëines :Manto ore x
DY-444 23>D811998 BS :carahuacra open-pit P~cara iimeStones ;Manto ore, massive pyrite in ribbon Py++, si+, sid, x
.texture, sphalerite intercalation, [gn, epy
~ ·~~·
~ breccias
DY -459 29!D811 998 . BS :Huaripampa, Nv -400 ~Pucara lim·~ ~on·~;-· :Ma~t~ ore si+, gn+
·- - ···-
DY -470 0111011998 BS [Huaripampa, Nv -400 PucarélimeStones. Manto ore, replacement of hematite ma+, hm, py,
..•.. . .•..... .•.... ;by magnetite sph, kao
DY-473 02t1011998 BS .Huaripampa, Nv -400 .Pueara limestones ;Manto ore, replacement of hematite ma++, hm, py,
by magnetite gn,.sl, .qz
DY-494 0611011998 BS [Huaripampa, Nv -300 Pucara limestones Marrto ore hm+, si+, gn, py,
ca
DY-498 05t1 011998 ' BS ;Huaripampa, Nv -350 PLÏcarâ iimesïëiiïes. [Manto ore , early carbonate hm++, sid+, qz+
,replacement stage, replacement of
siderite by quarü
DY-533 18.oD911998 · BS :carahuacra open-pit Pueara limestones Manto ore hm+, gn+ , sid, si,
epy
DY-554 19!D911998 BS 'Huaripampa, Nv -400 PcÏcarà limeStones ;Large aLrtomorphous cryslals of hm++, qz+, si+,
[quartz in a matrix of hematite
oct-98 HL V ein 722, Nv 580, Tj 230E .Excelsior phyllites ' P\'r~ic ore ··············· · ·· · ····· ·· · ·· ··· py++,wo,bis, , X
qz , epy, apy , fh , [
pÇJ,pol
oct-98 ' HL ,Vein 722, Nv 580, Tj 230E Excelsior phyllites 'Brecci w ith sphalerite veins
sl++,gn+,st,py, :
fh
oct-88 HL Nein 722, Nv 580, Tj 231 E Excelsior phyllites Phyllite breceia, eemented by sulfide si++ , epy+, gn+,
'quartz veins . ipy+
oct-98 HL Vein 722 , Nv 580, Tj 261 Excelsior phyllites ;Massive pyrite 'py++
DY-629 [ oct-98 , HL Vein 722 , Nv 580, Tj 262 ,Excelsior phyllites ·Pyllite w ith intercalations of pyrite py++, qz++, sid
DY-644 oct-88 HL [Vein 722 , Nv 820, Tj 020 ~~~~~ voiëanics ;Ciastes of pyr~e and sulfide qz++, car++,
. : ~er~ented by .latecarbonate py+,sl, gn, kao
oct-98 HL Vein 722, Nv 820, Tj 325 Mitu volcanies Massive banded sphalerite crosscLrt ,si++, gn++, qz,
by laie quartz-carboante vein

oct-98 HL ' Vein 722, Nv 680, Tj 110 ··· 'éxëelsior pl1yllites ' Breeeia w ith centimetric
:sphalerite
w Cl
c
>. :i ·- Cl è.. (Il

~ ~ ~
..c ~ ~
~ · ~
' (!)
..,... .
Q.~ .:
Cl
c c. c. c. ~ ~ ~ ..c VI
c c.
Cl
...c.
0
i
-= -="' .9c. ...
0
0
.S0 · s0 .9c. c.
...
0
c.
.90
ëi
...
(.,) "'E :±u
.90 0 VI 0

·- ·- ï~ i ~
.: VI 0 0
u.. tl 0 VI .!!! .!!!
c. .... .!!! .!!! .!!! ....j
c::
ltll -=z
..c ~ .:
c. >c: :::! :::) c:: c. ::1:: (Il 0 ::1:: ii 1 ii ii
DY-68·1 ocl-98 HL :Vein 722, Nv 580, Tj 231 E Excelsior phyll~es 'Centimetric crystals of bar~e ba++, si+, gn ba ba
Esc 1 RM 'Escondida Pucara limestones ba
Esc 2 · RM ·Escondida F>ué:arâ 1irneSiones
FPE-4a LF San Cristobal vein, Nv 180 Excelsior phyll~.es Wo++, py++,
qz+, ser
RM 'Gavilan Pucara limestones

sB :oertrLïëiis Skârii Puëarâ limestones iSkarn ore


SB 'Gertrudis skarn Pucara lime stones~ :Skarn ore
........................................ Pucarâ iimestones -~ÏanÏo ore at the contact w~h tuff
SB

RM Prosperidad 'Excelsior phyll~es

RM Prosperidad Excelsior phyll~es

M-3 RM Toldorumi Pucara limestones·


M-4 RM Toldorumi rliëârâ limeSiones - .
ML-3 071DSt1 999 1 SB Maria Laura vein, Nv 250 Mnu volcanics 'Small veinlets of pyrne crosscutting
[the host silicified Milu
Moises RM Moises ·Pucara ltméstones ·
A
Moises RM Moises F>liëtirâlirneSiaiïes ···
B
OYA-1 SB Oyama prospect Milu volcanics
OYA-5 SB Mnu volcanics 'Small veinlets
OYA-6 i 29105tl 999 SB Oyama prospect 'Mnu volcanics 'Breccia w~h barile crystals

POR [ 06.<D712000 SB Parvenir intrusion Miocene :Porphyr~ic gran~e


magmalism
POR-2 171D5t1999 SB Parvenir intrusion Miocene :Porphyrilic gran~e
·magtnatistn
POR-S ' 17105tl999 SB Parvenir intrusion Miocene Porphyrilic gran~e [kfd+, qz+, bio+,
magmatism iplg, zr,ap , sph
Toldorumi Sur Puëara lirnestone; : Brecci, oxyde matrix :hm++
64,6
S04- : 13,iJst199s SB Toldorumi SLrr Pucara limestones :replacement of hemat~e by hm+,sl+
76,8 :sphalerile
S04- 131D5t1 999 SB Toldorumi Sur Pucara umesïënes :Manto.ore w~h massive green .si++, car, hm
91.5 sphalerne ,
S17-87 241D5t1999 SB Toldorwni Sur i'uë:arâ litnestonës :Mariïoore w~h claste ot sphalerile si+, car+, gn
..................·..... ................... i c!Ot~ente~ by late g arbonaiiO
SC-1 041D5tl999 ' SB San Cristobal vein, Nv 630, vt 11 Milu volcanics [Breccia w~h bar~e crystals 'car++, qz+, si+, X
bar
-·- ~ #

