0 évaluation0% ont trouvé ce document utile (0 vote)

1 vues13 pagesSep 12, 2020

Development of a 2-D numerical model for simulation of air distribution in high speed air water flow .pdf

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

0 évaluation0% ont trouvé ce document utile (0 vote)

1 vues13 pagesDevelopment of a 2-D numerical model for simulation of air distribution in high speed air water flow .pdf

© All Rights Reserved

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

Javanbarg, M.B.1, Zarrati, A.R.2, Jalili, M.R.3, Safavi, Kh4.

1Post graduate Student, Dep. of Civil and Environmental Eng., Amirkabir University of Technology,

Tehran, Iran, 032d842n@y05.kobe-u.ac.jp

2Associate Prof., Dep. of Civil and Environmental Eng., Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran,

Iran, Zarrati@aut.ac.ir, 64543002

3Assistant Prof., Dep. of Water Engineering, Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran,

Iran, jalili@pwut.ac.ir

4Senior Research Engineer, Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran, K.safavi@wri.ac.ir

Abstract: In the present study a quasi 2-D numerical model is developed for calculating air

concentration distribution in rapid flows. The model solves air continuity equation (convection

diffusion equation) in the whole flow domain. This solution is then coupled with calculations of the

free surface in which air content in the flow is also considered.

To verify the model, its results are compared with an analytical solution as well as a 2-D,

numerical model and close agreement was achieved. The model results were also compared with

experimental data. This comparison showed that the decrease in air concentration near the channel

bed in an aerated flow could be well predicted by the model. The present simple numerical model

could therefore be used for engineering purposes.

Keywords: High speed flow, Cavitation, Aeration, Numerical model, Air concentration.

air concentration of 8% near the chute

Over chute spillways, as flow approaches a surface, mean air concentration in a section

uniform state in downstream direction, flow should be more than 30% and chute slope

velocity increases and flow depth decreases. should be greater than 22.5º. [6]

These changes reduce cavitation index, and

therefore increase the risk of cavitation Therefore, protection of spillways from

attack. Experience shows that flow aeration cavitation can not always be guaranteed with

is the most effective and economical way for surface aeration, and so artificial aeration

prevention and/or minimizing the damage may be required by using an aerator on

due to cavitation [4,6]. spillways [4]. The distance between aerators

is a main point to be considered in designing

Defining air concentration in a small control aerators. Such a distance depends on the

volume as c = V a , where Va and Vw decrease in air concentration rate within

V a +V w deaeration zone downstream of an aerator

represent air volume and water volume [4]. Hence, estimating the distance in which

respectively, Peterka [10] showed that about air concentration near the bed is less than 8%

8 % of air concentration near the channel bed would be a main factor in determining the

is sufficient to protect concrete surfaces location of a second aerator in order to

against cavitation. increase again air concentration near the bed.

It is therefore necessary to study air

Surface aeration from the free surface concentration distribution in air-water flows

naturally occurs along chute spillways and is to be able to determine the number of

aerators needed in a chute spillway. Despite previous studies, still a general and

practical method is not presented for

Empirical equations based on hydraulic calculation of air distribution in free surface

model tests have been used in many flows.

researches to evaluate reduction of air

concentration downstream of aerators. A quasi 2-D model is developed in the

However, due to insufficient experimental present research work for investigating air

data and also scale effects in physical concentration distribution in rapid flows. The

models, these equations are not very reliable. model consists of solving the air continuity

On the other hand physical model studies equation (convection - diffusion equation of

need long time and are also very expensive. air) together with calculating the free surface

location. Results of this model can be used to

Based on physical model studies, Falvey [4] predict air distribution in air-water flows as

correlated air discharge detrainment form the well as reduction of air concentration within

flow to the distance from an aerator. Prusza the deaeration zone, downstream of aerators.

