Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

1- *$ !

"#
! "# $% "& ' (
)$" $ * * ! ! +* ! $ !, ! " $$ , * $ !, ) ' $ !, -.
(
" ' * / -

$ * ! * '! ! $ *0 + '- 1-2.3 air Va


$ VV
Mw eau Vw
"
* "&

* * ))! *0 + '- 1-2. Mt


Ms solides
)$" $ * , Vs
!) $%! %" $,
" " & "$ '! 0 4" ,
5 $ ! + '- 1-2.-
'" 1-2 ' *0
* ' 3) $% ,
" $ & ,
"' $ !-

$ " %" "& ' , " ! ! * ! 6$


!, *$"7 "#* * ! ! $ ! ,$ ' !, $ * ! $ !, -
% )) " * ' , % 565 $ ) , !* 3

$ " " $,
$% )) "! ' * ' ,
$ " $% )) + " . * ' ,
$ " "+ "$ ' ! " .
- 2
" $ * ' %" $ !, $ " " *$ " * ' ) )-
$ " "5 ! " " )
* - ! %" $* " 4" ) "#) 8 3

5 & $" 4" 9 0 3


5 & $" 4" $ 3 + : 0 $ & $" 4" 0" .

! 6 $ ) '" 1-;,
$ & $" 4" , 2000 2000

& & $ "


" *$ 1950 1950
Masse volumique
Masse volumique, ρ, kg/m3

Masse volumique, ρ, kg/m3


Augmentation du
humide, ρh
* " " < )) poids unitair
due au compactage

Indice des vides


Lig
* ' - 1900 1900

ne
Lig

de
n

sat

1

Lig

u
rat
90%
1850 1850 Masse volumiques 0.9

ion
Augmentation du


sèche, ρd

de

(Sr
poids unitair 0.8

80%
& $" 4" 9 0

=1
atu
due à l'eau ajoutée 0.7

de

00
ra

%)
tio
s
"$ ! $ $ 1800 1800 Indice des vides 0.6

atu

n
ra
0.5

tio
" "5 ! )

n
0.4

"# )$! $ * ! 1750


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
1750
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
0.3

Teneur en eau, w, % Teneur en eau, w, %


' $ 6 $% ! "
%" & $" " + '- 1-1.
- '" 1-; '" 1-1

0 # $ " " *$ * , "$ * " ) $ $ * ' ,


" * 4" $ " " *$ )$" $ * * !! " $
* !-

3
! *$" " !$! $ " 6" < )) * ' * *$ ' (
" $ * -

. $ =3
$
' $ "#, )) $ 6! (
' "$ , "* ) $$ *< 0 $ ' *$
, ) $ ,> % !$ &!-

.= "' !3
' $ "#, *$" ! $ ,& $ *$" ) $ ) ! -
' "$ , "* ) $$ " , *$" ) $ 6 * -
" )
, "' , = > %

" =, $% $ -
? *$ % " % $" -
)) * ' 6 $% ",
, "' *$" -

# = * : # " -
" " @ $"

=A = * , $ * $, " * $% )) 6 $% " " $ -

$ 3 * '
! $ !3 #
= * 4
" "

" @ 2BB> +& $ *0C 4" .

" @ ,* * = * +& $
*0C 4" .

! ' , & ", % "


! * " $ $ & ,= *

= % )$" * "$ , " $ * * !! -


" ) *$ !, " $$ '"
-

. $% * "
.= * '" 1-E
. 0" *D 6 = *

ρh = ρd (1+ w) ρw 1 e.S r = w.Dr


wsr = −
ρd Dr
$ *0C 4" 3 w ρw Sr Dr
Sr = ρd = e = wsr .Dr = −1
ρw 1 ρ ρd
− w + w Sr
ρ d Dr ρs

5
$ "1-2 * ! ! ))! $ -

No Description Sable Silt Argile wL Ip


1 Sable silteux bien 88 10 2 16
étalé
2 Sable sableux 72 15 13 16
bien étalé
3 Silt sableux 73 9 18 22 4
2200 modérément étalé
4 Argile sableuse et 32 33 35 28 9
2150 1 silteuse peu
2100 plastique
Li

5 Argile silteuse 5 64 31 36 15
g
ne
Masse volumique sèeche, ρd, kg/m3

2050
peu plastique
de

2
sa

6 Silt 5 85 10 26 2
t
2000
ur
a
tio

7 Argile grasse 6 22 72 67 40
n

1950
(S

8 Sable uniforme 94 -6-


r=
10

1900 3
0%
;D
r=
1850
2,
65

4
)
1800

1750 5
1700
'" 1-E 6
1650 7

1600 8

1550
5 10 15 20 25
Teneur en eau, w, %

'" 1-F # *$ " * " ))!


