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FAMILIARIZATION M A N U A L

HOUST
This Publication Replaces PHO-FAMOO1 Published 22 November 1965.

PREPARED BY

piiziqm
WESTERN D EV EL0 P M ENT LAB0 RAT0R IES
H 0 US?0 N 0 PERAT IONS
CONTRACT MAS 9.1261
PHO-FAMOOl

TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 127, CONSISTING


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PHO-FAMOOI Table *&Csn$ents

TABLE OF CONTE
Section page Section Page
I GENERAL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . .1-1 III 3-4 Real Time Computer Complex
1-1 Purpose of MCC-Houston . . . .1. (Cont) System . . . . . . . . . . . 3.18
1-2 Physical Plant . . . . . . . . .1. 3-4-1 Real Time Computer
1-3 Functional Systems . . . . . . .1-1 Subsystem . . . . . . . . 3-19
1-4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 3-4-2 Computer Control
1-5 Apollo Simulation. Checkout. Subsystem . . . . . . . . 3-20A
and Training System . . . . .1.2 3-4-3 Auxiliary Data Processing
Subsystem . . . . . . . . 3-20A
II FUNCTIONAL EQUIPMENT . . . . . .2 .1
2-1 Communications. Command. and
Telemetry System . . . . . .2 .
1 N SUPPORT FACILITIES . ....... -4-1
2-1-1 Communications Facility 4-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1
Control Subsystem . . . . .2.
1 4-2 Electrical Power Distribution
2-1-2 Voice Communications System ........... 4.1
Subsystem . . . . . . . -2-1 4-2-1 ......
Normaloperation 4.1
2-1-3 CommandSubsystem . . . . .2.2 4-2-2 Emergency Operation . . . . . 4.1
2-1-4 Telemetry Subsystem . . . . .2 .2 4-3 Lighting System . . . . . . . . 4.2
2-1-5 CentralProcessor Subsystem .2 .3 4-3-1 Mission Operations Wing . . . 4.2
2-1-6 Teletype and Facsimile 4-3-2 Operations Support Wing and
Subsystem ....... -2-4 Lobby Wing . . . . . . . . 4.2
2-1-7 Pneumatic Tube Subsystem .
.2.4 4-3-3 Emergency Power Building . 4.2 .
2-2 Display/ControlSystem . . . . . 2.4 4-4 Air Conditioning System . . . . . 4-2
2-2-1 Computer Display/Control 4-4-1 Mission Operations Wing . . .4.2
....
Interface Subsystem 2.4 4-4-2 Operations Support Wing and
2-2-2 TimingSubsystem ...... 2.6 Lobby Wing . . . . . . . .4.3
2-2-3 .....
TelevisionSubsystem 2.7 4-4-3 Emergency Power Building . . 4.3
2-2-4 ...
Group Display Subsystem 2-7 4-5 Fire Detection and Alarm
2-3 Real Time Computer Complex System . . . . . . . . . . .4.3
...........
System 2.8 4-5-1 Mission Operations Wing . . .4.3
2-3-1 Real Time Computer 4-5-2 Operations Support Wing and
........
Subsystem 2-8 Lobby Wing . . . . . . . -4-4
2-3-2 .
Computer Control Subsystem 2 .9 4-5-3 ..
Emergency Power Building 4.4
2-3-3 Auxiliary Data Processing 4-6 Telephone System ........ 4.4
........
Subsystem 2.9 4-7 Special Features . . . . . . . .4 .4
III FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM OPERATION . .3.1
3-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . .1.
3 V MANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . -5-1
3-2 Communications, Command, and 5-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Telemetry System . . . . . .3.2 5-2 Mission Command and Control
3-2-1 Communications Facility Group . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Control Subsystem . . . . .3
.2 5-3 Mission Command and Control
3-2-2 Voice Communications Support Group . . . . . . . .5.1
Subsystem . . . . . . . .3-3 5-4 Flight Dynamics Group . . . . . 5.1
3-2-3 CommandSubsystem . . . . .3 .4 5-5 Systems Operations Group . . . .5.1
3-2-4 .....
Telemetry Subsystem 3.5 5-6 RTCC Computer ControlGroup . .5.1
3-2-5 .
Central Processor Subsystem 3 .7 5-7 Maintenance and Operations
3-2-6 Teletype and Facsimile Group . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1
Subsystem ........ 3.8 5-8 Public Affairs Information
3-2-7 ..
Pneumatic Tube Subsystem 3.9 Control Group . . . . . . . . 5.1
3-3 .....
Display/ControlSystem 3.10
Appendix Page
3-3-1 Computer Display/Control
Interface Subsystem .... 3.11 A MCC-HOUSTON SUPPORT MANUALS A.1 .
3-3-2 Timing Subsystem . . . . . .3.13
3-3-3 TelevisionSubsystem ..... 3.15 B GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MANNED
SPACEFLIGHTNETWORK .....
3-3-4 Group Display Subsystem... 3.17 B.1
C APOLLO SIMULATION, CHECKOUT,
AND TRAININGSYSTEM . . . . . .C.1

i
List Qf I[llq&rations PHO- FAMOOI

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIQNS
Number Title Page Number Title Page
1-1 MCC-Houston Mission Oriented 3-2-1 Communications Facility Control
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Subsystem, BlockDiagram ... 3-25
1-2 NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 3 -2 -2 Voice Communications Subsystem,
Site Plan . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . 3-27
1-2-1 MCC-Houston, Site Plan. . . . . . 1-7 3-2-3 Command Subsystem, Typical Data
1-2-1-1 Mission Operations Wing, First Flow,Block Diagram . . . . . . 3-29
Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 3-2-4 Telemetry Subsystem, Block
1-2-1-2 Mission Operations Wing, Second Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 3-2-5 Central Processor Subsystem,
1-2 -1-3 Mission Operations Wing, Third BlockDiagram . . . . . . . . . 3-33
Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 3-2-6 Teletype and Facsimile Subsystem,
1-2-1-4 Operations Support Wing, First Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . 3-35
Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15 3-2-7 Pneumatic Tube Subsystem,
1-2-1-5 Operations Support Wing, Second Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . 3-37
Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 3-3 Display/Control System, Block
1-2-1 -6 Operations Support Wing, Third Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39
Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 3-3-1 Computer Display/Control Interface
1-2-1-7 Lobby Wing, Floor Plans ..... 1-21 Subsystem, BlockDiagram . . . 3-41
1-2 -1-8 Emergency Power Building, 3-3 -2 Timing Subsystem, Block Diagram . 3-43
Floor Plan. . . . . . . . . . . 1-23 3-3-3 Television Subsystem, Block
1-3 MCC-Houston, Functional Systems . 1-25 Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45
1-4 MCC -Houston/Manned Spaceflight 3 -3 -4 Group Display Subsystem, Block
Network, Simplified Information Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47
Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 3 -3 -4 -1 Typical Projection Plotting Display . 3-49
2-1-1 Communications Facility Control 3 -3-4-2 Typical Projection Television
Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 Display . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51
2-1-2 Voice Communications Subsystem 3 -4 Real Time Computer Complex
(Sheet 1 of 3). . . . . . . . . . 2-13 System, BlockDiagram . . . . . 3-53
2-1-2 Voice Communications Subsystem 3-4-1 Real Time Computer Subsystem,
(Sheet 2 of 3). ......... 2-15 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . 3-55
2-1-2 Voice Communications Subsystem 3-4-2 Computer Control Subsystem,
(Sheet 3 of 3). ......... 2-17 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . 3-57
2-1-4 Telemetry Subsystem (Sheet 1 of 2) . 2-19 3-4-3 Auxiliary Data Processing Subsystem,
2-1-4 Telemetry Subsystem (Sheet 2 of 2) . 2-21 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . 3-59
2-1-5 Central Processor Subsystem . . . 2-23 4 -1 MCC -Houston Electrical Power Dis-
2 -1-6 Teletype and Facsimile Subsystem . 2-25 tribution, Simplified Diagram . . 4-5
2 -1-7 Pneumatic Tube Subsystem. . . . . 2-27 5-1 MCC -Houston, Organizational
2-2-1 Computer Display/Control Interface Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Subsystem (Sheet 1 of 5). . . . . 2-29 A-1 Communications Facility Control
2-2-1 Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem Family of Manuals . . A-2
Subsystem (Sheet 2 of 5). . . . . 2-31 A-2 Voice Communications Subsystem
2-2-1 Computer Display/Control Interface Family of Manuals . . . . . . . A-3
Subsystem (Sheet 3of 5). . . . . 2-33 A-3 Telemetry Subsystem Family of
2 -2 -1 Computer Display/Control Interface Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Subsystem (Sheet 4 of 5). . . . . 2-35 A-4 Central Processor Subsystem Family
2-2-1 Computer Display/Control Interface ofManuals. . . . . . . . . . . A-5
..
Subsystem (Sheet 5 of 5). 5 . 2-37 A-5 Teletype and Facsimile Subsystem
2-2-2 Timing Subsystem ......... 2-39 Family of Manuals . . . . . . . A-6
2-2-3 Television Subsystem (Sheet 1 of 3). 2-41 A-6 Pneumatic Tube Subsystem Family
2 -2 -3 Television Subsystem (Sheet 2 of 3). 2-43 OfManuals. . . . . . . . . . . A-7
2-2-3 Television Subsystem (Sheet 3 of 3). 2-45 A-7 Computer Display/Control Interface
1-2-4 Group Display Subsystem Subsystem Family of Manuals . . A-8
(Sheet 1 of 2). . . . . . . . . . 2-47 A-8 Timing Subsystem Family of
2-2-4 Group Display Subsystem Manu&. . . . . . . . . . . . A-9
(Sheet 2 of 2). . . . . . . . . . 2-49 A-9 Television Subsystem Family of
2 -3 -1 RealTimeComputer System . . . . 2-51 Manuals. . . . . . . . . . . . A-10
3-1 MCC -Houston Functional Data A-10 Group Display Subsystem Family
Flow, Block Diagram . . . . . . 3-21 of Manuals. . . . . . . . . . . A-11
3-2 Communications, Command, and A-11 Real Time Computer Complex
Telemetry System, Block System Family of
Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23 Manuals. . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
ii
PHO- FAMOOI List of Illustrations

LIST OF ILLUST
Number Title page Number Title Page
B-1 Geographical Locations and C-3-2 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and
'Capabilities of Manned Training System,Building 422,
Spaceflight Network Stations. . . B-3 Equipment Area Floor Plan . . . C-17
C-3-1 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and C-4-1 Apollo Sirnulation, Checkout, and
Training System (Sheet 1 of 6). . C-5 Training System, Functional Block
C-3-1 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and Diagram (Sheet 1 of 2). .. . . . C-19
Training System (Sheet 2 of 6). . C-7 C-4-1 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and
C-3-1 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and Training System, Functional Block
Training System (Sheet 3 of 6). . C-9 Diagram (Sheet 2 of 2). . . . .. C-21
C-3-1 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and C-5-1 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and
Training System (Sheet 4 of 6). . C-11 Training System Family of
C-3-1 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and Manuals. . ... .... .. . C-23
Training System (Sheet 5 of 6). . C-13
C-3-1 Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and
Training System (Sheet 6 of 6). . C-15

iii/iv
PHO-FAMOO1

PREFACE
This manual serves to familiarize the reader with the Goss Ground Operational Support Systems
purpose and operation of the National Aeronautics and GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center
Space Administration (NASA) Mission Control Center - KSC Kennedy Space Center
Houston (MCC-H) located near Houston, Texas. The BOA Mission Briefing and Observation
manual is primarily an orientation/indoctrination Auditorium
guide and, in addition, furnishes a reference source MCC-H Mission Control Center -Houston
for information pertinent to the MCC-H systems, sub- MOCR Mission Operations Control Room
systems, and major components. MOW Mission Operations Wing
MSC Manned Spacecraft Center
The manual discusses the MCC-H in general terms, NASA National Aeronautics and Space Adminis.
avoiding detailed technical descriptions, but with suf- tration
ficient detail to convey a clear understanding of the osw Operations Support Wing
purpose and operation of the MCC-H. A listing of RCR Recovery Control Room
support manuals that provide detailed technical cover- RTCC Real Time Computer Complex
age of the MCC-H systems and interfaces is included SSR Staff Support Room
as a ready reference for anyone desiring increased ASCATS Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and
coverage of a particular area. Training System

The manual is divided into five sections: General


Description, Functional System Equipment, Func - This manual was prepared by Philco-Ford Education
tional System Operation, Support Facilities, and and Technical Services Division, Technical Documen-
Manning. Three appendices are included with the tation, Houston, under subcontract to Philco-Ford
manual: MCC -Houston Support Manuals, General Western Development Laboratories, Houston Opera-
Description of Manned Spaceflight Network, and Gen- tions.
eral Description of Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and
Training System (ASCATS). A glossary of abbrevia-
tions used throughout this manual is presented below: This manual is revised to include technical changes
resulting from all approved and completed modifica-
CCATS Communications, Command, and Telem- tions that have occurred from the date of original
etry System publication to 30 June 1967.
PHO-FAMOO1 Section I
Paragraphs 1-1 to 1-4

SECTION I
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

This section provides a general description of the National Aeronautics and Space Admin-
istration (NASA) manned spaceflight Mission Control Center -Houston (MCC-H) located
near Houston, Texas. The purpose of the MCC-H is first defined and then the MCC-H
physical plant, functional systems, and overall operation during a typical mission are
described. This discussion is followed by a brief description of the purpose and function
of the Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and Training System (ASCATS).

1-1. PURPOSE OF MCC-HOUSTON The single-story emergency power building houses all
standby electrical power, air conditioning, and ven-
The MCC-H provides centralized control of NASA tilation facilities for exclusive use by the MOW. An
manned spaceflight missions. The MCC-H is sup- electrical power substation pad, cooling towers, and
ported in this role by the Manned Spaceflight Network a diesel fuel and oil storage area a r e located adjacent
(reference appendix B) , a world-wide network of track- to the emergency power building.
ing and voice -data communications stations. The
MCC-H Manned Spaceflight Network combination is 1-3. FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS
referred to by the collective title of Manned Spaceflight
Ground Operational Support Systems (GOSS). MCC-H All MCC -H equipments that contribute directly to the
functions include full mission control from launch mission control capabilities of the MCC -H are grouped
through recovery, and technical management in the into three functional systems: Communications, Com-
a r e a s of vehicle systems, flight dynamics, life sys- mand, and Telemetry System, Display/Control Sys-
tems, flight crew activities, recovery support, and tem, and a data processing system called the Real
GOSS operations. Figure 1-1 breaks down the MCC-H Time Computer Complex (RTCC) System. These three
functions for each phase of a typical mission, including systems incorporate all the technical equipment in the
premission and postmission activities. MOW with the exception of telephone termination and
-
distribution equipment. The systems interface with
the flight crew trainers in building 5, ASCATS in
1-2. PHYSICAL PLANT building 422, and the Mission Operations Support Lab-
oratory (MQSL)in the OSW.
The MCC-H physical plant comprises buildings 30 and ~ __
48 of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). (See The functional systems, composed of complex elec-
figure 1-2.) Building 30 is referred to as the MCC-H tronic o r electromechanical equipment , enable the
building. Building 48 is the emergency power building. MCC-H to communicate with spacecraft and the
An underground utility tunnel, an extension of the MSC Manned Spaceflight Network, initiate commands, and
central tunnel system, connects buildings 30 and 48. display large quantities of data in numerous formats.
A site plan for buildings 30 and 48 is shown in figure The equipments in each system a r e further grouped
1-2-1. This illustration is keyed to the floor plans of into subsystems a s shown in figure 1-3.
the MCC-H, shown in figures 1-2-1-1 through 1-2-1-8.
1-4. OPERATIONS
The three-story MCC-H building consists of a Mission
Operations Wing (MOW), an Operations Support Wing The MCC-H is the focal point for the world-wide
(OSW), and an interconnecting lobby wing. The MOW Manned Spaceflight Network. During the course of a
contains all the technical equipment and facilities re- manned spaceflight mission, this network feeds enor -
quired to support the mission control and monitoring mous quantities of information in various forms into
functions of the MCC-H. The MOW is equipped with the MCC-H. In return, the MCC-H feeds a large
two Mission Operations Control Rooms (MOCR's) , amount of information back to the network. The pri-
associated Staff Support Rooms (SSR's) , and a Recov- mary reason for this data exchange is to maintain
.
ery Control Room (RCR) These rooms provide the cognizance over the current status of the spacecraft
proper environment for the comprehensive data dis- and flight crews involved in the mission. A byproduct
plays and analyses required for detailed mission con- of the exchange is the compilation of data for histori-
trol. The OSW contains office, laboratory, and tech- cal purposes and postflight analyses.
nical support areas, and a Mission Briefing and Ob-
servation Auditorium (MBOA) for the NASA-MSC A manned spaceflight mission consists of several con-
Flight Operations Directorate. The lobby wing inter- secutive phases: launch, earth orbit, translunar,
connects the MOW and OSW and contains several of - etc., depending upon the mission objectives. The
fices, dormitory facilities, and technical support MCC-H flight controllers must know during all phases _.

areas. of the mission the location of the spacecraft involved

I- 1
Section I PHO-FAMOO 1
Paragraph 1-5
and how the spacecraft and their crews a r e withstand- After the spacecraft has been successfully launched,
ing the changing environment imposed upon them. the RTCC system is used to determine the spatial po-
The Manned Spaceflight Network functions a s a remote sition of the spacecraft. If the next phase is an earth
a r m of the MCC-H, constantly collecting the data that orbit, the RTCC will establish the orbital track of the
will provide this required information to the MCC-H. spacecraft utilizing tracking data coming from the
(See figure 1-4.) Manned Spaceflight Network. The RTCC maintains a
plot of the spacecraft position, predicts where it will
From the moment of lift-off, a s a spacecraft is being be at any predetermined time in the future, and sends
launched, the personnel in control of the mission must out acquisition messages to each tracking station that
be supplied with information regarding acceleration, tell the station where to point its tracking antenna and
speed, and direction of the spacecraft to enable them at what time the station can expect to acquire the
to make an almost immediate decision a s to whether spacecraft. The RTCC also causes predicted impact
or not a satisfactory trajectory is being maintained. points to be displayed throughout the orbital phase of
To accomplish this, high-speed data lines carry radar the mission so that recovery forces will have maxi-
tracking data from Bermuda and Kennedy Space Center mum reaction time in the event of an abort.
(KSC) to the RTCC at the MCC-H. The RTCC, in
turn, causes displays of the spacecraft trajectory pa- Throughout the mission, the physical well-being of the
rameters to be plotted only a few seconds behind the flight crew is monitored via telemetry data and voice
actual spacecraft position. The predicted impact point communications. Telemetry data also enables the
of the spacecraft is also displayed during this time so performance of the spacecraft and related equipment
that recovery forces can quickly converge on the to be evaluated.
spacecraft landing area in the event of an abort.
1-5. APOLLO SIMULATION, CHECKOUT, AND
During the launch phase, the condition of the space-
craft crew and critical vehicle systems, and the status TRAINING SYSTEM
of critical mission events, must also be known. This The Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and Training System
data is telemetered from the spacecraft, received at (ASCATS) is a self-supporting facility that provides
several data acquisition stations, applied to data trans- the interfacing equipment and data for supporting sim-
mission equipment at KSC, and routed over wide band ulated mission exercises. The ASCATS, located pri-
data lines to the MCC-H. At the MCC-H, the data is marily in building 422, is used for training the space-
used to produce event status displays, biomedical data craft flight crews, the MCC-H flight controllers, and
displays, and other pertinent displays required for the remote site flight controllers. Refer to appendix
immediate evaluation. C for further details related to the ASCATS.

1-2
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PHO-FAMOOl Section I1
Paragraphs 2-1 to 2-1-2-1

SECTION II
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM EQUIPMENT

This section describes the equipment complement of each MCC-H functional system. The
equipment composition and location is first given for each subsystem. This is followed by
a brief statement of the function or purpose of each equipment grouping or major compo-
nent.

2-1. COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND, AND 2-1-1-3. Audio Test and Patch Equipment

TELEMETRY SYSTEM The audio test and patch equipment consists of patch
and test bays. This equipment is used to monitor,
The Communications, Command, and Telemetry Sys- test, and maintain all audio circuits. The patch bays
tem (CCATS) processes and distributes all signals, also provide voice circuit status signals to the com-
except television, entering and leaving the MCC -H and munications line switching console in room 118A.
provides internal communication capabilities for the
MCC-H. The system is divided into seven subsys- 2-1-1-4. Teletype Test and Patch Equipment
tems: Communications Facility Control, Voice Com-
munications, Command, Telemetry, Central Proc- The teletype test and patch equipment consists of patch
essor. Teletype and Facsimile, and Pneumatic Tube. bays, a test bay, and a monitor console. The equip-
2-1-1. Communications Facility Control Subsystem ment is used to monitor, test, and maintain the quality
of most teletype circuits that enter o r leave the MCC-
The Communications Facility Control Subsystem, lo- H.
cated in room 118, centralizes quality control and
maintenance for all wide band and high-speed data 2-1-1-5. Countdown and Status Receiver
circuits, all audio frequency communications circuits,
and most of the teletype circuits that enter and leave The countdown and status receiver consists of a
the MCC-H. The U.S. Weather Bureau teletype cir- switching unit, a control panel, input/output logic,
cuits interface directly with the telephone company and patching and output relays. This equipment is
facilities. Room 118 contains wide band data and high- used to receive and demultiplex for distribution the
speed data transfer and test equipment, a wide band countdown and status data messages from the count-
data and high-speed data recording facility, teletype down and status transmitting equipment at the KSC.
test and patch equipment, audio test and patch equip-
ment, and a countdown and status receiver. Figure 2-1-2. Voice Communications Subsystem
2-1-1 shows a composite photograph of the subsystem
equipment. The Voice Communications Subsystem enables voice
communications between personnel within the MCC -H
2-1-1-1. Wide Band Data and High-speed Data Trans- and, also, between the MCC-H and the MSC flight crew
fer and Test Equipment trainer facility , the Manned Spaceflight Network, and
the spacecraft. The subsystem is composed of voice
The wide band data and high-speed data transfer and intercom equipment situated throughout the MCC -H
test equipment consists of test bays, patch bays, and the flight crew trainer facility, a communication
modulator -demodulator units, data control units, high- line switch console located in room 118A, public ad-
speed teleprinter equipment , transfer switch equip- d r e s s equipment situated throughout the MCC-H, pri-
ment, checkout equipment , and line driver-terminator vate automatic branch exchange equipment in the tele-
units. This equipment is used to monitor and main- phone central exchange building and room 118A, and a
tain the quality of wide band and high-speed data cir- voice recording facility located in room 117A. A com-
.
cuit s posite photograph of the subsystem equipment is shown
in figure 2-1-2.
2-1-1-2. Wide Band Data and High-speed Data Re-
cording Facility 2-1-2-1. Voice Intercommunication Equipment

The wide band data and high-speed data recording The basic element of the voice intercom equipment is
facility consists of magnetic tape recorders and re- a station keyset unit. This unit (in various configura-
producers, and a digital time display unit. This tions according to usage requirements) is mounted in
equipment is used to record and make available for consoles, on desks, walls, or pedestals, and on
playback all wide band and high-speed data signals equipment racks situated throughout the MCC -H and
that enter or leave the MCC-H. the flight crew trainer facility. Special lamp supply

2-1
Section II PHO-FAMOO1
Paragraphs 2-1-2-2 to 2-1-4-1
generators, which provide code -type signaling to the and ringing at each station on incoming calls and for
keysets and other equipment in the form of a wink, dialing on outgoing calls.
flash, o r flutter presentation, are located in room
127A. Supervisory and signaling control circuits, 2-1-2-6. Voice Recording Facility
line circuits, and interconnecting networks for the
keysets a r e also located in room 127A. This room Various magnetic tape recorder/reproducers and as-
also contains test and patch circuits necessary for sociated patch and monitor circuitry comprise the
proper maintenance and operation of the equipment. voice recording facility. This equipment provides a
The keyset units, along with their associated control means of recording and playback of selected voice
and interconnection circuitry, provide an internal communications and biomedical (FM/FM) data.
communications network for the MCC-H and a voice
communications capability between the MCC-H and 2-1-3. Command Subsystem
the flight crew trainer facility.
The Command Subsystem processes command data for
2-1-2-2. Communication Line Switch Console transmission from MCC-H to the Apollo command and
service module, the lunar excursion modules, o r the
The communication line switch console consists of a Saturn launch vehicle. The subsystem utilizes the
two-position, manually operated switchboard, which hardware of the CCATS, RTCC, and Display/Control
provides for control and termination of voice commu- Systems.
nication lines between the MCC-H and the Manned
Spaceflight Network. Line switching is accomplished 2-1-4. Telemetry Subsystem
by utilizing a four-color illuminated keyboard and a
communication line switching matrix, which is an in- The Telemetry Subsystem equipment is located pri-
tegral part of the console. The multicolor key lamps marily in room 129 with additional processing equip-
present a steady, flashing, o r winking indication. The ment in rooms 216 and 316. The subsystem receives
combination of lamp color and coded signaling indi- wide band pulse -code-modulation (PCM) telemetry
cates the operational status of any input communica- data from CCATS via the Communications Facility
tion line. Interconnection circuitry and certain equip- Control Subsystem, provides independent operational
ments necessary for operation of the console a r e lo- and dynamic standby processing of the received data
cated in room 127A. for up to two simultaneous missions, and distributes
the processed data to the two MOCR's, SSR's and
2-1-2-3. Air/Ground Control Equipment CCATS display equipment. The subsystem also re-
ceives frequency modulation (FM) biomedical data
The air/ground control equipment consists of tone from the Voice Communications Subsystem, provides
transmitters, tone receivers, and a logic sequencer. independent processing of the received biomedical data
This equipment turns on ground-to-air radio trans- for up to two simultaneous missions, and distributes
mitters at remote sites, allowing voice communica- the data representing the astronauts' heartbeat and
tions between the spacecraft and the MCC-H. respiration to the life systems analysts. The subsys-
tem is composed of pulse -code -modulation telemetry
2-1-2-4. Public Address Equipment equipment, telemetry monitor and processing equip-
ment, frequency modulation equipment, biomedical
The public address equipment is composed primarily processing equipment, output transfer switch equip-
of audio amplifiers, located in room 127A, loud- ment, and telemetry analog and event distribution
speakers and microphones that allow access to the equipment. A composite photograph of the subsystem
public address network, and the public address key equipment is shown in figure 2-1-4.
position on the voice intercom keyset units. This
equipment provides for total voice broadcast coverage
of the MCC-H. Voice circuitry, selection and switch- 2-1 -4-1. Pulse-Code-Modulation Telemetry Ground
ing equipment, and speaker muting and keying cir- Station Equipment
cuitry used in control and operation of the public ad-
d r e s s network are located in room 127A. The OSW The pulse -code -modulation (PCM) telemetry equipment
auditorium has a separate, independent public address consists of four PCM telemetry ground stations, a te-
system consisting of a microphone, a 35-watt power lemetry event decoder, a PCM telemetry signal simu-
amplifier, and six ceiling-mounted speakers. This lator, and a PCM telemetry patch board. The four
public address system is used only in the auditorium PCM telemetry ground stations provide independent,
for briefings and debriefings. operational and dynamic standby data processing for
the two MOCR's, SSR's, and CCATS display equip-
2-1-2-5. Private Automatic Branch Exchange Equip- ment. Each ground station contains serial-to-parallel
ment converters, decommutation synchronization logic, a
data format program memory, digital-to-analog con-
The private automatic branch exchange equipment verters, and various output registers. The PCM te-
consists of communication line circuitry arranged for lemetry ground stations receive pulse -coded input
voice communications outside the MCC-H and an inter- signals and associated clock signals. The ground sta-
cept switchboard for operator control of selected cir- tions process the pulse-coded input signal and apply
cuits. This equipment provides access to the MSC data, data identification, and decommutation synchro-
telephone dial system. The communication lines a r e nization and status signals to the output transfer switch
tied &to the voice intercom keyset units for signaling equipment.
2-2
PHO- FAMOOl Section I1
Paragraphs 2-1-4-2 to 2-1-5-4
The telemetry event decoder consists of two similar Interface Subsystem for MOCR, SSR, and CCATS dis-
event decoding sections. Each event decoding section plays. The equipment is composed of relay switch-
processes data from an operational PCM telemetry ing, logic switching, patch panels, and output relays
ground station and furnishes additional event data for and drivers.
the associated MOCR, SSR, and CCATS display equip-
ment. The PCM telemetry signal simulator generates 2-1-4-6. Telemetry Analog and Event Distribution
PCM telemetry test input signals and associated clock Equipment
signals for the four PCM telemetry ground stations.
In addition, the signal simulator is capable of per- The telemetry analog and event distribution equipment
formance testing the PCM telemetry ground stations. is composed of telemetry event driver equipment that
routes bilevel event signals to the consoles in Com-
The PCM telemetry patch board provides the means puter Display/Control Interface Subsystem for MOCR,
for selecting input data and clock signals to the PCM SSR, and CCATS displays. The telemetry analog and
telemetry ground stations. event distribution equipment also contains the sub-
channel data distributor (SDD) and digital display
2-1-4-2. Telemetry Monitor and Processing Equip- driver (DDD) equipments. The subchannel data dis-
ment tributor controls the distribution of digital data to the
digital display driver equipment for bilevel event dis-
The telemetry monitor and processing equipment mon- plays on modules and chart recorders in the MOCR,
itors the operation of the pulse -code-modulation te - SSR, and CCATS display areas.
lemetry ground stations and the output transfer switch
equipment. The equipment consists of telemetry su- 2-1-5. Central Processor Subsystem
pervisor console, logic equipment, and chart (analog)
and event recorders. The Central Processor Subsystem receives, proc-
esses, and distributes all incoming and outgoing data
2 -1-4-3. Frequency Modulation Equipment a t the MCC-H. The subsystem comprises three com-
puters, communications interface equipment, storage
Frequency modulation (FM) ground stations and asso- and recording equipment, transfer switching equip-
ciated patch boards make up the frequency modulation ment, and monitor and control equipment, all located
equipment. FM ground stations a r e composed, almost in rooms 116 and 116B. A composite photograph of
entirely, of subcarrier discriminators, which receive the Central Processor Subsystem is shown in figure
and segregate the telemetered biomedical information 2-1-5.
by vehicle and type into specific channels. A separate
discriminator is included as a backup or testing unit 2-1-5-1. Computers
for the operational discriminator channels.
The three computers a r e stored program, high-speed
2 -1-4-4. Biomedical Processing Equipment digital processors utilizing an internal memory and 18
input/output channels to process large amounts of data
The biomedical processing equipment consists of bio- on a real time basis. A clock is associated with each
medical preprocessing equipment, biomedical com - computer to automatically time stamp each message
puter processing equipment, delay-loop recorder/ and to provide synchronization signals for the com-
reproducer, and biomedical patch boards. Preproc - puters.
essing equipment consists of pneumotachometers and
cardiotachometers, which convert the analog respira- 2-1-5-2. Communications Interface Equipment
tion and heartbeat waveforms into digital form to drive
remote digital displays and the computer processing The communications interface equipment consists of
equipment. The computer processing equipment con- communications line terminals, communications mul-
sists entirely of cardiotachometer/pneumotachometer tiplexers, polynomial buffered terminals, channel
.
computer input buffers (cardio/pneumo CIB) The scanners, central processor/RTCC adapters, com-
buffers simultaneously sample the individual heartbeat puter input multiplexer/subchannel data distributor
and breathing rates, combine the rates with data tags adapters, and output inhibit switching circuitry. This
from the remote control equipment, and then transmit equipment permits the Central Processor Subsystem
the data in high-speed format to the Communications to accept numerous data communications, and to route
Facility Control Subsystem. Delay -loop recorder/ the data to the assigned destination.
reproducers and associated patching equipment pro-
vide for post and/or present (30-second delay) analysis 2-1-5-3. Storage and Recording Equipment
of individual astronaut heart and respiration conditions.
Patch boards are used to manually select the specific The storage and recording equipment associated with
data channels for use by the biomedical processing each computer consists of two magnetic core memory
equipment. units, a magnetic drum, four magnetic tape units,
and a card processor. These units provide message
2-1-4-5. Output Transfer Switch Equipment storage and rapid retrieval capabilities, printing out
information at any time on an as-requested basis.
The output transfer switch equipment routes decom- 2-1-5-4. Transfer Switching Equipment
mutated telemetry data through patching, switching,
and driver equipment to the chart (analog) and event The transfer switching equipment consists of an elec-
recorders and to the Computer Display/Control tronic transfer switch and a system configuration unit.
2-3
Section 11 PHO-FAMOOI
Paragraphs 2-1-5-5 to 2-2-1