San et·istobal vein, Nv 630, vt 11 Milu volcanics Small veinlets, pockets of dickile -..)
00
(/)
:::!
c:
!:::1
<1:
...J
u:

Small veinlets
Cvu rich ore
'SC-12 San Cristobal vein, Nv 630 at 50 m :Miocene Porphyrrtic texture
from Mrtu-Pucarâ contact :magmatism
SC-13 San Cristobal vein, Nv 270 :Miocene Vein ore
magmatism
SCV\11- 18J05!'1 999 SB Drillcore SCWl , uncler San 'Miocene . Porphyrrtic texture plg+ , (\Z+, kfd,
21,4 Cristobal mining _camp .... rnaÇJmêitism . bio, zr, ser,ill __
SON2- 18!0511999 SB Drillcore SON2, under San :Miocene Porphyrrtic texture plg+, qz+, kfd,
302.2 ù isjob€11_mining camp .......... i rnaflmatism bio, _zr, s~r._ ill __ _
SON2- 18!0511 999 SB Drillcore SON2, under San Miocene Porphyrrtic texture plg+, qz+, kfd,
340 C:ristobal mining camp magmajism bio, __zr, ser, ill
TIC 26!0511 999 SB Anticona diorrte, Laguna :Miocene Porphyrrtic texture bio+, plg+, hbl,
!HLJacracocha magmatism qz, ap, zr, chi,
epi, ca
!TIC-6 26!0511999 . SB Ticlio Pass Miocene Monzogranrte intruding Antivcona
iTIC-10 06t1 0!200'1 SB Laguna Huacracocha Miocene ' Anticona diorrte wrth foliated
.. mal)tfl_
atism___ _
!TOL-1 12J0511999 : SB Toldorumi Mrtu volcanics
contact
,TOL-2 12!05/1999 SB Toldorumi ·Pucarâ lirnestones 'Manto ore
'TOR 17!0511999 : SB :San Francisco intrusion Mio cene Porphyrrtic texture
maflrnatisrn
!TOR-10 31!0511999 SB Toromocho poprhyry 'Miocene Sericutized intrusion
imagmatism
'TOR-13 3'1J05t1999 : SB 'Anticona diorrte Miocene Potassic atteration
''TI"I.I'natistn epi,CI11
!SON2- 18!05!'1999 SB Drillcore SON2 , Lmder San :Miocene Porphyrrtic texture plg+, qz+, kfd,
!302.2 Cristobal mining camp 'magrnatistn bio, zr, ser, ill
SON2- 1810511899 SB ,Drillcore SON2, under San Miocene Porphyrrtic texture plg+, qz+, kfd,
340 Cristobal rnining camp magmatisrn __ ........ bio 1 zr, ser, ill
TIC 26!0511999 SB )l.nticona diorrte, Laguna Miocene .Porphyrrtic textLtre bio+, plg+, hbl,
:Huacracocha imagrnatism qz, ap, zr, chi,

TIC-6 26!0511998 SB 'Ticlio Pass !Miocene Monzogranrte intruding Antivcona


:magmatism diorrte
Laguna Huacracocha 'Miocene Anticona diorrte wrtl1 toliated
magmatism xenolrth
volcanics srilan veinleï i:.iïiïe ~lrtu:Pl;;;a;~
w C)
c (1)
. >. :i.
; ..c 'i C) '

· =-
(<:~
Cl)
..c
C)
c "CS .: &1
't;Sc.=-=-c.
&1 &1 &1 &1 &1 &1 .cQ "'c ::!
c:.
c, E 'i
c. . -c ~ , -::
ë
0 sc .s0 ë
0 c.
....QQ sQ
c. c.
....QQ ti • E
u
(<:l

s u.. < := ~ .c "'•


tl)
C? . .!a .!a .!a .!a ~
'ë c:(<:l ...J
Q
..c c: .!::! ~ ~ Q) .... "'C ..C: ...... -~ i .~ .!a
c... x ::! ::::1 ~ c: (1) z c... ::c (1) 0 ::c u:: : u:: u::
TOL-2 12JlJ5fl999 SB Toldorumi Pucara lime stones ,Manto ore si++ , dik, hm, gn si qz qz
TOR 17JlJ511999 SB San Francisco intrusion Miocene Porphyrrtic texlure qz++ , plg+, kfd, zr
.. ' '' "'
TOR-10 3'1ID511999 SB Toromocho poprhyry Mio cene : SericLrtized intrusion
TOR-13 31 JlJS/1999 SB Anticona diorrte Miocene , Potassic a~eretion kfd+, plg, bio,

TOR-14 3110511999 SB San Francisco intrusion Miocene ' Propylrtic a~eretion kfd+, bio+, qz+, wr wr wr ;
TOR-15 31 JlJS/1999 SB Toromocho poprhyry Miocene Small veinlet of molybdenrte qz+,mo X mo

.Sampling Codes: ;Mineralogy Codes


.AC .A.nfbal Chavez al alabandite Jh fa hl ore 'po ipyrrh_otite
;88 Benjarnin SaUier ap _ apatite , : gn ! galf311~ pol :polybasite
:HL :Henri Lisboa :apy arsenopyrite hbl hornblende py ;pyrite
'LF .Lluis Fontboté :bar ba rite hm hematite' qz · q~ artz
PS Phillippe Stucky :bio biotite ill 'illite rho 'rhodochrosite'
RM Robert Moritz bis bismuthinite : l<.ao:kaolinite : •ser , §ericite
SB bou: boulangerite 1 ..... L~td . l<:feld spar sid :siderite
ca calcite _ ma _magnetite si ' sphalerite
location Codes car carbonate ·mc :marcassite . sp~ ·sphene
Nv Nive! ch! chlorite mo lmoly!Ïdenite si stannite
Tj Taj<lo epy chalcopyrite pg :py rargirite wo wolframite
Vt Ventana dol dolomite ph! 'phlogopite .... zr zircon
Pz ' Pizo epi epiqgte ......... ............. plg plagioçla se :

\0
120
121

Appendix II: 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating

Temperature (0 C) Ca/K "'Ar!" Ar ,,.Art"'Ar "'Ar (x 10·" mole) "Ar (x 10·" mole) %'.-Ar Apparent ages± 1cr (Ma)

DY-16b, Phlogopite, J =0.00155, wt. =16. 9 mg.