$ -

6
G * " ! $ $ * "
!" $ & * * !! & =-
% # ! # * " *
" 4" $ -

= *$ )$" $ " " $


' $ "# * ! -

" 7! 3

% '$ ! ! ,
& * $ ,
* "$ % '$ ''$ ! ! )$ -

" 7! 0" 3

! ! , $ 0 '9 ,
* "$ % ' $ *$" * ! -

'" 1-H & $" $ #" $% '$ "


* ' + % * 9 I0 , 2JJ1.

7
% # *$ $ & K* " ) "
2BB * " 21 L = L 2F+ '- 1-M.

K N" 4"O
6 = P= * " "

" 7! 3! "$ $ -

" 7! 0" 3 ! "$ 6 & $


%" * &" * ! $ !,
*$ 6 = = *-

" 7! ,& '! ! $


& $ " 0 % * + '- 1-H.
-

% '$ 9 0 ' )$ " '! -


' )$ + " " '- 1-M.
-
" & K-
" '$ , 4" %! &
) " & -

4" < " '! L 2BB> + '- 1-M.


-
'" 1-M ? $ * ! $ ! ) $
" " * ' + , 2JFQ .
-

8
500
Sr = 92%

! 400
A2

Contrainte axiale, σ1 (kPa)


' $ *$" 0" & !) $ A1
! - 300
A3
#- 3 '- 1-Q3 A4
A5
200
$$" " 5 !) , A6

0 $$ 2 " 7! 3 A7
100
! !$ &! , ) '$ , "$ !$ &!,
wL = 46, wopt=18,2%
* " !) $ -
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0 $$ M " 7! 0" 3
Déformation axiale, εv, (%)

! ) $ , *$ 4" , * "* " ,


) $ "$ , !) $ - Essai w (%) ∆w Scmax Einitial Esec Esec Sr (%)
Rupt
A1 17,3 -0,9 480 38000 25000 6300 90
2 " "* !) $ 4" M-
A2 18,0 -0,2 400 35000 15600 3300 93
A3 18,5 +0,3 290 30000 11200 2600 93
A4 19,2 +1,0 255 25000 10000 2000 94
0 $$ 16= = 3 A5 19,6 +1,4 230 13000 8200 2100 93
*
A6 20,5 +2,3 160 12000 4900 1200 92
A7 21,7 +3,5 120 10000 3900 940 93
* 9 * $ - Interpolé à l’optimum 340 32000 14000 3000

'" 1-Q $ 5 !)
9
!

#- 3 '- 1-J3 ! * " ))!


! ' * ' -
$ & = * & ! ' * ' -

" 7! 3
5 ! !$ &! , "' & ! ' * ' ,
5 !N6 $ ! 6 F> !) , "$ !$ &!-

" 7! 0" 3
5 ! ) $ , !* $%! ' * ' ,
5 "' & !) +*$" ' 6 ;F> 4"%6 F>. ,
*$ 4" , * "* " -

$% * " 3 ! R!$ &! 3


55 * -

,* " $ ! 3=@= *

! R!$ &!
*$ 4" , !) $
7$ ! = *$ $ ' $ "#-

3
" = * & ! ' + '- 1-J. '" 1-J ? $ ! )
" 7! , "' $%! ' = *- $% )) * ' $ "
"-
10
E. * $ !

* $ ! "' & =
#- 3 '- 1-2B

" #

"S"! $ * C 4" ,
+'$ .
, C "'! ! $ $$-

3 !* * $ '$ (*
' * $% ", * "$ "
-

"S"! $$ @ $ $ "# & ' & ,


9 * " % ' $ , ;51 > + )- '- 1-22.
-

" C* * ' 3
) ! + '- 1-2;.
-

= * M5Q>
# ≅ ;BBBT'D 1
6 = * @ HFU MB>

$ " * =A= * - '" 1-2B 0 ' $ * $ ! & $ "


" * ' + % * 9 , 2JFQ .