The electronic transfer switch provides rapid switch- 2-1-7-1. Automatic Message Routing Equipment
ing between components with no loss of data. The
system configuration unit provides computer -to - The automatic message routing equipment is divided
peripheral-unit configuration through use of pro- into two independent networks capable of routing hard-
grammed patch boards. copy messages between an MOCR, the corresponding
SSR's, the RTCC, and other areas. Each network in-
2-1-5-5. Monitor and Control Equipment cludes send and receive stations located in various
areas of the MOW, a rejected message receive and
The monitor and control equipment consists of a com- retransmit station in the MCC-H message center
puter control console for each computer and a commu- (room 116A), pneumatic tube runs that connect all
nications and configuration console. The computer stations through a central exchanger located in room
control consoles are used to control the operation and 130, cylindrical message c a r r i e r s that are inserted
to insert program changes into the computer. The into the pneumatic tube runs to carry messages be-
communications and configuration console is used to tween stations, a control panel located in room 130,
establish the operational configuration of the Central and automatic deflection fittings and other accessories
Processor Subsystem and to monitor its operation. that are located as required throughout the pneumatic
tube runs. Pneumatic tube runs to and from these
2-1-6. Teletype and Facsimile Subsystem stations contain Y -switch units (deflection switches)
for diverting message c a r r i e r s to selected stations.
The Teletype and Facsimile Subsystem transmits and A supervisory panel located in room 116A is also
receives teletype and meteorological data between the common to both automatic message routing networks.
.
MCC -H- and the U . S Weather Bureau, and between This panel provides the same indicators as on the
the MCC-H and the Manned Spaceflight Network. The control panel in room 130.
subsystem is composed of teletype and facsimile
equipment located in the meteorological center, and 2-1 -7-2. Manual Message Routing Equipment
teletype equipment located throughout the MCC -H. A
composite photograph of the subsystem equipment is The manual message routing equipment consists of 12
shown in figure 2-1-6. send and receive stations located in various areas of
the MOW, pneumatic tube runs, and message c a r r i e r s .
2-1 -6-1. Teletype Equipment This equipment provides a point-to -point message
routing capability between the MCC-H message center
The teletype equipment includes automatic send- and send and receive stations in the MOCR's, opera-
receive sets, receive-only typing reperforator units, tions and procedures SSR's, and between room 229A
receive-only page printer units, transmitter distrib- and the third floor simulation control area (room 328).
utor units, silent receive-only page printers, a tele-
type loop patch panel, and a teletype loop switchboard. 2-2. DISPLAY /CONTROL SYSTEM
With the exception of the teletype loop patch panel and
the teletype loop switchboard, this equipment is used The Display/Control System displays selected data and
to print out and transmit all incoming or outgoing tele- enables control of various command functions. The
type messages. The teletype loop patch panel is used system is divided into four subsystems: Computer
in the Recovery Control Room (RCR) to provide tele- Display/Control Interface, Timing, Television, and
type equipment flexibility and the teletype loop switch- Group Display.
board is used in the meteorological center for switch-
ing U.S. Weather Bureau teletype circuits between 2-2-1. Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem
the teletype equipment in the meteorological center.
The Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem
2 -1-6-2. Facsimile Equipment interfaces the RTCC System and the Communications,
Command, and Telemetry System with the Display/
The facsimile equipment includes a facsimile trans- Control System to accomplish data request, data dis-
mitter, facsimile receiver/recorder , and a call direc- play, and control functions. The subsystem is com-
tor. The facsimile equipment is used to transmit and posed of computer request equipment, encoder-
receive U.S. Weather Bureau meteorological data in multiplexer equipment, slide file equipment, digital-
support of the meteorological center located in room to-television converter equipment, digital display
324. The call director is used to select the facsimile driver equipment, event and analog driver equipment,
circuits for interfacing with the facsimile equipment. and an MOCR switch unit. Some of the computer re-
quest, encoder -multiplexer, digital-to -television
2-1-7. Pneumatic Tube Subsystem converter, and converter slide file equipments a r e
used to support the dynamic standby computer in the
The Pneumatic Tube Subsystem enables rapid hard- RTCC System. Those components that are used ex-
copy message routing throughout the MCC-H. The clusively in this manner are grouped together a s aux-
subsystem is composed of automatic and manual mes- iliary display equipment. The majority of the equip-
sage routing equipments located in various areas of ment comprising the subsystem is located in rooms
the MOW. A composite photograph of the subsystem 216, 316, and 319. Additional equipment, such as
equipments, excluding pneumatic tube runs, is shown console keyboards, is located in the MOCR's and as-
in figure 2-1-7. sociated SSR's, in the RCR, the RTCC , and rooms

2 -4
PHO- FAMOO I Section I1
Paragraphs 2-2-1-1 to 2-2-1-8-2
118B, 227A, and 324. Figure 2-2-1 shows a com- 2-2-1-6. MOCR Switch Unit
posite photograph of the subsystem equipment.
The MOCR switch unit permits various areas of the
2-2-1-1. Computer Request Equipment MOW that a r e common to both MOCR's (e.g. , the
communications controller facility) to operate with
The computer request equipment consists of console - either MOCR. The switch unit consists of prepro-
mounted keyboards that permit mission control oper - grammed patch boards for each area. Switching from
ators to request information from the RTCC and Cen- one MOCR to the other is accomplished by changing
t r a l Processor Subsystem, and to perform control patch boards.
functions.
2-2-1-7. Auxiliary Display Equipment
2-2-1-2. Encoder -Multiplexer Equipment
The auxiliary display equipment consists of various
The encoder -multiplexer equipment is composed of computer request keyboards, a converter slide file
computer request encoders, (in general, one for each and data distributor, a digital-to -television converter
computer request keyboard) and a computer input mul- data distributor, a buffer, and a display generator.
tiplexer. The encoders detect and encode into a digi- The auxiliary display equipment shares the encoder -
tal format the requests initiated on the computer re- computer input multiplexer. These components, sim -
quest keyboards. The computer input multiplexer ilar to equipment previously described , handle dynamic
transmits the encoded requests over a single line to standby data.
the RTCC or Central Processor Subsystem on a con-
trolled access basis. 2-2-1-8. Console/Module Equipment

2 -2 -1 -3. Slide File Equipment The console/module equipment consists of the con-
soles and the modules mounted on the various consoles
The slide file equipment consists of converter slide to fulfill specific mission requirements. The consoles
file data distributors, converter slide files, reference a r e grouped in five functional areas: mission com-
slide files, and a set of slide-making equipment. The mand and control, mission command and control sup-
data distributors control distribution of slide selection port, flight dynamics, systems operations, and public
data to the slide files and control data to the video affairs information control consoles. The mission
switching matrix of the Television Subsystem. The command and control consoles are located in the
converter slide files permit random access to photo- MOCR's. The mission command and control support
graphic slides, which provide background information consoles are located in the MOCR's, the network in-
for digital data that is included in composite video strumentation control room, the operations and pro-
displays produced by the digital-to-television con- cedures SSR's, the network SSR, the RCR, and the
verter equipment. The reference slide files are iden- meteorological center. The flight dynamics consoles
tical to the converter slide files, except that the slides are located in the MOCR's and the flight dynamics
contain reference information which is converted di- SSR's. The systems operations consoles are located
rectly into video signals without the addition of dynamic in the MOCR's, the vehicle systems SSR's, the flight
digital data. Generation of slides for the slide files is crew SSR's, and the life systems SSR's. A public af-
accomplished with the slide-making equipment located fairs officer console is located in each MOCR. Another
in room 212R of building 8 . public affairs information control console is located in
room 319 for use by the public affairs television
2-2-1-4. Digital-to-Television Converter Equipment editor.
The digital-to-television converter equipment includes 2-2-1-8-1. Mission Command and Control Consoles
digital-to-television converter data distributors, buf-
fers, and display generators. The data distributors The consoles included within the mission command and
control the distribution of display data from the RTCC control group are the operations director, flight direc-
to the buffers. The buffers are storage devices that tor, assistant flight director, operations and proce-
apply the display data, upon demand, to the display dures officer, and the network controller consoles.
generators. The display generators produce compos- These consoles provide operational positions from
ite video displays for television presentation consisting which the following functions are performed: monitor -
of converted digital data and converter slide images. ing and analyzing mission status, implementing ap-
propriate actions to support flight plans and mission
2 -2 -1 -5. Digital Display Driver Equipment objectives, and detailed directing and controlling of all
major elements involved in a manned spaceflight mis-
The digital display driver equipment comprises digital sion.
display driver data distributors and digital display
drivers. 'The data distributors control the distribution 2-2-1-8-2. Mission Command and Control Support
of computer generated time words to the Timing Sub- Consoles
system and of digital data to the digital display drivers,
which control computer driven lamps within the Com- The mission command and control support consoles
puter Display/Control Interface, Group Display, and consist of the consoles located in the operations and
Television Subsystems. procedures SSR, the network SSR, the meteorological

2-5
Section I1 PHO- FAMOO1
Paragraphs 2-2-1-8-3to 2-2-2-9
center, the RCR, and the instrumentation control 2-2-2-1. Master Instrumentation Timing Equipment
room. These consoles provide operational positions
to lend detailed support to the personnel stationed at The master instrumentation timing equipment is a dual
the mission command and control consoles. master timer synchronized to the National Bureau of
Standards radio station WWV. The master instrumen-
2-2-1-8-3. Flight Dynamics Consoles tation timing equipment generates pulse rate signals
and time code words for distribution throughout the
The flight dynamics consoles consist of the flight dy- MCC-H to time index and synchronize actual and sim-
namics officer, retrofire officer, guidance officer, ulated mission operations.
and flight dynamics SSR consoles. These consoles 2-2-2-2. Atlantic Missile Range CountdownProcessor
enable monitoring and evaluation of all aspects of
powered flight concerning crew safety and orbital in- The Atlantic missile range countdown processor pro-
sertion, evaluation of orbital trajectories required to vides simulated countdown signals and processes
meet mission objectives, and continuous updating of countdown data from KSC for the relative time accu-
retrofire information throughout a mission for both mulators.
planned and contingency reentry situations. 2-2-2-3. Relative Time Accumulators
2-2-1-8-4. Systems Operations Consoles Two identical sets of relative time accumulators a r e
used to accumulate countdown, mission, and general
The systems operations consoles include the life sys- purpose timing signals. One relative time accumula-
tems officer, the booster system engineer, the elec- tor serves equipment on the second floor of the MOW;
trical environmental communications engineer, the the other serves equipment on the third floor.
guidance navigation computer engineer, the vehicle
systems SSR, and the flight crew SSR consoles. These 2-2-2-4. Dual Stop Clock Equipment
consoles enable monitoring and evaluation of flight The dual stop clock equipment provides manually con-
crew status; analyzing the performance of electrical, trolled time-to-go or elapsed time presentation for
mechanical, and life systems; and initiation of vehicle any selected event. There a r e two dual stop clock
systems commands. equipments in each retrofire officer console and one
in each spacecraft communicator console.
2-2-1-8-5. Public Affairs Information Control Con-
soles 2-2-2-5. Serial Decimal Time Converter
The public affairs information control consoles include The serial decimal time converter receives binary-
the public affairs officer and public affairs television coded-decimal Greenwich mean time signals from the
editor consoles. The personnel stationed at these master instrumentation timing equipment, converts
consoles do not engage in mission command and con- the signals to pulse-coded-decimal Greenwich mean
trol activities. Their purpose, during a mission, is time, and distributes the signals to all chart recorders
to coordinate public affairs information with commer- within the MCC-H.
cial news media and other interested groups. In this
respect, the public affairs information control con- 2-2-2-6. Timing Signal Distributors
soles enable the monitoring of voice and television
communications and the controlled delivery of such, The timing signal distributors receive specially for -
along with appropriate comments, to the MBOA and matted Greenwich mean time signals from the master
to a remote public affairs broadcast studio located in instrumentation timing equipment on unbalanced lines
a separate building. and distribute the signals to all magnetic tape record-
ers and to some time display units on balanced lines.
2-2-2. Timing Subsystem 2-2-2-7. Timing Interface Unit
The Timing Subsystem is the MCC-H timing standard
and distributes timing data to all MCC-H functional The timing interface unit receives binary-coded-
systems. The subsystem is composed of master in- decimal time signals from the master instrumentation
strumentation timing equipment, an Atlantic missile timing equipment and converts the time signals into
range countdown processor, two sets of relative time time words and synchronization signals for use by the
accumulators, six sets of dual stop clock equipment, Central Processor Subsystem.
two serial decimal time converters, three timing sig-
nal distributors, time display and control modules, a 2-2-2-8. Time Display and Control Modules
timing interface unit, and wall clock equipment. The The time display and control modules display the var-
master instrumentation timing equipment, countdown ious time-code words generated by the Timing Sub-
processor, timing interface unit, and serial decimal system equipment. In addition, the modules provide
time converter a r e located in room 319. One relative control of certain time-code words generated by the
time accumulator set is in room 216, the other in subsystem.
room 316. One timing signal distributor is in room
118 and two a r e in room 117A, three sets of dual stop
clock equipment are in each MOCR, the time display 2-2-2-9. Wall Clock Equipment
and control modules and wall clocks a r e located The wall clock equipment consists of a wall-mounted
throughout the MCC-H. A composite photograph of master control unit in room 319 and associated wall
the subsystem equipment is shown in figure 2-2-2. clocks spaced throughout the MCC-H. The master
2-6
PHO-FAMOO1 Section I1
Paragraphs 2-2-3 to 2-2-4-1
control unit is synchronized with radio station WWV 2-2-3-5. Synchronization Generation and Distribution
and supplies correction signals for the wall clocks. Equipment
2-2-3. Television Subsystem The synchronization generation and distribution equip-
The Television Subsystem generates, distributes, re- ment is located in room 319 and is divided into two
cords, and displays television video information with groups: standard resolution and high resolution. Both
pictorial, graphic, or alphanumeric content. The groups consist of dual synchronizing generators,
subsystem is composed of the following major com- switching facilities, pulse distribution amplifiers, and
ponents of equipment groups: television camera equip- pulse delay units. These two groups of equipment gen-
ment; television viewers; television converter equip- erate television timing and synchronizing pulses and
ment; landline interface equipment; standard resolution distribute the pulses to appropriate components of the
(525-line scanning rate) and high resolution (945-line television subsystem located throughout the MOW.
scanning rate) synchronization, generation, and dis- 2 -2 -3-6. Television Distribution Equipment
tribution equipment ;television distribution equipment;
television recording equipment; and television remote The television distribution equipment is composed of
control equipment. The majority of the equipment high resolution video switching matrices and video
comprising the subsystem is located in rooms 118, distribution amplifiers in rooms 216 and 316, and
216, 231, 316, 319, and 330. Additional equipment, standard resolution patch and distribution equipment
such a s opaque televisors, television viewers, cam- in room 319. Each high resolution video switching
eras, and associated control devices a r e located matrix has 80 input channels and 160 output channels.
throughout the MOW. Figure 2-2-3 shows a composite Each matrix provides selected television signals to
photograph of the subsystem equipment. console-mounted television viewers and group display
television projectors and also distributes selected
2-2-3-1. Television Camera Equipment television signals to recording and monitoring equip-
The television camera equipment consists of television ment. The standard resolution patch and distribution
camera, fixed focus lenses, zoom lenses and control equipment supplies selected television signals to video
panels, pan and tilt mechanisms and control panels, tape recorders, television viewers, and to the landline
camera control units, remote control panels, matte interface equipment for distribution to areas outside
televisors, and opaque televisors. This equipment the MOW.
provides for the controlled generation of closed- 2-2-3 -7. Television Recording Equipment
circuit video information within the MCC-H.
The television recording equipment consists of a video
2-2-3-2. Television Viewers tape recording facility in room 319 and hardcopy re-
cording equipment in rooms 216 and 316. The video
The television viewers a r e composed of 5-inch, dual tape recording facility provides video tape recording
8-inch, 10-inch, 14-inch, 17-inch, and 21-inch tele- and editing facilities for standard resolution video sig-
vision viewers that a r e console-, cabinet-, wall-, or nals. The hardcopy recording equipment consists of
ceiling-mounted. The viewers provide displays of video scanners and television hardcopy recorders.
television video signals generated within and outside The equipment provides a hardcopy reproduction of
the MCC-H. selected televised images when manually requested.
2-2-3-8. Television Remote Control Equipment
The television remote control equipment consists of
2-2-3-3. Television Converter Equipment console-mounted control modules located throughout
the MOW. The control modules provide remote con-
The television converter equipment is composed of t r o l s for video distribution equipment and video re-
television standard converters located in room 319 and cording equipment.
an analog-to-television converter and time display
converters located in rooms 216 and 316. The tele- 2-2-4. Group Display Subsystem ,

vision standard converters accept video signals at one The Group Display Subsystem presents large-scale
scanning rate and convert the video signals to a differ- displays of selected data for group viewing. The sub-
ent scanning r a t e while maintaining a standard frame system is composed of components located in the two
rate. The time display converters generate video MOCR's, the SSR's, the RCR, the RTCC, room 319,
signals from illuminated time display readout panels. and theMBOA. The components comprise six equipment
Analog-to-television converter converts chart recorder
information to television video signals. groups : plotting display equipment, projection plotting
display equipment, projection television display equip-
ment, transparency projection display equipment,
2-2-3-4. Landline Interface Equipment screens and mirrors, and group time and data display
The landline interface equipment consists of a 14-inch equipment. A composite photograph of the components
television viewer, a video waveform monitor, video included in the subsystem is shown in figure 2-2-4.
jack panels, video distribution amplifiers, equalizing
amplifiers, and stabilizing amplifiers located in room 2-2-4-1. Plotting Display Equipment
118. This equipment is used to monitor and manually The plotting display equipment includes plotting display
switch standard resolution video signals that enter or data distributors and X-Y plotboards. The data dis-
leave the MCC -H. tributors control the distribution of plotting data from

2-7
Section I1 PHO- FAMO 0 1
Paragraphs 2-2-4-2 to 2-3-1-5
the RTCC System to the X-Y plotboards and the pro- equipments for a11 three subsystems a r e located in
jection plotting display equipment. The X-Y plot- room 112 of the MOW. One of the five computer sys-
boards contain dual pen-and-arm assemblies to per- tems is shown in figure 2-3-1.
mit simultaneous plotting of two independent sets of
data. 2-3-1. Real Time Computer Subsystem
2-2-4-2. Projection Plotting Display Equipment The Real Time Computer Subsystem receives incom-
ing data, stores and records the data a s necessary,
The projection plotting display equipment consists of performs computation and analyses on the data, and
various slide projectors and associated automatic and transmits the data to user equipment. The subsystem
manual control devices. These equipments work in consists of five large-scale digital computers with
conjunction with one another to produce highly accurate large auxiliary core memories, real time input/output
wall-type displaysinthe MOCR's and the RCR of com- channels, and associated peripheral equipment. A
puter and manually generated data plotted against
static backgrounds. system selector unit, common to all five computers,
enables reliable and flexible switching of computer
functions. The specific components included with each
2-2-4-3. Projection Television Display Equipment r e a l time computer -peripheral equipment combination
Large screen television projectors and console- a r e a central processing unit, a data input/output mul-
mounted control modules comprise the projection tel- tiplexer, a core storage unit, 2 data channels, 12
evision display equipment. This equipment projects magnetic tape units, a disc storage unit, a printer, a
selected video signals, a s pictures, onto group view- card reader, a direct data channel (dual), a data com-
ing screens in the MOCR's, the RCR, and MBOA. munication channel, a core storage file, and a com-
puter controller multiplexer unit. These components
2-2-4-4. Transparency Projection Display Equipment and the system selector unit a r e briefly described be-
The transparency projection display equipment, which low.
is located in the RCR, is composed of transparency
projectors, data files, and transparency processors. 2-3-1-1. Central Processing Unit
This equipment permits rapid generation of trans-
parencies, or rapid access to previously generated The central processing unit is a digital data computer
that performs high-speed data processing on a r e a l
transparencies, and the display of same on group
time basis.
viewing screens in the RCR.
2-2-4-5. Screens and Mirrors 2-3-1-2. Data Input/Output Multiplexer
The data multiplexer is an input/output switching de-
The screens and m i r r o r s provide the image and re- vice that controls the flow of data and instructions be-
flection surfaces, respectively, for the MOCR's and tween the central processing unit, input/output chan-
the RCR projection displays. The screens a r e r e a r - nels, and the core storage unit.
projection viewing screens, which permit favorable
illumination to be maintained in the control rooms. 2-3-1-3. Core Storage Unit
The m i r r o r s optically fold projected images to achieve
the optical throw distance required to display the The core storage unit is a fast, random access, mag-
images properly on the screens. netic memory core. The unit serves the central proc-
essing unit and the input/output channels with the cen-
2-2-4-6. Group Time and Data Display Equipment t r a l processing unit controlling the storage access of
both.
The group time and datadisplay equipment consists of 2-3-1-4. Data Channels
large-scale, alphanumeric readout assemblies and
display drivers. The time displays present various The data channels, under the programmed direction of
types of reference timing and event indications to the the central processing unit, transfer data to and from
MCC-H control areas. The data displays present in- the core storage unit and the card reader, printer,
formation concerning telemetry, tracking, and com- and magnetic tape units connected to the channels. The
mand data to the MOCR's and the RTCC. A video card reader permits manual entry of data in punched-
channel indication for the MOCR projection television card form into a data channel for subsequent process-
displays is also provided by this equipment group. ing by the central processing unit. The printer pro-
vides rapid printouts of output data from an associated
2-3. REAL TIME COMPUTER CO data channel. The magnetic tape units record data on
magnetic tapes and permit entry of prerecorded data
The RTCC system performs operational mission real into the data channels.
time computation tasks required by the MCC-H and
generates test data in support of MCC-H checkout and 2-3-1-5. Direct Data Channel
training programs. The computer complex constitutes The direct data channels connect the data multiplexer
five, r e a l time computing systems, each composed of with the core storage file unit (input and output) and,
the following subsystems: Real Time Computer, Com- through the system selector unit, with the Computer
puter Control, and Auxiliary Data Processing. The Display/Control Interface Subsystem.

2-8
PHO-FAMOOl Section I1
Paragraphs 2-3-1-6t o 2-3-3
2-3-1-6. Core Storage File consoles provide operating positions for monitoring
and controlling the real time computers. An RTCC
The storage file is a large capacity, random access, director/maintenance and operations supervisor con -
storage device that permits rapid recall of data into sole serves both control areas. This two-position
the core storage unit. console provides operating positions for the RTCC
Director and the RTCC Maintenance and Operations
2-3-1-7. Data Communications Channel Supervisor to perform their respective duties, which
a r e primarily administrative.
The data communications channel is a multiplexing
device that connects one data input/output multiplexer 2-3-2-2. Plotting Displays
channel to several input and output data communica- Four X-Y plotboards, physically arranged and cabled
tions subchannels, a clock subchannel, and an interval so that from one to four plotboards may be used with
timer subchannel. The data communications subchan- either control area, are used to monitor plotting dis-
nels serially receive and transmit data. The clock play control data.
and interval timer subchannels provide selective sig-
naling and program interruptions at predetermined 2-3-2-3. Manual Entry Devices
times. The manual entry devices are teletype send-receive
units. These units a r e used by the operators in the
2-3-1-8. Computer Controller Multiplexer Unit control areas to manually enter data and control in- ,
formation into or receive computer generated re-
The computer controller multiplexer unit connects sponses from the real time computers.
manual computer input/output equipment of the Com-
puter Control Subsystem to subchannels of the data 2-3-2-4. Control Area Junction Unit
communications channel and performs format struc - The control a r e a junction unit provides a central junc-
ture adaptation so that the subchannels a r e compatible tion point between the Real Time Computer Subsystem
with the manual input/output devices. and manual computer input/output devices within the
Computer Control Subsystem.
2-3-1-9. System Selector Unit
2-3-2-5. Standby Digital Driver Unit
The system selector unit enables any of the five real
time computers to perform any of the functional a s - The standby digital driver unit is a combination de-
signments (modes of operation) that may be assigned coder and driver unit that accepts selected outputs
to the RTCC . (In general, the modes of operation a r e from the real time computer operating in the dynamic
mission operations, dynamic standby, checkout and standby mode. The unit then decodes the outputs and
training, and "off -line".) routes them to control area console-mounted displays
to allow a comparison to be made between the opera-
2-3-2. Computer Control Subsystem tional and the standby outputs.
The Computer Control Subsystem enables RTCC op- 2-3-2-6. System Status Display Unit
erating personnel to monitor computer performance
and manually control mission programs and data se- The system status display shows the functions assigned
lection. The subsystem consists of two control a r e a s
to each r e a l time computer and the status of the sub-
with associated plotting displays and manual entry de-
system that provides inputs to or receives outputs
vices. In addition, a control a r e a junction unit, from the computers.
standby digital driver unit, and system status display
unit a r e included with the subsystem. These units a r e
common to both control areas. 2-3-3. Auxiliary Data Processing Subsystem
2-3-2-1. Control Area Operating Positions The Auxiliary Data Processing Subsystem prepares
computer input data and records the data on magnetic
Each of the two control a r e a s incorporates the follow- tapes for high-speed input to the Real Time Computer
ing consoles: complex supervisor, tracking data se- Subsystem. Two identical groups of data processing
lection processing controller, flight dynamics proc- equipment comprise the subsystem. Each group in-
essing controller, network and command processing cludes a central processing unit, a console printer, a
controller, telemetry processing controller, and card read-punch unit, printers, and magnetic tape
checkout systems processing controller. These units.

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PHO-FAMOOl Section III
Paragraph 3-1

SECTION 1111
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM OPERATION

This-section describes the operation of the MCC -H functional systems. The systems are
first discussed as they apply to the complete mission control configuration- Following
this, each system is discussed and a functional analysis of the major component or equip-
ment group level is presented for each subsystem.