825 0,9779 0,03343 0,366 6,3 0,6 3,6 1 ± 0,2
850 0,6089 0,03035 0,914 7,9 0,8 9,3 2,6 ± 0,2
875 0,2436 0,02339 1,684 11,8 1,4 19,6 4,7 ± 0,2
900 0,0867 0,01222 2,141 11,6 2 37,3 6 ± 0,2
925 0,0357 0,00669 2,383 13,4 3,1 54,7 6,6 ± 0,2
950 0,0506 0 ,00474 2,537 15 3,8 64,5 7,1 ± 0,2
975 0,0386 0 ,00389 2,537 17,1 4,6 68,8 7,1 ± 0,2
1000 0,0329 0,00337 2,526 17 4,8 71,7 7 ± 0,2
1025 0 ,0405 0,00311 2,547 16,9 4,9 73,5 7,1 ± 0,2
1050 0,0412 0,00294 2,583 19,1 5,5 74,9 7,2 ± 0,2
1075 0,0267 0,00249 2,628 20 ,6 6,1 78,2 7,3 ± 0,2
1100 0,0295 0,00206 2,597 19 5,9 81,1 7.2 ± 0,2
1150 0,1015 0,0018 2,616 18 5,7 83,2 7,3 ± 0,2
1300 3,0109 0,00356 2,554 13 3,7 73,3 7,1 ± 0,2
1549 1,236 0,00446 2,687 7 ,9 2 68 7,5 ± 0,2

810-1m, Seri cite, J = 0.00151, wt. = 20.7 mg.


600 2,9354 0,04059 0,767 21 ,3 1,7 6,1 2,1 ± 0,3
625 1,7142 0,02845 1,344 26 ,1 2,7 13,9 3,7 ± 0,2
650 1,5428 0,02077 1,664 22,9 3 21,5 4,5 ± 0,2
675 1,2658 0,01703 1,584 20,8 3,2 24,1 4,3 ± 0,2
700 0,868 0,01442 1,801 18 3 29,9 4,9 ± 0,2
725 0,6764 0,01364 1,933 14,9 2,5 32,6 5,3 ± 0,2
750 0,7592 0,01519 1,905 11,2 1,8 29,9 5,2 ± 0,2
775 0,7848 0,01758 2,721 8,4 1,1 34,5 7,4 ± 0,3
800 1,394 0,0256 3,127 6,5 0,6 29,4 8,5 ± 0,3
825 1,7636 0,03905 3,934 6,1 0,4 25,5 10,7 ± 0,4
850 2,2192 0,05519 4,354 5,5 0,3 21,1 11 ,8 ± 0,5
875 2,6239 0,0735 3,01 4,8 0,2 12,2 8,2 ± 0,5
900 3,6508 0,09317 1,46 4,6 0,2 5,1 4 ± 0,6

GER-3, Ph/ogopite, J = 0.00156, wt. ':' 10.6 mg.


900 0,8279 0,01552 1,123 5,9 19,8 3,2 ± 0,1
925 0,4701 0,00755 1,567 5,3 1,4 41,5 4,4 ± 0,1
950 0,3618 0,00593 1,551 5 ,1 1,6 47,2 4,4 ± 0,1
975 0,2901 0,00421 1,898 5 ,5 1,8 60,6 5,3 ± 0,2
1000 0,1783 0,00387 2,024 6,3 2 64,1 5,7 ± 0,2
1025 0,1361 0,00397 2,074 7,5 2,3 64 5,8 ± 0,2
1050 0 ,0806 0,00296 2,218 9,5 3,1 71,8 6,2 ± 0,2
1075 0,0487 0,00239 2,275 12,1 4,1 76,4 6,4 ± 0,2
1100 0,0622 0,00167 2,346 11 ,7 4,1 82,7 6,6 ± 0,2
1150 0,133 0,00216 2,281 9,4 3,2 78,3 6,4 ± 0,2
1300 21,1888 0,03988 1,344 8,4 0,7 10,9 3,8 ± 0,3
1549 37,0743 0,05794 1,628 8,4 0,5 9 ,3 4,6 ± 0,4
122

Temperature (°C) Ca/K "'Ar/" Ar "'Ar!"Ar "'Ar (x 10-" mole) "Ar (x 10-" mole) %'~Ar Apparent ages ± 1a (Ma)

SC-5, Sericite, J =0.00147, wt. =19.5 mg.


600 2,8907 0,01196 0,084 6,2 1,8 2,4 0,2 ± 0,1
625 1,8224 0,01069 0,385 7,9 2,3 11,1 1 ± 0,1
650 1,349 0,00805 0,84 8,7 2,7 26 ,5 2,2 ± 0,1
675 0,8859 0,00056 1,024 8,6 3,3 38,9 2,7 ± 0 ,1
700 0,5026 0,00373 1,373 10,1 4,1 55 ,9 3,6 ± 0,1
725 0,282 0,00289 1,572 11 4,6 65 ,1 4,2 ± 0,1
750 0,2435 0,00288 1,616 10,6 4,3 65 ,8 4,3 ± 0,1
775 0,1672 0,00265 1,822 10,1 3,9 70,1 4,8 ± 0,2
800 0,1955 0,00299 1,876 9 3,3 68 ,2 5 ± 0,2
825 0,2246 0,00367 1,882 8,2 2,8 63 ,6 5 ± 0 ,2
850 0 ,2578 0,0047 1,789 6,9 2,2 56 ,5 4,7 ± 0,2
875 02819 0,00041 1,736 5,8 1,7 52,2 4,6 ± 0,1
900 02751 0,00007 1,671 5,4 1,6 48,4 4,4 ± 0 ,1
925 0,2056 0,00071 1.557 5 1,4 44,1 4,1 ± 0 ,1
950 0,2205 0,0073 1,439 4,6 1,3 40 ,1 3,8 ± 0 ,1
975 0,1869 0,00812 1,326 4,4 1,2 35,7 3,5 ± 0 ,1
1000 02326 0,00858 1,289 4 33,8 3,4 ± 0 ,1
1050 0 ,1436 0,00846 1,816 5.4 1,3 42 ,1 4,8 ± 0 ,2
1200 0,0672 0,0089 3,78 26,2 4,1 59 %10.0 ± 0,3
1551 02104 0,00089 5,662 22,3 2,9 73 ,6 14,9 ± 0 ,5
123

