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Chemistry

11/1:
•Matter- Is the matter uniform throughout?

No-> heterogeneous mixture


Yes-> homogeneous mixture - Can it be separated by physical means?

Yes-> homogeneous mixture


No-> pure substance - Can it be broken down chemically?

No-> element
Yes-> compound

•Chemical change - different product


•Physical change - same product

NaOH + HCl --> NaCl + H2O


Reactants Products
11/2:
•How to Write a Lab Report-
1. Coversheet: Title, Author's Name, Partner's Name, Class Period, Due
Date of Report

2. Hypothesis: This is a specific question or statement being looked at in


the experiment
>>Do not use the word "I" in the hypothesis

3. Background: A brief discussion of the important aspect(s) of the


experiment. Include:
>>Brief discussion of the concepts
>>Discussion of any math equations that will be used
>>Any definitions important to the experiment

4. Materials: A list of the equipment and chemicals used for the experiment

5. Procedure: What did you do?


>>Do not copy the procedure from the handout.
>>If the procedure is followed exact simply refer to it ("As stated in the lab
handout...")
>>Make note of any changes
>>Describe any procedures you followed in an inquiry lab

6. Data: Initially record data on lab hand out or in notebook


>>Copy back into lab report
>>Quantitative data should be in table form
>>Qualitative data should be reported in complete sentences
>>All tables should be numbered and labeled
>>When appropriate use graphs (number and title; label axes)

7. Calculations:
>>Separate from data
>>Any formula should be written
>>All calculations should be shown set up
>>If multiple calculations are to be done from the same formula, use only
one example

8. Discussion:
>>Must be able to explain your findings
>>Interpret and explain results
>>Quote data as necessary to make point
>>Refer back to hypothesis (confirm, busted or unclear)
>>Error Analysis:
I. Include in Discussion
II. Analyze possible errors (do not include math errors)
III. If result is different than expected, explain why
IV. Where appropriate, calculate percent error

9. Questions: answer all questions that follow the lab


>>Don't write out questions
>>Answers should be written in complete sentences
11/4:
•Conservation of Energy (Matter) - energy (matter) can neither be
destroyed nor created (in a CHEMICAL reaction)
11/8:
•Bonds-
1. Ionic:
>>Ions = atom with an imbalance in the number of protons and electrons
I. Cations (+)
-Monoatomic (1 atom)
i. Nontransitional metals
ii. Transitional metals
-Polyatomic (2+ atoms)
i. NH4+ (ammonium)
II. Anions (-)
-Monoatomic
i. Ends in -IDE
-Polyatomic
i. End in -IDE, -ATE, -ITE
>>Ionization matches the group (Group 6 - 2-)
>>Metals can only be cations
>>Nonmetals tend to be negatively charged (except Carbon and Boron)

2. Covalent:
>>Valence electrons = outermost electrons
>>Octet Rule = in bonding, each atom "wants" 8 valence electrons
11/10:
•Criss-cross method
1. Write out the ions to be used
Barium Chloride
Ba 2+ Cl 1-

2. Move the numbers via crisscross


Ba 2+ Cl 1-
-----------> <-----------
Ba1 Cl2

3. Be sure subscripts in lowest common


Ba1Cl2

4. Erase only #1 subscripts


BaCl2
11/15:
•Covalent bonds
1. Binary covalent
2. Non-metal to non-metal
3. Will use prefixes
4. Use element name for first element (don't use mono- for first element)
5. Second element always ends in -ide
11/16:
•Ions to be memorized:

1. Charge = 1-
>>Chlorate: ClO3 1-
>>Cyanide: CN 1-
>>Hydroxide: OH 1-
>>Nitrate: NO3 1-

2. Charge = 2-
>>Carbonate: CO3 2-
>>Sulfate: SO4 2-

3. Charge = 3-
>>Phosphate: PO4 3-

4. Charge = 1+
>>Ammonium: NH4 1+
11/29:
•1 mole
>>Avogadro's number
>>1 mol = 6.02 x 10^23
12/9:
•Empirical formula - lowest common denominator inventory of the atoms
>>Percent to grams, grams to moles. Divide by small, multiply 'til whole

Step 1:
C - 19.39%
H - 3.23%
O - 77.48%

Step 2:
% -> grams (assume we have 100g)

C - 19.39g
H - 3.23g
O - 77.48g

Step 3:
Grams -> moles (moles x molecular weight = grams)

C - 19.39g / 12.01g/ml = 1.614ml


H - 3.23g / 1.008g/ml = 3.20ml
O - 77.48g / 16.00g/ml = 4.8ml

Step 4:
Divide by small

H - 1.614ml / 1.614ml = 1
C - 3.20ml / 1.614ml = 1.98
O - 4.8ml / 1.614ml = 2.97

Step 5:
Round to get ratio

H-1
C-2
O-3

HC2O3: empirical formula


1. MOLES x MOLECULAR WEIGHT = GRAMS

2. GRAMS/MOLECULAR WEIGHT = MOLES

3. MOLES x (6.02 x 10^23 particles/mole) = particles


12/20:
•Chemical reactions

Reactants --> Products


Mg + 2HCl --> MgCl2 + H2

1. States of reactants/products
>> (s) solid
>> (l) liquid
>> (g) gas
>> (aq) aqueous: dissolved in water

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

2. 7 Diatomics! (Make a "7" in the periodic table)


>>H2 >>N2 >>O2 >>F2 >>Cl2 >>Br2 >>I2
12/21:
•Balancing the reaction
1. Have all reactants & products in CORRECT formulae
2. Write skeleton reaction
3. List the elements
4. Inventory the elements
5. ARE WE BALANCED?!
6. Play ping-pong
7. Coefficients in L.C.D.

I. Thou shall not change subscripts


II. Thou shall not add or subtract elements

>>Water-
Hydrogen + Oxygen --> water
H2 + O2 --> H2O

2 :H: 2
2 :O: 1
2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O
4 :H: 4
2 :O: 2
1/3:
•Chemical reactions
1. Combination, synthesis, or
composition
>>Multiple reactants --> One product

2Na(s) + Cl2(g) --> 2NaCl(s)

2. Decomposition
>>One reactant --> Multiple products

H2CO3(l) --> CO2(g) + H2O(l)

3. Single replacement
>>One element + One compound --> Different compound + Different
element

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

4. Double replacement
>>Two ionic compounds --> Two different ionic compounds

AB + CD --> AD + CB

>>Must make:
-Solid
-Liquid
-Gas

5. Combustion
>> CxHyOz + O2 --> CO2 + H2O
>>Hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water

C3H8 + 5O2 --> 3CO2 + 4H2O


1/5:
•Predicting outcomes of equations

NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) --> ?


NaCl + H2O

I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work.
- Thomas Edison