3-1. GENERAL
All information enters and leaves the MCC-H over all incoming voice communications, facsimile mes-
commercial common carrier communications lines. sages, and teletype textual message traffic and pro-
The communications lines are classed in five cate- vides for internal voice and hardcopy communications.
gories : wide band data, high-speed data, teletype, All other incoming communications are routed to other
video, and audio. (See figure 3-1.) The wide band systems for generation of data displays. Incoming
data lines handle the transmission and reception of telemetry data is processed through the Communica-
command, tracking, and acquisition data between the tions, Command, and Telemetry System and trans-
MCC-H and GSFC and simulation data between ASCATS ferred to the RTCC for data display and message gen-
in building 422 and MCC-H. An additional set of wide eration. Some of the processed data (such a s analog,
band data lines bring the Apollo Launch Data System event, and biomedical data) is routed directly to the
data into the MCC-H from KSC. The high-speed data Display/Control System for direct monitoring by var-
lines carry ephemeris and Saturn IV B data from the ious flight controllers and medical specialists. In-
MCC-H to KSC and Impact Predictor data from KSC coming tracking data is sent to the RTCC for genera-
to the MCC-H. Teletype data consists primarily of tion of dynamic display data and to aid in the computa-
radar acquisition data and textual message traffic. tion of acquisition data. All outgoing voice communi-
The video lines carry television signals only. The cations, facsimile messages, and teletype messages,
audio lines mainly handle voice communication inter - and most command data originate within the Communi-
changes between the MCC -H, the Manned Spaceflight cations, Command, and Telemetry System. The re-
Network, and the spacecraft. Specially assigned audio maining outgoing communications are routed through
lines carry meteorological data to and from facsimile the Communications, Command, and Telemetry Sys-
machines at the MCC -H and the National Meteorology tem for conversion to the proper format and assign-
Center at Suitland, Maryland. Other specially assigned ment to an outgoing line.
audio lines transmit biomedical data to the MCC -H.
Direct audio lines a r e available from the MCC-H to The Display/Control System presents large-scale and
the Department of Defense and the Department of State individual console data displays and provides a data
to carry priority voice communiques when necessary. display and control capability to mission control and
All communications lines from sources external to the support personnel. The system also generates timing
MSC that interface with the MCC-H come through the pulses that are distributed within the system and to
MSC telephone central exchange building to the MCC-H other systems for time -correlation and synchroniza-
telephone termination and distribution equipment room tion purposes. In addition, the system provides edited
and then, with two exceptions, converge on the Com- public affairs television outputs for group receiving in
munications, Command, and Telemetry System. The the MBOA and for broadcasting via commercial tele-
two exceptions are video transmission lines and pri- vision networks. Data is presented via digital readout
vate telephone lines. Video transmission lines are display devices, wall-type projection displays, and
routed directly to the Display/Control System. Private individual console television monitors. The system
telephone lines a r e routed to the individual telephone generates data displays upon receipt of display/control
sets situated throughout the MCC -H. Some of these data from the RTCC or upon receipt of selected telem-
private lines a r e routed through the Communications, etry data from the Communications, Command, and
Command, and Telemetry System during missions so Telemetry System. The display/control data from the
that incoming calls may be intercepted and delayed, if RTCC System is received only after request initiation
desired. Also, if required, the Communications, except for digital readout display data which is trans-
Command, and Telemetry System can tie into the pri- ferred automatically from the RTCC at a specific,
vate telephone system during periods of emergency preprogrammed time.
operations.
The RTCC System performs real time processing of
The Communications, Command, and Telemetry Sys- incoming data and applies display/control data on re-
tem monitors all incoming or outgoing voice and data quest to the Display/Control System. The RTCC Sys-
signals for quality, records and processes the signals tem also computes acquisition, ephemeris, and certain
as necessary, and routes these signals to their as- command data for transmission to the Manned Space-
signed destinations. The system is the terminus for flight Network. Like all other functions of the MCC-H,
3- 1
Section III PHO- FAM001
Paragraphs 3-2 to 3-2-1-2

the RTCC System is equipped to simultaneously sup- the recording facility and recorded on maglietic tape,
port a dual mission. providing historical records for postmission playback
and analysis. Output data from the MCC-H is proc-
3-2.COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND, AND essed in a similar manner from the Central Processor
TELEMETRY SYSTEM Subsystem to the transfer equipment. The data is
then sent to the recording facility and to the modems
The Communications, Command, and Telemetry Sys- after which it is placed on telephone lines for trans-
tem (figure 3-2) integrates the MCC-H with the real mission to the network. The transfer switching equip-
time and remote sites of the Manned Spaceflight Net- ment is also used to route the output of the test mes-
work. The system enables the MCC-H to communicate sage generator/receiver through the transfer switch -
with all elements of the network and the occupants of ing equipment for checkout purposes. The checkout
manned spacecraft, and in general, provides all the subchannel buffer is used to provide a testing interface
two -way communication capabilities required between j between the Central Processor Subsystem and the
the MCC-H and external agencies and between person- RTCC System, and between the network (via the trans-
nel within the MCC-H. The system handles all signals fer switch) and the RTCC System for checkout of data
that enter and leave the MCC-H except television sig- and software.
nals, which are applied directly to the Television Sub-
system of the Display/Control System. The subsys- High-speed data being processed by the MCC -H con-
tems comprising the system specialize in transmitting, sists of Impact Predictor and Countdown and Status
processing, recording, and storing the various types data arriving from the KSC, and Saturn N B telemetry
of signals that are handled by the system. The system data transmitted to KSC. High-speed data signals en-
receives tracking, telemetry, and supervisory mes- tering the MCC-H terminate in high-speed data mo-
sage traffic from the Manned Spaceflight Network, and dems. The modems demodulate the carrier signal and
transmits prelaunch, telemetry summary, digital apply the data to data control units which identify the
command, and other data to the network. In addition, received data, detect transmission e r r o r s , if any, in
the system provides the MCC-H with teletype and fac- each data message, and route the data to the Central
simile links to external agencies. The system re- Processor Subsystem. The countdown and status high-
ceives and transmits all data over commercial com- speed data is fed through the high-speed data test and
mon carrier lines. Internal MCC -H communications patch equipment to the countdown and status receiver
include wide band data and high-speed data transfer, that demultiplexes the incoming data for distribution
teletype, voice intercommunications, hardcopy mes- to the Timing Subsystem and the Computer Display/
sage delivery, and also historical recording and re- Control Interface Subsystem. Outgoing high-speed
production of all wide band data, high-speed data, and data is transmitted from the Central Processor Sub-
voice communications. system through high-speed data patch bays and mo-
dems onto telephone lines.
3-2-1. Communications Facility Control Subsystem
Prior to demodulation in the receive modem, each
The Communications Facility Control Subsystem high-speed data signal is recorded on magnetic tape
(figure 3-2-1)centralizes operational control, monitor, by the recording facility. The recorder/reproducers
and test access to all wide band data, high-speed data, also record the output of each transmit modem, and
teletype, and audio communication lines (except for a the time-correlation signals originated by the Timing
few end-to-end secure circuits) entering and leaving Subsystem. These recordings provide historical r e c -
the MCC -H. The subsystem ensures dependable per - ords and postmission playback and analysis.
formance of each critical circuit by providing inter-
connection flexibility and monitor and test access. The teletype test and patching equipment provides
cross-patching, monitoring, and testing access to all
3-2-1-1. Wide Band Data and High-speed Data Trans- receive, send, and internal teletype circuits within
fer and Recording the MCC-H, except for certain end-to-end secure c i r -
cuits. Most teletype data is routed to the Central
The Communications Facility Control Subsystem mon- Processor Subsystem except for special traffic, such
itors the performance of wide band, high-speed, and a s weather data, which is routed directly to equipment
teletype data between the MCC-H and the GSFC on the in the MCC -H meteorological center.
manned spaceflight communications network, and
wide band data between the MCC-H and the KSC on the The high-speed teleprinters print out selected data
Apollo Launch Data System (ALDS) communications derived from low-speed, high-speed, and wide band
network. data processed by the Central Processor Subsystem.

The wide band data transfer and test equipment in- 3-2-1-2. Audio Patching and Monitoring
cludes the modulator -demodulator units, transfer
switching equipment, a test message generator/ The audio test and patch equipment permits monitoring
receiver, and the checkout subchannel buffer. The of external and internal MCC-H voice communications
wide band data enters the MCC -H through telephone circuits that are patched through the audio patch bays.
lines, which terminate in modulator -demodulator The audio patch bays also provide cross-patching
units referred to a s modems. The modems route the flexibility and house equipment for testing all contained
data to the transfer switching equipment. From this audio circuits. The audio test and patch bays interface
point the data is routed to the Central Processor Sub- with the telephone company termination facility and
system. Simultaneously, the data is also routed to the Voice Communications Subsystem. The audio
3 -2
PHO- FAMOOl Section III
Paragraphs 3-2-2 to 3-2-2-2
patch bays also contain a tape recorder for recording for MOCR 1 and MOCR 2. By the use of the switch,
selected voice signals. The audio patch bays also a loop may be switched to either MOCR 1 o r MOCR 2.
transmit voice line status signals to the communica-
tions line switch, and distribute timing signals to the Major special circuits include Public Affairs Officer,
wide band and high-speed data recording facility. Flight Crew Trainer, and Air-to-Ground Control.
Biomedical data inputs a r e received through the audio These are special configurations of standard equip-
patch bays, on specially assigned circuits, from the ment. The Public Affairs Officer circuits provide the
Manned Spaceflight Network. These are frequency- capability of releasing specific internal loops onto the
modulated subcarrier multiplex inputs that contain Public Affairs Officer release loop. This circuit in-
telemetered biomedical data and are routed through terfaces with lines going to KSC press-site and the
the Voice Communications Subsystem to the Telem- press-site of MCC-H. The loop being reieased can
etry Subsystem. also be put through a delay-loop recorder for the pur-
pose of editing releases. The Flight Crew Trainer
3-2-2. Voice Communications Subsystem circuits provide communications that simulate r e a l
time communication to the spacecraft. These also
The Voice Communications Subsystem (figure 3-2-2) have communication interfaces with the training con-
performs the following functions: internal voice com- soles. The air-to-ground control circuit allows cer-
munications (voice intercom), communication line tain keyset units to be connected to control the air-to-
monitoring and switching, local verbal announcement ground unit. This unit makes provision for keying
broadcasting, tying into private telephone network on remote transmitters from certain keyset units.
an as-required basis, and recording and playing back
selected voice communications. The voice intercom An intercom loop similar to the local conference loop
a r e a of responsibility includes the keying of remote having jack-only positions is assigned as a mainte-
ground-to-air transmitters for MCC -H spacecraft nance loop for internal communications between main-
voice transmission. tenance personnel. The difference between this loop
and the local conference loop having jack-only posi-
3-2-2-1. Jnternal Voice Communications tions is that selective signaling from the master sta-
tion to other stations within the loop is provided in the
The voice intercom equipment constitutes an internal fprm of one-digit dialing. This is the only signaling
voice communications network with operational control capability furnished for the maintenance loop; how -
provided by station keyset units. These units are op- ever, a push-to-talk capability between stations is
erated by pushbutton keys, which provide connections provided for all stations within the loop.
to local conference loops or intersite loops. The key-
set unit can provide talk/listen or monitor only c i r - 3-2-2-2. Communication Line Monitoring and Switch-
cuits, public address system, and the capability of ing
recording specific loops or keysets.
The communication line switch is an automatic, man-
The voice intercom network is divided into five major ually operated switchboard that has the following in-
groups, each group operationally independent of the terconnect capabilities: single party voice circuits
others. With the exception of minimal interfacing with within the MCC-H, conference circuits within the
communication control equipment, each group is elec- MCC-H, and longline circuits from the Manned Space-
tronically isolated from the others. The major groups flight Network stations. The console is capable of
a r e a s follows: local loops, intersite trunks, private simultaneous and independent control of a real mission
automatic branch exchange, public address system, operation and a checkout and training operation.
and the test and patch bay. The local loop provides
communications within MCC -H only, but may be The basic function of the communication line switch is
patched to another local loop o r an intersite trunk on to establish communication to simulation and r e a l time
the test and patch bay. Each keyset is connected to mission. This is accomplished with a cross-bar type
the local loop by operation of the proper talkhisten key switching matrix. There are two console switchboard
on the keyset unit. The intersite trunk is basically a positions that are multipled to provide independent line
local loop, in function, with additional facilities to al- access from either position to the switching matrix.
low interface to another intersite trunk o r a remote Control and supervision of the switchboard is provided
location over a landline o r radio link voice channel. by illuminated pushbutton keys. The switching capa-
The private automatic branch exchange lines provide bilities of the switchboard include a conferencing abil-
keyset unit access to private telephone network cir - ity. This is accomplished by the use of ten 10-party
cuits through a telephone central exchange for those conference keys. The conference connections pro-
keysets equipped for dial service to outside commu- vided by the switchboard allow lines to be added or
nications. The public addrees loop is a two-wire, dropped from an established conference without af-
transmit-only circuit providing talk access to public fecting other lines on the conference circuit. All con-
address system. The test and patch bay provides ference lines are identified on the switchboards.
testing facilities for testing the local loops, intersite Automatic ring-off is not provided on the console;
trunks, and the communication line switch. The test therefore, manual ring-off is necessary to release
and patch bay also provides a patching facility for longline circuits and internal circuits.
local loops, intersite trunks, and the communication
line switch. Within the test and patch bay is the ex- Biomedical telemetry data from the Communications
tension loop switching panel, which furnishes switching Facility Control Subsystem is fed into the communi-
capability on various loops providing communications cation line switch console for assignment to specific
3-3
Section Dl PHO- FAMOOl
Paragraphs 3-2-2-3to 3-2-3

audio lines. The data is then routed to the Telemetry command purposes from MCC-H through Goddard
Subsystem for processing, recording, and monitoring. Space Flight Center and remote site(s) to the vehicles.
The Command Subsystem is a complex network of
3-2-2-3. Internal Announcement Broadcasting computer centers interlinked to form a continuous
data chain from MCC-H to the receiving vehicle. (See
Total voice broadcast coverage of the MCC-H is pro- figure 3-2-3.) The command chain consists of four
vided by a public address network comprised of audio fundamental sites: the Manned Spacecraft Center in
amplifiers , ceiling-mounted loudspeakers, control Houston, Texas; the Goddard Space Flight Center in
circuitry, and voice input components. The audio am- Greenbelt, Maryland; the remote sites; and the r e -
plifiers receive verbal inputs either from station key- ceiving vehicles. It should be noted that a remote site
set units or microphones. The audio inputs are am- is fully automatic in operation and is controlled from
plified and distributed by the amplifiers to the loud- MCC-H. The subsystem utilizes the hardware con-
speakers, which are located in various zones through- tained in the CCATS, RTCC, and Display/Control
out the MCC-H. Speaker selection, keying, and muting Systems at MCC -H.
circuits comprise the controlling circuitry for the
public address network. Broadcasting access to the Information of a command category is routed from the
public address network is provided at specific console flight controller command modules at MCC-H through
positions and keyset units. Receive and monitor capa- the CCATS computers, the GSFC , the remote sites to
bilities, not broadcast, are extended to the two visi- the vehicle. The command information is grouped
tors viewing areas on the MOW second and third into command load, execute command request, and
floors. computer execute function types. The command load
information is data that is generally used by the vehi-
3-2-2-4. Private Automatic Branch Exchange cle onboard computer. The execute command request
information is instructions sent from the flight con-
Tying into the MSC private telephone network on an trollers at MCC-H to the remote site directing the
as-required basis is a function of the private automatic transmission of command load or r e a l time command
branch exchange equipment. The private automatic information to the vehicle. The computer execute
branch exchange circuits are routed from the MSC function information is instructions sent from MCC-H
telephone central exchange to the station keyset units to the remote site directing that a certain function is
of the voice intercom network. Any private automatic to be performed by the remote site command com-
branch exchange station can be connected to any other puter. The computer execute function information
private automatic branch exchange station by means of does not cause initiation of uplink commands.
dial circuitry. These stations also have access to
stations external to the MSC telephone central exchange When the flight controller requests a command load
anywhere within range of commercial switching. Sixty generation, the remote site o r sites a r e specified to
of the private automatic branch exchange circuits are which the load is to be sent, the type of load, and any
f e d through an intercept switchboard, which affords op- other detail that the computer command controller in
erator control of selected external lines. The switch- the RTCC or CCATS requires for the generation of the
board is a one-position, desk-mounted, cordless board load. In the regeneration of the command load, the
arranged for plug-in headset o r handset, allowing op- computer command controller may use data generated
erator control on an individual basis for each station by subroutines of the RTCC System command program.
line. The primary function of the intercept position is The command load includes any additional quantities
to provide a capability of intercepting incoming calls that are required for the teletype translation message.
o r allowing uninterrupted completion to the called sta- The data is routed to CCATS and formulated in the
tion. On an interrupted call, the operator can con- Central Processor Subsystem and transmitted by tele-
verse with the calling party and determine if the call type to the remote sites.
should be connected to the affected station.
After the command load generation is complete by the
3-2-2-5. Voice Communications Recording RTCC System, the computer command controller and
the flight controller request a display of the command
Voice recorder/reproducers and associated equipment load data. When the command load data is approved
provide a central voice recording facility for perma- by the flight controller, the computer command con-
nently recording conversations from selected loops of troller transfers the command load to CCATS.
the voice intercom network. The voice recorder/
reproducers accomplish continuous historical record- The command load input routine in CCATS Central
ing of selected MCC -H loops, playback recorded tapes Processor Subsystem checks for any e r r o r s in the .
for stenographic transcription and direct copying, and load. The Baudot coded load message is formatted
&?laypublic affairs information for 5 seconds to allow by a teletype translation routine and converted to a
real time editing. Biomedical (FM/FM) data is re- load message. The command load is converted by the
corded for historical analysis and post -pass playback. high-speed output routine to a 5-bit key code for the
Timing pulses are always recorded along with the command and service module and lunar excursion
voice information for time-correlation purposes. module commands. The 8-bit key code for the Saturn
launch vehicle commands does not require conversion.
3-2-3.Command Subsystem The data is e r r o r checked and if the data is not valid,
the command load is dumped and an e r r o r printed out
The Command Subsystem provides a means of trans- on a high-speed teleprinter at the command load con-
m i t t i i data and other information necessary for troller position. If the data is valid, the command
3-4
PHO-FAMOO1 Section HI
Paragraphs 3-2-4 to 3-2-4-1
load is then transmitted through wide band data com- and transmitted to the appropriate remote site on a
munications line terminal at a 40.8 Kbps rate on wide 2.4 Kbps data line. The remote site command com-
band data lines to GSFC. Approximately 1 second puter e r r o r checks the data and, if the data is valid,
after command load transmission, the command load a command analysis pattern message is sent to MCC-H
is retransmitted. The CCATS waits approximately 5 by way of the GSFC.
seconds for a command analysis pattern validation
message from the remote site. If the site has not re- The command acceptance pattern message for any of
turned a validation message within 5 seconds, CCATS the three types of information messages from the r e -
will again transmit two more command load messages mote site command computer is transmitted on a 2.4
approximately 1 second apart and again CCATS will Kbps data line three times in successive telemetry
wait approximately 5 seconds for a Validation message. frames to the GSFC which, in turn, reformats and
This process will repeat the cycle once more and, if routes the data to MCC-H on a 40.8 Kbps data line.
the validation message is not received following this The command acceptance pattern message information
transmission, the sequence stops. The load message is transmitted by the telemetry processor to the com-
is routed through a law-speed communications line mand processor in the CCATS Central Processor Sub-
terminal to GSFC on teletype transmission lines. The system. The data is then driven by the CCATS digital
entire sequence may be restarted by manual action on display drivers to light the appropriate indicators on
the part of the CCATS command load controller. the console modules in the MOCR and/or CCATS area.
The data is also sent from the CCATS Central Proc-
The GSFC e r r o r checks the command load data, re- essor Subsystem to a high-speed teleprinter in the
formats the data, and transmits the data at a 2.4 Kbps CCATS command control area.
rate to the designated remote site. The command load
data is processed by the remote site command com- 3 - 2 - 4 . Telemetry Subsystem
puter. The high-speed command load subroutine vali-
dates the data and notifies MCC-H of all input data The Telemetry Subsystem (figure 3-2-4)provides in-
validated a s command analysis pattern (CAP) mes- dependent operational and dynamic standby processing
sages. If an e r r o r exists, a message is printed out of wide band pulse-code-modulation (PCM) telemetry
on a high-speed teleprinter to the CCATS command data received from the Communications Facility Con-
load controller and the command load message is dis- trol Subsystem for up to two simultaneous missions.
carded. If an e r r o r is not detected, the CCATS Cen- The subsystem also provides independent processing
tral Processor Subsystem sends a command load ac- of frequency modulation (FM), multiplexed biomedical
ceptance message to the RTCC indicating that the com- data received from the Voice Communications Sub-
mand load received is in proper format. The command system for up to two simultaneous missions. The
data is sent to CCATS by way of the high-speed data processed data is routed for display in the appropriate
and teletype lines. The data is then stored in the re- MOCR, SSR, and CCATS flight controller areas.
mote site command computer to be uplinked to the ve-
hicle when requested.
3-2-4-1. PCM Telemetry Data Processing
When the command load contains e r r o r s , the remote
site command computer waits for the next command The pulse -code -modulation telemetry ground station
load transmission approximately 5 seconds later. If equipment receives serial digital telemetry data and
the command load still contains e r r o r s after two more associated clock from the Central Processor Subsys-
transmissions, the load is retransmitted by CCATS to tem by way of the Communications Facility Control
the remote site command computer or the remote site Subsystem. The serial data and clock signals a r e
station controller is directed to load the teletype com- connected to the appropriate ground station by PCM
mand load tape into the remote site command com- Telemetry Patch Board. The serial data and clock
puter. signals are transmitted at a maximum rate of 40.8
Kbps N R Z . Each ground station automatically syn-
The execute command request or computer execute chronizes to the serial input data format and output
function information messages are also transmitted data is provided to the user equipment. Each ground
from MCC-H to the remote site command computer. station contains a program memory that is set up to
The execute command request information causes a process incoming data with given formats. The pro-
command load o r a real time command stored in the gram memory controls the decommutation process.
remote site command computer to be uplinked to the
vehicle. The computer execute function request in-
formation directs the remote site command computer A s indicated in the preceding paragraph, the pulse-
to perform a specific computer function o r routine. code-modulated input signal to each ground station is
The execute command request o r computer execute serial data (1's and Ols). This serial data is gener-
function messages originate from the flight controller ated by commutation equipment at the data source.
command modules in the MOCR's o r CCATS area at The commutation equipment takes a given number of
MCC-H. For either type of information, the message data signals and feeds them sequentially online. Peri-
is selected on the command module, converted into a odically, the commutation equipment inserts synchro-
digital data word by the encoder -multiplexer equip- nization and data identification patterns (1's and 0's)
ment, also known as the CIM, and routed to CCATS between appropriate and specific groups (words) of
Central Processor Subsystem. The CCATS command data bits. The combination of data, synchronization,
program formats the information. The data is trans- and identification bits are transmitted to the selected
mitted to GSFC where the information is reformatted ground station in a predetermined format.
3-5
Section ID PHO- FAMOOl
Paragraphs 3-2-4-2 to 3-2-4-3
When the synchronization circuits recognize the syn- module, or the lunar excursion module. The fre-
chronization patterns, commands from the program quency modulation ground station separates the sub-
memory transfer associated data words to the ground carriers by discriminator action, then demodulates
station output circuits. Certain data words, which o r extracts the analog data from the subcarriers.
contain signals that have high fluctuation rates, are The patch boards are manually configured, to mission
converted into analog o r bilevel (on-off) event signals. requirements, by connecting the appropriate
Other data words undergo no further processing in the discriminator/demodulator channel output to the pre -
ground stations. processing equipment and delay -loop recorder/
reproducers.
As each data word is shifted from serial to parallel
and transferred to output circuits by the decommuta- Preprocessing is performed by cardiotachometers
tion logic, the program memory unloads an identifi- and pneumotachometers, which use the individual
cation word that accompanies the associated data word. analog waveforms to generate rate data in digital,
In addition, the decommutation logic generates trans- binary, and analog forms. Formatting of the data is
fer command signals that accompany individual o r performed by cardio/pneumo CIB's in the computer
groups of data words and other signals that indicate processing equipment before the digital data can be
the operating status of the synchronization logic cir - accepted by the Central Processor Subsystem. The
cuitry. cardio/pneumo CIB's receive instantaneous heartbeat
rate digital data from the cardiotachometers and aver-
Data multiplex and analog signals from the ground age breathing rate digital data from the pneumotach-
stations are monitored for quality by the telemetry ometers. The individual rate signals are sampled and
supervisor console and logic equipment. The data buffered, data tags are added from the remote control
multiplex signals are then converted by the telemetry equipment, and the composite data is routed, in high-
event decoder to a maximum of 100 event signals and speed format, to the Central Processor Subsystem by
sent to the output transfer switch equipment. way of the Communications Facility Control Subsys-
tem.
Each ground station can process and route 100 analog
and 125 bilevel event signals, control, and synchro- The delay-loop recorder/reproducer receives and in-
nization signals to the output transfer switch equip- dividually records the electrocardiogram analog wave-
ment. Therefore, each ground station and associated forms output from the frequency modulation ground
event decoder equipment can process 100 analog and stations. The recorder/reproducer can be manually
225 bilevel event signals for routing to the output operated in the record, erase, reproduce, or normal
transfer switch and finally to the MOCR, SSR, and continuous-loop mode. The normal mode, providing
CCATS display equipment. A pulse-code-modulation record and 30-second delay reproduction of the data,
telemetry signal simulator is provided with the sub- is also controlled from the remote control equipment.
system for generating test signals to exercise the When the normal mode is selected in the remote con-
pulse-code-modulation telemetry ground stations. trol area, the desired analog waveforms, starting
with the one recorded 30 seconds previously, will be
3-2-4-2. Biomedical Data Processing reproduced and sent to a chart recorder at the selec-
tion source.
The frequency modulation ground station is the main
artery for incoming biomedical data that has been 3-2-4-3. Data Distribution
telemetered from the astronauts to a Manned Space-
flight Network station. The station receives biomed- The output transfer switch equipment routes analog
ical telemetry data from the Voice Communications data from the pulse -code -modulation telemetry ground
Subsystem over specifically assigned audio lines. The stations and biomedical data (analog) from the biomed-
equipment demodulates the incoming data and proc- ical processing equipment to indicating devices on
esses the individual astronaut's heart and respiration consoles and recording equipment in the Computer
analog waveforms into the formats required by the Display/Control Interface Subsystem. The output
digital display equipment and the Central Processor transfer switch also routes event data from the PCM
Subsystem. The analog waveforms are also recorded telemetry ground stations and associated telemetry
to provide the postanalysis of the individual astronaut's event decoder to the telemetry event driver (TED)
well-being. The recorded analog waveforms are also equipment for distribution to console -mounted indi-
available to chart recorders in the remote display cators in the Computer Display/Control Interface
equipment. The chart recorder data can be delayed Subsystem. Telemetry bilevel event parameters from
by 30 seconds to provide the life systems analysts the Central Processor Subsystem are processed by
(rooms 212 and 312) with a data recall feature. This the subchannel data distributor (SDD) equipment. The
feature allows the analyst to obtain an analog record- SDD output signals are driven by digital display driver
ing of an abnormal (or normal) heartbeat or breathing (DDD) equipment a s bilevel event signals to console
rate reading reflected by the remote digital displays. indicating devices and event recorders. Biomedical
and telemetry data is sent from the Central Processor
The biomedical data is contained in subcarriers of the Subsystem to the Real Time Computer Complex Sys-
3-kilohertz, frequency-modulated (FM) carrier signal tem. The computers perform engineering unit con-
from the Voice Communications Subsystem. One car- version and provide digital data for the digital-to-
rier is assigned for the astronauts of each mission. television converter and digital display driver equip-
Each subcarrier contains heart o r respiration analog ment in the Computer Display/Control Interface Sub-
data for a particular astronaut in the command service system.
3-6
PHO-FAM001 Section 111
Paragraphs 3-2-5 to 3-2-5-2
The biomedical remote control equipment is contained RTCC and the Central Processor Subsystem compu-
in the Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem ters. The fifth route is used for input requests from
and provides the life systems analysts with the capa- selected console input devices to determine message
bility of verifying that the cardiotachometers and routing and flight control real time execute commands.
pneumotachometers a r e calibrated. Readouts provided The sixth circuit provides a route for computer ac-
by the remote display devices are in digital form as knowledgements back to the selected console module
follows: instantaneous and average heartbeat rates, equipment.
three digital indicators; average breathing rates, two
digital indicators; and out-of -limits heartbeat rates, The interface peripheral equipment in the Central
red warning indicators. The remote control equipment Processor Subsystem prepares received data for entry
interfaces with the recorder/reproducer and biomedi- into the computer and transmits the processed data to
cal preprocessing equipment. The remote control the designated destinations. The Standard Communi-
equipment also enables the life systems analysts to in- cation System (SCS) and polynomial buffered terminals
sert vehicle, astronaut, and astronaut activity identi- (SPOTS) provide terminal connections between the
fication data tags into the individual rate streams ap- telephone and telegraph lines of the Communications
plied to the Central Processor Subsystem. The activ- Facility Control Subsystem and a computer input/
ity data tags identifies the astronaut activity: sleeping, output channel via communications multiplexers and
extra vehicular activity, suited or unsuited, etc. channel scanner units. The communications multi-
plexers and channel scanners enable a number of lines
3 - 2 - 5 . Central Processor Subsystem to be terminated into a single input/output computer
channel. Scanner selector units and high-speed
The Central Processor Subsystem (figure 3-2-5) proc- adapters perform the same functions between the
esses, e r r o r checks, and automatically routes all Central Processor Subsystem and the RTCC, and be-
MCC -H incoming and outgoing communications (except tween the Central Processor Subsystem and the Com-
video, direct voice, weather, and military communi- puter Display/Control Interface Subsystem.
cations) to the proper destination in r e a l time or a s
near to r e a l time as possible. The subsystem accom- 3-2-5-2. Message Processing and Recording
plishes this message routing, using a store-and-
forward technique. This means that if a message is One control computer is operational at all times while
received for a specific address and the addressed line the other functions as a dynamic standby, processing
is in use, the message is stored and then forwarded the same data a s the operational computer but with
as the individual line becomes available. The mes- the output inhibited. Dual input provisions a r e there-
sages sent to a specific address are consecutively fore provided by the peripheral, configuration, and
numbered to ensure receipt of all messages. All mes- switching equipment for all incoming messages but
sages are recorded; therefore, a lost message can be only one output for the processed message.
retrieved and retransmitted.
Each computer is a stored-program, binary computer
3-2-5-1. Message Routing with a magnetic core memory, associated control and
arithmetic circuitry, and several input/output chan-
To accomplish its message routing functions, the nels over which data is received or transmitted in a
Central Processor Subsystem interfaces with the Com- continuous data processing program. All messages
munications Facility Control Subsystem, the RTCC , coming into the Central Processor Subsystem are de-
and the Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem. posited in the core memory of each processor. If the
These interfaces provide six basic routes either into output line to which a message is addressed is busy,
or out of the Central Processor Subsystem for opera- the message is transferred to one of the magnetic
tional exercises. drums for temporary storage. At the appropriate
time (when the addressed output line is no longer
The first circuit provides routing for command, te- busy), the message is transferred from the drum
lemetry, tracking, ,and checkout and training data to back to the computer core memory and then forwarded
the RTCC where it is processed and sent to users as to its destination. If the addressed line is not busy,
necessary. The second circuit routes low -speed tele- the message is fed on through the computer to its
types to and from the teletype and facsimile equipment destination.
in the Communications Facility Control Subsystem.
The third circuit routes RTCC generated commands, The storing and recording equipment temporarily
ephemeris, acquisitions, and telemetry summary data stores messages, permanently records messages for
to the Communications Facility Control Subsystem, recall at any time, and prints out individual messages.
which routes the data to outgoing lines to GSFC for The magnetic drum storage units temporarily store
distribution to the Manned Spaceflight Network. The messages as indicated in the preceding paragraph.
fourth circuit is used for-data exchange between the The magnetic tape units record and store all