Appendix III: Microthermometry and Raman fluid inclusion data

co, co, C02


Sample n°fam. UV T, THA me phase Sali nit y L.band U.band density

FPE-4a 1 Ali n.d. n.d. n.d. 206.4 n.d. L 54.0b) 0


FPE-4a 2 Ali n.d. n.d. n.d. 205.8 n.d. L 46.1 b) 0
FPE-4a 3 Ali n.d. -22.2 n.d. 259.4 436 L 51.7 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 4 Ali n.d. n.d. n.d. 235.5 400.2a) L 47.6 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 5 Ali n.d. n.d. n.d. 227.4 427.7a) L 50.8 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 6 Ali n.d. n.d. n.d. 225.1 370.5a) L 44.6 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 7 Ali n.d. n.d. n.d. 259 454a) L 53.9 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 8 Alli n.d. -21.6 -2.5 239 L 4.18 0
FPE-4a 9 Alli n.d. -21.6 -2.5 239 L 4.18 0
FPE-4a 10AIII 1.3 n.d. -1 .7 237.8 L 2.9 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 11 Alli n.d. -22.1 -2 .2 1.54.2 L 3.7 1292 1396.1 0.6
FPE-4a 12 Alli n.d. -21 .9 -2.6 156.1 L 4.34 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 13 Alli 4 n.d. -2.3 146.2 L 3.9 0
FPE-4a 14 Alli n.d. n.d. -3.1 218.8 L 5.11 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 15 Alli 3.3 n.d. -2.8 218 L 4.6 0
FPE-4a 16 Alli n.d. -29 -2.6 n.d. n.d. 4.3 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 17 Alli 4.9 -22.1 -2.2 154.2 L 3.7 1292 1396.1 0.6
FPE-4a 18AIII 4 -21.9 -2.6 156.1 L 4.3 0
FPE-4a 19 Alli 2.5 n.d. -2.2 148.9 L 3.7 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 20 Alli 1.8 n.d. -2.3 146.2 L 3.9 0
FPE-4a 21 Alli 1.8 n.d. -2.8 193.9 L 4.6 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 22 Alli 1.9 n.d. -2.9 196.1 L 4.8 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 23 Alli 1.9 -22.1 -1.8 228.4 L 3.1 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 24 Alli n.d. n.d. -2 n.d . n.d. 3.4 0
FPE-4a 25 AIV n.d. -21 .6 -2.5 239 L 4.2 0
FPE-4a 26 AIV n.d. n.d. -2.3 236 L 3.9 0
FPE-4a 27 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.5 214 L 2.6 1289.3 1392 0
FPE-4a 28 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.6 232 L 2.7 1289.3 1392 0
FPE-4a 29 AIV n.d. -20.7 -1.9 227 L 3.2 1289.2 1392 0
FPE-4a 30 AIV n.d. -20 .7 -1.9 227 L 3.2 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 31 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.9 237 L 3.2 1289.4 1392 0
FPE-4a 32 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.9 225 L 3.2 1289.4 1391.9 0
FPE-4a 33 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.9 257.4 L 3.2 0
FPE-4a 34 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.8 272.4 L 3.1 0
FPE-4a 35 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.7 229.3 L 2.9 0
FPE-4a 36 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.7 228.1 L 2.9 0
FPE-4a 37 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.7 228.1 L 2.9 0
FPE-4a 38 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.7 n.d. L 2.9 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 39 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.7 237.8 L 2.9 0
FPE-4a 40 AIV n.d. n.d. -2.3 154.8 L 3.9 1292.2 1396.2 0.5
FPE-4a 41 AIV n.d. -27 -2.1 191.9 L 3.5 1292.3 1395.9 0.4
FPE-4a 42 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.9 218 L 3.2 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 43 AIV n.d. n.d. -1 .9 220.2 L 3.2 1286.8 1390.8 0.5
FPE-4a 44 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.9 219.8 L 3.2 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 45 AIV n.d. <-19 -3.1 218.8 L 5.1 0
FPE-4a 46 AIV n.d. <-19.3 -1.2 200.2 L 2.1 1293.4 1396.6 0.2
FPE-4a 47 AIV n.d. n.d. -1 .4 194 L 2.4 1293.2 1395.8 0
FPE-4a 48 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.3 208.1 L 2.2 1293.2 1397 0.5
FPE-4a 49 AIV n.d. n.d. -0 .2 201.7 L 0.4 0
FPE-4a 50 AIV n.d. -21.8 -1.4 -180 L 2.4 1292.3 1395.7 0.3
FPE-4a 51 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.8 195 L 3.1 1293.8 1396.9 0.2
FPE-4a 52 AIV n.d. n.d. -1.6 199.7 L 2.7 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 53 AIV n.d. -21.2 -3.3 208.9 L 5.4 1283.6 1386.9 0.2
FPE-4a 54 AIV n.d. -20.8 -2.8 207.4 L 4.6 0
FPE-4a 55 AIV n.d. n.d. -2.4 214.8 L 4 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 56 AIV n.d. n.d. -2.4 202.8 L 4 n.d. n.d. n.d.
FPE-4a 57 AIV n.d. -23.2 -2.4 211.9 L 4 1283.5 1386.3 0.1
FPE-4a 58 AIV n.d. n.d. -2.5 218 L 4.2 1283.6 1386.5 0.1
FPE-4a 59 AIV n.d. n.d. -2.5 210.7 L 4.2 1283.6 1386.4 0
124