11
" #

2. ! $ !

!"#' "$ , *$ 4" , * -


, = * " % )$" " K 6
$ 0! (* % "& "
= L = *-

'" 1-2; " C* * ' 3 $$

12
'" 1-22 " ' "$ ! 4" 3 $$
" #

;. * $ !

" 7! 0" , $ *$" !) $ *$" * $ , " " $V 0 + '- 1-21.


-
9 * " % )) $ + '- 1-2E. - " '- 1-21 )) "* ) $$
= @ ;-E E-Q> * $ 4" = @ B-

'" 1-21 " ! 4" * " ))! '" 1-2E " ! 4" * " ))!
" " $ U! 0 $$ 6 JQ> "
" " $ U! 0 $$ 6 Q;> "
13
" #

1. " '

Affaissement (%)
?" $ $%! " $ "+ '- 1-21.
-
" "$ $ "* ) $$
$" ) $%! 0 $$ -

6 @ ,* $ ! % )) 6$
" ' -

* $V 0 , )) ) $ + '- 1-2E
'- 1-2F.
-

E. & $$ $ !

$ ! *$ -

" 7! 0" , $* " & )) $


* " < "$ -

#- 3 $ * " $$
Teneur en eau %
=@= * W ; "1 >-
'" 1-2F ? $% )) ) $ "
" * ' $ ! 9 0 $

14
$% &

% #*! $ !" 9 6 ! $ ! " " *$ * " "


R ! " ' -

) < *! ) ! $ + " . %" ) 8 4" * % # "


7$ " $ " -

"# *! ) " "$ ! 3

*! ) 4" 6$ ! ! $ * -
*! ) 4" 6$ !0 *$ 0 % -

' ( ' #

" $ ! *$ * & ! $ -

. 5 " $ ! *$ 3

" 3 * !$ & " $ "* " & $" "-


$9 3 " & $" "*! 3
ρ @ D?, " =Uρ
#- 3 " 7 $ , )- -
" 3 ! " * ! $ '
#- 3 " $! 9
' C γ* * $6 !-

.5 $ !! $ $ " ! 0 $$ * ! )-

! $$ 5 < ' * " $ ' ! ) ( < * ! 6 $%! $ -

15
$% &

"#) 8 %! $ ! $ 3

2. !3 ρ d − ρ d min ρ d max
" $%! !* ** 6$ ! # " I D (%) = × 100
! " " * " " $ ! " C
ρ d max − ρ d min ρ d
% -
! # " 3* & " $ - emax − e
! " 3 *$ !& %" $ - I D (%) = × 100
! $ "$! 6* "ρ - emax − emin

emin emax
e
Id
100% 75% 50% 25% 0%

) ρ

G " " $ - $ !& ! 0" ,


* " ρL ρ 6 "
$ "* ) $$ 4" *< 0 $
' *$ + #- 3 '- 1-2H. -

'" 1-2H & $" $ ! "


) $ " "

16
$% &

;. ' ! * ' 3 * ' -

! $ " ρ U=* " "


< )) * ' $ !, * " "
$ !-

Indice des vides


Densité sèche, ρd (g/cm3)
) !, - I D (%) =
ρ d − ρ d min ρ d max
× 100
ρ d max − ρ d min ρ d

*$" ρ #, " = * - ρmax=2,068 g/cm3 – P.M


ρmin = 1,373

, *$" % ) * " $ *$ -

Pourcentage du Proctor standard


' ! * ' 3 ρ Dρ #X2BB %"
! $ $ !-
"# $ & * "& < "$ !
4" ρ # $ $ $ "#-
% ! # " $ ! "# $
4" " > L 2; > * $ '" 1-2M $ ))!
QBµ +@ $ .
- #* $%!
!