3-7
Section III PHO-FAMOO1
Paragraphs 3-2-5-3 to 3-2-6-1
messages for any required period of time and permit f c r coded perforation of a teletype message tape as
rapid retrieval and retransmission of a message upon directed from the manual control keyboard. A typing
request. A l l messages are transferred from the mag- wheel, incorporated in a printing mechanism, prints
netic drums to the tape units at prescribed intervals. an individual character on the teletype tape at the
The resultant messages may be subsequently intro- same time that the code for the character is being
duced into the computers for periodic traffic analysis perforated on the tape. Thus, a message inserted
reports. Card processors are available for entering into an automatic send-receive set for transmission
program information from cards directly into the com- by an operator at the manual control keyboard is si-
puter or to print out specific information requested of multaneously printed out as clear text and converted
the computer. Control and synchronizer units are into coded perforations on the same teletype tape.
linked with the magnetic drum and tape storage units This enables any e r r o r s in the typed-out message to
to regulate the input/output functions of these compo- be detected prior to transmission. A tape punch unit
nents. These control and synchronizer units convert with this capability is called a typing perforator. The
the data to and from the storage and recording equip- addition of a receiving selectQr mechanism to the tape
ment to make it compatible with equipment capability. punch unit permits perforation of tape corresponding
to received messages to be simultaneously printed
In the event data becomes degraded within the subsys- out and code perforated. This enables the destination
tem, electronic transfer switching provides rapid of each incoming message to be determined by reading
change-over capability from one processing component the address directly off the tape; hence, alleviating
to the standby component. An uninterrupted flow of the necessity for a skilled code-reading operator. A
data is therefore preserved. tape punch unit with this capability is called a typing
reperforator. The tape reader is a transmitter-
3-2-5-3. Control and Monitoring distributor unit, which controls the automatic trans-
mission of messages. The transmitter-distributor
The communications and configuration console enables effectively reads the message on a punched teletype
the status and the configuration of the Central Proces- tape and converts the coded perforations to electrical
sor Subsystem to be monitored and controlled from impulses, or line signals, and distributes these sig-
one central location. Additionally, a manual entry de- nals in sequential form to communication lines for on-
vice contained in the console provides a means of op- line transmission or forwards them as parallel outputs
erator control over the computer program functions. for operation of similarly wired machines.
The majority of the tape punch units included with the
3-2-6. Teletype and Facsimile Subsystem automatic send- receive sets and individual receive-
The Teletype and Facsimile Subsystem (figure 3-2-6) only typing reperforators do not actually perforate the
provides, in clear text, page-printed copy of teletype teletype message tapes. Instead, they only partially
messages received from the Manned Spaceflight Net- perforate the tape resulting in coded indentations
work, major military relay centers, U. s. Weather rather than perforations. Teletype tape coded in this
Bureau, military weather networks and commercial manner is called chadless tape because it leaves no
telegraph outlets; transmits teletype messages back punched-out waste or chad. Messages coded on chad-
to these locations; supports checkout and training pro- less tape appear a s raised dots instead of punched
gram; receives meteorological data (e. g., weather holes, as is the case with fully perforated tape. The
maps) from the National Meteorology Center at Suit- operational aspects of the teletype equipment grouping
land, Maryland; and transmits meteorological data are discussed in the following paragraphs.
back to the center. The teletype message center contains automatic send-
receive sets with auxiliary receive-only typing reper-
3 -2-6-1. Teletype Message Receive and Transmit forators, transmitter-distributor units, receive-only
typing reperforators, and receive-only page printers.
The various teletype components include receive-only The automatic send-receive sets are used for message
page printers, transmitter-distributor units, receive- preparation and editing, and as backup equipment.
only typing reperforators, automatic send- receive The transmitter- distributor units have their output
sets, and teletype loop switchboards, physically loops fed to the Central Processor Subsystem via the
grouped in various areas of the MOW. Since the auto- Communications Facility Control Subsystem. Receive-
matic send-receive sets include components similar only typing reperforakor/page printer combinations
to the other components mentioned (except the teletype are used to monitor radar and telemetry data, termi-
loop switchboards), the operation of these sets will be nate receive-only teletype loops that contain messages
described prior to discussing the operating aspects of addressed to the teletype message center, and to in-
the physical grouping of the teletype components. tercept teletype messages containing garbled or other-
wise unrecognizable headings. The remaining receive-
The basic components of each automatic send-receive only page printers a r e used to monitor outgoing opera-
set are a page printer with a manual control keyboard, tional message traffic, monitor real and simulated
a tape punch, and a tape reader. The page printer digital command messages, intercept invalid high-
and keyboard provide for automatic printout of received speed data messages received from remote stations,
messages and for manual coding of teletype message copy outgoing advisory messages relating to invalid
tapes for transmission. The tape punch (perforator) high-speed data messages, and to monitor all traffic
provides the mechanical action that drives punch pins on either the second or third floor SSR teletype loops.

3-8
PHO-FAMO01 Section III
Paragraphs 3-2-6-2 to 3-2-7-1

The MOCR's and associated SSR's contain receive- to engineering study and analysis groups in Huntsville,
only page printers, which receive teletype messages Alabama, and to the Houston-auxiliary computer
from the Central Processor Subsystem via the Com- room (H-ACR). The flight crew and flight operations
munications Facility Control Subsystem. One teletype circuits (two) adequately tie in the MCC-H with KSC
loop terminates in receive-only page printers in the and the network during checkout and training pro-
assistant flight director console and the operations grams.
and procedures officer console in MOCR 1; another
loop terminates at identical consoles in MOCR 2. Two 3 -2-6-2. Facsimile Receive and Transmit
loops terminate in receive-only page printers in each
SSR. Two loops a r e designated as the primary loops Facsimile equipment is used in the meteorology center
and the others as over-flow loops. Two additional to transmit and receive meteorological data. The
circuits provide for internal MCC- H originated traffic equipment and associated circuits a r e a part of end-
and network postlaunch traffic to the SSR's. The net- to-end service. The facsimile machines terminate,
work postlaunch traffic, under computer control, is via the call directon, a spaceflight meteorology cir-
also sent to building 45 when appropriately tagged. cuit and a national meteorology center circuit. The
The printers in the operations and procedures SSR's spaceflight meteorology circuit is a four-party com-
copy all traffic received on the loops. The printers bination voice and facsimile circuit connecting the
in the other SSR's a r e specially equipped to provide MCC- H meteorological center with meteorological
selective traffic delivery, which allows individual centers in Washington D. C., Miami, Florida, and at
printer operation on a common loop. Cape Kennedy. The national meteorology circuit con-
nects the MCC-H meteorological center with the
The RCR teletype equipment includes a teletype loop national meteorological center in Suitland, Maryland.
switchboard, receive-only typing reperforators, The call director permits the facsimile machines to
transmitter-distributor units, and automatic send- be switched to different on-line and off-line configura-
receive sets. One of the automatic send-receive sets tions.
(with an auxiliary receive-only typing reperforator)
handles cryptographic message traffic and terminates 3-2-7. Pneumatic Tube Subsystem
an end-to-end secure circuit from the MSC communi-
cations center. Other automatic send-receive sets The Pneumatic Tube Subsystem (figure 3-2-7)is a
(with and without auxiliary receive-only typing reper- self-contained subsystem, which provides an auto-
forator) function a s backup equipment and terminate matic and manual hardcopy message routing capability
circuits from the Communications Facility Control between send and receive pneumatic tube stations lo-
Subsystem teletype patch board. The other compo- cated throughout the MOW. The messages a r e car-
nents, respectively, terminate full-duplex and half- ried in cylindrical message c a r r i e r s that a r e vacuum
duplex circuits from the Defense Communications propelled through the pneumatic tubing.
Agency switching center at Fort Detrick, Maryland
and the KSC launch control center. These circuits 3-2-7-1. Automatic Message Routing
are not routed through the Central Processor Subsys-
tem, but are routed directly to the telephone termina- The automatic pneumatic tube stations are linked to
tion and distribution equipment (room 127) via the central exchangers, which automatically route the
Communications Facility Control Subsystem teletype messages to their selected destinations. Each
patch board. All the teletype circuits tied into the console-mounted, send- receive control panel enables
teletype loop switchboard a r e patchable at the switch- station selection by means of station-designated push-
board as well as at the Communications Facility Con- buttons, which, when pressed, cause the dispatch
trol Subsystem teletype patch board. door of the panel to open, permitting the insertion of
a message carrier into the dispatch tube associated
The meteorological center contains a teletype loop with the panel. Each wall-mounted, send- receive
switchboard, a call director, an automatic send- control panel enables station selection by means of
receive set, receive-only page printers, and a dual-digit dialing using two rotary knobs and a two-
transmitter-distributor unit. The automatic send- digit indicator unit. After the desired station is se-
receive set, which includes an auxiliary receive-only lected by dialing its number, a send button on the
typing reperforator, is included only for preparation panel is pressed to cause the dispatch door of the
of message tapes. The automatic send-receive set panel to open. Lights a r e provided on the send-
and the majority of receive-only page printers are receive control panels to indicate the arrival of a
equipped with standard weather symbol keyboards, message carrier.
typing wheels, and type boxes for exchange of weather
information. One full-duplex circuit extends from the Operation of the send or receive portion of each sta-
Communications Facility Control Subsystem teletype tion is in the no-air mode, i. e., no air is applied to
patch board to the teletype loop switchboard to function a pneumatic tube run when either the dispatch or re-
as a backup loop. All circuits are patchable at both ceive door of its associated send-receive panel is
the teletype loop switchboard and the Communications open. This is accomplished in the dispatch line by
Facility Control Subsystem teletype patch board. pneumatically operated slidegates and windgates.
The slidegate is installed in the station dispatch line
Three circuits provide for administrative and coordi- and the windgate in the main tube airflow line. The
nation traffic between the teletype center and buildings slidegate is normally closed and the windgate nor-
2 and 45 and Huntsville, Alabama. Two circuits, mally open. When the dispatch door is closed, the
under computer control, provide selected vector data slidegate opens and the windgate closes, applying
3- 9
Section III PHO-FAM001
Paragraphs 3- 2- 7-2 to 3- 3
airflow (vacuum) to the message carrier in the dis- placed in the dispatch tube at a send-receive station
patch line causing the carrier to be dispatched. In the is held there until the exchanger has cleared the
down- receive wall stations, the carrier is deflected storage section of the first carrier. A s a carrier
out of the main line by a pneumatically operated, hori- drops into the storage section, it comes to r e s t on
zontal deflection switch. The carrier is gravity ejector a r m s and makes contact with a limit switch
dropped to the receiving chamber compressing dead that initiates an electrical sequence in the control
air ahead of the carrier and cushioning the carrier panel, which takes control at this point and directs
fall. The air is prevented from entering the receiving the carrier. The air-operated ejector arm holding
chamber by a valve installed in the deflection switch. the carrier is retracted and the carrier drops to a
In the up-receive stations, an arrangement of air shoulder in the spacer section. At the end of its back
valves and microswitches allow the carrier to be stroke, the ejector arm contacts a limit switch that
drawn up into the receiving chamber; the air is cut off reverses the airflow to a piston that drives the arm
prior to the carrier coming to r e s t in the chamber, to its original position and pushes the carrier into the
but the carrier momentum provides sufficient forward loop selector section. The loop selector mechanism,
movement to complete the receiving cycle. an air-operated hopper, moves the correct outbound
loop as the ejector arm retracts and the carrier is
Turbocompressors provide air pressure to the pneu- deflected directly to the outbound loop. As the carrier
matic tubing for message carrier transmission. Air leaves the loop selector section and enters the out-
lines from the compressors a r e connected to the dis- bound loop, it trips a reset switch, resetting the ex-
patch and receive lines at appropriate locations to pro- changer for subsequent carrier operation for that
vide sufficient air to maintain an average carrier ve- particular loop.
locity of 25 feet per second. Another compressor
provides operating air to the pneumatically operated Each exchanger has five input loops and six outgoing
deflection switches, slidegates, and windgates. A loops. One of the outbound exchanger loops is used
separate tube network using smaller tubing than the for a reject loop. Two reject stations, one for each
message transmission tubing connects this compressor central exchanger, a r e located at the central desk in
to the appropriate components. Each central exchanger the message center. If for any reason, the selected
contains an a i r compressor for its exclusive use. outgoing loop from the exchanger is inoperative, or
after a predetermined time delay, the exchanger
All carrier traffic passes through the central ex- hopper directs the carrier into the reject loop. At
changers enroute to a station. Dispatching tubes the central desk, a dispatch station (one for each ex-
terminate at the exchangers and receiving tubes origi- changer) may be used for redispatching the carrier.
nate at the exchangers. The exchangers receive in-
bound message carriers, hold the carriers (thereby 3-2-7-2. Manual Message Routing
spacing them to a proper time interval), release them
one at a time in sequence, and shuttle them to their Message carriers a r e dispatched, transmitted, and
outbound destination loops. The control panels receive received through the manual message routing network
and store station selection signals from the automatic similarly to the automatic message routing network
station send-receive control panels, control message stations. However, since the manual stations are di-
carrier routing and activity, and indicate the presence rectly linked by pneumatic tube runs, no interchange
and flow of all c a r r i e r s through the pneumatic tube action is required on messages routed through these
runs with color-coded lights. The selection of a sta- tube runs. Also, the manual stations require only a
tion at the send-receive control panels causes tele- single pushbutton to open the dispatch door and, since
phone type switching relays to be actuated at the con- the manual stations are directly linked, no station-
trol panels that set up the sequence of message carrier selection pushbuttons a r e required at their respective
operation required to direct each carrier to i t s se- control panels.
lected destination in turn. The supervisory control
panel provides the same status indications a s the con- 3-3. ~ l S P i A Y / C O ~ T R OSYSTEM
l
trol panels.
The Display/Control System ( f b r e 3-3) utilizes vari-
ous display devices (plotting, television, and digital)
to present two basic types of displays: dynamic and
The central exchangers, which consist of storage, reference. Dynamic displays present real time or
spacer, loop selection, and reset sections, a r e capable near real time information (vehicle systems data,
of processing 720 message carriers an hour. Each ex- biomedical data, tracking data, etc. ) that permits
changer processes the carrier in four stages, starting flight controllers to stay abreast of dynamic mission
with the storage section, which is located in the tubing situations as they occur. Reference displays present
drectly above and connected to the exchanger. The reference information (mission rules, operational
c a r r i e r s are deflected from the main tube runs by de- procedures, performance histories, etc. 1 that enables
flection switches and gravity dropped into the storage flight controllers to make reliable decisions concern-
section. Line limit switches, located in the tubing ing the progress of a mission. The information is
above the exchanger, a r e activated by carrier passage made available to specific areas or, as desired, to
and, after a carrier enters the storage section, signal several areas for combined evaluation. Selection of
the control panel associated with the exchanger. The the desired information and the resultant presentation
control panel places the affected inbound dispatch tube require minimum operator action and interpretation,
in a no-operation mode until the exchanger processes thus unencumbering the data evaluation and decision-
the carrier. In this condition, a second carrier making roles of the flight controllers. In addition to
3- 10
PHO-FAM001 Section 111
Paragraphs 3-3- 1 to 3-3- 1-2
providing information displays employing each of its keyboards permit operators to request hardcopy
five subsystems, the system also provides a timing prints of selected television images. This request is
standard for the MCC-H and operating positions for communicated directly to the Television Subsystem
all mission controllers and associated specialists. hardcopy control equipment to initiate hardcopy oper-
ation.
3-3-1. Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem The display request keyboards and associated en-
coders allow an operator to quickly select up to 384
The Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem displays. The display requests a r e made by pressing
(figure 3-3-1)functions in conjunction with the RTCC the switch containing the name of the desired display
and the Central Processor (CP) Subsystem to automat- and then pressing the switch containing the name of
ically carry out requests initiated by mission control the desired display device.
and support personnel during either actual missions or
checkout and training programs. In this capacity, the Manual switching ‘of the RTCC computer program sub-
subsystem detects, encodes, and transmits operator routine during different phases of a mission is accom-
requests to the computer systems, generates displays plished by the phase control keyboard located on cer-
in response to the requested data received from the tain mission control operator consoles. When the
computers, and provides distribution facilities to sup- time arrives during a mission to switch the operation-
ply the display information to the desired display equip- al computer from one mission phase program subrou-
ment. tine to another, the proper control on the phase con-
trol keyboard is operated. This immediately causes
3-3-1-1. Computer Requests the selected mission phase control lamp on the key-
board to light. The control switch closures a r e de-
Operator requests of specific display formats for tected, encoded, and Communicated to the RTCC by
presentation on specific display equipment are initiated the encoder-multiplexer equipment. The RTCC then
on computer request keyboards located on mission performs the requested computer switchover opera-
control and support consoles. These keyboards permit tion.
requests for viewing selected data on individual con-
sole television displays, automatic X-Y coordinate Summary message enable keyboards are employed to
plotboards, and large- scale projection displays. In permit returning certain portions of telemetered data
addition, the keyboards provide status indications of to remote stations, in the form of summary messages,
selected data parameters and permit manual switch- for transmission validation. The selection of a speci-
ing of the RTCC operational computer program sub- fic summary message is communicated to the RTCC,
routine during different phases of a mission. The which, in turn, strips out the required telemetry data
tasks to be performed by an operator determine the for communication to remote stations. At this time,
types of keyboards located on a console and the avail- the RTCC also sends digital display data to the digital
ability of computer requests. display driver equipment to extinguish the summary
message request light on the summary message enable
Requests initiated on the computer request keyboards keyboard, thus indicating completion of the request.
a r e applied to associated encoders, transformed into
digital codes, detected by a computer input multi- Telemetry event status (early, on-time, and late)
plexer, and transmitted over a single line at 2400 bits during various mission phases a r e indicated by event
per second to the RTCC. The computer input multi- sequence modules. If a specific mission event occurs
plexer sequentially scans the encoders. Upon detec- during a programmed time, the computer generates
tion of a request, the scanning operation is inhibited digital display data to cause an associated event indi-
and the multiplexer locks on to the data lines of the cator to light green. If the event signal is not re-
encoder holding the request until the request is com- ceived before the programmed time is exceeded, the
pletely transferred to the multiplexer. Address infor- computer causes the indicator to light red.
mation designating the originator of the request is as-
sembled with the coded request into a uniform data A special encoder, included with the encoder-
word by the multiplexer, which then transmits the multiplexer equipment, receives status inputs from
data word to the RTCC. Afterwards, the multiplexer the digital-to-television converters, converter slide
resumes scanning the encoders, starting at the next files, and reference slide files. The encoder senses
sequential position. The RTCC processes the data any change in the operational status of the equipment
words received from the multiplexer and releases the and generates a coded message, which is transmitted
data required to fulfill each request to the appropriate via the computer input multiplexer to the RTCC. By
data distributor (either the plotting display, converter knowing the status of the equipment, the RTCC is able
slide file, digital-to-television converter, or digital to route display data accordingly.
display data distributor).
3-3-1-2. Command Transmission
The manual selection keyboards and associated en-
coders communicate operator requests to the RTCC Command transmission from the MCC- H involves the
and television hardcopiers. These keyboards allow an initiation of a command from a particular flight com-
operator to request any available display format by mand control module, the transfer of this command
dialing the display format number (obtained from a initiation through encoder-multiplexers to the appro-
premission prepared display index) and selecting the priate computer, and the execution or command data
method of display. Hardcopy controls on the transmission from the computer to the spacecraft via
3-11
Section I11 PHO- FAM001
Paragraphs 3-3-1-3 to 3-3-1-4
GSFC and a remote site. The commands can be encoder-multiplexer equipment detects the request,
classed in two general categories: real time com- encodes it, and transmits it to the RTCC. The RTCC
mands and command loads. processes the coded request to determine the data,
and the destination of the data, required to generate
the display. The RTCC then shifts the necessary con-
Real time commands are initiated from flight control trol data out to the plotting display data distributor.
modules in either the MOCR's or room 118B of the The data distributor temporarily stores the data, if
MOW. Commands initiated from these modules are necessary, and distributes the data to the projection
applied to encoder -multiplexers and transmitted to the plotting display control electronics. The control
Central Processor Subsystem. The Central Processor electronics convert the digital control data into analog
Subsystem formats the command and transfers i t via signals that cause the projectors associated with the
the Communications Facility Control Subsystem to selected viewing screen to respond and produce the
GSFC, where it is routed to the appropriate Manned requested display. This entire process is illustrated
Spaceflight Network remote site. A message accept- in figure 3-3-4-1.
ance is returned from the remote or remoted site and
transferred back through the same route to the Central 3-3- 1- 4. Television Display Data Distribution
Processor Subsystem. The Central Processor Sub-
system sends an acknowledgment of reception back to The converter slide file data distributor and the
the control module. digital-to-television converter data distributor receive
control data signals from the RTCC that are necessary
to generate individual console television displays and
Command loads refer to data that has been previously large- scale projection television displays. These
loaded from the RTCC into the remote site data proc- distributors are connected in parallel to the same
essor. Requests for uplinking these commands to the RTCC direct data channel. The address coding struc-
spacecraft are initiated from flight command control ture of the computer data allows selective data trans-
modules and cause the Central Processor Subsystem fer to the distributors.
to send out an execute command. Acknowledgment of
spacecraft reception signals are received at the com- The converter slide file data distributor routes slide
mand control module by way of the CCATS digital dis- selection data from the RTCC to reference slide files
play driver equipment. and converter slide files. The distributor also dis-
tributes control signals to a video switching matrix
(part of the Television Subsystem) to connect an input
video channel with an output television viewer or pro-
jector channel.
3-3- 1-3. Plotting Display Data Distribution
The slide selection data signals routed to the reference
The plotting display data distributor receives control slide files cause requested reference slides to be se-
data signals from the RTCC that a r e necessary to gen- lected out of storage. After a slide is retrieved from
erate large- scale plotting displays on X-Y coordinate storage, it is transported to a gate at the end of the
plotboards or group display viewing screens. The slide file where it is locked in-place between a light
plotting display data distributor then distributes dis- source and a television camera. In this position, the
play control data to X-Y plotboards in the flight dynam- slide is transilluminated and viewed by the television
i c s SSR's and to projection plotting display control camera, which convertq the reference slide image
electronics in the MOCR's and the RCR. into video signals and applies them to the Television
Subsystem video switching matrix. The video switch-
The X-Y plotboards perform digital-to-analog conver- ing matrix receives input-to-output connection com-
sion of the binary data received from the plotting dis- mands and routes the video signals to the television
play data distributor. The resultant analog signals viewer located on the console from which the request
control the plotboard X-Y coordinate plotting pens to for the reference data originated or to a television
produce a visual display of flight dynamics data. projector for group display, if desired.