[11] stated that the decrease rate of air

concentration in deaeration zone is between

15% to 20% per 1 m along the chute. Minor

[7] found this rate to be 10% to 15% per 1 m 2. Governing Equations and Basic

of chute length. May [6] studied air Assumptions

concentration distribution downstream of

aerators and presented an exponential Assuming a small control volume (Figure 1),

function between air concentration near the continuity equation for air volume in a 2-D

channel surface and distance from the flow could be written as follows [15]:

aerator. Chanson [1] simulated air

concentration variation along a chute ∂c ∂c ∂ 2c ∂ 2c ∂c ∂c

u +v = ε (d ) x + ε +us +v s

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

2 ( d ) y 2

spillway by simultaneously solving the

energy equation and air continuity equation. (1)

Nokes [9] calculated air concentration

distribution in flow by analytically solving Where, ε(d)x and ε(d)y are turbulence

mass conservation equation for air volume diffusivity coefficient, u and v are flow

and supposing a uniform flow. In this velocity, and us and vs are air bubbles rising

solution turbulence diffusivity coefficient εd velocity in x and y directions, respectively. In

was assumed parabolic in depth. Using K – ε deriving this equation air-water mixture is

turbulence model, Zarrati [15] presented a 2- assumed as a single phase flow with air

D numerical model for air distribution in content in the mixture determined by the

high speed free surface flows. The results of average density of the mixture ρmix, that is:

this model were compared with experimental ρmix=ρw(1- c), where ρw is water density.

data of air distribution downstream of an air

injection slot in a channel and good

agreement was obtained. Applying his model Since v and ε(d)x have much smaller values

to downstream of aerators, Zarrati and than u and ε(d)y respectively in a uni-

Hardwick [17] evaluated air concentration directional supercritical flow and also us is

variations in the dearation zone and much smaller than vs, the continuity equation

compared them to experimental results. for air volume could be simplified as follows:

dx

u s .c

dy

wc

Hx

wx wc

Hy v s .c

wy

∂c ∂ 2c ∂c

u = ε (d ) y +v (2) bubbles increases as air concentration

∂x ∂y 2 ∂y

s

increase, since bigger bubbles are formed at

In a uni-directional flow in an open channel, higher air contents. Therefore, a value of 12

distribution of turbulence viscosity cm/s was considered for vs for air

coefficient in depth can be described by the concentrations less than 5%, a value of 19

following equation[8]: cm/s for air concentrations between 5% to

10% and a value of 25 cm/s for

y (3) concentrations over 10%. [16]

ε ν = u *κy (1 − )

H

where, H stands for flow depth, y is the Distribution of flow velocity in depth can be

distance of each point from the bed, κ is Von calculated by a logarithmic distribution for

Karman constant coefficient, equal to 0.4 and fully developed turbulent flow. Knowing

u* = gRS f i s b e d s h e a r v e l o c i t y, R absolute roughness of the bed Ks and shear

represents hydraulic radius and Sf is energy velocity, the following relationships can be

slope. The relationship between turbulence used for velocity calculations[12]:

viscosity coefficient and turbulence diffusion

u *K s

coefficient can be represented as εd=εv/σt in If < 5 a smooth hydraulic bed

which σt represents Schmidt Number with a ν

u 1 9u y

range of 0.5 to 2 [5]. In air-water mixtures, = ln( * ) (4)

when air concentration near the bed is high, u* κ ν

rising air bubbles intensify turbulence and as

a result εd increases (or σt decreases) [15]. u *K s

If > 70 a rough hydraulic bed

For this reason, σt was considered 0.7 in the ν

deaeration zone to account for the effect of

u 1 30 y

rising bubbles on increasing the intensity of = ln( ) (5)

turbulence. u* κ Ks

Studies indicate that rising velocity of Where, κ represents Von Karman constant

Fig. 2 Computational domain and Cartesian mesh

coefficient =0.4, y is distance from the bed Evaluating variables in equation 6 yields the

and v is kinematic viscosity of water. following Algebraic equation :

a p c p = a n c n + as c s + aw c w (7)

Where ap, an, as and aw are known

The model presented in this work is a quasi coefficients and are defined as:

