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CE 215 : Introduction to GIS

Md. Nabil Zawad


Lecturer
Department of Civil Engineering
Presidency University (PU)
DATA CAPTURE
DATA CAPTURE
• Without geographical data, it is impossible to work with a GIS.
• The capture and import of data are often the most time
consuming, expensive and difficult tasks within the whole chain
of work in the GIS environment.

• The data capture can be divided in four categories, i.e.


capture of:
- new geometrical data;
- existing geometrical data,
- new attribute data, and
- existing attribute data.
ADDING NEW DATA
• New geometrical data means, the dataset of objects that we want to
add to our database and that have not yet been mapped in the field.

• This means that fieldwork is often needed to get the positions of these
“new” objects.

• An alternative to fieldwork is the use of remote sensing, like aerial


photographs and satellite imageries.
ADDING EXISTING DATA
• These data already exist but
not yet imported into the
geographical information
system.

• Thus, the data has to be


imported, and before that,
sometimes also converted
into digital form.
ADDING ATTRIBUTE DATA

• New attribute data can be captured e.g. by interviews, measurements of


variables of interest and photographs of the geometric objects that we
want to document.

• Existing attribute data could be e.g. text, numbers (tables), audio, video
and photographs in either digital or analogue form.

• Analogue data have to be converted into digital form (e.g. by typing or


scanning) and imported into the GIS.
ADDING NEW DATA BY FIELDWORK
• Global positioning system (GPS) is an effective tool to capture
new geoinformation.

• GPS is a satellite navigation system used to determine the


ground position of an object.

• It consists of three parts:

- the space segment


(satellites),

- the control segment (ground


stations),

- the user segment (receiver).


SPACE SEGMENT- SATELLITES
• The space segment consists of 24 satellites (called the NAVSTAR
satellites), of which 21 are in use and the others are spare, circulating
around the Earth at an altitude of approximately 20200 km.
• Each satellite broadcasts radio waves towards Earth that contain
information regarding its position and time.
• The satellites are arranged in 6 orbital planes with 4 satellites in each
plane.
CONTROL SEGMENT- GROUND STATION

• The satellites are controlled from 5 ground stations distributed around the equator.

• The main station is located in Colorado Springs, USA.

• The purpose of the ground stations is to monitor and correct the positions of the
satellites.
USER SEGMENT- RECEIVER

• The user segment consists of one or more GPS receivers that have the
possibility to receive data from many satellites (depending on number of
bands) at the same time.

• The receiver is equipped with a clock and has the calculation ability to
estimate its position.
HOW GPS MEASURES DISTANCE

GPS uses measurements from 4 satellites


Distance = travel time (tr- ts+ b) * speed of light (3*108 m/s)
Here, b= clock error
HOW GPS MEASURES DISTANCE

So, for 4 satellites 4 such equations can be derived. Solve all 4 equations &
you will get the location of xu, yu, zu
HOW GPS LOCATE A POSITION

• Suppose the distance from


Satellite A to our position is
+
Satellite A 11,000 miles
• At this point we could be located
anywhere on the specified sphere

+ • Next, let us take another measurement


Satellite B from a second satellite, Satellite B
• Now our position is narrowed down to the
intersection of theses two sphere
HOW GPS LOCATE A POSITION

• Taking another measurement


+
Satellite A from a 3rd satellite narrows our
position down even further, to
the two points
+
Satellite C • These points are located where
+
Satellite B the 3rd sphere cuts through the
the intersection of first two spheres
• So by ranging from 3 satellites we can
narrow our position to just two points in space

• However, GPS receivers use a 4th satellite to precisely locate our


position
COMMON USE OF GPS

1. GIS data collection & mapping


2. Navigation
3. Recreation (ex: online gaming)
ADVANTAGES OF GPS
• GPS is extremely easy to navigate.

• GPS works in all weather condition.

• The GPS device costs you very low in comparison other navigation
systems.

• The most attractive feature of this system is it covers 100% of the


planet.

• It also helps you to search the desired locations easily.

• It provides safety (ex: vehicle tracking, criminal movement tracking etc.)


and accuracy.

•The system is updated regularly by the US government and hence is very


advance.

•This is the best navigating system in water.


DISADVANTAGES OF GPS

• Sometimes the GPS may fail due to certain reasons and in that case
you need to carry a backup map and directions.

• If you are using GPS on a battery operated device, there may be a


battery failure and you may need a external power supply which is not
always possible.

•Sometimes the GPS signals are not accurate due to some obstacles to
the signals such as buildings, trees and sometimes by extreme
atmospheric conditions such as geomagnetic storms.
ADDING NEW DATA BY REMOTE SENSING
• Remote sensing is defined as the scanning of the earth by satellite
or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it.
ADDING NEW DATA BY REMOTE SENSING
Six Components of Remote Sensing Process:

• Energy Source or Illumination (A)

• Interaction with the Atmosphere (B)

• Interaction with the Target (C)

• Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D)

• Transmission, Reception, and


Processing (E)

• Interpretation and Analysis (F)

• Application (G)
THANK YOU