) 8 $ ! , * "* " " $


$ "#!& $" ) ρ #@ ρ # "
) !-
Densité relative, Id (%)
4"& $ ! $ * " " $ ! + #- 3
'- 1-2M. -
" "#$%! !, " ρ
U = * $% & ' = *
*$" " $ ! $ ' * " )
*! ) - 17
% &

' (

"$ " *! ) $ !6 , ** 0 *! ) *$"7 $ ! 0 "$ * ! "


* ' , 3

C* * ",
% *! " * ",
* ,
%!* " "0 -

" #' $$ $ *$ ' " " $ ' " # $ * "$ -


* $ ! % *$" "$ " ", 4" $ $ * !* $
" - & $ ! 0 *! ) ! , $ ' ! * ' & "$" % * *
$-

" " $$ *! ) 3
! "$ * ! +ρ . < ",
#*! *$ 0 % -
& "$ * " ' 4" !-

* +

,$ 0 # $ " " *$ * " < " 4" " 4"


%! , O 565 * " $ ! & "$" & $ %! ' * $ -
"** * # *$ 4"% #' " ' ! * ' !' $ 6 JF> " ) ! $$
4"%! $ * $ $ ρ U=+ " 2, '- 1-2Q. - * * ! $ " " * "
* " $%! ' " ) !- ! ' * * ! * " " ' !
* ' JF> ) 8 ** # & * "! $ , & $ $'
* " ," $ ρ U= * " " ! ' * 6" ' ! * ' JF>
+ " ;, '- 1-2Q. - " " * " $ ! * $ * - 18
* +

"** 4" $ * " " $ * " !$ & $%! ' * " ) !, $


*$ ' " " : $ * $ % " ' ! * ' JF> $ !* $
* - %" * &" ! * , % $ " " "* 4" *
* *$" ) $ + %! ' . -
* 4" , * " < % " ' ! * ' JF>, $%! ' **$ 4"! " $
"! $ " 2 ;- , $ *$ ' " "& ! * $
* -
2100

2050
Masse volumique sèche, ρd, kg/m3

2000

1950

Li
gn
ed
es
1900
95%

atu
rat
ion
1850

(S
;

r=
10
1800

0%
)
2
1750

a d b c
1700
4 6 8 10 12
Teneur en eau, w, %
'" 1-2Q ! $ " " *$ 19
,$ - $

' ! *
' ! $ * ** ρ "! " $ ρ #! $ $ * "
* ' & " 4" $ ! "# $ $ $ - %$ C
" " 6" ))! $ ! "#, " * ' $ <
) ", 6 " $ ," 6" * -
" * ' 6" * ," $ ρ U = ** # & ! $ & $
$' * " %" "$ * ! ! $ " 7! -

2100

2050
Masse volumique sèche, ρd, kg/m3

2000
Référence
1950

Li
gn
ed
es
1900

atu
rat
Essai à un

ion
1850

(S
point

r=
10
1800

0%
)
1750

1700
4 6 8 10 12
Teneur en eau, w, %

'" 1-2J ! $ " 6* %" *

20
. /,

. " 0 ' 1 2ρ

* 3 ' " $$ " " *$" ) ,* # *$ "! $ ,


$ & $" "*! * $$ "* 9 " & $" 4" " "* *$" ' 4" $
& $" 4" $ , +*" 4" ρ $$ "≅ ;MB BK'D 1.-

,$ & $" 4" $% $ "' & $ > * $$ "-

* $ 3

. ! $ ! "$ 6 B> * ρ #@
! * "$ PF " $ ρ #P

$ ! ' ρ #6

. $ ! "! 0 " C %" *$ 0 !)! * !


* "$ PF
ρ 0 @Y
ρ ZY
$ & $" 4" * " $ * " ' * + % " ** 0 # .

ρ ensemble = P f ρ f + 0 , 9 Pg ρ g
:3 ρ $ @ & $" 4" " $ $" $ ' & $ $ ZF +K'D 1.
(
) @* " ' $ ZF ! $ (
ρ) @ & $" 4" $ ZF +K'D 1. (
' @* " ' ' & +P F . ! $ (
ρ' @ & $" 4" "' & +K'D 1.≈ρ -

+G " ρ'@ρ * " * * ≅ * ! ≅ B, 4" " " 0C* 09 21


")) ! $ * " * -
3#

" & $" 4" 9 0 2MQ; K'D 1 "! " " " $ 4" H,M > *
+PF .
- $ 4" ! $ * " ' * ' $* ** 6$ & $ "
) ! 4" ! ! ! $ $ " " ! 0 $$ " < $, B>
* -