co, co, C02


Sample n• fam. l/V T, T"'u" phase Salin il y L. band U.band density

816c 1 BI n.d. n.d. -2.4 328 L 4 1289.4 1392 0


816c 2 BI n.d. n.d. -2.3 328 L 3.9 1289.4 1392 0
816c 3 BI n.d. n.d. -2.4 337 L 4 n.d . n.d. 0
DY-37 C 1 Bll n.d. n.d. -1.6 155 L 2.7 n.d. n.d. n.d .
DY-37 C 2 Bll n.d. n.d. -1.7 242.9 L 2.9 n.d . n.d. n.d.
DY-37 C 3 Bll n.d . n.d. -1.7 249.3 L 2.9 n.d . n.d. n.d.
DY-37 C 4 Bll n.d. n.d. -1 .6 213 L 2 .7 1289.2 1392.6 0.3
DY-37 C 5 Bll n.d. n.d. -1 .6 213 L 2.7 1289.4 1392 0
DY-37 C 6 Bll n.d. n.d. -1 .7 239.7 L 2 .9 n.d. n.d. n.d.
DY-37 C 7 Bll n.d. n.d. -1.7 256.3 L 2.9 0
DY-37 C 8 Bll n.d. n.d. -1.8 233 L 3.1 0
OYA-1 1 Bll n.d. n.d. -2.3 201 L 3.9 1289.3 1392 0
OYA-1 2 Bll n.d. n.d. -2.2 206 L 3.7 n.d. n.d. n.d.
OYAc1 3 Bll n.d. n.d. -2.2 206 L 3.7 1289.3 1392 0
OYA-1 4 Bll n.d. n.d. -2.1 221 L 3.5 0
OYA-1 5 Bll n.d. n.d. -2.5 225 L 4.2 1289.3 1392 0
OYA-1 6 Bll n.d. n.d. -2.2 223 L 3.7 n.d. n.d. n.d.
OYA-1 7 Bl l n.d . n. d. -2.3 238 L 3.9 0
722-10 1 Cl 1.3 -20.4 -3.6 32 1.6 L 5.9 1282.4 1386 0.4
722-10 2 Cl 1.7 -23.5 -3.8 322.7 L 6.2 n.d. n.d. n.d.
722-10 3 Cl 1.1 -20.4 -3.6 310 L 5.9 1282.6 1386 0.3
722-10 4 Cl 1.5 -22.4 -3.8 312 L 6.2 1282.5 1385.9 0.3
722-10 5 Cl 0.9 -23.7 -3.8 311 .1 L 6.2 1282.3 1385.8 0.3
722-10 6 Cl 1.3 -20.2 -4.2 311 L 6.7 1282.3 1384.9 0
722-10 7 Cl 1.3 n.d. -4.2 310.3 L 6 .7 n.d. n.d . n.d.
722-10 8 Cl n.d. n.d. -3.6 302.2 L 5.9 1282.4 1385.9 0.4
722-10 9 Ci l 1.1 n.d. -3.8 263.4 L 6.2 1283.2 1385.7 -0.1
722-10 10 Cil 0.8 n.d. -3.7 266 L 6 1283.2 1386 0
722-10 11 Ci l 1.5 n.d. -3.3 275 L 5.4 1283.2 1385.9 0
722-10 12 Gil l -22.1 -3.3 n.d. n.d. 5.4 1283.8 1387.1 0.2
722-10 13 Gil l 1.8 n.d. -3.4 281.7 L 5.6 1283.7 1387.1 0.3
722-10 14 Gil l 1.3 n.d. -3.4 276 .6 L 5.6 n.d . n.d. n.d.
722-10 15 Gill 0.7 -22.2 -3.6 295.2 L 5.9 1283.3 1386.7 0.3
722-10 16 Gill 1 n.d. -3.6 284.4 L 5.9 1283.5 1387 0.3
722-10 17 Gill 0.9 -19 .7 -3.6 295.3 L 5.9 n.d. n.d. n.d.
722; 10 18 Gill 1.8 -21.6 -3.5 274.1 L 5.7 1283.3 1387.1 0.4
722-10 19 Gill 0.7 n.d. -3.8 250a) n.d. 6.2 1283.2 1386.6 0.3
722-10 20 Gill 0.8 n.d. -2.8 297.8 L 4.6 1283.7 1386.7 0.1
722-10 21 Gill 1 n.d. -2.9 318.9 L 4.8 n.d. n.d. n.d.
722-10 22 Gill n.d. -21.2 n.d. 252.9 L n.d. 1283.4 1387.1 0.4
DY-554 1 Dl n.d. n.d. -2.4 290.9 L 4 1289.1 1391 .9 0.1
DY-554 2 Dl n.d. n.d. -2.4 285.2 L 4 1289.2 1391.9 0
DY-554 3 Dll n.d. n.d. -0.1 238.7 L 0.2 0
DY-554 4 Dll n.d. n.d. -1 .7 243.1 L 2.9 n.d. n.d. n.d.
DY-554 5 Dll n.d. n.d. -1.7 244.1 L 2 .9 0
DY-554 6 Dll n.d. n.d. -2 .5 286.2 L 4.2 1283.3 1386.3 0.1
DY-554 7 Dll n.d. n.d. -2.6 269 .1 L 4.3 n.d. n.d . n.d.
DY-554 8 Dll n.d . -23 .2 -2.9 290 .7 L 4.8 1284 1387.1 0.1
TOL-2 1 Dll n.d. -33 -1.8 166.6 L 3.1 0
TOL-2 2 Dll n.d. -30 .2 -1 .7 173.9 L 2.9 0