2-D model to calculate distribution of air

up 2ε (d ) p ε (d ) p v s

concentration in rapid flows. It consists of ap = ( + ), an = ( + ),

solving a 2-D convection - diffusion δx δy 2

δy 2 2δy

equation, assuming logarithmic velocity ε (d ) p v up

as = ( 2 − s ) , aw =

distribution and parabolic turbulence δy 2δy δx

diffusion coefficient in depth. Finite

differences method with defined boundary Knowing air concentration distribution at the

conditions is used for numerical solution of inlet section, above equation can be solved at

the convection diffusion equation. In a flow each section using Three Diagonal Matrix

field shown in figure 2, equation (2) can be Algorithm (TDMA) [13] method and air

discretized as follows: concentration can be calculated at different

points in the computational domain by

c p − cw c n − 2c p + c s cn − cs marching technique. In this technique, air

up = (ε d ) p +v s concentration is calculated in each section

δx δy 2

2δy

referring to known values in the upstream

(6) section. After air concentration is calculated

Fig. 3 Computational mesh at free surface

in each section, solution progresses towards surface, computational mesh will be cut at

downstream sections. Flow velocities at each the free surface (Figure 3). To deal with this

section are calculated using equations 4 or 5 problem first and second terms on the right

and ε v using equation 3. side of equation 2 should be descreticized

close to the free surface as follows:

Backward difference is used for the left-hand

∂c c p − cw

side term of equation 6 (i.e. in x direction) = (8)

∂x δx

p

and central difference approximation is used

for the terms on the right (i.e. in y direction).

Therefore, first order and second order ∂c cn − cs (9)

=

approximation is used in x and y directions ∂y p

(1 + β )δy

respectively. In this way, marching technique

∂ 2c 2 cn − c p c p − cs

is possible for computation. Calculation ( − ) (10)

errors can be minimuzed if mesh sizes δ x ∂y 2 p

δy (1 + β ) βδ y δy

and δ y are considered small enough. This

algorithm requires minimum of computer Hence, coefficients of equation 7 take the

memory owing to application of marching following forms at the free surface:

technique and time of computation will be up 2ε ( d ) p 2ε ( d ) p vs

short. In this condition reducing the mesh ap = ( + ) , an = ( + )

δx βδy 2

β (1 + β )δy 2

(1 + β )δy

size will not increase the time of computation

2ε ( d ) p vs up

considerably. as = ( − ), aw =

(1 + β )δy 2

(1 + β )δy δx

Regarding the curvature of the flow free (11)

Where β is a value less than 1. conditions.

4. Boundary Conditions and Solution on calculated mean air concentration at each

Algorithm section (see Section 5) and return to step 2.

The present numerical model is employed to 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 up to the point that

calculate air reduction rate downstream of an the convergence criteria is met. Such a

injection slot installed at the bed of a channel criteria is defined as follows for the present

and also in deaeration zone downstream of numerical model:

aerators. Boundary conditions for free k 1 k

y y

surface and bed are similar in both of these Max k 1

0

cases and will be described in this section. y

Boundary condition at the inlet section will

be given in describing each case separatelly Where y k+1 and y k represent calculated flow

in the following sections. depth at two successive iterations and ε is a

small value.

Free surface is assumed as a symmetric line

and therefore concentration gradients normal

to free surface was assumed zero. Since the

slope of the free surface is small this 5. Calculation of the Free Surface

condition could be considered as cc/c y=0.