Control-data signals (projector selection, slide selec- The slide selection data signals routed to the converter
tion, and plotting data), in the form of selection and slide files a r e acted upon in the same manner as the
position commands, a r e distributed to the Group Dis- data routed to the reference slide files. However, the
play Subsystem plotting display control electronics to slides contained in the converter slide files a r e not
control projection plotting displays on wall-type view- intended to be displayed alone. Instead, they provide
ing screens. This permits display controllers in the format or pictorial-type reference backgrounds for
MOCR's and the RCR to select specific data for group dynamic television displays produced by digital-to-
display and also to select a specific viewing screen to television display generators. For this reason, the
display the data on. For example, if the Assistant transilluminated slide images are not viewed directly
Flight Director wishes to view, on one of the MOCR by television cameras, but projected to optical lens
projection plotting display viewing screens, the prog- assemblies attached to the cameras that mix the back-
ress of an earth orbiting spacecraft in relation to its ground slide images with dynamic data images dis-
geographical position, he merely selects the desired played on character print-out cathode ray tubes in the
viewing screen and inserts the request code for the display generators. Television cameras in the display
desired display format into a manual selection key- generators pick up the mixed images and convert them
board mounted on his console for that purpose. The to video signals.
3-12
PHO-FAMOOl Section JlI
Paragraphs 3-3-1-5 to 3-3-2
The digital-to -television converter data distributor switching matrix. The video switching matrix decodes
routes digital display generation data to the buffers. the command and connects the video input channel to
The data is stored in the buffers and applied, upon the output channel that feeds the television projector
demand to the addressed display generators on a time- associated with the left projection television screen.
shared basis. The display generator then converts the The television projector then converts the video sig-
digital display data into alphanumeric and vector dis- nals from the matrix into the requested television dis-
plays for conversion into video signals. Conversion of play. Figure 3-3-4-2 illustrates this entire process
the digital data into video signals is accomplished by from selection to presentation. If a console-mounted
the display generators in the following manner : the television viewer had been selected to display the tele-
digital display data signals are first decoded into ana- vised space vehicle launching instead of the group dis-
log voltages and then applied to the appropriate ele- play viewing screen, the video switching matrix input-
ments of a character print-out (shaped-beam) cathode to-output connection command would have caused the
ray tube to control the deflection of the electron beam matrix to route the video signals to the selected tele-
inside the tube. The electron beam is first deflected vision viewer instead of the television projector.
through the character, designated by the display data
signals, of a letter, numeral, and symbol matrix lo- 3- 3- I- 5. Digital Display Data Distribution
cated between the cathode and screen of the tube. After
deflection through the matrix, the electron beam is The digital display data distributor receives computer
again deflected so a s to strike the phosphorous screen generated digital time words and other digital display
of the shaped-beam tube at the proper point. The re- data from the RTCC and distributes this data to the
sultant display image on the face of the tube is opti- Timing Subsystem and digital display drivers. The
cally mixed with the converter slide file image and timing data routed to the Timing Subsystem is used to
viewed by a television camera, which converts the control the general purpose relative time accumulators
mixed images into video signals. These video signals of that subsystem. Control data routed to the digital
are distributed in the same manner a s the video output display drivers selects a specific driver to control a
of the reference slide files. single projection lamp in digital readout displays of
the Television, Group Display, and Computer Display/
Control Interface Subsystems. The display drivers
A miniature version of the typical projection plotting directly control all the readout devices except those
display shown in figure 3-3-4-1 may be generated by of the Group Display Subsystem.
the digital-to-television converters when desired for
display on individual console television monitors. This The Group Display Subsystem readout devices require
would be desirable, for example, if a flight controller a high-power level due to their numerous display
wanted to view only one spacecraft involved in a par- lamps that must be illuminated simultaneously. Dis-
ticular mission while the large viewing screen was play drivers, included in the Group Display Subsystem,
displaying all the spacecraft involved in the mission. effectively step up the power level of control signals
This display would be created by rapidly printing out from the digital display drivers to drive the digital
a dot symbol by the shaped-beam tube, in conjunction readout group displays in the MOCR's, RCR, and
with incoming control data, to produce a moving vector RTCC.
or plot line. This dynamic plot line would then be
superimposed on a static background map of the world 3- 3- 1- 6. Telemetry Events Distribution
(projected by the converter slide file) to produce a
composite television display similar to the large- scale Certain significant telemetry events and analogs .are
projection plotting display. displayed on mission control and support consoles and
recorders. Signals to control these displays are
All video signals generated within the MCC-H, or en- routed from the Central Processor Subsystem through
tering the MCC-H from remote sources, are con- the Telemetry Subsystem to the event/analog driver
nected to input channels of the Television Subsystem equipment. The amplified outputs of the drivers are
video switching matrix. individual console television applied to applicable event indicators and recorders
viewers (part of the Television Subsystem) and televi- and analog meters and recorders.
sion projectors (part of the Group Display Subsystem) 3-3-1-7. Data Switching Between MOCR's
are connected to output channels of the matrix. Access
to any of the video output channels to view a television The MOCR switch unit permits various areas of the
display is permitted by a television channel select MOW that are common to the MOCR's to switch oper-
mode on the manual selection keyboards. For exam- ations from one MOCR to the other. The MOW rooms
ple, if a projection television display of a space vehi- that are considered MOCR common a r e a s are the
cle launching is desired in the MOCR on the left pro- RTCC , display and timing equipment room, and the
jection television screen, either the Assistant Flight RCR. The switch unit contains distribution and patch-
Director or the Operations and Procedures Officer ing facilities to interface the keyboards and digital
will select the desired viewing screen and insert the readout displays located in MOCR common areas and
code of the video switching matrix channel to which the in the RCR with the rest of the Computer Display/
desired video information is being applied into a man- Control Interface Subsystem.
ual selection keyboard. This display request is then
encoded and transmitted to the RTCC by the encoder- 3-3-2. Timing Subsystem
multiplexer equipment. The RTCC, in turn, channels The Timing Subsystem (figure 3-3-2) functions as the
an input- to-output connection command through the timing standard for the MCC-H. The subsystem gen-
converter slide file data distributor to the video erates, distributes, and displays Greenwich mean
3-13
Section III PHO-FAMOO 1
Paragraphs 3-3-2-1 to 3-3-2-4
time in various formats and timing pulses at numerous The Atlantic missile range countdown processor re-
pulse rates. These timing signals are used for syn- ceives, via the Communications Facility Control Sub-
chronization, time correlation, and other purposes by system, countdown timing signals or a lift-off signal
each functional system in the MCC-H. The subsystem from the KSC launch control center and simulates
also generates general purpose time, normally under countdown signals for processing to the relative time
control of the RTCC, for distribution to various time accumulators. If desired, a manual lift-off signal to
display devices. In addition to generating timing sig- override the countdown signals can be applied to the
nals, the subsystem accepts launch countdown time countdown processor from the Computer Display/
from KSC via the Communications Facility Control Control Interface Subsystem. The relative time ac-
Subsystem and supplies the countdown timing signals cumulators distribute the launch countdown timing sig-
to various display devices during the countdown phase nals, at the proper power level, to various display de-
of a mission. At the countdown conclusion, the sub- vices up to the moment of vehicle lift-off. At lift-off,
system supplies ground elapsed time (mission time) to a signal is transmitted from the launch site through
the same display devices previously displaying caunt- the countdown processor to the relative time accumu-
down time. The subsystem also provides dual stop lators. The lift-off signal inhibits the relative time
clock display, on console-mounted equipment, and accumulator countdown outputs and enables mission
central standard time and Greenwich mean time dis- time counter outputs. Additional mission time signals
plays on wall clocks located throughout the MCC-H. a r e generated from the vehicle a s telemetry signals
processed by the Telemetry Subsystem and applied to
3-3-2-1. Greenwich Mean Time/Pulse Rate Signals/ the relative time accumulators to start the counting
Status Signals Generation, Distribution, and Display cycle. Mission time is then displayed on the display
devices.
The master instrumentation timing equipment handles
the majority of specialized timing requirements of the The mission time displays may be started and stopped
MCC-H. The equipment utilizes an ultrastable oscil- manually from a relative time accumulator remote
lator and associated timing generators synchronized control panel mounted on the network controller con-
with the National Bureau of Standards radio station sole in each MOCR.
WWV to generate Greenwich mean time and a quantity
of pulse rate signals. Status signals a r e sent from The relative time accumulators provide a lift-off sig-
the equipment to the relative time accumulators to de- nal in Greenwich mean time to a display module
note the operating status of the equipment. mounted on the network controller console in each
MOCR. This signal is obtained by storing Greenwich
Decimal, binary-coded-decimal, and specially for- mean time in lift-off drivers that are continuously up-
matted Greenwich mean time signals a r e generated by dated until a lift-off signal is received from the count-
the master instrumentation timing equipment and dis- down processor. When this occurs, the lift-off driv-
tributed to various individual and group time displays, e r s a r e locked-up (prevented from being updated);
the serial decimal time converter, the timing inter - thus, making the exact time of lift-off available in
face unit, and the timing signal distributors. The time Greenwich mean time until the drivers a r e reset by
displays convert the timing signals to decimal readout remote control.
for direct viewing or conversion to video signals. The 3-3-2-3. General Purpose Time Generation and Dis-
serial decimal time converter converts binary-coded- tribution
decimal inputs to pulse-coded-decimal outputs, and
applies them to chart recorders (part of the Computer General purpose time displays, for the most part,
Display/Control Interface Subsystem) for visual dis- consist of specially computed times under control of
play. The timing interface unit converts Greenwich the RTCC through the digital display data distributor
mean time to serial time data for the Central Proc- (part of the Computer Display/Control Interface Sub-
essor Subsystem. Specially formatted Greenwich system) and the relative time accumulators. The
mean time signals are applied through timing signal RTCC causes a mnemonic label to light adjacent to
distributors to recording equipment of the Communi- . each computer controlled, general purpose time dis-
cations Facility Control and Voice Communications play to identify the time that is being displayed (e. g. ,
Subsystems and recorded along with data signals for GMTNMI indicates that the time being displayed is
time-correlation purposes. the Greenwich mean time at which the next maneuver
for a particular spacecraft is to occur). The general
purpose time displays may also be started and stopped
Timing pulses are-generated at numerous pulse rates manually from the relative time accumulator remote
by the master instrumentation timing equipment and control panels.
distributed to user equipment, such as X-Y plotboards,
fhrough the MCC-H. The timing pulses function as 3-3-2-4. Dual Stop Clock Time Display and Control
clock pulses in some cases to step up time accumula-
tors and in other cases (e. g. , X-Y plotboards) a r e An accurate time-to-go indication for certain events
displayed along with dynarnic data. is provided by dual stop clock equipments mounted on
the retrofire officer console and the spacecraft com-
3-3-2-2. Launch Countdown Time/Ground Elapsed municator console in each MOCR. These equipments
Time Generation, Distribution, and Display are used to s t a r t and stop a countdown or countup
The Atlantic missile range countdown processor re- digital readout display, which is a part of each equip-
ceives, via the Communications Facility Control ment.

3- 14
PHO- FAMOOI
- - ~
Section 111
Paragraphs 3- 3- 2- 5 to 3- 3-3- 2
3-3-2- 5. Greenwich Mean Time/Central Standard information to both MOCR's. The opaque televisors
Time Wall Clock Display televise artwork such as maps and drawings. Video
information from the opaque televisors associated
Wall clocks, displaying Greenwich mean time and cen- with each MOCR is routed directly to the MOCR main
tral standard time, are slaved to the wall clock master video switching matrix and to nearby monitors, Video
control unit. The master control unit, in synchroniza- information from opaque televisors in the RCR and
tion with radio station WWV, sends time correction meteorological center is routed directly to both video
signals to all wall clocks once each hour. An accurate switching matrices.
time presentation is thus ensured throughout the
MCC-H at all times. The time display converters receive Greenwich mean
time, countdown o r mission time, and general purpose
3-3-3. Television Subsystem time signals from the Timing Subsystem. These time
signals are displayed on an illuminated readout panel
The Television Subsystem (figure 3- 3-3) generates, that is viewed by television cameras. The resultant
distributes, displays, and records standard resolution video signals a r e routed to fixed display viewers and
(525-line per frame scanning rate) and high resolution the appropriate video switching matrices.
(945-line per frame scanning rate) video information.
The subsystem also generates and distributes synchro- The television standard converters accept video sig-
nization pulses required by television equipment in- nals at one scanning rate and convert the video signals
cluded within the subsystem and other subsystems. to a different scanning rate. The television standard
converters are divided into two types: the 945-line to
Video information to be distributed and displayed by 525-line and the 525-line to 945-line. The 945-line to
the television subsystem includes live video from the 525-line standard converters receive video signals
Manned Spaceflight Network or from commercial tele- from either video switching m-atrix and supply the
vision networks; dynamics computer generated numer- converted video signals to a video patch panel for dis-
ic, symbolic, or vectoral information combined with tribution to the standard resolution switching matrix.
static background slide file information; and reference The 525-line to 945-line standard converters receive
data or textual information selected from a file of ref- video signals from a television receiver and selected
erence slides. All the video information, except that landline interface inputs or outputs and supply the
from the Manned Spaceflight Network and commercial converted video signals to a video patch panel for dis-
television broadcasts, is generated within the MOW tribution to either of the two main video switching
either by television cameras viewing selected images matrices.
o r the playing back of previously recorded video sig-
nals. The video is distributed through video patch 3- 3- 3- 2. Video Distribution
panels and computer o r manual controlled video
switching matrices and displayed by television viewers Two similar sets of high resolution video switching
and large- screen projection television displays. matrix equipment (one for each MOCR) and one stand-
ard resolution video switching matrix a r e included
3-3- 3- 1. Video Generation with the Television Subsystem. These matrices
switch a number of video sources to selected output
Video information is generated in the MOW by televi- channels for distribution to various television viewers,
sion cameras viewing group displays, and by cameras television projectors, and recording equipment.
located in opaque televisors, matte televisors, analog-
to-television converters, time display converters, Each set of high resolution video switching matrix
digital-to-television display generators, reference equipment includes four switching matrices: the main
slide files, and television standard converters. The video switching matrix, auxiliary video switching
display generators and the reference slide files are matrix, video engineer switching matrix, and the
part of the Computer Display/Control Interface Subsys- video scanner switching matrix. Each main video
tem. switching matrix connects selected video input signals
to selected output channels for distribution to console-
The group display cameras are divided into three mounted and ceiling- suspended television viewers,
groups, one group for each MOCR and one group for television projectors, and television standard con-
both MOCR's. The cameras televise network status, verters. Each auxiliary video switching matrix con-
plotboards displays, projection plotting displays, and nects input video signals to television viewers only.
scheduling information. The cameras are suppIied The selection of the video input signals for television
with remotely controlled pan-tilt mechanisms and display is accomplished by entering a display request
zoom lenses. The remote control module for each into a console-mounted keyboard, part of the Computer
camera is located on a console near the camera. Display/Control Interface Subsystem. The display re-
Video information from the cameras associated with quest is sent to the RTCC, which applies an input-to-
each MOCR is routed directly to the main video output connection command through the Computer
switching matrix associated with the MOCR. Video Display/Control Interface Subsystem to the main or
information from RCR and scheduling group display auxiliary video switching matrix depending upon the
cameras is routed to both video switching matrices. input video selected for viewing. The appropriate
The opaque televisors are also divided into three switching matrix decodes the command and connects
groups, one group for each MOCR and one group in the selected video input signals to the selected output
the RCR and meteorological center that supplies television display,equipment (either a television

3-15
Section III PHO- FAMOOl
Paragraphs 3-3-3-3 to 3-3-3-4
viewer, projector, or standard converter), This en- 3- 3- 3- 3. Video Display
tire selection, distribution, and display process using
a television projector as the selected output equipment video information for individual and group viewing is
is illustrated in figure 3-3-4-2. displayed by television viewers and television pro-
jectors (part of the Group Display Subsystem). Tele-
Digital readout driver circuits a r e associated with the vision viewers are used by console operators and sup-
main and auxiliary video switching matrices. These port personnel to view the video signals generated
circuits operate in conjunction with readout panels lo- within the MOW (closed circuit) and the video signals
cated on console-mounted television viewers to enable generated by external sources. Various sizes of both
console operators to identify the switching matrix in- the standard and high resolution television viewers
put channel connected to each viewer. a r e included with the Television Subsystem.

The video engineer switching matrix, in conjunction The l4-inchY high resolution viewers a r e console-
with a selector panel located on the video engineer mounted, cabinet-mounted, and ceiling- suspended.
console, permits the Video Engineer to select any of The console-mounted viewers, located in various con-
the main or auxiliary video switching matrix video in- soles throughout the MOW, accept video input signals
put or output signals for display on a console-mounted from either the main video switching matrix or the
television viewer. auxiliary video switching matrix. As indicated pre-
viously, video displays are selected for viewing with
The video scanner switching matrix receives video in- a manual selection keyboard. After a selected video
put signals from the main and auxiliary video switching display is connected to the appropriate viewer, the
matrices and supplies these video signals to the hard- video switching matrix input channel number is dis-
copy control equipment for hardcopy recording. played on a readout panel on the front of the viewer.
The cabinet-mounted viewers, used for alignment and
The standard resolution video switching matrix con- testing of the high resolution television equipment, re-
sists of three functional sections: television viewer ceive video signals from the particular cabinet in
switcher, video tape recorder input switcher, and which they are mounted. The ceiling- suspended
video output switcher. The video input signals to the viewers a r e used as special purpose viewers to moni-
television viewer switcher are video tape recorders tor video signals from the opaque televisors.
input and output signals and landline interface video
signals. The switcher supplies selected video signals The 14-inch, standard resolution viewers are console-
to console-mounted standard resolution television mounted and cabinet-mounted. The console-mounted
viewers. These viewers a r e located in public affairs viewers receive video signals from the standard reso-
information control consoles and in the video interface lution video switching matrix. The cabinet-mounted
engineer console. The video input signal desired on a viewers a r e used for alignment and testing of the
particular viewer is selected at a video select module standard resolution television equipment and receive
on the appropriate console. The video tape recorder video signals from the particular cabinet in which they
input switcher receives video signals from the televi- a r e mounted.
sion standard converters, time display converters,
television broadcast receivers, group display cameras, The 21-inch, standard and high resolution viewers
and the landline interface equipment and distributes are ceiling-suspended and a r e used as general pur-
the selected input signals to the video tape recorders. pose viewers by groups of observers. The viewers
Control of the switcher is provided by remote control receive video signals from television standard con-
panels. The video output switcher receives video in- verters, time display converters, and selected video
put signals from the television standard converters, signals from the video switching matrices.
time display converters, television broadcast receiv-
ers, group display cameras, landline interface equip- 3-3-3-4. Video Recording and Editing
ment, and the video tape recorders. The switcher
distributes selected input signals to the landline inter- Two types of video recording equipment a r e included
face equipment, The switcher is controlled by remote with the Television Subsystem: hardcopy recording
control panels. equipment and video tape recording equipment.
The landline interface equipment is used to monitor, The hardcopy recording equipment consists of hard-
adjust, and manually switch standard resolution video copy control equipment and hardcopy recorders. Re-
signals that enter or leave the MOW. The equipment quests for hardcopy reproductions a r e initiated from
receives video inputs supplied to the MOW from the manual selection keyboards. When the hardcopy con-
KSC launch control center, Manned Spaceflight Net- trol equipment receives a hardcopy request, the hard-
work, and MSC public affairs studio. Video signals copy control equipment selects the appropriate video
generated within the MOW (television test generator channel from the video scanner switching matrix and
signals, television standard converter signals, and routes the selected video signals to one of the hard-
video tape recorder signals) a r e supplied to the land- copy recorders. The hardcopy control equipment also
line interface equipment from the standard resolution supplies control signals to the hardcopy recorder to
video switching matrix. The equipment supplies video initiate the recording action and supplies a two-digit
signals to the KSC launch control center, MSC public requester identification ccde to identify the hardcopy
affairs studio, and the MSC headquarters. reproduction. Greenwich mean time is supplied to the

3-16
PHO- FAMOOl Section III
Paragraphs 3-3-3-5 to 3-3-4-2
hardcopy recorders from the Timing Subsystem so used to display the projections. A 6- by 12-foot
that the time of request can be recorded along with the screen is used for the projection plotting display.
video information and requester identification code. Two 6- by 6-foot screens are used to display sheet
The hardcopy reproduction is routed to the requester transparencies generated during, or just prior to, a
through the Pneumatic Tube Subsystem. mission. A 6- by 8-foot screen is used to display
television projections of reference data obtained from
Video tape recording is accomplished by two remote- the television subsystem. As in the MOCR's, all
controlled video tape recorders. The two video tape projection equipments are located behind the viewing
recorders provide a means of recording and editing screens. Optical fold m i r r o r s are used with each
standard resolution video signals for distribution to display except the manually generated data display,
areas external to the MOW. The edited video signals which does not require a lengthy optical throw dis-
from each video tape recorder are supplied through tance. Group time and data displays, which are
the standard resolution video switching matrix to the similar to the MOCR's, but somewhat abbreviated in
landline interface equipment. both size and quantity of displays, are mounted on the
wall above the viewing screens.
3-3-3- 5. Synchronization Generation and Distribution
Two data source displays, each identical to data
The synchronization generation and distribution equip- source displays in the MOCR's, are mounted above
ment is divided into two groups: standard resolution the X-Y plotboards on each side of the RTCC. These
and high resolution. These two groups of equipment displays a r e the only components of the Group Display
generate mixed blanking, horizontal drive, vertical Subsystem located in the RTCC.
drive, and mixed synchronizing pulses and distribute
the pulses to the television cameras and viewers. A television projector similar to MOCR and RCR
High resolution vertical drive pulses are also applied television projectors is located in the MBOA projec-
to the Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem tion room to add a television projection capability to
where they a r e used to synchronize the digital-to- the MBOA information display facilities. This pro-
television converter storage buffer operations with the jector is used for direct front screen projection and
scanning rate of the television cameras in the display employs a long light projection path; thus, no m i r r o r s
generators. are required for optical folding. The front projection
screen in the MBOA is used for various viewing ap-
3-3-4. Group Display Subsystem plications, in addition to displaying the television
projections, and is not considered part of the Group
The Group Display Subsystem (figure 3-3-4) provides Display Subsystem.
flight dynamics, mission status information, and ref-
erence data in readily recognizable form on large- 3-3-4- 1. Projection Plotting Display
scale displays in the three control areas of the
MCC-H. The subsystem also provides mission status The presentation of projection plotting displays is
displays to the RTCC and enhances the information controlled by either the Assistant Flight Director or
display capability of the MBOA. the Operations and Procedures Officer in the MOCR's
and by the Recovery Display Controller in the RCR.
The group displays in each MOCR a r e identical and To select a specific display format, a display selec-
consist of projection plotting displays, projection tele- tion code is manually inserted into a projection display
vision displays, and alphanumeric readout displays. select keyboard mounted on their respective consoles.
The projection viewing screens are divided into five This keyboard is actually a manual selection keyboard
display areas: four 10- by 10-foot areas and one 10- similar to those discussed with the Computer Display/
by 20-foot area. Three of the 10- by 10-foot areas Control Interface Subsystem. This initiates a fully
are used for projection television displays. The re- automated sequence of operations, which causes se-
m a i n i i areas a r e used for projection plotting dis- lection and position commands to be fed into the con-
plays. AI1 viewing screens use rear projection tech- trol electronics associated with each projection plot-
niques with folded optics so that the optical throw dis- ting display. These commands control the character-
tance required for quality projections can be achieved istics required for the selected display format (color,
without having to resort to long, straight-line, light backgronnd, etc. ) and position the plots and symbols
projection raceways such as those commonly found in on the plotboards selected for the display. An added
movie theatres. The most beneficial aspect of this is feature of the RCR projection plotting display is that
that a high degree of illumination may be maintained it can combine manually generated plots with selected
in the MOCR's, thus contributing to favorable working displays and also project daylight and darkness pat-
conditions, without sacrificing required detail from terns whenever a world map background is shown on
the displays. Also, more efficient utilization of floor the summary display plotboards. A typical projection
space is realized in this manner. Group time and data plotting display, including selection, data processing,
displays (digital readouts) are located directly above and presentation, is shown in figure 3-3-4-1.
the viewing screens.
3-3-4-2. Projection Television Display
RCR group display consist of a projection plotting dis-
play with provisions for manual inputs and daylight The projection display select keyboards on the assist-
and darkness indications, a projection television dis- ant flight director and the Operations and procedures
play, transparency projection displays, and alphanu- officer consoles a r e also used to select video informa-
meric readout displays. Four viewing screens are tion for display by the MOCR projection television
3-17
Section 111 PHO-FAMOOl
Paragraphs 3-3-4-3 to 3-4
displays. Any video information available through the 3-3-4-4. Group Time and Data Display
Television Subsystem video switching matrix may be
selected for group viewing in the MOCR's. After a Some of the group time displays, and all the group
display selection is made, the routing of video signals data display input signals, require power amplification
to the appropriate television projector is an automatic to drive the desired displays. These signals are fed
function. Video signals a r e fed into the television into display drivers, which then feed a voltage output
projector and subsequently projected, as pictures, at the correct power level to the designated display
onto the selected television display screen. A projec- device. Those timing signals requiring no power
tion television control module, mounted on the network amplification a r e routed directly to the applicable
controller console, enables remote control of the po- timing display.
larity, brightness, and contrast of the MOCR televi-
sion projections. A typical projection television dis- Countdown timing, various types of reference timing
play is shown in figure 3-3-4-2. (Greenwich mean time, accumulated mission time,
etc. ), and indications of certain mission events
Video information to be displayed via the MBOA tele- (countdown hold or proceed and switchover to space-
vision projector is routed through a video patch panel craft onboard guidance) a r e presented in the MOCR's
(part of the Television Subsystem) and controlled by a as group displays. The RCR group time display does
television editor. These television projections supple- not consist of a s many units a s the MOCR time dis-
ment other information displays (i.e. , motion pictures) plays, but presents all of the same information except
in the MBOA and do not necessarily portray the same the switchover indication during the launch phase of a
real time or reference data being viewed in the mission. The switchover signal indicates that the
MOCR's. launch vehicle guidance system has switched over to
the spacecraft onboard guidance system. The timing
The RCR television projector receives video informa- readout drive signals a r e fed into the applicable group
tion from a reference slide file or the video switching time display devices and converted directly into large-
matrix. A video select module on the recovery display scale alphanumeric displays.
controller console permits selection of video from
either source. The reference slide file contains a The MOCR group data display consists of two units,
large quantity of premission-prepared and filed- each providing two specific data indications. The
reference slides. A reference slide select keyboard, command enable status display indicates when com-
mounted on the recovery display controller console, mands can be transmitted to a spacecraft, the station
is used to select reference data slides for display. which will transmit the commands, and the best time
After a selected slide is moved into position, a televi- for transmission. The display also indicates when
sion camera, an integral part of the reference slide real time or playback telemetered instrumentation
file, converts the image into video signals, which are data is being processed by the RTCC from a particular
then applied to the television projector. After conver- spacecraft and the real time telemetry acquisition
sion of the signals, the television projector projects source. The data source display indicates the tracking
an enlarged image of the selected reference slide onto data source being used by the RTCC to generate flight
the display screen. Other video from the Television dynamics displays. This display also indicates orbit
Subsystem is routed directly to the projector via the insertion go/no-go recommendations for a spacecraft
video select module and displayed in the same manner as determined for each data source. Two data source
as the MOCR projections. A projection television con- displays, each identical to the MOCR data source dis-
trol module mounted on the recovery display controller play, comprise the RTCC group data display. Data
console permits remote control of the television pro- readout drive signals are fed into the applicable group
jection presentation (polarity, brightness, and con- data display devices from the display drivers and con-
trast). verted directly into large-scale alphanumeric displays.

3-3-4-3. Transparency Projection Display


Projection television channel indicators a r e adjacent
The manually generated data display in the RCR dis- to each MOCR projection televi'sion display to identify
plays reference data in the form of sheet transparen- the specific channel of the video switching matrix
cies. Control of the display is effected at the trans- furnishing video signals to each television projector.
parency projectors. Transparency-making equipment
and a random access data file, provided a s ancillary
components, enable rapid generation of transparencies 3-4. REAL TIME COMPUTER COMPLEX SYSTEM
from hardcopy data and permit quick location of any
transparencies filed before or during a mission. To The RTCC System (figure 3-4) performs high-speed
&splay specific reference data, the display operator processing of all computable data supporting actual
must first generate a transparent copy of the hardcopy missions and checkout and training programs. During
reference data or, if the transparency has already a mission, the communications lines of the Manned
been generated and filed, must retrieve the transpar- Spaceflight Network constantly bring a vast array of
ency from the data file. After the transparency has data into the RTCC via the Communications, Commanda
been secured, the operator places it on the staging and Telemetry System. The data is absorbed and
area of one of the transparency projectors and turns translated by the RTCC into recognizable data displays
on the projector lamp. The transparency is then il- that enable mission controllers and associated spe -
luminated, causing the reference data to be projected cialists to evaluate current mission situations and
onto the viewing screen. initiate appropriate actions.
3- 18
PHO- FAMOOl Section III
Paragraphs 3- 4- 1 to 3- 4- 1- 2
The Real Time Computer (RTC) Subsystem comprises incoming data and, after processing, to distribute the
the bulk of the RTCC. Five large-capacity, digital data a s necessary to support actual missions or check-
computers provide the subsystem with sufficient com- out and training programs. The incoming data is
puter capacity to support single or dual mission oper- computed, sorted, and converted and the results dis-
ations and, at the same time, allow continuation of seminated for timely utilization at the MCC-H, Manned
program development, or permit scheduled validation Spaceflight Network, and spacecraft. Processing in-
maintenance. Each real time computer may be func- cludes preparing information for each phase of flight,
tionally assigned as a mission operations computer acceptance and distribution of feedback control infor -
(MOC) , dynamic standby computer (DSC) , validation mation, and any additional work required for convey-
testing and maintenance computer, or be taken off -line ing necessary control data.
and electrically isolated from the rest of the RTCC.
One MOC and one DSC are required to execute real- 3-4- 1- 1. Communications Interface
mission programs for each mission. All required
outputs for a given mission are provided by the MOC; The RTCC communicates with the Manned Spaceflight
however, the DSC does provide a few local monitoring Network through the Central Processor and Communi-
outputs and can be manually switched into the on-line cations Facility Control subsystems. The Central
MOC configuration when desired. Various configura- Processor Subsystem controls the message processing
tions of the MOC and DSC are required to perform all and switching to input or output lines. All data is
types of validation testing and maintenance. The types serially transmitted between the Central Processor
of validation testing a r e preventive maintenance in- Subsystem and the RTCC at 40.8 bits per second over
spections, operational readiness and confidence test- demand-response interconnections.
ing, and MCC-H/network validation. Prevailing mis-
sion requirements establish the number and configura- The Central Processor Subsystem routes four output
tions of the computer(s) needed and the type(s) of pro- lines to the RTCC via the system selector unit to each
grams required. Operational readiness and confidence real time computer according to the functional assign-
testing (ORACT) test programs are required for ment of the computer. The number of outputs that
ORACT testing. Mission operational programs (MOP) are actually routed to a computer and their functions
and ORACT test programs are required for MCC-H/ depends on the type of mission or checkout and training
network validation testing. The off -line computer re- program being conducted. The inputs to the computers
ceives no data, is isolated from the remainder of the a r e through high- speed serial input subchannels of the
RTCC, and is used for program compilation or loop data communication channels. Each data communica-
testing. tion channel provides two high- speed serial output
subchannels to the Central Processor Subsystem (one
The Computer Control Subsystem provides displays for each message processing computer). The system
and operating positions for monitoring and controlling selector unit routes the outputs to each message proc-
the real time computers. Normally, the computers essing computer so that each output goes to the proper
a r e grouped into two complexes (A and B) with each input according to the assigned mode of operation. The
complex assigned to a control a r e a of the Computer system selector unit terminates similar outputs gen-
Control Subsystem. One complex works in conjunction erated by the dynamic standby computer.
with MOCR 1 while the other operates with MOCR 2.
Depending upon the type of mission being conducted, Messages may be transmitted from any r e a l time
each complex may comprise at different times from computer via the system selector unit, through the
two to three computers. The basic configurations are Central Processor Subsystem, to any output of the
a two-computer, single operational mission (one MOC subsystem (including another real time computer).
and one DSC), a four-computer, dual operational mis- Inputs to the Central Processor Subsystem from the
sion (two MOC's and two DSC's), and a nonoperational Manned Spaceflight Network are routed to the appro-
mission (validation testing). Several variations of the priate real time computer according to their message
nonoperational mission configurations are required to labels. The system selector unit sets up the proper
facilitate preventive maintenance inspections and vali- equipment relationship and the Central Processor
dation testing. fQecific configurations are established Subsystem is programmed accordingly to enable any
through selective patching and switching at the Comput- desired message routing.
er Control Subsystem and the system selector unit in
the Real Time Computer Subsystem. 3-4-1-2. Display Interface