a) Temperature of inclusion decrepitation


b) Salinity calulated by volume ration of inclusion, liquid, gaz and salt
125

Appendix IV: LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion data

Sample n• lam. Na23 Mg25 K39 Ca42

FPE-4a 1 Ail 161843"' 760 14956 7 3034 90760 137 4108 <LOD 259515
FPE-4a 2 Ail 160798" 417 7238 5 1016 13255 175 2108 <LOD 107046
FPE-4a 8 Alli 10304 22 45 14354 500 455
FPE-4a 9 Alli 15974,. 15 1280 524 137
FPE-4a 10 Alli 10888 83 18 1388 1401 131
FPE·4a 12 Alli 13049 "" 51 8421 616 462
FPE-4a 14 Alli 17809" 42 6117 565 452
FPE-4a 15 Alli 17622 25 49 1788 496 422
FPE·4a 16 Alli 15836" 12 2001 687 134
FPE-4a 17 Alli 13172 53 236 5704 14 1015 3773 253 1031 <LOD 76995
FPE-4a 18 Alli 15022 31 87 2687 5 230 546"1 174 446 <LOD 25842
FPE·4a 19 Alli 12824" 468 1738 5 1151 4702 203 2559 <LOD 105459
FPE-4a 20 Alli 12837., 61 507 12 181 6335 308 265 <LOD 14498
FPE-4a 21 Alli 13319" 175 2573 7 475 13261 212 907 <LOD 57849
FPE-4a 22 Alli 16638 32 118 <LOD 417 6029 182 684 <LOD 37770
FPE-4a 23 Alli 15383 .. 100 822 16 416 1205 272 468 <LOD 28242
FPE-4a 24 Alli 11514.., 39 6924 11 163 4835 193 192 <LOD 11342
FPE-4a 29 AIV 10933 17 6 3591 455 75
FPE·4a 30 AIV 10845" 23 3324 510 202
FPE-4a 31 AIV 11653 Z7 29 2770 559 271
FPE-4a 33 AIV 11362"' 393 <LOD 3580
FPE-4a 35 Al\/ 10798 50 49 1,6 39 1040 439
FPE-4a 36 AIV 11342" 13 189 !559 92
FPE-4a 37 AIV 10798 50 49 1639 1040 439
FPE-4a 38 AIV 11157 57 33 671 893 228
FPE·4a 39 AIV 11342 96 13 189 1569 92
FPE-4a 40 AIV 13281 Z7 38 5150 506 310
FPE-4a 41 AIV 12372 .. 42 4231 1139 468
FPE-4a 43 AIV 11771 Z3 42 2457 S4il 422
FPE·4a 44 AIV 11771 , 42 2457 54!) 422
FPE-4a 45 AIV 18027 " 4 5533 846 45
FPE-4a 46 AIV 6890 30 7 2153 459 43
FPE-4a 47 AIV 6799" 37 7119 '"' 302
FPE-4a 48 AIV 7704" 12 2960 501 108
FPE-4a 49 AIV 837 JI 9 360 562 73
FPE-4a 50 AIV 8462 1l 3 2686 494 33
FPE-4a 51 AIV 10899 22 9 3081 521 97
FPE-4a 52 AIV 10899" 9 3081 521 97
FPE-4a 55 AIV 13678 47 35 126 6 69 5751 223 166 <LOD 9950
FPE-4a 56 AIV 15591 J9 26 <LOD 110 ï203 141 95 <LOD 6800
FPE-4a 57 AIV 13586 31 106 <LOD 402 5997 147 518 <LOO 35838
FPE·4a 59 AIV 14974 36 22 <LOD 63 3946 149 93 <LOD 6370
DY-37C 6 811 5917"' 94 12368 3 9-J 580
OYA-1 2 811 12747" 32 4907 "629 362
OYA-1 3 811 12747 25 32 4907 " 29 362
OYA-1 4 811 12622 30 33 3565 26 * 408
OYA-1 5 811 15014 "' 30 3839 567 289
OYA-1 6 811 13451 21 41 3031 533 470
722-10 2 Cl 17516 31 9 1823 5 21 7098 169 44 3908 73 2601
722·10 3 Cl 17891 37 34 1367 12 165 13779 : 40 201 6310 112 12204
722·10 4 Cl 19207"' 52 221 • 219 13366 160 260 <LOD 15281
722·10 5 Cl 18723" 187 2114 6 372 14655 239 856 <LOD 43188
722-10 7 Cl 24110 50 259 <913 12 913 6388 270 1262 <LOD 58799
722-10 8 Cl 21186 36 58 21787 9 234 4991 l9o4 289 <LOD 15108
722-10 9 Cil 24219 30 5 <LOO 18 4803 1?{1 31 2210 77 1944
722-10 10 Cil 23640 Z7 10 <LOD 53 5388 212 78 <LOD 3931
722-10 11 Cil 21293" 0 <LOD 1 2742 244 2 215. 1 ~ 3 156
722-10 12 Gill 21293" 10 <LOD 50 938 118 50 <LOD 3042
722-10 13 Gill 21885 JO 45 <LOD 176 327 143 215 <LOD 12424
722-10 14 Gill 21885"' 28 126 5 77 310162 164 <LOD 8065
722-10 15 Gill 23058 29 25 <LOD 105 2108 161 140 <LOD 7806
722-10 16 Clll 23058"' 28 5 11 1428 132 19 <LOD 1179
722·10 17 Clll 23058, 44' 19 1761 118 32 <LOD 1988
722·10 19 Clll 24219"' 12 <LOD 48 654 153 57 <LOD 3852
722-10 20 Clll 18292,. 3 17 9 11 5067 175 14 1296 91 910
722-10 21 Clll 15401" 104 <LOD 183 2809 166 410 <LOD 23441
722·10 22 Clll 13748 30 18 <LOD 76 2819 155 96 <LOD 6098
DY-554 1 Dl 14531 17 16 3477 491
198
DY-554 2 Dl 12442 19 2 4552 437 19
DY-554 3 Dll 5619 15 80 4688 425 1022
DY-554 4 Dll 5619 15 80 4688 425 1022
DY-554 5 Dll 5205 21 37 15851 454 381
DY-554 6 Dll 14521 JO 33 3330 6 99 5154 162 178 oc:: LOD 10776
DY-554 7 Dll 15638 52 238 <LOD 484 3817 247 1159 <LOD 62335

Firsl number is the concentration of lhe element, number as supersrcipt is lhe 3" errer and the limit of detection (LOO) is after lhe semicolon
<LOO: below limit of deteclion, - · nol analysed.
126

Mn 55 Fe 57 Cu65 Zn66 As 75 Rb8 5

2169 51 1775 37269 11 19885 5080 . 696 7645 11 1889 7690 15 1097 61 1 4 65
6074" 975 34734 11 7628 725 5 397 9789' 550 4081 15 437 802 5 37
1481 23 1036 <LOD 44 321 tl 111
577 22 285 <LOD 5 271 12 34
<LOD 330 <LOD 11 151 21 24
1677 32 1037 285' 33 622 10 88
<LOD 932 <LOO 25 275 14 135
<LOD 848 <LOD 44 325 11 112
953 29 262 <LOD 7 454 10 23
638101 499 <LOD 5281 2460 17 430 11152 20 563 1153 19 204 162' 23
437 56 175 <LOD 2292 1a77 5 84 445 7 130 671 14 9a 55' 15
<LOD 862 <LOD 15009 <LOD 423 3053 12 1011 2554 16 544 <LOD 45
122 !1)4. 109 1370" 1231 <LOD 48 1330 25 145 554 15 34 26 15 9
2190 96 429 987a 20 5173 388 1 186 6728 12 310 3996 19 199 176 12 30
602 59 258 <LOD 3710 <LOD 117 357' 195 1024 15 139 43 5 11
544 102
205 <LOD 3757 <LOD 186 367 Hl 1a3 27a "' 11 7 <LOD 22
242 72 83 1239 u 759 271' 48 171 16 96 34415 35 42 11 6
796 20 164 33 5 6 232 10 19
1160 31 617 <LOD 20 104 11 49
670 Z8 664 <LOD 30 639 14 74
<LOD 6613 <LOD 378 <LOD 106a
<LOO 993 <LOD 36 151 20 103
<LOD 188 a" 5 112 29 21
<LOD 993 <LOD 36 151 2'J 103
<LOD 472 <LOD 18 94 19 56
<LOD 188 a" 5 112,. 21
<LOD 670 <LOD 27 <LOD 96
<LOD 834 <LOD 34 <LOD 124
<LOD 807 <LOD 41 <LOD 121
<LOO 807 <LOD 41 <LOD 121
326 43 102 8 IZ 4 866 14 9
908" 106 32 1 4 255 11 12
<LOD 601 <LOD 24 82 11 78
226" 215 34' 7 <LOD 27
862 l? 104 33' 4 36 13 20
<LOD 73 11 7 3 74 11 9
<LOD 190 <LOD 7 47 Hl 22
<LOD 190 <LOD 7 47 Hl 22
205 81 70 <LOD 969 <LOD 27 123 1) 58 439 23 43 39 10 4
344 53 42 511 lt 421 <LOD 34 231 5 19 373 "' 32 91 5 2
446 63 259 <LOD 2782 <LOO 112 <261 261 907 13 107 52 7 15
356 60 44 484 lZ 441 <LOD 18 314 . 29 299 14 21 47 ' 2
1750 11 1307 <LOD 49 <LOO 151
<LOD 688 64' 28 222 14 90
<LOD 688 64' 28 222 14 90
<LOO 886 <LOD 44 152 Il 70
<LOO 675 99 9 26 697 12 67
<LOD 1113 <LOD 50 44711) 97
643 56 19 6472 15 228 95 5 8 709 12 22 1382 15 12 98 5