& $" 4" 2MQ; K'D 1 "! " " ! * ** 6 $$ 4" "
" $ < $ B> * *" 4" $ & $" 4" %" ' & , * ;HMBK'D 1
*$" !$ &! 4" $ & $" 4" $ $ ZF 4" "* $ & $"
' & - $) " ! " $ & $ " 2MQ; K'D 1 & 4"% $$ * ! 6$ & $ "
)! ! $ $ 6 B> * -

& $%!4" * ! ! , 3
2MQ; @ B,J11 ρ) W B,JXB,BHM X;HMB
$ ρ) 3

ρ) @ ρ "
'! 6 B> * @ 2M1M K'D 1 % & $ " 4" * ! 6$ & $ "
! $ $ -
" )! $ )) "! 6 B> * " & $" 4" # $
9 0 ρ #@2Q2BK'D 1, $ $ ' ! * ' $ & , @ +2M1MD2Q2B.X2BB> @ JH> $
& $ " ) !-
$ & , ! *$"7 [ ' \$ & $ " * " !& $" ) $
& $" 4" " $" $ * , * "* ! " 3 ρ ensemble = ρ Pr octor mod ifié corrigé = Pf ρ f + 0,9 Pg ρ g

@B,J11X2Q2BWB,JXB,BHMX;HMB
@ 2QFBK'D 1
@+2MQ;D2QFB.X2BB> @ JH>

22
. /, 4

. 2

" =U $ '" 6 1-H-2

= U* "< F> +* . 2B> + $ . ;F> + '$ .

]2 $$ " @
B,F6 B,Q>
* ! $$ " ! " = $% $

w ensemble = P f w f + Pg w g
:3 = @ " " " $ $"
$ ' & $ $ ZF +K'D 1.
(
$
) @* " ' $ ZF! $ (
=) @ " " $ ZF +K'D 1. (
' @* " ' ' & +P F . ! $ (
=' @ " " "' & +K'D 1.≈ρ -

# *$ 3

< # *$ 4"% 1-H-2,

=' @ B,M> =)@Q>

= $ @ B,J11+B,BQ.W B,BHM+B,BBM.

= $ @ M,F>

23
5!
* '

G N )

!$ * * !! " $
C * " &
!
$ !, K, ! "
! " $$ , ,
^ $ * $9
"' !
& " !)!
* !* , S, "' !
!)! * "< ! $ "
!) $ ! ! "
$ U U #
0 ' & $" ! " +' $,
$ "
' )$ , -.

! "
! * "
* !0 "* $9

7$
$ !4"* "N " ! - $" " & $
* ' "$ $ ! " * "& ))! & $
$ $% #*! + ! ! $ - ! " 7$
) "& $$ #*! " !* #' "* N + & . -
* $9 $ 4" _. - $ "& ! % N"
")" 6 " -

G N ) <
* $9 N" # *$ 24
5 % '

1 6 E* -
*7
) ' ) 4"

$ 6

2,F

$9 $% 1 6 E* - $ $$ +F .4" * %
$ 0 6 $% ! " $% *7 ) ' ) 4" +5;B .
- S" $ $ * $9 _ 5 "
* $9 ' $_* : $) " * " ! $% ' "* $9 _

$) " * ! $ * $9 "6 " 4" * ' -


$) "

2- $ ) " * !$ & " ! 0 $$ $ ^ $ & $" 4" 9 0 , -


;- $) " " " !)! * " & %$ "$V 0 " #-
1- $* " 6* & $ " " $" -

25
7 8'

7 9

"$ "$ * " $' "$


"$ "& * " $' "$
" 4" * " $' "$
" * " $ ' $ "#
"$ "6 $$ * " 0 "' ' &

7 - : 0

* " 3 ,
!4" &

$ 3 " ,' "$ ! ) ' & " "

! " 3 *
* " $ "0
? -

26
7 8'
1-Q-1 "$ "#6 " $ U * "& < !4"*! " 6 C$ $

• ") & $ ! " 2BB> " " -


• $ * " " * $ & ) $ $% 1QBK -
• $ * "& < " $ ! * " $ *$"* $ 6 $% # * 0 -
• $ " " *$ C! * " $ ) * " $ * ' &< " "#-
• " & " * ) & * " , $ ) "$ $%!* " "0
2FB ;FB -
Argile 100% Sable 100% Enrochement

"$ "& U "! %" C$ $ "*$! 6 " & "