At the channel bed also cc/c y=0 . Since At the first stage of calculation as described

equation 6 is parabolic, no boundary in the previous section step by step method

condition at the downstream section is can be used to calculate the free surface

requied. assuming no air in water. Alternativelly water

surface level can be considered parallel to the

To run the numerical model, at the first step bed at the beginning of calculations. In the

geometry of the flow field including the next step, sloving equation 11, air

length of the channel, channel width and concentration is calculated in the whole flow

slope, mesh sizes as well as hydraulic field. Knowing air concentration at all

characteristics of the flow such as discharge sections, free surface of air-water mixture

and bed Roughness should be introduced to could be calculated using Wood method as

the program. Solution should then follow the follows [14].

following steps:

To calculate water surface position in the

1. Assume a water surface profile at the presence of air, bed friction coefficient

beginning of calculations. This profile can be should be evaluated first. Previous researches

calculated using step by step method [3] and have shown that existance of air in the flow

assuming no air content. decreases the friction coefficient. Using

experimental data of aerated flows in

2. Solve equation 7 in the whole equilibrium zone (where gradient of air

computational domain by marching concentration in flow direction is zero) Wood

technique and calculate air concentration at [14] developed a relationship between mean

all mesh points considering boundary air concentration in depth -c e and Darcy-

Weisbach friction Coefficient fe . This each section, −c, flow depth of air-water

relationship can also be used in gradullay mixture can be evaluated using the following

varied flows with air concentration changing equation[2,14]:

in flow direction.

d

y = (15)

Wood showed that mean specific energy of 1−c

air water flow in unit weight at each section Where y represents flow depth in the air-

can be written in the following form: water mixture. Flow depths calculated from

equation 15 can then be used in the next

u w2 (12) iteration for calculation of air concentration

SE = d cos θ + E

2g in the flow domain using Equation 11. After

where d represents depth of flow with no air this stage Darcy-Weisbach friction

content, uw = qw / d is mean flow velocity of Coefficient fe is updated and iteration

the air-water mixture, qw is unit discharge, continues till convergence is achieved.

θ is the angle between channel bed and the

horizon. Measured values on Aviemore Dam

- 6. Model Verification

show that E is independent of c and has a

value of 1.05. Total energy at each section

can therefore be written as: [14] Results of an analytical model as well as

physical model studies downstream of an air

injection slot and deaeration zone

1.05 qw 2

H = z + d cos θ + ( ) (13) downstream of an aerator are used to verify

2g d the accuracy of the numerical model.

Where H represents total energy and z is the 6.1 Comparing Results of the Present model

bed elevation. Differentiating Equation 13 with Nokes Analytical Model

and simplifying it, dynamic equation of Analytically solution of air continuity

gradually varied flow in air-water mixture equation (Equation 2) is presented by Nokes

can be found without considering the bulking (1985) [9]. To solve this equation,

effect due to air entrainment. This equation Nokes considered following distributions for

can be written as: flow velocity and turbulence diffusion

coefficient:

d sin θ − S f (14)

d = y α

dx cos θ − 1 .05 Fr 2 u = u (1 + α )( ) (16)

H

2

qw qw2 f e d y

Where Fr 2 =

gd 3

, S f = (

8 gd 3

) and

dx

d εν = ε d = u*κy (1 − ) (17)

H

represent depth variations along the flow. where, α = 0.1852, H represents flow depth

and u- is mean flow velocity. A channel 4 m

Assuming a flow depth at the beginning of long with a slope of 45º and a mean flow

computation, Equation 11 is solved for velocity of 30 m/s and constant flow depth of

calculation of air concentration in the flow 4 cm was assumed in these studies. Air

domain. Equation 14 will then be solved and concentration of 50% was introduced at the

flow depth without air will be obtained. inlet section from 0.02 to 0.12 of flow depth

Knowing d and mean air concentration at and rising velocity of bubbles was assumed

Com parison betw een Nokes analitically solution and presented

num erical m odel

0.6

0.5

0.4

Y/H

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Concentration (%)

Nokes Solution (X=5H1) Num .Model Solution (X=5H1)

Nokes Solution (X=10H1) Num . Model Solution (X=10H1)

Fig. 4 Comparison between Nokes analytical solution and the present numerical model

20 cm/s. rates smaller than 5% and greater than

5%(and less than 10%), respectively based

Present model was solved in combination on previous experiences [16]. Equations 4

with equations 16 and 17 for the same and 5 were used to calculate flow velocity

problem and concentration distribution and equation 3 was employed to evaluate

profiles were calculated at different sections. turbulence diffusion coefficient, assuming a

Comparison of the calculated concentration Schmidt Number value of 0.7. As was

profiles with analytical results of Nokes in mentioned before, to protect concrete surface

two sections at 5, and 10 times the flow depth from cavitation attack air concentration near

downstream of the inlet section are shown in the channel invert should not be less than 8%

Figure 4. [10]. It is therefore important to predict the

air content near the channel surface.