The Auxiliary Data Processing Subsystem prepares Data required for display in the MOCR's, SSR's, and
data for insertion into the real time computers via MOCR common areas are of a varied nature and are
magnetic tape units and provides printed or punched presented in such a manner a s to require minimum in-
card outputs of data previously placed onto magnetic terpretation. Control of the data for presentation is
tapes by the computers. The subsystem also provides fully automated so that the selection of desired infor-
a means for project accounting, scheduling, and main- mation requires minimum operator action and can be
tenance applications. made rapidly. Console operators request specific
displays by manually selecting them through the use
3-4-1. Real Time Computer Subsystem of keyboards located on their respective consoles.
The encoded keyboard data is applied to the RTCC and
The Real Time Computer Subsystem (figure 3-4-1) in- interpreted by the appropriate computer program,
terfaces with the Communications, Command,and Te- which then generates the output data necessary to pro-
lemetry and the Display/Control Systems to receive vide the requested display. Other manual data, entered
3-19
Section III PHO- FAMOO1
Paragraph 3-4-1-3
into the RTCC in a similar manner, allows mission Subsystem general purpose relative time accumulators.
controllers to signal the appropriate computer pro- The digital display outputs generated by both the mis-
gram to alter the sequence of mission events, to gen- sion operations computer and the dynamic standby
erate specific telemetry summary messages, and to computer are transmitted by high-speed serial output
change from one mission phase to another. Input data subchannels to the system selector unit. The opera-
concerning the status of digital-to-television convert- tional outputs a r e routed to the digital display data
ers, converter slide files, and reference slide files distributors of the Computer Display/Control Interface
is applied to the RTCC automatically o r whenever the Subsystem standby digital driver unit, which displays
RTCC requests an equipment status readout. Computer selected data on digital display modules mounted on
input data originating from the keyboards and encoders the Computer Control Subsystem consoles. These
of the Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem displays correspond to indicators driven by the opera-
is serially transmitted at a 2400 bit per second rate tional program, thus allowing a direct comparison to
to the RTCC by the computer input multiplexers in the be made between the two programs and associated
subsystem. The multiplexers interface through the equipment.
system selector unit with serial input subchannels of
the data communications channels. When a dynamic The Timing Subsystem of the Display/Control System
standby computer is used in a mission, the system se- provides timing pulses directly to the multiplexer line
lector unit routes the computer input data into respec- adapter where they are available for distribution to
tive subchannels of the operational and standby com- the RTCC equipment requiring them. Timing pulses
puters. are applied to the clock and interval timer subchannels
of each data communications channel, a clock in each
The system selector unit receives the computer re- data communications channel, a clock in each data
quest and equipment status indications and distributes input-output multiplexer, and to the X-Y plotboards
them to the appropriate real time computers. The of the Computer Control Subsystem. For increased
computers, in turn, feed required display data back reliability, the timing signals used by the dynamic
to the Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem standby computer come from a section of the Timing
through the system selector unit. The display data in- Subsystem master instrumentation timing equipment
cludes plotting, television, and digital display control other than those used by the operational computer.
data.
3-4-1-3. Data Processing
The plotting display control data includes X-Y plot-
boards control data and projection plotting display The central processing unit processes data internally
control data. The X-Y plotboard control data largely in a fixed word length of 36 binary bits. Information
consists of positional commands for the plotting pens is transferred to or from the core storage unit in full
of the X-Y plotboards. The projection plotting display word, parallel form. The computer cycle time, or
control data consists of positional commands, slide the time required to perform one logical arithmetic o r
selection commands, and other control data. Both transfer operation, is 1.4 microseconds. A 36-bit
sets of data are transmitted from high-speed serial data word (one unit of information) can be read into,
output subchannels via the system selector unit to or out of, any one of the 32,768 core storage locations
plotting display data distributors in the Computer in 1.4 microseconds, o r one computer cycle time.
Display/Control Interface Subsystem. The system se- The core storage serves both the central processing
lector unit also makes both sets of data available unit and the input/output data channels with the central
simultaneously to the X-Y plotboards of the Computer processing unit controlling the storage access of both.
Control Subsystem. The system selector unit routes
operational computer outputs to the Computer Display/ Two data channels, one dual-direct data channel and
Control Interface Subsystem but inhibits standby out- one data communications channel, use five input/output
puts. Both outputs, however, are routed to the Com- channels of the data input/output multiplexer. Each of
puter Control Subsystem X-Y plotboards for monitor- these channels operates as an independent unit to trans-
ing. fer data to and from the core storage unit via the mul-
tiplexer; however, each data transfer must be initiated
The television display control data, which includes by and under the direction of the program in the cen-
digital- to- television quantities, slide selection data, tral processing unit. Once set into operation by the
and video switching matrices input-to-output connec- program, the channels proceed without any further
tions commands, is routed from the direct data chan- program action until the data transfer operation is
nels via the system selector unit to digital-to-television complete. The channels transfer data to and from
converter and converter slide file data distributors in storage in full word form. Each data channel connects
the Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem. a bank of magnetic tape units to the control processing
unit. In addition, one of the channels connects a card
The digital display control data is used to control reader and a printer to the central processing unit.
various indicator lamps and digital indicators located The direct data channel occupies two data multiplexer
throughout the MOW. The indications thus produced channels while providing interface connections to the
include mission events, mission phases, input data different units. One channel with both input and output
sources, acknowledgment of manual data insertion, capabilities is connected to the core storage file. The
and numerical quantities that represent display format other channel, with output capabilities only, is con-
numbers, television channel numbers, etc. The digital nected to data distributors in the Computer Display/
display control data also includes computer generated Control Interface Subsystem. The data communication
time words, which are used to control the Timing channel connects 1 data multiplexer channel to 11
3-20
PHO- FAMOOl
_- . Section 111
Paragraphs 3-4-2 to 3-4-3
separate subchannels. These subchannels include four 3-4-2-1. Computer Monitoring
input and five output data communication subchannels,
one clock subchannel, and one interval timer subchan- Personnel within the control area operating positions
nel. The input data communication subchannels re- monitor the performance of the mission and dynamic
ceive data serially from external equipment and buffer standby computers via television displays, digital
the data into 36-bit data words for parallel transfer to displays, and plotting displays. A system status dis-
storage. Similarly, the output subchannels accept 36- play unit, common to both control areas, permits the
bit words from storage and transmit them serially to personnel to monitor the functional assignment of each
the external equipment. Each subchannel, after once real time computer as well as that of interfacing com-
being set into operation by the central processing unit ponents. The television displays are provided by the
program, normally transfers a complete data message Television Subsystem. The computer controllers may
before it requires further action by the program. The select any display obtainable through the Television
clock and interval timer subchannels do not transfer Subsystem for viewing. Operational digital displays
data. The interval timer subchannel provides a means a r e provided by the Computer Display/Control Inter-
of signaling or interrupting the computer program face Subsystem, which drives digital indicators
when a predetermined interval of time has elapsed. mounted on the control area consoles. Selected digital
The clock subchannel interrupts the program at unit display control data from the dynamic standby comput-
intervals of time at a program-selected rate. e r is applied through the standby digital driver unit to
digital indicators also located on the consoles. All
The core storage file unit provides random access plotting display control data is applied to the control
storage for 524,000 data words. The computer pro- area X-Y plotboards for selective monitoring.
gram stores data within the file or retrieves data from
the file at a rate of 250,000 words per second. The 3-4-2-2. Computer Control
core file is connected to the central processing unit
through the direct data channel and an input/output The control area operating positions are provided
channel of the data multiplexer. with manual entry devices and switch modules that
have direct input/output connections with the Real
The computer controller multiplexer unit connects Time Computer Subsystem. A common path for the
manual input and output equipment of the Computer data to and from these manual entry devices is pro-
Control Subsystem to the central processing unit. The vided by the control area junction unit. Data to and
manual data is buffered and transferred by means of from the manual entry devices is passed through the
one input and one output subchannel of the data com- junction unit and the system selector unit to the com-
munication channel. Data transferred between the puter controller multiplexer unit. Switch module data
manual devices via the system selector unit and the is received by the unit from several switch modules
computer controller multiplexer unit is transferred and is forwarded to the Real Time Computer Subsys-
serially and in parallel and varies in format structure; tem on a common bus. This bus includes duplicate
however, the same data is transferred between the sets of data for operational and standby computer in-
computer controller multiplexer unit and the data com- puts. The computer input multiplexer (CIM) inter-
munication channel in serial 36-bit words. faces some of the switch modules with the Real Time
Computer Subsystem.
Functional assignments for the real time computers, 3-4-2-3. Time Generation
and consequently, the routing and distribution of input
and output data is accomplished by the system selector Accurate timing signals a r e supplied to the RTCC by
unit. The system selector unit permits any of the real the Timing Subsystem. All RTCC timing is connected
time computers to perform any of the RTCC functional directly to the multiplexer line adapter.
assignments. The unit also provides the capability to
rapidly exchange functional assignments between opera-
tional and dynamic standby computers. The switchover 3-4-3. Auxiliary Data Processing Subsystem
between these computers is a combined system selec- The Real Time Computer Subsystem places data onto
tor unit and computer programming function. When magnetic tapes, which a r e inserted into the Auxiliary
switchover action is taken, the system selector unit Data Processing Subsystem magnetic tape units and
signals the program in both computers to suspend its processed by the subsystem to provide output data in
output operations until switchover has occurred. In- printed or punched-card form. By reversing the
complete or erroneous data transmissions a r e thus process, input data is prepared and placed on magnetic
prevented by ensuring that the switchover does not oc- tapes by the Auxiliary Data Processing Subsystem for
cur during transmission of processed data. high-speed entry into the real time computers.

The Auxiliary Data Processing Subsystem (figure


3-4-2. Computer Control Subsystem 3-4-3) performs no real or checkout and training
functions. Instead, it enables more effective utiliza-
The Computer Control Subsystem (figure 3-4-2) pro- tion of the Real Time Computer Subsystem for pro-
vides the facilities for monitoring and controlling the gram development and other nonoperational applica-
RTCC computers. tions.

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PHO-FAMOOI Section IV
Paragraphs 4-1 to 4-2-2

SECTION JV
SUPPORT FACILITIES

This section describes the utility systems and special features required to support MCC-H
operations.

4-1. GENERAL building except power supplied to critical components


by the category A power system. Normally, commer-
Various facilities are required to support mission op- cial power is distributed to the noncritical loads
erations within the MCC-H. These facilities include through the category B system. However, when a
the electrical power distribution system (figure 4-1), commercial power failure occurs, the category B
lighting system, air conditioning system, fire detec- emergency power system assumes the load. Three
tion and alarm system, and telephone system. The diesel generators, two on-line and one standby, in the
functions of the MOW, OSW, lobby wing, and emer- emergency power building provide all category B
gency power building are different; thus it follows that power approximately 20 seconds after a commercial
electrical power, lighting, a i r conditioning, etc., re- power failure occurs. The normal and emergency
quirements vary to a certain extent for each part of aspects of supplying electrical power to the MOW a r e
the MCC-H. A higher degree of complexity is de- described in the following paragraphs.
manded for the MOW support facility systems than
those of the rest of the MCC-H. This is true because 4-2-1. Normal Operation
the MOW systems must include backup equipment for
emergency operation. The OSW, lobby wing, and During normal operation, the commerical power sys -
emergency power building support facilities a r e stand- tem is intact and supplies all loads except those which
ard public utility systems. a r e supplied by the category A distribution system.
The normal mode of operation for each power distri-
4-2. ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM bution system is given below.

Commercial electrical power is routed through high- Category A power is obtained from two electric motor
voltage transmission lines from a priority feeder net- generators and three diesel generators during normal
work to the MSC electrical substation, building 21. operation. One motor generator and one diesel gen-
Two circuit breakers at the substation a r e assigned to erator operate in parallel to supply power to bus A1
the MCC-H. From each of these circuit breakers, a through the category A power switchgear. Another
power cable is routed through the MSC central tunnel motor generator/diesel generator combination sup-
system to switchgear on the substation pad outside the plies power to bus A2. Each generator handles half
emergency power building. One of the cables is used the load for the appropriate A-bus and is capable of
a s a spare to ensure against any long interruption of assuming the entire load, i f necessary. The third
power at the MCC-H due to cable failure. Feeder cir- diesel generator acts a s a standby generator capable
cuits a r e connected from the switchgear to stepdown of being substituted for any of the other generators in
transformers on the substation pad and in the OSW the A-power generating system.
transformer room (1046). All power, except that sup-
plied to critical equipments, is distributed to the MOW Category B power is received from the commercial
and the emergency power building from the substation power system through the substation pad stepdown
pad transformers. Critical equipments a r e those that transformers during normal operation and then fed to
could hamper the mission control capabilities of the each B-bus through the category B power switchgear.
MCC-H if they became inoperative for even a few sec-
onds. Power is distributed throughout the OSW from 4-2-2. Emergency Operation
the transformers in room 1046.
A malfunction occurring in either the commercial
Electrical power is distributed to the MOW through power system or one of the MCC-H internal distribu-
one of two systems: category A or category B. Cate- tion systems (category A or B) will precipitate an
gory A is uninterruptible power generated within the emergency operation condition. Two modes of emer -
emergency power buildmg that continually serves crit- gency operation are provided for both the category A
ical loads (e.g., data processing and timing equipment) and the category B distribution systems.
in the MOW during mission periods plus certain light-
ing fixtures. Two motor generator sets (used for The two emergency operation modes for the A-power
electrical isolation) and three diesel generators (two distribution system occur when (1) commercial power
on-line, one standby) generate category A power. is not available to the MCC-H or (2) one of the B-
Category B is 20-second interruptible power that sup- power buses providing power to the A-power electric
plies all power to the MOW and the emergency power motor generators becomes nonoperative.
~ __

4-1
Section IV PHO- FAMOO 1
Paragraphs 4-3 to 4-4-1

When commercial power service is interrupted, both incandescent light fixtures. All fluorescent fixtures
electric motor generators cease to operate and the A- are equipped with radio-frequency noise suppressors.
power diesel generators temporarily assume the full
load for the category A power system. A s soon as the A battery-powered emergency lighting system is pro-
category B power system generators have started, the vided for the safety of MOW personnel in the event a
A-power motor generators are manually restarted and complete failure of the MCC-H internal power distri-
operationally powered by the B-power diesel genera- bution systems extinguishes the emergency lighting
tors. fixtures tied onto the category A power system. If a
power failure of this nature occurs, the emergency
When one of the B-buses associated with the A-power lighting system will automatically switch on-line and
motor generators is not functioning, the motor gen- supply power to light fixtures strategically located in
erator receiving power from this bus ceases to oper- each a r e a and corridor. These are recessed, ceiling-
ate, thereby shifting the full load to the on-line diesel mounted fixtures and are normally off at all times.
generator. The standby A power diesel generator The emergency lighting system will also furnish elec-
then operates in parallel with the operational diesel trical power to all exit lights and wall clock outlets.
generator to provide uninterruptible power to the A- Batteries, switching gear, and battery charging equip-
bus. ment for the system are located in the emergency
power building.
The two emergency operation modes for category B
power distribution occur when (1) commercial power 4-3-2. Operations Support Wing and lobby Wing
is not available to the MCC-H or (2) when one of the
emergency power building substation pad transformers The lighting system in the OSW and lobby wing con-
becomes nonoperative. sists primarily of fluorescent light fixtures, which
a r e supplied electrical power from the transformers
When commercial power is interrupted, the B-buses in room 1046. Incandescent lights a r e supplied power
a r e tied together through bus-tie circuit breakers and from the same transformers through various stepdown
the entire category B power system load is supplied transformers.
from two diesel generators. Each generator is capa-
ble of starting and synchronizing with the other gen- 4 - 3 - 3 . Emergency Power Building
erator and supplying full system power to the B-buses
within approximately 20 seconds. A third diesel gen- The lighting system for the emergency power building
erator acts as a standby capable of being substituted is similar to that of the OSW and lobby wing.
for either one of the other two B-bus diesel generators
in the emergency power generating system. 4.4. AR
I CONDITIONING SYSTEM
When one of the subsystem pad transformers becomes The a i r conditioning system for the MOW, OSW, lobby
inoperative, the B-buses a r e tied together and power wing, and emergency power building is described in
is supplied from the remaining transformer and one the following paragraphs.
diesel generator operating in parallel. If one of the
B-buses is out of service, the load on that bus may be 4-4-1. Mission Operations Wing
manually transferred to the other B-buses and the en-
tire category B power load supplied from the remain- Special requirements a r e imposed on the MOW a i r
ing operational transformer and one diesel generator conditioning system. The large concentration of elec-
operating in parallel. tronic equipment in the MOW, particularly in the
RTCC area, necessitates a highly reliable a i r condi-
4-3. LIGHTING SYSTEM tioning system to provide the proper environment for
the equipment, and also for personnel, since mission
While certain areas of the MCC-H have specialized operations must continue in the MOW under all but the
lighting requirements, the only lighting criteria for most extreme emergency conditions.
most of the MCC-H is that minimum illumination be
maintained for favorable working conditions. The A dual-duct, high-velocity air system utilizing pneu-
MOW, OSW, lobby wing, and emergency power build- matic control devices is used to a i r condition the
ing lighting requirements a r e described below. MOW. Steam and chilled water is normally piped
from the heating and cooling plant, building 24. If
4-3-1. Mission Operations Wing the heating and cooling plant system fails, the MOW
is provided warm and cool water from the emergency
The critical MOW, which has no windows, requires a power building for emergency a i r conditioning to per-
special lighting system that has provisions for emer- mit mission operations to continue. Compressed a i r
gency operation. Both fluorescent and incandescent for the pneumatic air conditioning control devices is
light fixtures are provided in the MOW. Utility power also supplied from the heating and cooling plant.
is distributed from the category B power switchgear Backup a i r pressure to the control devices is provided
in the emergency power building to the MOW light fix- by an a i r compressor located in mechanical equipment
tures. Utility power is fed directly to the fluorescent room 113. Although cooling, heating, and ventilating
light fixtures while stepdown transformers, located in equipments a r e controlled at the a r e a s served within
electrical equipment closets on each floor of the MOW, the MOW, a control panel is provided in the emer-
step down the utility power voltage for use by the gency power building a s a precautionary measure to

4-2
PHO-FAM001
_ _ Section IV
Paragraphs 4-4-2 to 4-5-1
monitor and reset the equipments. Mixed a i r and dis- Ventilation exhaust fans collect exhaust air and dis-
charge plenums a r e acoustically lined and constructed charge it outside the building. Exhaust fans a r e pro-
to withstand the high a i r pressure generated by the vided for each mechanical equipment room, projection
high-velocity air supply system. Return a i r plenums room, battery room, and for each toilet area.
are also lined and contain vertical sound baffles to
confine fan noise within the mechanical equipment 4-4-2. Operations Support Wing and l o b b y Wing
room.

Each MOW mechanical equipment room contains a i r The air conditioning system for the OSW and lobby
conditioning units that draw return a i r from ceiling wing is designed primarily for human comfort. Equip-
plenums and fresh air from outside a i r processing ment cooling requirements a r e of secondary impor -
units containing a i r filters, preheating and precooling tance since these wings essentially form an office
coils, humidifiers, and control dampers. The air is building with technical support a r e a s located in the
discharged through heating and cooling coils and filter inner sections of each OSW floor.
sections of the air conditioning units to the high-
velocity duct system. The high pressure dual-duct A conventional dual-duct , high-velocity a i r supply s y s -
system delivers air from the hot and cold decks of the tem, similar in operation to the MOW system, is used
discharge plenums to constant volume mixing boxes to a i r condition these wings. Two mechanical equip-
(air valves) above the suspended ceilings on eachfloor. ment rooms a r e included on each floor of the OSW to
The mixing boxes mix cool and warm air to produce distribute conditioned a i r to the four sections of each
the environment desired for each area. Thermostats floor. The third floor of the lobby wing receives con-
control motorized dampers that regulate the quantities ditioned air from OSW mechanical equipment room
of cool and warm a i r to be mixed in the boxes. The 3076 and from a separate a i r handling unit located in
mixed a i r is fed to low pressure ducts for distribution mechanical equipment room 3001A of the lobby wing.
to air diffusers located in each area. In general, the The unit in room 3001A is provided to a i r condition
a i r diffusers a r e located on the ceiling-mounted fluo- the lobby wing dormitory area exclusively.
rescent lighting fixtures. Each diffuser includes vol-
ume control dampers and adjustable a i r deflectors. Ventilation fans a r e provided to exhaust a i r from toilet
Conventional ceiling a i r diffusers a r e located in the areas, mechanical equipment rooms, and the auditori-
MQCR's. Return a i r in most a r e a s is drawn through um projection room.
slots in the lighting fixture frames and routed back to
the mechanical equipment rooms through the low pres- 4-4-3. Emergency Power Building
s u r e ceiling plenums. Return a i r from the MOCR's
and visitors viewing a r e a s is drawn through grills, lo- The office, shop, and control rooms of the emergency
cated under the leading edge of the stepped floor, to power building are air conditioned to maintain comfort
special charcoal filter units installed under the visitors as specified for the OSW and lobby wing. An a i r con-
viewing areas. These filters remove excessive tobac- ditioner using chilled water from the tunnel supply
co smoke and odors from the a i r before conveying the system and water from the emergency power building
air back to the mechanical equipment rooms through heat exchangers is furnished for this purpose. Heaters
the ceiling plenums. maintain a comfortable temperature in all other a r e a s
of the building during the winter when the diesel en-
The high cooling load of the RTCC equipment is han- gines a r e not operating. Also, roof ventilators draw
dled by an underfloor a i r supply system. Duplicate a i r through wall louvers for ventilation during the
fans, coils, filters, and controls are installed in me- summer or at other times a s required. Manually
chanical equipment room 113 for the system, which operated dampers adjust the louvers for the desired
uses no outside air. The system supplies air to the amount of air.
RTCC a r e a s of highest heat gain through strategically
situated floor grills. The lighting and personnel cool- 4-5. FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM
ing load of the RTCC area is handled by the regular
overhead a i r distribution system. The automatic fire detection and alarm system for the
MCC-H consists of two independent systems. A spe-
As indicated earlier, emergency water heating and cial multizoned system is provided for the MQW and a
cooling facilities are located in the emergency power conventional zoned system is provided for the OSW,
building to backup the heating and cooling plant that lobby wing, and emergency power building.
supplies warm and cool water to the MOW. Water
pumps in the emergency power building circulate warm 4-5-1. Mission !Operations Wing
and cool water through the a i r conditioning coils in the
MOW mechanical equipment rooms. A 5-minute The special multizoned automatic fire detection and
change-over period is required to switch from the alarm system in the MOW is independent of the sys-
MSC heating and cooling plant loop to the emergency tem in the OSW and lobby wing. The special system
backup system. A s an added measure to ensure con- has three major zones {one for each floor) terminating
tinuous operation, each MOW mechanical equipment in the special master fire alarm equipment group in
room contains dual a i r handling equipment including the lobby wing security office. Each major zone is
supply fan, heating and cooling coils, air filters, and divided into minor zones that provide fire detecting
controls. and alarm coverage for each minor zone area.

4-3
Section I V PHO- FAMOO1
Paragraphs 4-5-2 to 4-7
Each minor zone is further divided into subzones con- modifications. A raised modular floor system con-
taining combustion detector units capable of detecting taining removable floor panels for easy cable access
smoke, o r fire. When indication of a fire or a haz- is installed over the major portion of the MOW floor
ardous condition within the areas covered by the spe- structures. A similar floor system is also installed
cial system is received at the master fire alarm in several rooms of the OSW. Cable access between
equipment, an alarm is automatically transmitted to floors of the MOW is accomplished by utilizing ver-
the MSG fire station, building 25. tical cable riser cabinets located in the periphery of
the building. Permanent personnel ladders a r e lo-
4-5-2. Operations Support Wing and l o b b y Wing cated between the cable trays of each cabinet. Hinged
doors provide ready access to the vertical cable trays
and personnel ladders and completely conceal them
The conventional system in the OSW and lobby wing when closed. One vertical cable riser cabinet is lo-
consists of one zone for each floor and terminates in cated in the OSW to provide cable access between
the conventional master fire alarm equipment group second and third floor laboratories.
in the lobby wing security office. When smoke or fire
is detected, alarms will be sounded and a coded signal
transmitted to the MSC fire station by the master fire In addition to the automatic fire detection and alarm
alarm equipment. system previously discussed, portable fire extin-
guishers a r e located throughout the MCC-H for inter-
4-5-3. Emergency Power Building nal fire protection. Also, a cart-type unit is stored
on each floor of the MOW and a dry standpipe system
The fire detection and alarm system for the emergency is provided. A wet standpipe system with fire hose
power building is identical to the OSW and lobby wing cabinets is distributed throughout the OSW. An emer-
system and is keyed to the central fire alarm equip- gency smoke-purging system employing two roof -
ment at the MSC fire station. mounted exhaust fans is installed to permit rapid re-
moval of smoke from the MOW. Fire dampers, op-
4-6. TELEPHONE SYSTE erated automatically by fuses, a r e provided in all
ducts passing through fire walls except in the MOW
Telephone service lines for private conversation enter where manually operated dampers are provided. This
the MSC telephone facility building (47) along with deviation from normal safety practices is accepted
Manned Spaceflight Network communication lines. All due to the overriding priority that mission operations
lines a r e routed from the telephone building through will continue during all, but the most severe, emer-
the utility tunnel to MOW room 127. From there, the gencies.
private telephone lines branch out to telephone equip-
ment closets on each floor of the MCC-H. Individual
circuits then spread out to personal telephone units. Acoustical paneling is used on the ceilings of the
The MCC-H Communications System can be connected MCC-H, and the walls of certain a r e a s a r e specially
into the private telephone network, if required, during treated for noise reduction. Also, certain areas,
emergency operations. such a s the MOCR's a r e carpeted to further absorb
sound and reduce noise.
4-7. SPECIAL FEATURES
A built-in vacuum cleaning system, installed in the
The special features necessary for the type of opera- mechanical equipment rooms, facilitates cleaning the
tions conducted within the MCC-H include an electrical plenums and mechanical equipment. A %-foot hose
grounding system , provisions for equipment cabling and other vacuum cleaning equipment a r e stationed
access and routing, internal fire protection, noise at- near the vacuum duct inlet servicing each mechanical
tenuation, a vacuum cleaning system, elevators to equipment room.
service each floor, and shoe cleaners to cut down on
surface dirt brought into the MOW.
Six hydraulic elevators a r e installed in the MCC-H
building. One elevator is located in the northwest
The MCC-H main grounding system consists of a cop- corner of the MOW, two in the southeast corner of the
per, ground-grid loop buried 18 inches below grade.
MOW, two in the north end of the OSW, and one in the
Numerous ground rods are attached to the ground-grid south end of the OSW. One of the elevators in the
to establish a low resistance ground. Ground cables
southeast corner of the MOW serves the lobby wing
extend from the main grounding system to various lo- and the MOW.
cations throughout the MCC-H. A technical grounding
system extends throughout the MOW for the exclusive
use of functional system equipments. Two shoe cleaners a r e provided in the first floor cor-
ridors of the MOW. The shoe cleaners operate auto-
Various provisions a r e made in the MCC-H to ensure matically , whenever they a r e stepped upon, to remove
rapid access to equipment interconnection cabling. dirt from the shoe soles of anyone entering the MOW.
This could be important when a cable-associated mal- Additionally, a master ON-OFF control switch is wall-
function occurs or when accomplishing equipment mounted immediately adjacent to each shoe cleaner.

4-4
.-

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PHO-FAM001 Section V
Paragraphs 5-1 to 5-8

This section describes the organizational groupings required to man the MCC-H Mission
Operations Wing during actual and simulated mission operations.

5-1. GENERAL
The MCC-Houston personnel structure includes the The Systems Operations Group is responsible for
mission director and six organizational groups that monitoring and evaluating flight crew status and ana-
a r e required to perform active mission control and lyzing the performance of the electrical, mechanical,
support functions: Mission Command and Control, and life support systems aboard all vehicles involved
Mission Command and Control Support, Flight Dynam- in a manned or unmanned spaceflight mission. In ad-
ics, Systems Operations, RTCC Computer Control, dition, this group is responsible for issuingthe vehicle
and Maintenance and Operations. (See figure 5-1.) systems commands, determining preventive and/or
The personnel structure includes one group, Public remedial actions if contingencies and malfunctions oc-
Affairs Information Control, that does not perform cur, and for conducting voice interchanges between
active mission control and support functions. the spacecraft and MCC-H.

5-2. MlSSlO P TRO


The RTCC Computer Control Group monitors the per-
The Mission Command and Control Group exercises formance of the RTCC computers, observes and eval-
detailed mission control from operating positions lo- uates computer -generated displays, provides direct
cated in one of the MOCR's. The group monitors and consultation to MOCR and SSR personnel, and manually
analyzes mission status, implements appropriate ac- inserts data into the computers, as required, during
tions to support flight plans and mission objectives, mission periods.
and provides detailed direction and control of all ma-
jor system elements. 5-7 * NA
5-3. MISSION COM AND CONTROL The Maintenance and Operations Group is responsible
SUPPORT GROUP for the performance of MCC-H equipment and its abil-
ity to support a mission. During nonmission periods,
The Mission Command and Control Support Group ex- the group accomplishes corrective and preventive
ercises detailed mission control from SSR's, the RCR, maintenance on the MCC -H equipment a s necessary
the meteorological center, and the communications to ensure optimum performance. During mission peri-
control room. The group monitors and controls in- ods, the group operates specified equipment, moni-
coming and outgoing data, controls and coordinates t o r s equipment performance, and performs critical
recovery operations, and provides weather analysis maintenance as required.
and forecasts. The Maintenance and Operations Group is directed by
the Network Controller who exercises operational con-
5-4. FLIGHT DYNAMICS GROUP t r o l of all MCC-H equipment during mission periods.