* " 9 )) * " $ * ! ,$ ' & $ $ ,
*" 4"% *$" $ * $ * % **$ 4" $%! ' * & + "$ .
-
$ " " *$ C! * " $ * ' ) "5 ) " -
$%!* " "0 * " & 2FB 1BB - 27
7 8'
1-Q-E ` * " "$ *$ +$ " . "$ " * " "$ *$

Argile 100% Sable 100% Enrochement

") & $ ! " $% QB> " * "-


$ * "& * " " * "*! " 6 MBBK -
$ 9 * $C& $ * "& < " $ ! * " $ *$"* $ 6
$% # * 0 -
$ *$ C! $ " ' '" -
* " * * )" "# "0 % '$ -

28
7 8'
1-Q-F ` * "

A rgile 100% S able 1 00% E nrochem ent

$ % ' "* * " 4" ! ! !& $ **! * $ $ *$" " $ !-


C$ "! *$" " * +* " , "$ " '"$ . -
% * & 1B QB ; "& Q6 2; > $ ") " " C$ -
$ '" " * * "< $% ;FB -
` " $ * ") , * * % **$ 4" *
9 !$ &! & 2EBB MBBBK -
* " 6* " * * $ "0 $ 6* " $-
$ " ""$ ! * " $ '$ $ ! "#) * % & " #" "
$0 '9 - $ * !' $ )" "# " 0 % '$ -
4" $ * " 6 "$ " * % ) , 9 $
4" $ * ' !-
"$ "6 " $ * " " < "$ !* " $ ) -
29
7 8'
1-Q-H ` $$ "$ *$ +W 6 0 " & .

Argile 100% Sable 100% Enrochement

* " ! " $ < * * 4" $" 6 * " -


$ "!*$" " $$ '"$ - % $$ $% EB> $ ")
" ! " & $ "$ "-
` " $ " ") "# * ! , $$ * % **$ 4" * 9 !$ &! &
2EBB QEBBK " $ ' * -
* " 6 $$ * " * $ "0 $ 6* " -
$ "$ !* " " ' $ *$" $ ' 4" $ * " 6* " ,& $% ' $ $
* ! -
`0 " & , $* * $ *$" ' -
& * " $) " % " 4" $%!* " $ "0 )! " 6 $$ $$ + < 0
& $ * " . - %!* " "0 '! ! $ $% 2FB - 30
7 8'
1-Q-M "$ "6 ' $$ '

"& " ") FB>


" " "$ "-
$* "* " " *
& 2EBB H;BBK -
$ * " < " $ ! 4" * " $ $
' "$ " "$ $ ' & $ "#
$ 0 -

Argile 100% Sable 100% Enrochement

1-Q-Q $ 4" &

" $ & "# & '" -


G $%" $ " " "# $% 9 -
%!* " "0 & 2BB ;BB -
G $%" $ $$ * " $ $ ' "$ -
31
;<

) " * " & " )$" " $ 4" $ ! " * ' -

" " " $ * '


*
%!* " "0
* " * "
& * '

- a+ 0 0 ' & '! ! "#. S, $ * + " .


0 " "0 1 9 " $ $' " 5) < )! " C
E* %" " 6 0 $$ %" * $ 1B - 9 "0 1BB
& *$" ; * "**$! %" "$ "& %" * 4" $ F
%" ) )"' & *$" 2B -

" "
" $ $ ' "$ ,$ " " " $ *$" * 9 * $ $% * " - ! ±;
* $ - " $ ' $ , $ ) " "N " " 7! 0" $% * " * " & "
#" 0 '9 - * ' '$ "& " "* *$" !$ 4" $$ $
' "$ + " " $ ' . -
4" $ " " " $ 0 *$" ) $ 4" $ " " * $ , $
"0 $ & $ * -
4" $ " " * !$ &! + " 6 " *$" * # *$ . , ) $ ") $
"0 $ 9 6 !$! $%!& * $% "-

*
% "' " * ^ $%! ' * ' - '! ! $, $ ) " 1 6 Q*
* " * " "0 $' "$ 1BB %!* "- $ * !* 2;
* $ %0" !, * " $" 6 $% )) ! " * " " $ !-
U& " ! "* ** "$ +*$" * "$ ) .
- $ * ", ) ,<
! * " ! 0 $$ $ ) " ' "$ ! - 32
;<