As it is shown in Figure 4, only a slight Longitudinal profiles of concentration at 3

discrepancy is seen between two models mm above the bed, for two low and high air

which could be due to errors of reading injection rates are compared with

numbers of iso-concentration lines presented experimental data and numerical model of

by Nokes (1985) [9]. So, it can be concluded Zarrati [15] in Figure 6 and 7. Sensitivity

that results of the present model well agrees analysis was also performed to investigate

with the analytical solution. the effect of computational mesh size. It was

concluded that for values of 0.001 m and

6.2 Prediction of Air Concentration 0.0001 m for length and height of the

Distribution Downstream of an Air Injection computational mesh, results would not be

Slot.

affected by mesh dimensions.

In this section the present model is used to

simulate air diffusion downstream of an As it is shown in figures 6 and 7, there is a

injection slot. good agreement between results of the

present model and experimental

Zarrati [15] injected air through a porous slot measurements. Comparing present model

installed at the bed of a flume and measured results with 2-D Κ−ε numerical model of

air distribution at downstream sections, using Zarrati [15] indicates accuracy of the present

a needle probe [18]. The first section quasi 2-D model in the unidirectional model

immediately downstream of the slot was used tested here. It should be noted that the present

as the inlet section in the numerical model model solves only few equations with the

and measured air concentrations at this capability of free surface calculation and can

section were used as the initial boundary be developed much faster.

condition. (Figure 5).

Experimental flume had a bed slope of 14.5º, 6.3 Predicting Concentration Distribution

a bed width of 15 cm, a flow depth of 2.4 cm, Downstream of an Aerator

a mean flow velocity of 3.4 m/s and Darcy- Zarrati [17] measured air concentration and

Weisbach Coefficient of the flume was 0.024. velocity at different sections downstream of

Air was injected to the high speed flow with an aerator by a double needle probe. Slope of

different discharges. Rising velocity of the flow channel was 14.5o and flow

bubbles was considered 12 cm/s and 19 cm/s discharge was 23.24 lit/s. To simulate air

in the numerical model for air concentration distribution in the deaeration zone

Com parison betw een experim ental data and num erical m odel (Zarrati, 1994)

w ith presented num erical m odel for slot

6

% Concentration

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Distance dow nstream in cm

Fig. 6 Longitudinal profiles of air concentration at 3 mm from the bed at low air discharge

Com parison betw een experim ental data & num erical m odel (Zarrati, 1994)

and presented num erical m odel for slot

12

10

Concentration (%)

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Distance sownstream (cm)

Fig. 7 Longitudinal profiles of air concentration at 3 mm from the bed at high air discharge

n

Appr

sitio

o

regio ach

n

T ra n

Aera Initia

t

regio ion sectio

l

n

n

de-Ae

regio ration

n

Co m p

in the utational

prese re

nt mo gion

del

Air Duct

Flow

3.55 cm

17.1 %

3 cm

Assumed initial

concentration p

rofile

downstream of the jet impact a total depth of the flow at this section was

computational domain was assumed starting calculated and is shown in Figure 9.

from a section after the impact zone where

pressure in depth was again hydrostatic Longitudinal profiles of air concentration at 3

(Figure 8). Zarrati and Hardwick [17] mm above the bed as calculated by the

measurements showed that immediately after numerical model are compared with

the impact zone, air concentration was experimental data in Figure 10.

constant and equal to 17.1% in a 3cm layer

from the bed. This section was therefore As shown in this figure, decreasing air

selected as the inlet section for the numerical concentration near the bed is very well

model. Knowing flow discharge and velocity predicted by the present model. It can

Com parison betw een experim ental data and num erical m odel

18

16

14

Concentration (%)

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Distance dow nstream (cm )

Fig. 10 Longitudinal profiles of air concentration, 3 mm from the bed, at deaeration zone downstream of an aerator

therefore be concluded that the model can be downstream of an aerator. All results showed

used to simulate distribution and diffusion of the ability of the present model for

air in high speed air water flows. calculation of air distribution in high speed

air-water flows.