The Flight Dynamics Group personnel are primarily


concerned with vehicle trajectories. The group mon- ATION CONTROL
itors and evaluates all aspects of powered flight con-
cerning crew safety and orbital insertion, evaluates
and recommends modification of orbital trajectories The Public Affairs Information Control Group coor-
t o meet mission objectives, and continuously updates dinates public affairs information with commercial
retrofire information for both planned and contingency news media and other interested agencies. The group
reentry situations. does not engage in mission control activities.

5-1/5-2
I
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I
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--I-
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I
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"F
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I I
I I
I
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3

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7-----

‘I
I
PHO-FAM001 Appendix A

APPENDIX A
MCC- OUSTO ON SUPP RT ~ A ~ U A L S

The support manuals, containing detailed technical of manuals illustration lists the three functional sys-
descriptions of the MCC-H functional equipment, a r e tems within MCC-H and, when applicable, all related
listed in the system/subsystem family of manuals il- subsystem and equipment maintenance manuals. Refer
lustrations in figures A-1 through A-11. Each family to appendix C for the ASCATS family of manuals.

A-1
Appendix A PHO-FAMOO1

COMMUNICA%IONS, REAL TIME APOLLO SIMDLAl¶ON,


COMMAND, AND COMPUTER COMPLEX CHECKOUT, AND
TELEMETRY SYSTEM SYSTEM TRAINIMG SYSTEM
SYSTEM MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MAINTENANCE MANUAW MANUALS MANUALS
MANUALS
L

I I I I

VOICE
COMMUNICATIONS
SUBSYSTEM MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE SUMYSTEM SUBSYSTEM
PHO-SMlO4 MANUAL
PHO-SM105
PHO-SMlO2 PRO-SM103 VOLS I AND II v o ~IsT H R ~m PHO-sMlOB
VOLSITHRUDI

PaO-EMOOI STANDARD DIGITAL COMPONENTS


PHO-EM002 UXIIC CARD TESTER (VOLS I AND n)
PHO-EM114 HlGH-SPEED DATA TEST AND PATCH EQUIPMENT (VOLSI AND n)
HIGH-SPEED DATA RECORDING FACILlTY (VOLS I AND ll)
TELETYPE TEST AND PATCH EQUIPMENT
AUDIO TEST AND PATCH EQUIPMENT
MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDER/REPRODUCER PHO-OA1451 (VOLS 1AND ll)
PHO-EM128 S o h RECORDER/REPRODUCERS PHO-RD1002 AND PHO-HD1003
PHO-EM130 SOUND RECORDER PHO-RP1001 (DUAL SPEAKZR AMPLIFIER)
PHO-EM134 TELEDATA ANALYSIS SET PHO-SG1015 WOLS 1 THRU IJi)
PHO-EM140 WIDE BAND DATA TRANSFER SWITCH EQUIPMENT
PHO-EM141 TAPE READER AND SPOOLER EQUIPMENT
PHO-EM142 CHECKOUT SUBCHANNEL BUFFER PHO-OA1462
PHO-EM143 HIGH-SPEED TRANSLATORPHO-CV1024 AND HIGH-SPEED TELEPRINTER
- .- .-
UHO-T7.Tl~lfi
..
PHO-EM144 HIGk-SPEED TELEPRINTER MTERFACE EQUIPMENT PBO-OA14T4
PHO-EM145 DlClTAL DATA RECEIVER PHO-YR1010
WIDE BAND DATA PATCH AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT (VOLS I AND ll)
QSCILLAJSCOPE PHO-OAIOIT
DlGlTAL DISPLAY INDICATOR PHO-ml062 (TIMEDISPLAY UNIT)
LINE TRANSMITTER/RECENER
PHO-EM625 MEMORY UNIT PHO-MU€OOB
PHO-SM404 STATUS AND ~ I F I C A T I O NRECEIVINO SUBSYSTEM EQUIPMENT
PHO-SM504 COUNTDOWN AND STATUS RECEIVING SUBSYSTEM EQUIPMENT
WTCC 102 DATA CONTROL UNIT TYPES 1 THRU 8-VOLUMESI AND n (INTERNATIONAL
BUSINESS MACHlNES CORPOBATION)
NASA TELETYPE MONITOR CONSOLE (TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA 2OlA DATA SET (BELL SYSTEM)
NASA 2OlB DATA SET (BELL SYSTEM)
NASA SOlH DATA SET (HELL SYSTEM)

'MANUFACTURERS HANDBOOK DESIGNATION

H-1184.648

Figure A-1 . Communications Facility Control Subsystem Family of Manuals


A-2
PHO- FAMOO 1 Appendix A

COMMUNICATIONS, REAL TIME AwLLosItmJLATIoN,


COMMAND, AND DmpLAy~wNmoL COMPUTER COMPLEX CHECKOUT, AND
TELEMETRY SYSTEM SYSTEM TWINING SYSTEM
SYSTEM MALNTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MAINTENANCE MANUALS MANUALS MANUAJS
-Ala

1I
' I

COMMUNICATIONS
VOICE FACILITY CENTRAL TELEMETRY PNEUMATIC TUBE
COMMUNICATIONS CONTROL PROCESSOR SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM TELETYPE AND
SUBSYSTEM SUBYSTEM SUBSYSTEM MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT FACSIMILE
MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE MANUAL MAINTWANCE SUBSYSTEM
MANUAL MANUAL MANUAL PKO-SM104 MANUAL MANUALS
PKO-SMlOS PKO-SM102 PKO-SMIOI VOLSIANDII PKO-SMlOB
VOLS I TKRU m vow I TKRU m
I I 1 I

PKO-EM111 COMMUNICATIONS LINE SWITCH


PKO-EM112 CONSULE COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT (VOLS I AND 11)
PKO-EM113 VOICE RECORDING FACILITY (YOLS I AND II)
PKO-EM117 AIFC/GROUND CONTROL EQUIPMENT
PKO-EM127 PUBLIC ADDRESS EQUIPMENT
PKO-EM128 CENTRAL POWER SUPPLY
PKO-EM129 S0UI-D RECOF0ER/REPRODUCERS PKSRD1002 AM) PRO-RD1003
PKO-EM130 SOUND REPRODUCER PEO-RP1001 (DUAL SPEAKERAMPLIFIER)

K-11W.651

Figure A-2. Voice Communications Subsystem Family of Manuals

A-3
Appendix A PHO-FAMOO1

MCC
MAINTENANCE
-AL
Pno-sM001
VOLS I m u III

COMMUMCATIONS
FACILITY CENTRAL VOICE PNEUh&4RC TVBE
COMMUNICARONS SUBSYSTEM
PROCESSOR SUBSYSTEM TELETYPE AND
SUBSYSTEM EQUIPMENT COMMAND FACSIMILE
MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MANUAL SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM
PHO-SMIOI MANUAL MANUAL MANUAL MANUALS
VOLS I AND n PRO-SMIOP PHO-SMlOS PHO-a05 PHO-SM106
VOLS I m u El VOLS I m u m

I
PHO-EM001 STANDARD DIGITAL COMPONENTS
PHO-EM002 LOGIC CARD TESTER (VOLS I AND U)
OUTPUT TRANSFER SWITCH EQUIPMENT
F'M GROUND STATION EQUIPMENT (VOLS I AND U)
CHART RECORDER PHO-OAlZ6I
EVENT RECORDER PHO-OA1153
PHC-EM133 TELEMETRY SUPERVISOR CONSOLE EQUIPMENT (VOLS I THRU m)
TELEMETRY EVENT DECODER EQUIPMENT
BIOMEDICAL DATA ANALYSIS AND DISPLAY EQUIPMENT PHO-OA1621
CHART RECORDER PHO-TSlO51
DIGITAL DISPLAY DRIVER SUBCHANNEL DATA DISTRIBUTOR
TELEMETRY EVENT DRIVERS PHO-OAIITS
CONSOLE MODULE EQUIPMENT (voLs I m u m,
DIGlTAL DISPLAY DRIVERS WDL-OA-623
PCM GROUND STATION PHO-OAI248 lVOLS I AND Ill
PHO-EM331 PCM GROUND STATION LOGIC ELEMENTS

H-llM. 8836

Figure A-3. Telemetry Subsystem Family of Manuals


A-4
PHO-FAMOO 1 Appendix A

FAMILkUUZATION
PHO-FAMOO1

MAINTENANCE
PHO-SMOOl
vom I m u m

COMMUNICATIONS,
DLspLAy'coNTRoL REAL TIME APiJLLO SIMULATION,
COMMAND, AND COMPUTER COMPLEX CHECKOUT, AND
TELEMETRY SYSTEM
SYSTEM MAINTENANCE SYSTEM TRAWMG SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE MANUALS MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MANUALS MANUALS MANUALS

SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE

PHO-SMlO3
COMMUNICATIONS

SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE

PHO-SMlO2
MLS I THRU m
I
VOICE
COMMUNICATIONS
SUBSISTEM
MAINTENANCE
MANLJAL
PHO-SM105
VOLS I TliRu m
PNEUMATIC TUBE
SUBSYSTEM
EQUIPMENT
MAINTENANCE
MANLJAL
PHO-SMlO6
TELETYPE AND
FACSIMILE
SUBSYSTEM 11-11 COMMAND
SUBSYSTEM
I TELEMETRY
SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE

VOLS I AND n
I

PHO-EM143 HIGH-SPEED TRANSLATOR PHO-CV1024 AND HIGH-SPEED TELEPRINTER PHO-TTlOlB


PHO-EM257 CONSOLE MODULE EQUIPMENT (vovors I THRU m)
*HB1603 UNISERVO mc SUBSYSTEM (UNIVAC DIVISION OF SPERRY RAND cow. )
-HB1617 PERIPHERAL EQUIP. POWER DISTRIBUTION ( W A C DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP. )
*HB1642 CONTROL CONSOLE (UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY HAND CORP. )
*HB1652 EZECTRONTC TRANSFER SWITCHES (UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP. )
*HH1665 IH-880 DRUM SUBSYSTEM (UNIVAC DlVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP.)
*HB1667 U-494 CENT. PROCESSOR - VOLS I AND U (UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP. )
*RBI668 CORE MEMORY TYPE 7005-02 AND 7005-06 ( W A C DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP. )
*AB1700 U-1004 MAINT. HANDBOOK - VOLS I AND U (UNNAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP.)
*MA1214 STANDARD COMM. SUBSYGTEM (UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP. )
*PX2043 UNLSERVOmc TAC (WAC DIVISION OF SPERRY RAND cow. )
*Pxa218 LINE ISOLATOR - WIDE BAND (UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP. )
*PX2233 FH-680 DRUM CONTROL AND POWER (UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP.)
*PXZ238 UN~SERM mc CONTROL AND POWER (WAC DIVISIONOF SPERRY RAND cow. )
'PX2440 UNISERVO mc (UNIVAC DIVISION OF SPERRYRAND cow. )
"PX2712 YO TRANSFER SWITCHES ( W A C DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP. )
*PX2775 CONTROL CONSOLE ( W A C DIVISION O F SPEHRY RAND CORP. )
*PX2785 FH-880 DRUM (UNIVAC DIYWON O F SPERRY RAND CORP.
*PX3076 U-494 MEMORY TYPE 7005-02 ( W A C DIVISION O F SPERHY RAND COW. )
*PX307B U-494 MEMORY TYPE 7005-06 (UMVAC DIVISION OF SPERRY RAND CORP. )
*PX3088
*PX3142
-
U-494 CENT. PROCESSOR VOLS I AND I3 ( W A C DNISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP.)
-
STANDARD COMM. SUBSYSTEM M SPEED (WNWAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORP. )
LPX3ZIT
*PX3408
-
LINE ISOLATOR m SPEED WNNAC DIVISION OF SPERRY RAND cow.)
u-494/70~4m SPEED ADAPTER W A C D ~ OF SPERRY
N RAND cow. )
*PX3715 STANDAFD coma. SUBSYSTEM - m SPEED ~UNNAC DNISION OF SPERRY RAND CORP.
tPX39Ol SPECUL P o L m i o ~ ~L Y S T E M
~ A DIVISION
C OF SPERRY RAND cow. )
GFE M m E L 28 KEYBOARD SEND-RECEIVE S E T (TELETYPE CORPlJRATION)

'MANUFACTURER'S HANDBOOK DESIGNATION

H-1194. 657

Figure A-4. Central Processor Subsystem Family of Manuals

A-5
Appendix A PHO-FAMOOI

FAMIWZATION
PHO-FAMOO1

MCC
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
PHO-SMWl
VOLS I TRRU Ill

I I

I I I I

CODIIMUNICATIONS, REAL TIME APOLLO SIMULATION,


COMMAND, AND D1spLAy'cmTRoL COMPUTER COMPLEX CHECKOUT, AND
TELEMETRY SYSTEM
SYSTEM MAINTENANCE SYSTEM TRAINING SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE MANUAL8 MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MANUfil MANUALS MANUALS

I I I I
COMMUNICATIONS
TELEMETRY VOICE
CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS PNEUMATIC TUBE
TELETYPE PROCESSOR SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM
SUBSYSTEM MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT
FACSIMILE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM
PHO-SM104 MANUAL
SUESYSTEM MANUAL PHO-SM105 MANUAL
PHO-SM103 VOLSIANDII VOLS I THRU m PHO-SMlO6
VOLS I THRU m

L
NASA MODEL $3-759 (XC-Z/GX) MODIFIED, FACSIMILE RECEIVER (WESTREX DIVISION
OF LITTON SYSTEMS INCORPORATED)
NASA MODEL 9244, FULLY AUTOMATIC CONTINUOUS FACSIMILE RECORDER (ALDEN
ELECTRONIC AND IMPULSE RECORDING EQUIPMENT COMPANY)
NASA MODEL 9208C, 11-INCH CONTINUCSUS FLAT COPY SCANNER TRANSMITTER (ALDEN
ELECTRONIC AND IMPULSE RECORDING EQUIPMENT COMPANY)
NASA CALL DIRECTOR (BELL SYSTEM)
NASA-ME518 MODEL 28 PRINTER, GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND THEORY OF OPERATION
(TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME520 MODEL 28 PAGE PRINTER SET LP, LK, LB, LAC, ADJUSTMENTS AND LUBRlCATION
(TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME522 MODEL 28 TRANSMITTER DISTRIBUTOR LXD, LXDB, LXDC, ADJUSTMENTS AND
LUBRICATION (TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME529 XODEL 28 TYPING REPERFORAMR SET LPR LRB LRC, LT, DESCRIPTION AND
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION (TELETYPE COdpORAi?oN)
NASA-ME524 MODEL 28 TYPING REPERFORATOR SET, ADJUSTMENTS AND LUBRICATION
(TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME525 MODEL 28 PERFORATOR TRANSMITTER LAK LPE LAAC, DESCBJPTION AND
THEORY OF OPERATION (TELETYPE CORPOkATIOh)
NASA-ME521 MODEL 28 PERFORATOR TRANSMITTER LAK, LPE, LTPE, LAC, ADJUSTMENTS
AND LUBRICATION (TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME528 MODEL 28 TRANSMITTER DISTRIBUTOR LAXD, DESCRIPTION AND THEORY OF
OPERATION (TELETYPE CORWRAlTON)
NASA-ME528 MODEL 28 TRANSMITTERDISTRIBUTOR LAXD, ADJUSTMENTS AND LUBRICATicN
(TELETYPE CORPORATIONI
NASA-ME531 MODEL 28 TRANSMITTER DISTRIBUTOR IXD LXDB LXDC, DESCRIPTION AND
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION (TELETYPE CO;(PORA&ONl
NASA-ME511 MODEL 28 TRANSMITTER DISTRlBUTOR SET (28TD). FIXED HEAD SINGLE
CONTACT TYPE, PARTS BREAICDOWN (TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME544 MODEL 28 TYPING REPERFORATOR SET (LPR), PARTS BREAWOWN (TELETYPE
CORPORATION)
NASA-MESM MODEL 28 AUTOMATIC SEND-RECEIVE SET (ASR), PARTS BREAKDOWN (TELETYPE
.
MaDnaamnhn
,
NAsA-MEsrl8 MODEL 28 TAPE SPLICER (LTS), PARTS BREAKDOWN (TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA MODEL R-159 (XC-Z)/CX MODIFIED FACSIMILE RECENER WESTREX DIVISION
OF LJT'TUN SETEMS I N C O R W W T b
NASA MODEL 9244, FULLY AUTOMATIC CONTINUOUS FACSIMILE RECORDER (ALDEN
ELECTROMC AND IMPWISE RECORDING EQUIPMENT COMPANY)
NASA MODEL SZO~C,ii-mcn CONTINUOUSFLAT COPY SCANNER TRANSMITTER WEN
ELECTRONIC AND RKPULSE RECORDING EQUIPMENT COMPANY)
NASA CALL DIRECTOR (BELL SYSTEM)
NASA TELETYPE UXlP SWITCHBOARD (BELL SYSTEM)

H-1194.9209

Figure A-5. Teletype and Facsimile Subsystem Family of Manuals

A-6
PHO - FAMO O 1 Appendix A

FAMILIARIZLTION
PHO-FAMOOl

MCC
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
PHO-WOO1
VOLS I m u rn

I
I I I I

MAINTENANCE
MAINTENANCE MANUALS MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MANUALS MANUALS MANUALS

EQUIPMENT SWSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE


MAINTENANCE WTENANCE MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM
PHO-SMlO4 MANUALS
PHO-SMlO5
PHO-SM106 PHO-SMlOZ PHO-SMlO3 VOLS I AND II VOLS I THRU Ul
VOLS I THRU

H-lIW.650

Figure A-6. Pneumatic Tube Subsystem Family of Manuals

A-7
Appendix A PHO- FAMOO1

FAMUJARIZATION

PHO-FAMOO1

MCC
mENANCE
m A L
PBo-sMw1
v o ~IsTHRU m

COMMUNICATIONS,
REAL TIME APOLLO SIMULATION,
DISPLAY/CONTHOL COMMAND, AND COMPUTER COMPLEX CHECKOUT, AND
SYSTEM TELEMETRY SYSTEM TRAINING SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MANUALS MAINTENANCE MANUALS MlUWALS
MANUALS

DISPLAY/CONTROL 1 TELEVISION I GROUP


INTERFACE DJSPLAY
SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE WENANCE
MANUAL
PHO-Sbl206
I voLslTHRuv I PHo-SM204

PHO-EM001 STANDARD DIGITAL COMPONENTS


PHO-EM002 LOGIC CARD TESTER WOLS I AND lI)
PHO-EM211 DIGITAL-TO-TELEVISION CONVERTER (YOU I AND lI)
PHO-EM212 SLIDE FILE EQUIPMENT
PHO-EM217 DIGITAL-TUTELEVISION CAMERA AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT
PHO-EM220 RTCC ENCODEWMULTIPLEmR EQUIPMENT (VOLS I THRU IJI)
PHO-EM221 DIGITAL DISPLAY DRNER EQUIPMENT
PHO-EM223 DIGITAL DLSPLAY DRNER SUBCHANNEL DATA DISTRIBUTOR
PHO-EM224 CONVERTER SLIDE FILE DATA DISTRIBUTOR PHO-OA1213
PHO-EM227 FILE SLIDE MAKING EQUIPMENT
PHO-EM245 TELEMETRY EVENT DRIVERS PHO-OAll75
PHO-EM247 POWER SUPPLIES PHO-PPlOl2 AND PHGPP1127
PHO-EM253 DIGITAL- KI-ANALOG CONVERTER EQUIPMENT PliO.OA1366
PHO-EM257 CONWLE MODULE EQUIPMENT (VOLS I THRU m)
PHO-EM262 DIGITAL-KI-ANALOG CONVERTER EQUIPMENT PHO-OAl612
PHO-EM263 ENCODER EQUIPMENT PHO.OA1599 WOLS I THHU NI
PHO-EM271 COMPUTER RESTAFLT MGDULE PRO-YCl417
PHSEM272 CCATS ENCODEWMULTIPLEXER ECUIPMENT WOLS I AND lI)
PHO-EM330 EVENT MONITORWG EQUIPMENT
NASA FOUR-CHANNEL CARDIWCOPE GEM3147571 (BENDnt-PACIFIC)
NASA FOUR-CHANNEL CARDIWCOPE REMOTE CONTROL PANEL
GEM3147572 (BENDIX-PACIFIC)

H-li(w.676

Figure A-7. Computer Display/Control Interface Subsystem Family of Manuals

A-8
PHO-FA MOO^ Appendix A

FAMUIARIZAlTON
PHO-FAMOO1

MAINTENANCE
MANLIAL
PHO-SMOOI
VOLS I THRU m

MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE


MANUALS MAINTENANCE MANUAL8 MANUALS
MANUALS

TIMING
SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
1 + TELEVISION
SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
PHO-SM205 PHO-SM202
VOLS I AND n VOM I THRU V PHGSMZ04 PHO-SM206
VOLS I THRU N

I
PHO-EM001 STANDARD DIGITAL COMPONENTS
PHO-EM002 LOGIC CARD TESTER (VOLS I AND n)
PHO-EM218 MASTER IIISTRUMENTATION TIMING EQUIPMENT ( v o u I AND n)
PHO-EM219 RELATIVE TIME ACCUMULATUR (VOLS I AND 111
PHO-EM225 SIGNAL DATA CONVERTER PHO-CV1002 BERIAL DECIMAL TIME COWER1
WALL CLOCK EQUIPMEINT
ATLANTIC MISSILE RlllW E COUNTDOWNPROCESSOR EQUIPMENT
STOP CLOCK EQIJIPMENT
. _ . SIGNAL DATA CONVERTER PHO-CV1001 (MERCURY TIMING SIMUL A.TOR)
PHO-EM236 DIGITAL DISPLAY INDICATOR PHO-ID1062 (TIME DISPLAY UNIT)
DUAL STOP CLOCK EQUIPMENT PHO-YC1261
TmdING INTERFACE UNIT
CONSOLE MODULE EQUIPMENT (VOW I THRU IU)
EVENT RECORDER TINIING INTERFACE UNIT PHO-MX1440
PHO-EM270 TIME COINCIDENCE EQUIPMENT

H-1194.432

Figure A-8. Timing Subsystem Family of Manuals

A-9
Appendix A PHO- FAMOO 1

FAMILUKIZATION
PHO-FAMOO1

MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
voLS1THRum

I J
1
I I I I
COMMUNICATIONS, REAL TIME APOLLO SIMULATION

--
DISPLAY/CONTROL COMPUTER COMPLEX
SYSTEM TELEMETRY CHECKOUT, AND
SYSTEM TRAINING SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MANUALS MANUALS
MANUAL3

TELEVISION GROUP DISPLAY/CONTHOL


SUBSYSTEM DISPLAY SUarYSTEM INTERFACE
MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM
MANUAL MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
PHO-SMZOZ MANUAL PHO-SM205 MANUAL
VOIS I THRU v PHO-sM204 VOLSIANDU PHO-SM206
VOIS I THRU Iy

PHO-EM001 STANDARD DIGITAL COMPONENls


PHO-EM002 LOGIC CARD TESTER POLS I AND U)
PHO-EM213 TELEWSION CAMERA CHAIN EQLWMENT
VIDEO SWITCHING MATRICES
TELEVISION VIEWERS PHO-IP1006, PHO-IPlOO?, AND PRO-IP1030
TELEVISION VIEWER PHO-IPlOOl
DIGITAL-MTELEVISION CAMERA AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT
VIDEO AND P W E DBTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT
VmEO TAPE RECORDER P O I S I THRU V)
TIME ELEMENT COMPENSATOR
VIDEO SCANNER CONTROL PHO-OAI2lI
PE&iMZ41 HARDCOPYRECOBDER
PHO-EM242 TELEVISION TEST GENERAMR
PHO-EM243 ELECTRICAL SYNCHRONIZERS PRO-SNlOO2 AND PHO-SN1003
(TELEVISIONSYNC GENERATORS)
PHO-EM244 TIME DISPLAY CONTERTER PHO-OA1073
STABILIZING AMPLIFIER PHO-AM1004
POWER SUPPLIES PHO-PPI012 AND PHO-PPI127
VIDEO WAVEFOB3 MONITOR PHO-OS1002
T E L E W O N RECENER PHOYC1249
TELEVISION VIEWER PHO-IPlOO8
PHO-EM251 TELEVISION VIEWERS PHO-IPlOO2. PHO-IP1003. PHO-IP1004. AND
PHO-IP1005
PHO-EM252 TELEVISION EDITOR SWITCHING MATRM PHO-YC1209
PHO-EM254 TELEVISION VIEWER PHO-IPlOlT
PHO-EM257 CONSOLE MODULE EQUIPMENT (VOLS I THRU m)
VIDEO _____
_. TRANSMITTER PHO-YTIOOB AND VIDEO RECEIVER PHO
I'LLLVWIUN SYNC b C N lLRATOR
.YR1007
IMAGE ORTHICON C A W
TELEVISION SUBSYSTEM MISCELlLANEOW CO1 'ENTS
VIDEO AND PULSE DETRIBUTION EQUIPMENT 1 SERIES) 5
TELEVISION VIEWER PHO-IPlM4
SPECIAL EFFECTS GENERATOR
VIDEO AMPLIFIER PRO-AM1019

H-1181.689

Figure A-9. Television Subsystem Family of Manuals

A- 10
PHO-FAMOO1 Appendix A

MCC
FAMILUWZATION
MANUAL
PEOFAMWI

bUlNTENANCE
MANUAL
PgOsMO01
VOLS I m u m

COMMUNICATIONS, REAL TlME APOLLO mmm'


DISPLAY/CONTROL COMMAND, AND COMPUTER COMPLEX CHECKOUT, AND
SYSTEM TELEMETRY SYSTEM TRAININGSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE
MANUAL3 MAINTENANCE MANUAL3 MANuALa
MANU-

COMPUTER
GROUP TELEYLmON TDrlINo DISPLAY/CONTROL
DISPLAY SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM INTERFACE
SUBSYSTEM MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM
MAINTENANCE MANUAL MANUAL MAINTENANCE
&LANuAL PHo-sM2oa PHOSM205 MANUAL
PHO-Q\IZOI VOLS I THRU v VOLSIANDU PRO-SM206
VOLS I THRU N

I
PRO-EM001 STANDARD DIGITAL COMPONENTS
PLOTTING DISPLAY SWCRANNEL DATA DISTRIBUTOR
X-Y PLOTBOARD PHOOA1255 (VOLS 1 AND n)
PROJECTION PLOTTING DISPLAY EQUIPMENT WOLS I THRU IV)
PROJECTION TELEVISION DISPLAY EOUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT
PHO-EM235 TRANSPARENCY PROJECTION DISPLA?
DISPLAY EQUIPMENT
PHCLEM257 CONSOLE MODULE EQUIPMENT WOLS I THRU m)
PHO-EM260 DUAL LINE RATE PROJECTION TELEVISION DISPLAY EQUIPMENT
PHOOAl386

E-llW.688

Figure A-10. Group Display Subsystem Family of Manuals

A-11
Appendix A PHO-FAMOO1

MCC
MAINTENANCE

VOIS I THRU rn

?dAltiTENANCE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE


MANUALS MAINTENANCE MANUAL8
MANUALS
L
-I
*RTfX-lOl COMPUTER MONITOR AND CONTROL CONSOLE (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
MACHINES CORPORATION)
*RTCC-l02 DATA CONTROL UNITS (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
*RTCC-lOI ~ ~ PATTERN ~ GENERATOR m
(INTERNATIONAL
~ BUSINESS~ MACHINES n ~ ~
L-'.r"M I&"&.,

*RTCC-104 SYSTEM SELECTOR UNIT (INTERNATIONAL BUSINEES MACHINES CORPORATION)