* " "0

a! ! $ $%!* " "0 !* * 1BB - " ) $ $ * *


6' "$ ! " ) , $ ! % "' $%!* " "0 ! "#
6 ! 0 * " $ * ' !*! ! !4"* - a
"0 HBB * " ' ! "- $ ) " " * !& "0 *$" !* $ 4" $
$ " $ "0 6 * ) $ * !-

$ # "# & ' 6 $%" $ "0 ) $ " " " * '

* 6 "& "$ * "*! " $ "0 " 5N - * "*! "


"& * ! 4" $ * )! " (
$ $ 7$ $ 4" $ ! " $ 0 -

$" $ * " $ " , *$" $ * $ % "' $%!* " "0 + #- HBB ,


* $ & $ "$ "#& . -

33
;<

" * "
$" $ * " $ " , *$" $ )) - $) " " ) < * " *" 4"%" * " 9
$ " * "* " " " * ' - * " ^ $ "* " "0 )! "
$ 4" $ " * ! # $ !! - " * ' * " " "' $ 4" !
* "$ ) $ ! "* " & *$" * $$ ,* !4" , *$" '!$ )-

? " * "
" !4" $%! ' * ' " $, $ ) " $ $ & * "
6 QK D0- $ * " 6& $ & * $ " " " FK D0- $
* " & *& , $) " & ' * -

34
=> &

7$ "
* ' ! *" 4" "#4" & * !
$ N ) " - 7$ * "& * ) % *
!)! +! $ .4" * " < $ + " ) .,$ ! "
! # " " " ! "$ " " *$ 0 % + # *$ 3 *
! ,' $$ "#, -.-

$ # "# C* % "" $ * " $ 7$ " * ' -

7 $
% " 7 $ 6 ! $ ! *$ - % " " )) "! $ $
* !$ &! * ! ) ! $ & $" 4" 0" , ρ- ! 0 $$ $ "
* !$ &! ! 0! ) ! $ " ", - & $" " " ! ! $
*$ $ ! $! $ ! 4" " + $ %G = . " " %"
$ 4" +0"$ " $% ". -

35
=> &

# *$ 3
7 $ )) "! " $ - " & $ ! "& 3
" $ $ &! @ 2EHF'
" $* " *$ $ "@ 2;BB' + 0 4" $ %G = @ 2HBBK'D 1.
$ 0" @ ;Q;,J'
$ @ ;E1,J'
. ! $ & $" 4" 9 0 $ " "
. ! $% ! $ & 0 4" ρ # @ 2QHBK'D 1 ρ @ 21BBK'D 1-
. S" $ $ ' ! * ' $ & , , ρ # !! " 6* %" -

" $! 9
% " " $! 9 $% $ *$" ) !4" "$ !
N " + *" 2JHB. - " $! " ** $ $ &
* ! 6 $% "4" $ * " ! * $
& $" 4" " ! " 4" " "- * * "
" $! 6! " C ' 6* %" ' "
) ! $ $- C ' ! & $ $
N" 4"% " ! " + "! $ " " $! . : $
* ! - $" $ "0 , *$" $ C ! -
C ' & 6 "
$ & $" 4" -

" $ " " * " $ ! !$! " * ! * "


" "! " $ < ' - " " " $ !)$! 0 * $
%0C '9 " $% "-
I 4"% $ " ) $ 4" ! 9 & ,$ " $! 9 " " ** $
! " " $ ' * 4" 9'$ ! " ! 9
* ! - a #' 4"%" " $! 9 $ ! &! ) ! 6 0 4" ! -
36
=> &

) !4" $ $ $ 7$

* 4" $ ! * ! 6 7$ !'"$ 9 ) % )) " $


& "# ) 8 !4" -

S #' * # *$ 6 " $ FBBB ; " $ 6 " $ ;FBB ; $


" 5) $ ) " - " $ '" ' , $ ! % )) "
" 6 " $ 2BBB6 2FBB 1 $ " $ !- $ C "# % ' $ , $ 7$ * " <
" "* *$" !&9 - $ V " $ * " ) "* ) $$ ,
& &! ) $ * !6 " $ QBB - ;

a! ! $ , 0 $% *$ 7$ "0 - * %!$ "


"N & ! $ 7$ & "# * ' -

37

Vous aimerez peut-être aussi