8. References

To prevent cavitation, air is forced into the [1] Chanson, H.: 1989, Flow downstream

flow employing aerators. A numerical, quasi of an aerator-aerator spacing, IAHR,

2-D model is developed in the present Vol.27, No.4, 519-536.

research work to simulate air distribution in

high speed air water flows. In this model air [2] Chanson, H.: 1996, Air Bubble

continuity equation is solved in the flow Entrainment in Free – Surface

domain. Water surface level is determined Turbulent Sheer Flows, Academic

using step by step method considering the Press, London, UK, 127-130.

amount of air content in the flow. Flow

velocity and turbulent diffusion coefficients [3] Chow, V.T.: 1959, Open Channel

are calculated based on well known Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Publisher.

equations for open channel flow. The

developed numerical model results were [4] Falvey, H.T.: 1990, Cavitation in Chute

compared with 1- an analytical solution of air and Spillways, Eng. Monograph 42,

continuity equation downstream of an air USBR, Denver, USA.

injecting point, 2- experimental as well as a

numerical model of air distribution [5] Gibson, M.M., Launder, B.E.: 1978,

downstream of an injection slot at the invert Ground effects on pressure fluctuations

of a channel and 3- deaeration zone in the atmospheric boundary layers, J.

of Fluid Mech, Vol. 86, Part 3, 491- Classic Text Book Series, New York.

511.

[13] Versteeg, H.K. and Malalasekera, W.:

[6] May, R.W.P.: 1987, Cavitation in 1995, An Introduction to

hydraulic structures : Occurrence and Computational Fluid Dynamics, The

preventation, Hydraulic Research Finite Volume Method, Longman Book

Report SR 79, Wallingford, England. Publisher.

[7] Minor, H.E.: 2000, Cavitation [14] Wood, I. R.: 1985, Air water flows,

preventation on the Alicura and the 21st IAHR Congress, Brisbourne,

Restruction spillways, Personal Australia.

Communication.

[15] Zarrati, A.R.: 1994, Mathematical

[8] Nezu, I., and Nakagawa, H.: 1993, modeling of air-water mixtures in open

Turbulence in Open Channel Flows, channels, J. of Hydraulic Research,

IAHR Monograph Series, Balkema Vol.32, No.5, 707-720.

Publ.

[16] Zarrati, A.R., Hardwick J.D.: 1991,

[9] Nokes, R.I.: 1985, Dispersion of Rising velocity of air bubbles in high

buoyant particles in two-dimensional speed free surface flows, Int.

turbulent open channel flow, 21st Symposium on Environmental

IAHR Congress, 200-204. Hydraulics, University of Hong Kong,

Hong Kong.

[10] Peterka, A.J.: 1953, The effect of

entrained air on cavitation pitting, [17] Zarrati, A.R.: 1995, Mathematical

IAHR–ASCE Joint Conference, modeling of deaeration zone

Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA, 507- downstream of aerators, HYDRA

518. 2000, Vol. 2, 220-225.

[11] Prusza, V.: 1983, Remedial measures [18] Zarrati, A.R. et al.: 1998, Development

against spillway cavitation, 20th IAHR of a Needle Probe for Measurement in

Congress, Moscow, USSR, 468-476. Air-Water Flow, Int. Conf. on Water

Res. Eng. ASCE, USA.

[12] Schlichting, H.: 1979, Boundary layer

theory, Seventh ed. Mc Graw-Hill