2339 71 78 1832 :<! 951 37 7 36 428 7 40 654 21 49 117 12

1768" 94 <LOD 1392 132 7 66 160. 91 1471 " 54 144 5

8144 76 325 <LOD 5252 <LOD 191 408 9 220 1635 26 269 140 17 41
1731" 444 <LOD 4469 581 1 196 465 1 225 2192 16 21 3 1065 7 21
261 65 117 <LOD 1579 148. 86 <LOD 98 1157 20 a3 56' 8
59 69 15 <LOO 191 <LOD 7 15 11 12 <LOO 7 79 14
56 95 41 <~OD 483 <LOD 33 <LOD 30 . <LOD 18 78 '
8 "' 1 <LOO 13 1" 1 1" 1 2"' 1 46"
65 52 26 <LOD 269 <LOO 25 78 12 29 13 13 13 26 1
<LOD 104 <LOD 1686 <LOD 57 <LOD 76 4612 42 16 9
<LOD 72 <LOD 757 <LOD 30 <LOD 50 <LOD 17 39 9' 3
<LOO 61 <LOO 686 <LOO 30 <LOD 28 113 14 28 24' 4
1163 11 <LOD 84 <LOO <LOO 7 63 15 5 15 5 0
<LOD 18 <LOD 141 <LOO <LOD 12 65 14 9 18 4 1
<LOD 30 <LOO 262 <LOD 14 <LOD 25 591 2 10 a' 1
62 74 7 <LOD 96 3' 3 21 14 7 566 25 5 58' 0
191 54 157 <LOD 2141 <LOD •J41 <LOD 252 657 11 61 36 5 7
73 ss 42 7837. 338 75 1 24 102' 29 131 18 26 42'
<LOD 437 61 4 11 316 12 53
3448 24 54 387 2 2512 10 5
8463 16 1986 <LOD 110 26322 Hl 271
8463 16 1986 <LOD 110 26322 " 271
<LOD 814 <LOD 37 209 . 76
689 68 86 3349 19 1220 <LOD 38 78' 53 172 16 44 41 ' 4
<LOD 351 <LOD 6295 197 7 18a <LOO 408 374 24 276 <LOD 18
127