*RTCC-105 COMPUTER CONTROLLER MULTIPLEXER UNIT AND CONTROL AREA JUNCTION UNIT
(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
Z3%l;ZFw,DATA
*RTCC-106
*RTCC-107
.,.,..=-.-..-.., RECORDER (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES
X-Y RECORDER (INTERNATIONAL BUSUJESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
*RTCC-108 MANUAL ENTRY DEVICE (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
*A21-9026 CARD PROCESSOR ONTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION1
*A22-6864-1 DATA ADAPTER UNIT (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
*A22-6866 MAGNETIC TAPE UNIT (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
*A226860 CORE STORAGE UNIT mUTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
*A224877 CENTRAL
~~~ ~ ~PROCESSOR
-..
~ CONTROL CONSOLE Ahm PNNTER KEYBOARD
~~

(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHLNES CORPORATION) '


*A22-6880-0 360/75 CENTRAL PROCESSOR UNIT AND CENTRAL PR6CESSOR MEMORY UNIT
(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
*A24-3073-3 PNNTER, KEYBOARD (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)
*A24-3120 PRINTER. KEYBOARD ONTERNATlONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION1
*A24-3312 CARD PR~CESSOR.P R ~ ~ T ECONTROL
R UNXTOGTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES
CORPORATION) .
*A26-3567 D E STORAGE DRIVE UNIT (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORWIULTION)
*m.s-wa8-3 DISC STORAGE CONTROL UNfP (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION)

81194.4961

Figure A-11. Real Time Computer Complex System Family of Manuals

A- 12
PHO-FAN1001 Appendix B

APPENDIX B
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MANNED SPACEFLIGHT NETWO~K

During operational missions, the Manned Spaceflight necessary. At various times during a mission, it is
Network functions as a remote a r m of the MCC-H. A necessary to issue command data to control certain
discussion of the basic Manned Spaceflight Network/ vehicle system functions. The necessary command is
MCC -Houston data interchange requirements follows. initiated at the appropriate time by the responsible
flight controller and transmitted to the spacecraft.
The Manned Spaceflight Network is divided into two
types of facilities: Deep Space Instrumentation and All data is exchanged between the MCC-H and the
Near Space Instrumentation Facilities. Earth orbital Manned Spaceflight Network in digital coded form ex-
missions a r e monitored and controlled by the Near cept selected biomedical telemetry measurements,
Space Instrumentation Facilities. At such time as the which are transmitted to the MCC-H in frequency-
spacecraft departs the earth orbit and starts its flight modulated form. All other telemetry measurements
towards outerspace, the Deep Space Instrumentation arrive at the MCC-H in pulse-code-modulated form.
Facilities will actively replace the Near Space Instru- The basic difference between the two is that the
mentation Facilities in the monitor and control func- frequency -modulated data is frequency divided (each
tion. The Deep Space Instrumentation Facilities con- measurement occupies a different frequency band) and
sist of 3 remote sites while the Near Space Instrumen- the pulse-code-modulated data is time divided (each
tation Facilities total 11. Additionally, there a r e five measurement occupies different intervals of time). In
ships, three for the insertion and injection phase and the first case, each measurement is allocated to a dif-
two for the reentry phase. Further assisting the ferent frequency band and all measurements a r e mul-
Manned Spacecraft Network a r e eight specially equipped tiplexed at the remote station onto a single audio line
JC-135A aircraft. Figure B-1 shows the geographical for transmission to the MCC-H. In the latter case,
location (except for the aircraft and ships) and the ca- each measurement is allocated to different periods of
pabilities of each station in the network. time and binarily coded. The resultant time-
multiplexed stream of 1's and O's, which represent in
Five basic types of spacecraft data interchange be- binary notation the specific values of measured data,
tween the MCC-H and the Manned Spaceflight Network a r e applied to a single wide banddata, high-speed data,
are required: ephemeris, tracking, acquisition, te- or teletype line (depending upon the station) for trans-
lemetry, and command. Ephemeris data, which is mission to the MCC -H.
required only during rendezvous and docking missions,
giving the position of an orbiting target vehicle is The pulse-code-modulated data transmission technique
transmitted to KSC prior to spacecraft launch. Launch is used to exchange all data, including biomedical data,
vehicle guidance systems require this information so between spacecraft and the Manned Spaceflight Net-
that proper trajectory can be achieved for orbital ren- work. Each station then picks out the biomedical data
dezvous. Tracking data is obtained by following the and-routes it to the MCC-H in frequency-modulated
spacecraft with tracking antennas and noting its spatial form over specially assigned audio lines. All other
position and velocity. In this way, the position of the data, as indicated in the preceding paragraph, is
spacecraft is known at all times and may be predicted routed to the MCC -H in pulse-code-modulated (digital
in advance of a predetermined time. Acquisition data, coded) form, whether it is routed over a wide band
giving the computed point at which a particular track- data, high-speed data, or teletype line.
ing station should pick up (acquire) and commence
tracking the spacecraft, is sent to each tracking sta- During the launch phase of a mission, televised images
tion. This data tells the station where to point its of the space vehicle are transmitted from KSC to the
tracking antenna for initial pickup of the spacecraft. MCC-H. Also, a two-way television conference loop
Telemetry data is obtained by making selected meas- is available at this time and during other mission pe-
urements on the spacecraft crew members, life sup- riods between KSC and the MCC-H. At certain peri-
port systems, and vehicle systems throughout a mis- ods during the mission, selected televised images a r e
sion and transmitting (telgmetering) the measured data transmitted from the spacecraft (if it is equipped with
to telemetry data receiving equipment. This data this capability) via stations equipped for television
enables the MCC-H flight controllers and associated reception to the MCC-H. The television signals are
specialists to monitor and analyze the performance of routed to and from the MCC-H over video lines.
the flight crew and spacecraft, since the normal value
of each measurement is known and any abnormal de- To accomplish its assigned functions during a manned
viation can be quickly detected. Some of the telem- spaceflight mission, the MCC -H requires numerous
etered data is bilevel (on-off) event information that types of information exchange with the Manned Space-
indicates t h e occurrence of events scheduled to occur flight Network and with certain governmental agencies,
at certain times during a mission. The flight control- in addition to spacecraft oriented data. This informa-
lers monitor the status (too early, too late, on time) tion includes meteorological data, network equipment
of the events and initiate appropriate actions a s status, and status of recovery forces. A great deal of
B- 1
Appendix
__ B PHO-FAMOO1

this information i s obtained through voice communica- the appropriate station or agency satisfy all other in-
tions with the appropriate station or agency. Teletype formation flow requirements.
and facsimile message traffic between the MCC -H and
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PHO- FAMOO1 Appendix C
Paragraphs 6 - i to C-3-4

APPENDIX C
A P O l l O SIM LATION, CHECKOUT, AND TRAINING SYSTEM

C-1. INTRODUCTION parameters and provide for readout of data upon re-
quest from the simulated remate site o r ASCA. The
This appendix discusses the Apollo simulation, check-
out, and training system a s to purpose of the system, interface for data exchanged between equipments in
description of equipment, functional description, and building 422 and buildings 30 and 5 is performed by
equipment in room 102. The equipment in room 102
supporting manuals.
also contains patching and termination equipment to
permit rapid mission configuration, data processing
C-2. PURPOSE OF THE SYSTEM equipment to supplement computer functions, and com-
The Apollo simulation, checkout, and training system munication equipment that provides voice communica-
(ASCATS) provides training of flight crews, remote tions facilities throughout ASCATS. Teletype equip-
site personnel, and flight controllers under conditions ment located primarily in room 107 supplies a com-
similar to those encountered during Apollo missions. munications link between ASCATS and the spaceflight
The equipment in ASCATS processes simulated mis- network.
sion data using prerecorded data, flight crew trainer
generated data, or computer generated data. Person- Building 5 equipment is located in the flight crew
nel in the ASCATS areas in building 422 insert faults trainer area. The equipment consists of interface
into the data streams. These faults a r e similar to equipment which interchanges data between the flight
those encountered during operational missions and crew trainer and buildings 422 and 30 equipment.
provide realistic problem solving conditions for the
personnel undergoing training. The simulated data is C-3-1. Console Equipment
displayed to the operators on console -mounted mod-
ules and group displays throughout the ASCATS area The console equipment consists of control consoles,
in building 422 and the Mission Control Center -Houston monitor consoles, and a maintenance console. This
(MCC-H) of building 30. Remote site personnel train- equipment is used to control and monitor all simulated
ing is accomplished by using the equipment located in mission functions.
building 422 only. Flight crew training requires the
use of building 5 equipment in addition to building 422 C-3-2. Data Processing Equipment
equipment. Building 30 equipment is used in conjunc-
tion with building 422 equipment for training of flight Data processing equipment consists of exchange con-
controllers at MCC -H and the remote sites. trol logic, a PCM telemetry output buffer, a multi-
channel demultiplexer and distributor , magnetic tape
C-3. DESCRIPTI~NOF EQUIP ME^^ recorder/reproducers, interface adapters, a data con-
trol and generator, a data encoder unit, data control
The ASCATS equipment located in buildings 422 and 5 units, and memory and character generators. This
processes and distributes all data required for simu- equipment supplements computer functions, reformats
lation of Apollo missions. The equipment is divided data, and provides signal conversion required between
into eight functional groups: console, data processing, equipments .
computer, display, interface, timing, communica-
tions, and teletype equipment. Figure C-3-1 shows a C-3-3. Computer Equipment
composite photograph of the ASCATS equipment. The
ASCATS equipment is located in buildings 422 and 5. Computer equipment consists of a GSSC, an APCU,
Building 422 equipment is contained in rooms 102, and a console computer interface adapter. This equip-
104, 106, 107, and 108 as illustrated in figure C-3-2. ment generates preprogrammed mission data, proc -
Room 106 is a simulated remote site containing con- esses all mission data in accordance with prepro-
soles and display equipment that present alphanumeric grammed instructions, makes calculations, and per-
displays and event indications to remote site personnel forms operations requested by ASCA and simulated
undergoing training. Apollo simulation control area remote site equipment.
(ASCA) equipment in room 108 contains console and
display equipment, that permit monitoring of a simu- C-3-4. Display Equipment
lated mission activity, control of the simulated data,
and data faulting. The Ground Support Simulation The display equipment consists of wall-mounted group
Computer (GSSC) and Apollo Process Control Unit displays, television viewers, analog and event re-
(APCU) located in room 104 consist of two computer corders, x-Y plotboards, high-speed teleprinters,
systems that generate simulated mission data and per- maintenance monitors and slide projectors. This
form all calculations required during the simulated equipment allows monitoring of mission and mainte-
mission. The GSSC and APCU also establish mission nance data throughout the ASCATS area.

c-1
Appendix C PHO-FAMOOl
Paragraphs C-3-5 to C-4
C-3-5. interface Equipment the flight crew training o r as a completely independent
exercise. mer, remote site personnel are being
The interface equipment consists of a data routing trained independently, the GSSC and prerecorded data
cabinet, interface cabinets, cable termination cabi- tapes are utilized a s a data source. All functions
nets, a patch equipment distribution cabinet, a decom- (monitoring, data processing, commanding, etc.) are
mutation system distribution unit located in building performed within building 422.
422 and building 5 equipment consisting of the FCT
selection patch cabinet and FCT interface equipment During training of the flight crews, data generated at
cabinet. This equipment provides a rapid and con- either building 5 o r the flight crew trainer at Kennedy
venient method of configuring the equipment for the Space Center (KSC) is routed to the ASCATS equip-
simulated missions, provides signal conversion for ment in building 422 for processing. When the trainer
transmission of data over TELCO lines, and encodes at KSC is in operation, simulated trajectory data at a
and decodes data exchanged with building 30. 40.8 Kbps rate is routed through TELCO, building 47,
facilities to the mission operation wing data link
C-3-6. Timing Equipment equipment in building 422. Telemetry data is also
generated at the flight crew trainer and routed to the
Timing equipment in ASCATS consists of the Apollo Apollo launch data system (ALDS) telemetry subsys-
time distribution frame and central timing unit. This tem for transmission to MCC building 30. Simulated
equipment receives WWV-L signals for synchroniza- manned space flight network (MSFN) data and simu-
tion and generates all timing used by the building 422 lated commands are received by the KSC flight crew
equipment. trainer from ASCATS by way of the communications
facility control subsystem. The command data re-
C-3-7. Communications Equipment ceived at the flight crew trainer instructs flight crew
personnel of actions to be performed during the sim-
The communications equipment contains pedestal- ulation. With the exception of commands, all data
mounted keysets and key boxes, common equipment required by the flight crew trainer is routed from the
racks, conference loop racks, a power rack, a test communications facility control subsystem over the
rack, an amplifier rack, an amplifier and patch rack, MSFN data lines.
a public address and air/ground rack, pedestal-
mounted jack boxes, and a combined distribution The flight crew trainer in building 5 performs functions
frame. This equipment provides voice communica- similar to those performed at the KSC flight crew
tions at each operator and maintenance position in trainer. During exercises utilizing the building 5
ASCATS and amplifies signals exchanged with buildings equipment, switching of the data lines from KSC to
30 and 5. building 5 flight crew trainer is accomplished by a
transfer switch in building 47 and patch equipment in
C-3-8. Teletype Equipment the communications facility control subsystem in
MCC. Simulated trajectory, MSFN data, and com-
The teletype equipment consists of receive-only page mands are exchanged with the flight crew trainer to
printers, automatic bend-receive sets, receive-only perform the same functions a s for the KSC trainer.
typing reperforators, and a teletype patch bay. This The timing subsystem at MCC-H routes timing signals
equipment allows monitoring of the spaceflight net- through the communications facility control subsystem
work teletype traffic and transmission of teletype data to the flight crew trainer equipment for synchroniza-
over circuits selected on the patch bay. tion and conversion to a format that provides Green-
wich mean time displays throughout the trainer. Time
C-4. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION displays for building 422 are received from the build-
ing 30 television subsystem and applied on 21-inch
Mission simulations performed by ASCATS equipment television monitors throughout the ASCATS equipment
are accomplished with one of three objectives: to train areas. Matte television displays are received from
flight crews, flight controllers, or remote site per- building 30 in the same manner. as time displays.
sonnel. Regardless of the objective, the basic func-
tions performed by ASCATS are similar. (See figure I
C-4-1.) Flight controllers located throughout the mission op-
erations wing of building 30 are trained using data
Training of flight crews requires the operation of the from ASCATS equipment with specific faults entered
flight crew trainer in building 5 o r at Kennedy Space into the data streams. The communications facility
Center. During flight crew training, the simulation control and central processor subsystems, which are
data is generated in the flight crew trainer and routed a part of Communications, Command, and Telemetry
ti, building 422. Decisions made by operators and System (CCATS), performs the interfacing required
equipment in building 422 are transferred to the flight with ASCATS. Simulated ALDS, impact predictor (IP),
crew trainer. Flight controllers in building 30 may MSFN, and command data exchanged with ASCATS
either monitor training exercises o r actively partici- equipment is routed through the communications facil-
pate in the exercise. In either event, flight control- ity control subsystem to the CCATS central processor.
lers view displays that are a result of ASCATS data Distribution of the data to flight control positions is
processing functions. Decisions made by the flight performed by the CCATS central processor. Data
controllers actively engaged in the exercise are routed generated or requested at the flight control positions
to ASCATS for processing. Remote site personnel is routed to ASCATS through the central processor
training can be accomplished either in conjunction with and communications facility control subsystems.
c-2
PHO- FAMOOl Appendix C
Paragraph C-4
Remote site personnel training is performed by using data is routed from the APCU through the ACIA to the
the equipment in ASCATS located at building 422. This CCIA. The CCIA is a small computer, which strips
training can be accomplished without connections to specific data from the command and telemetry data
building 30 o r the flight crew trainers (closed loop streams. The data stripped out is stored in the CCIA
training within building 422). Data for the remote site and routed to the ASRS upon request from the ASRS
training exercise is replayed from prerecorded data console modules. The patch distribution equipment
tapes and/or generated by the GSSC. Using the pre- receives various analog, event, and status signals
recorded data tapes as a telemetry data source, the from the MDD, PCM telemetry output buffer, and
data is routed through standardization logic, under SSIA. The patch distribution equipment permits se-
control of the data control and generator equipment, lection of signal destinations within the ASCA and
to the mission operations wing data link (MOW D/L) ASRS, provides signal drive power, and performs
patch panel. Patching of the telemetry data permits signal conversion for the received signals. These
the data to be forwarded to the multichannel demulti- signals are distributed to console-, wall-, and ceiling
plexer and distributor (MDD) o r to be faulted in the mounted units in the ASCA and ASRS.
MOW D/L equipment and then routed to the MDD.
Reformatting and e r r o r checking of the data is accom- Timing for the ASCATS equipment is generated by a
plished in the MDD and the resulting telemetry data is central timing unit and Apollo time distribution frame
routed to the GSSC and APCU. The GSSC generates (ATDF) in building 422. The central timing unit r e -
simulated trajectory, and IP data from calculations ceives synchronization signals from WWV-L and gen-
made on the telemetry data. The resulting data from erates basic timing used by the GSSC, APCU, and
the computers is distributed in several forms to the ATDF, and through the ACIA to the CCIA. The timing
Apollo simulated remote site (ASRS) and Apollo simu- signals from the ATDF are routed to the ASRS group
lation control area (ASCA) equipment for display. wall display.
Data distributed to the ASRS and ASCA consists of
high-speed teleprinter data; display data; and GSSC The use of computer control units and the GSSC/APCU
and APCU data containing events, status, analog, and control console allows rapid control of the GSSC and
site assignment signals. High-speed teleprinter data APCU to permit flexibility and monitoring of the com-
is routed through console computer interface adapter puter functions and faulting of data during the mission.
(CCIA) equipment to high-speed teleprinters located Flexibility of the computer functions allows the exer -
in the ASRS and ASCA. Display data is routed to the cises to be changed a s mission program requirements
ASRS and ASCA upon operator requests from console- change. Faulting of data expands the training capa-
mounted modules. The requests from the ASCA are bility to include abnormal situations to be experienced
routed to the serial simulation interface adapter a s well as normal mission conditions.
(SSIA), which formats the requests into a computer
word and sends the data to the GSSC o r APCU. The The voice communications equipment provides inter-
ASRS display requests are routed through the CCIA to communications between operating positions and ac -
the APCU. Upon receipt of the requests, the GSSC or cess to the public address system by assigned posi-
APCU routes display data through the memory char- tions. The voice communications equipment consists
acter vector generator (MCVG) buffer to the memory of common equipment, conference loops, and telephone
and character generator (MCG) equipment. The data trunks. The operating positions are provided a keyset
is converted from computer format to display format and headset with press-to-talk microphone. All power,
in MCG equipment and is then routed to CRT display control and supervision, and amplifier equipment is
units at the requesting console. The MCG equipment located in the Apollo simulation equipment area. Pub-
contains circuitry to store 12 different displays simul- lic address loudspeakers a r e ceiling-mounted through-
taneously. out the ASCATS area. The keysets are console-,
rack-, desk-, and pedestal-mounted. Jack stations
The GSSC and APCU data routed to the SSIA contains for headset or handset operation are provided for
events and digital readouts, status, analog, and site maintenance coordination. The intersite trunk cir-
assignment signals. This data is continuously sup- cuits provide voice communications between building
plied to the SSIA, which strips out specific data ac- 5, 422, and 30. All interbuilding trunk circuits are
cording to address and routes the data to the ASCA, routed through telephone company (TELCO) equipment.
ASRS, and to the decommutation system distribution The common equipment consists of the operator, talk-
unit (DSDU). The site assignment of the ASRS and the pickup, monitor pickup, air -to-ground (A/G) control,
status of the data being used in the simulation is routed signaling, transfer, jack common drop, muting, in-
to group displays in the ASRS and ASCA. Events and tersite trunk, amplifiers, and conference loop c i r -
digital readouts are routed to console-mounted panels cuits. A combined distribution frame (CDF) is the
in the ASCA and ASRS according to the address ac- common interface for all circuits. A test bay is pro-
companying the data from the computers. Analog data vided for circuit testing, and one powerboard serves
is applied to chart recorders and X-Y plotboards in all voice communications equipment.
the ASRS and ASCA. Certain event and status data
signals from the SSIA is routed to the DSDU where Operating positions for the conference loops are as-
patch boards permit a wide variety of signal distribu- signed to the loops on a functional basis. The local
tion paths for the event and status signals. These sig- conference loop provides intercommunication between
nals are displayed on console-mounted panels in the positions in the ASCATS area. An extension loop ex-
ASRS. Additional event and analog signals are derived tends a local conference loop from building 422 to a
by the CCIA and distributed to the ASRS console- similar loop in building 30. An intersite trunk circuit
mounted panels. Simulated command and telemetry provides for signaling to and from a remote location.

c-3
Appendix C PHO- FAMOOl
Paragraph C-5

The teletype circuits carry low-speed simulation data nal ASCATS circuits are accessible at the patch bay.
between building 422 and the MCC-H in building 30. The internal circuits provide patching access to the
Teletype signals enter and leave ASCATS by way of the ASCATS computer low -speed input/output channels.
TELCO facilities in building 47 and the simulation re-
mote message center in building 422. Each send and C-5. SUPPORT MANUALS
receive circuit appears on normal-through jack cir-
cuits in the teletype patch bay in the simulation remote The support manuals, containing detailed technical
message center. Teletype loop current is supplied to descriptions of the Apollo Simulation, Checkout, and
all circuits that terminate or pass through the patch Training System functional equipment are listed in
bay. In addition to send and receive circuits, inter- figure C-5-1.

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PHO-FAMOOl Appendix C

FAMILIARiZATION NASA-ME516 TELETYPE SIGNAL DLSMRTION TEST S E T (TELETYPE CORPORATION)


NASA-ME517 TELETYPE PORTABLE SIGNAL DISTORTION TEST SET (TELETYPE CORPORATION)
PHCFAMOOl NASA-ME510 MODEL 28 PRINTER, GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND THEORY O F OPERATION
(TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME520 MODEL 28 PAGE PRINTER SET, AND LUBRICATION, LP, LK, LB, LAC, ADJUSTMENTS
(TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME521 MODEL 28-LD MULTIPLE WIRE DISTRIBUTOR, (TELETYPE CORPORATION)
NASA-MElW6 28-VOLT DC POWER SUPPLY, MODEL PS1393, TECHNICAL MANUAL
(vAu)RlNsTRuMENTs)
NASA-ME1098 FOUR-CHANNEL CARDIWOPE, REMOTE SITES
NASA-ME1107 A/N KEYBOARD TYPE 7361 W V A C DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORPORATION)
NASA-ME111 1 MODEL 35 PAGE PRINTER, (TELETYPE CORPORATION)
MAINTENANCE
NASA-ME1113 MODEL 28 PAGE PRINTER AND AUTO SEND RECEIVER S E T
PHO-EM001 (TELETYPE C O R P O R A d )
NASA-ME1387 WALL-MOUNTED GROUP DISPLAY
VOLS I THRU rn NASA-ME1388 TIME-OF-DAY DIGlTAL CLOCK MODEL DZ4LS-MI0 (PARABAM INCORPORATED)
NASA-ME1389 COUNTDOWN/ELAPSED TIME D k I T A L CLOCK, MODEL D102HLS/CDPMII
(PARABAM INCORPORATED)
NASA-ME1394 DECOMMUTATION SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION UNIT, TYPE II, MODEL 410
OYNATRONICS INCORPORATED)
NASA-ME1398 TIME DISTRIBUTION FRAME MODEL 440 OYNATRONICS INCORPORATED)
NASA-ME1400 WJDE BAND TAPE RECORDER/REPRODUCER SYSTEM (MINCOM DIVISION O F
MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY)
NASA-ME1462 ANALOG DATA RECORDER, MARK 200, MODEL 2222-1707-111-3645
(BRUSH INSTRUMENTS DIVISION O F CLEVITE CORPORATION)
NASA-ME1568 DIGITAL DATA SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION SWITCHBOARD, TYPE SB-1299

-
MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE ( W A C DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORPORATION)
MANUAL MAINTENANCE MANUALS MAINTENANCE NASA-ME1570 TIMING INTERFACE SYSTEM ADAPTER, TYPE 1000 ( W A C DIVISION O F
PHO-SM601 MANUALS MANUALS SPERRY RAND CORPORATION)
NASA-ME1572 MOTOR-GENERATOR SET, TYPE 1392, 1394 ( W A C DIVISlON O F SPERRY RAND
CORPORATION)
NASA-ME1573 DIGITAL DATA COMPUTER, TYPE 1218, S/N 82 AND ABOVE-VOLS 1AND 2
(UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORPORATION)
STANDARD DIGlTAL COMPONENTS NASA-ME1574 CONSOLE-COMPUTER INTERFACE ADAPTER MULTIPLEXER, VOW 1AND 2
PRO-EM002 LOGIC CARD TESTER (VOIS 1 AND II) (UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORPORATION)
PHO-EM122 MAGNETIC TAPE RECOROER/REPRODUCER PHO-OA1451 NASA-ME1575 PRWTER SYSTEM ADAPTER. TYPE 1222 ( W A C DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND
PHO-EM141 TAPE READER AND SPOOLER EQUIPMENT CORPORATION)
PHO-EM147 OSCILLOSCOPE PHO-OSlOl7 NASA-ME1576 TELEPRINTER, TP4000 SERIES
PHO-EM231 SIGNAL DATA CONVERTER PHO-CV1001 (MERCURY TIMING SIMULATOR) NASA-ME1577 PERIPHERAL COMMUNICATIONSYSTEM TYPE 1502 ( W A C DMSION O F
PHO-EM237 VIDEO AND PULSE DISTRIBUTION EOUIPMENT SPERRY RAND CORPORATION)
PHO-EM251 TELEVISlON VIEWERS PHO-lP1002, ~BO-IPIOO3.PHO-IPlOM. AND PHO-IPlWS NASA-ME1588 DIGITAL DATA COMPUTER W P E 1218, WIRE TABULATIONS ( W A C D m O N
PHO-EM257 CONSOLE MODULE EQUIPMENT (VOLS I THRU m) O F SPERRY RAND CORPO&TION)
PHO-EM259 VIDEO TRANSMITTER PHO-YTIOOG AND VIDEO RECEIVER PHO-YRIOO7 NASA-ME1590 PRINTER SYSTEM ADAPTER TYPE 1222, WIRE TABULATIONS W A C DIVISION
PHO-EM311 PCM GROUND STATION PHO-OAI2IR 1 V O l S I A N n 11) O F SPERRY RAND CORPORAhON)
PHO-EM312 PCM TELEMETRY OUTPUT BUFFER P H f i A G 6 4 TGOI.3 I THRU IV) NASA-ME1633 INPUT/OUTPUT CONSOLE. TYPE 1 2 3 2 6 MAINTENANCE TESTS W A C DIVISION
PHO-EM319 SOUND RECORDERmEPRODUCER PHO-RD1006 AND PHO-RDlM7 OF SPERRY RAND CORPO~ATION)
PHO-EM329 STANDARDIZATION LOGIC EQUIPMENT PHO-MX1196 NASA-ME1637 " J G INTERFACE SYSTEM ADAPTER TYPE 1000 MAINTENANCE TESTS
PHO-EM330 EVENT Mornrnmc EQUIPMENT (WAC DIVLSIONOF SPERRY RAND c 6 m o R A n m ' )
PHO-EM331 PCM GROUND STATION LOGIC ELEMENTS NASA-ME1638 DIAGNCSTIC MAINTENANCE TEST FOR 1218 COMPUTER-WITH 4K MEMORY
PHO-EM611 MULTICHANNEL DEMULTIPLEXER AND DISTRIBUTION EQU~PMENT (UNIVAC DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND CORPORATION)
PHO-EM612 CENTRAL TIMING EQUIPMENT NASA-MEl64C PRINTER SYSTEM, TYPE 1222, DIACNCSTIC TROUBLESHOOTD(G
PHO-EM613 M O L L 0 SIMULATION CONTROL AREA EQUlPMENT NASA-ME1693 RANDOM ACCESS 2 X 2 SLIDE PROJECTOR RA-500 (TELEPRO IM)USTRIES
PHO-EM611 MDD STATUS DRIVER PHO-MX142R INCORPORATED)
PHO-EM615 X-Y PLOTBOARD PHO:OA15&---- NASA-mi1048 INPUT/OUTPUT CONSOLE TYPE 1232A ( U W A C DIVISION O F SPERRY RAND
PHO-EM616 DATA CONTROL AND GENERATOR EQUlPMENT CORPORATION)
PHO-EM617 ASCATS CONSOLE COMMUNICATIONS EQUlPMENT NASA-MH1050 DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM-VOIS I TERU N (RAYTHEON COMPANY, MICROWAVE
PHO-EM618 ASCATS PUBLIC ADDRESS EQUIPMENT AND POWER TUBE DlVlSlON, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING)
PHO-EM619 SERlAL SIMULATION INTERFACE ADAPTER EQUlPMENT NASA-MHlO51 CONSOLECOMPUTER INTERFACE ADAPTER SYSTEM (UNNAC DIVISION OF
PHO-EM620 MOW DATA LINK EQUIPMENT SPERRY RAND CORPORATION)
PHO-EM621 EXCHANGE CONTROL WGIC EQUlPMENT PHO-OA1330 NASA-MH1074 APOLLO M&O CONSOLES
PHO-EM622 APCU/CClA INTERFACE ADAPTER (AClAI EQUlPMENT PHO-OA1509 NASA-MH1048 INPUT/OUTPUT CONSOLE TYPE 123211 [ W A C D m O N O F SPERRY RAND
PHO-EM623 MEMORY CHARACTER VECTOR GENERATOR BUFFER EQUlPMENT CORPORATION)
PiiO-EM624 DATA TEST AND TRANSFER EOUIPMENT
~~ .....- . NASA-MH1050 DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM-VOLS I TiiRU IV (RAYTWEON COMPANY, MICROWAVE
PHO-EM625 MEMORY UNlT PHO-MU1006 A I D POWER TUBE DIVISION ADMrrmsTRATION BUILDING)
PHO-EM626 CASTS SIMULATION EQUlPMENT NASA-MHIOII CONSOLE-COMPUTER I N T E ~ A C EADAPTER SYSTEM OJNNAC DIVISION OF
PHO-TR283 MULTICHANNEL DEMULTIPLEXER AND DISTRIBUTOR coRpoRAnom
M&O CONSOLES
A W L L O RAND
SPERRY
PROCRAMMING INSTRUCTIONS NASA-MA1074
E-1194.6850

Figure C-5- 1. Apollo Simulation, Checkout,


and Training System Family of Manuals

C-2 3/C -24