Sr88 Ag 107 Sn 118 Ba 137 W182 Pb208

17S 7 82 <LOO 177 8499 83 2691 1451 5 355 5853 4 197 4940 23 362
191 16 82 <LOO 72 <1743 1743 4426 8 204 11005 5 113 1120,. 182
<LOD s <LOO 17 <LOD 81 19 2 s 39 3 9 78 27 31
97 <LOD 5 <LOD 28 9 5 5 9 2 2 29 29 9
s20 <LOD <LOD 27 <LOD 5 <LOD 3 <LOD 13
s' <LOO 13 <LOD 81 <LOD 13 <LOD 11 <LOD 39
23 1 <LOD 13 <LOD 8S 23' 13 <LOD 7 <LOD 37
s' <LOD 14 <LOD 86 <LOD 16 <LOD 9 57 26 29
s' 1 <LOD 4 <LOD 25 <LOD 5 <LOD 4 39 35 9
27' 16 <LOD 43 <LOD 828 <112 112 106 8 64 242 49 121
12 7 9 <LOD 17 397 92 284 48 5 31 <LOD 25 126 34 52
<LOD 44 <LOD 84 1859 110 1677 <155 155 <LOD 124 <LOD 211
4' 3 62 6 9 <LOD 215 18 9 17 132 9 14 64 47
24
170 7 13 <LOD 57 1408 192 838 5837 7 68 <LOD 53 1110 " 88
14 5 8 <LOD 3S <LOD 460 <LOO 42 <LOD 33 <LOD 73
<LOD 7 <LOD 17 c::LOD 349 <LOO 35 135 9 27 <LOD 50
24 1l <LOO 12 <LOD 179 26' 17 9703 8 13 74" 17
7 5 <LOD 2 <LOD 16 8 5 3 71 3 1 49 13 5
3' 199 tt 10 <LOD 45 34' 9 281 !! 4 106" 17
17' <LOD 9 <LOD 59 321 (1 11 123 6 10 57 3 ~ 23
<LOD 26 <LOD 89 <LOD 699 <LOD 14S <LOD 89 <LOD 304
<LOD 5 <LOD 14 <LOD 82 <LOD 8 <LOD 4 <LOD 43
126 1 <LOD 2 <LOD 19 <LOD 3 13 13 2 23 sa 7
<LOD 5 <LOO 14 <LOD 82 <LOD 8 <LOD 4 <LOD 43
4" 2 <LOD 6 <LOD 42 <LOD 8 <LOD 5 <LOD 22
1" <LOD 2 <LOD 19 <LOD 3 13 13 2 23 &e 7
<LOO <LOD 7 <LOD 63 10' <LOD 11 <LOD 28
11 17 <LOD 12 <LOD 81 20' <LOD 6 <LOD 37
s' <LOD 13 <LOD 78 <LOD 12 <LOD 10 <LOD 35
s8 <LOD 13 <LOD 78 <LOO 12 <LOD 10 <LOD 35
32 8 119 7 111 89 8 24 7 1 358 ° 0 255 57 4
s' 65 <LOD 8 22 5 2 66 3 1 38 31 4
9' 15 5 <LOO 66 <LOD 9 502 3 <LOD 24
s7 <LOD <LOO 18 11 3 2 20 7 4 <LOD 8
17 <LOD <LOD 14 64 6 2 8' 2 <LOD 6
s8 s8 <LOD 6 4' 1 3' 22 21 2
9 7 2 5 <LOD 21 <LOD <LOD 9"' 7
9 7 2 5 <LOD 21 <LOD <LOD 9"
3 8 <LOD <LOD 120 31 ' 10 50' 8 18 48 18
21 8 <LOD 7 125 94 68 38' 7 60' 8 23 29 10
<LOD <LOD 40 <LOD 415 <LOD 57 54' 32 <LOD 47
7' <LOO 3 99 i21 82 55 5 6 63 5 5 10 '1(1
8
38 6 31 7 21 <LOD 116 87 ô 32 <LOD 12 58 27 50
<LOD <LOD 10 c:LOD 62 <LOO 13 <LOD 4 34 36 26
<LOD <LOD 10 <LOD S2 <LOD 13 <LOD 4 34 36 26
s" <LOD 15 <LOD 76 14 3 s <LOD 11 <LOD 33
4 9 5' 4 <LOO 50 7' 7 <LOD 11 55 30 19
81 <LOD 12 <LOO 81 <LOO 12 16 ' 6 <LOD 37
73' 4 6 2 60 93 31 107 8 5 2 141 24 4
128 10 <LOD 7 <LOD 135 193 7 13 <LOD 11 75 41 21
93 5 4 <LOD 9 230 98 193 45 5 18 <LOD 14 6916 2S
118 6 10 <LOD 39 <LOD 528 192 6 51 <LOD 41 <LOD 85
49 7 15 59 7 40 <LOO 828 87' 74 <LOD 59 172" 107
3S 5 3 <LOD 9 373 99 178 83 5 16 <LOD 13 55 35 32
20 6 0 2 8 1 <LOD 27 <LOO 3 <LOD 2 4 :?6 3
23 6 <LOD <LOD 66 <LOD <LOD <LOD
1613 <LOD <LOD 2 <LOD <LOD 17 <LOD <LOD
14 7 <LOO 2 80 104 47 2S 3 3 <LOD 27 25 5
<LOD <LOD 16 224 95 154 <LOD 15 <LOD 11 20 Ui 19
s' <LOD 5 139 118 126 18 5 11 <LOD 8 26 26 14
41 6 <LOD 5 <LOD 122 20' 11 <LOD 8 18 ~ 12
50 5 <LOD 2 29 lliS 16 9' 2 1 5 1 <LOD 2
52' <LOD 3 58 .. 28 15 4 3 <LOD 2 <LOD 3
17' <LOD <LOO 49 <LOD 5 <LOD 4 <LOD s
21 6 <LOO <LOD 14 45' 1 <LOD 1 9 3!
1
11 5 <LOO 18 <LOD 372 27 5 2S <LOD 20 <LOD 36
18 5 1 3 5 3 <LOD 90 10 7 <LOD 7 24 25 8
37 8 3 <LOD 6 <LOD 35 s' <LOD 38 30 15
19 7 0 s' 0 20" 34 5 1 18 3 57 25 1
28 5 10 <LOD 34 c::LOO 197 162 5 41 <LOD 15 115 : 4 70
28 5 10 <LOD 34 <LOO 197 162 s 41 <LOD 15 115 24 70
S4 6 4 <LOD 12 <LOD ss 210 5 13 <LOD 9 57 31 30
27' 3 <LOO 10 <LOD 129 <LOD 14 <LOD 11 <LOD 19
<LOO 29 <LOO 75 <LOD S7S <LOD 119 <LOD 54 •LOD 85
128
129

Remerciements

A 1'heure de clore ce travail, je tiens à remercier toutes les personnes et institutions qui, de
près ou de loin, m'ont aidé dans sa réalisation. Tout d'abord, je souhaiterais remercier
profondément mes deux co-directeurs, Lluis Fontboté et Robert Moritz, qui m'ont, d'une part,
procuré un sujet de recherche extrêmement intéressant et, d'autre part, encouragé par leurs
conseils et leurs suggestions. Je salue également la souplesse et l'ouverture d'esprit dont ils
ont su faire preuve au fur et à mesure que le projet évoluait. D'autre part, j'aimerais remercier
profondément Urs Schaltegger, non seulement pour son apport non négligeable dans ce
travail, mais également pour m'avoir «ouvert>> les yeux à plein d'autres facettes de la
géologie.

Plusieurs mois au Pérou ont été nécessaires à l'échantillonnage et aux levers de terrain, ceux-
ci se seraient révélé bien plus pénibles sans les multiples soutiens dont j'ai bénéficié. Ce
projet a été réalisé grâce aux soutiens logistiques et financiers de la société Volcan à Lima, ce
pour lesquels elle est vivement remerciée. D'autre part, ma plus grande gratitude va à Les
Oldham pour les nombreuses discussions, à Carlos Astorga pour ses connaissances de la
géologie régionale, à Dora Carnac pour avoir résolu maints petits problèmes administratifs
ainsi qu'à toute l'équipe de l'Anglo-Peruana. Je souhaite également dire un grand merci au
personnel de toute l'équipe géologique de Volcan, et plus précisément à Edwin Salinas,
Anibal Chavez, Jesus Ylazaca, Jaime Calla et Oscar Cuba. Mes remerciements les plus vifs
vont également à Edgar Roman de Centromin, pour les nombreuses journées passées
ensemble à me faire découvrir le district minier de Morococha. Un grand merci également à
Sylvia Rosas et Ulrich Kobe pour avoir partagé leurs connaissances du Domo de Yauli.

Les nombreuses méthodes analytiques appliquées durant cette étude ont été rendues possible
grâce à plusieurs collaborations. Je voudrais tout spécialement remercier Thomas Pettke pour
les analyses LA-ICP-MS et Massimo Chiaradia pour les mesures isotopiques du Pb et les
datations Re-Os. Un grand merci également à Chris Heinrich pour l'accès à son laboratoire, à
Mike Cosca pour les datations 40 Ar/39Ar, à François Bussy pour son support lors des analyses
de microsonde, à Fabio Capponi pour les mesures XRF, à Phillipe Thélin pour son assistance
lors de la séparation des argiles et, finalement, à Denis Fontinie et à Marcelle Falcheri pour
les rapports isotopiques de Sr et Nd.

J'aimerais d'autre part remercier les diplômants ayant travaillé au Domo de Yauli, Henri
Lisboa, Benjamin Sallier et Phillipe Stucky ainsi que toute l'équipe du Département de
Minéralogie pour l'excellente ambiance dont j'ai bénéficié durant ces quelques années.
Finalement, je dirais merci du fond du coeur à ma petite femme, Alexandra, pour son soutien
et tout le reste.
130