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INTRODUCTION GENERAL

Les opérations unitaires sont fondées sur des règles de nature physique à caractère général et
traduisent des transformations simples. Le principe fondamental de toute opération unitaire est
toujours le même, à savoir la préparation et la mise en contact intime des phases en présence pour
assurer le développement des réactions, les mécanismes de transport et de transfert de masse (ou
matière), de chaleur et de quantité de mouvement qui ont lieu durant la chaîne de transformation,
ainsi que la séparation des constituants du mélange résultant. Les opérations unitaires représentent
donc un concept utilisé par les ingénieurs chimistes afin de permettre de façon optimale la
transformation des substances brutes déterminées en un ou plusieurs produits (naturels ou
artificiels) commercialisables ou en produits de base destinés à une autre usine chimique.

Le choix d’une opération unitaire dépend de différentes considérations :

– la possibilité effective de séparation sur des bases thermodynamiques;

– la possibilité offerte par la cinétique physique d’avoir un transfert plus ou moins rapide selon la
nature des phases en présence;

– la volonté d’utiliser préférentiellement certaines sources d’énergie (par exemple l’énergie


électrique);

– le souhait d’économiser de l’énergie ou de diminuer les frais de fonctionnement ainsi que celui
d’abaisser les coûts d’investissement

1
Experiment No: 1

Batch reactor 

1) Aim:
Conduct a simulation experiment and determine the rate constant for the saponification of
ethyl acetate (A) with NaOH (B) in a batch reactor at a specified temperature. To study the
effect of temperature on the rate constant. To determine the frequency factor and activation
energy.
CH3COOC2H5 (A) + NaOH (B) -> CH3COONa + C2H5OH It is an elementary reaction
Ethyl acetate is the limiting reactant.
2) Apparatus:
Measuring cylinders, stop watches.
3) Procedure for conducting the experiment:
1. Standardise the NaOH stock solution and note down its concentration. Note down the
strength of ethyl acetate stock solution.
2. Calculate the volume of NaOH (VB) and ethyl acetate (VA) required making the
required initial concentration ratio of M (a value equal to or greater than 1) and total
reactor volume (select the required volume batch reaction vessel). Choose initial
molar ratio of B to A (M) to be taken. Choose stock concentration of A and the stock
concentration of B. Chose the reaction temperature. Now calculate the volume of
stock solutions of B and A to be taken so as to maintain the chosen M and the total
volume of the reactor.
VA +VB = VT (1)
VT is the total reactor volume
M = (CBS*VB)/ (CAS*VA) = moles of B/ moles of A
VB/VA =... . (2)
From Eq (1) and (2), VA =......mL, VB=......mL
Where VA and VB are the volumes of ethyl acetate and NaOH stock to be added to the
reactor.
Cas and Cbs are the concentrations of stock solutions of A and B.
3. Add the calculated volume of NaOH into the reactor. Start the stirrer. Switch on the
conductivity meter.

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4. Switch on the heater and set the temperature at the desired value. Pump the water from
heating tank for circulation in the jacket .So the temperature in the reactor is
maintained at the required temperature.
5. Add the required (calculated) volume of ethyl acetate solution (preheated to the
required temperature) to the reactor and at the same time start the stopwatch.
6. At different time intervals of 30s, 1, 2, 3,5,7,10,15 .min, note down the conductivity
meter reading (conductivity in mS/cm) of the reaction mixture. Note: Some
conductivity meters may display conductance (mS) not the conductivity (mS/cm)
[Refer theory for more information].
7. This procedure is continued until no change in the value of conductivity meter reading
is observed.
8. Determine the concentration of unreacted NaOH in the reaction mixture by using the
conductivity meter calibration equation. Since the conductivity meter calibration at
28°C is only provided, calculate the conductivity meter reading at the required
temperature using the temperature compensation equation provided.
9. Repeat the experiment at different temperatures.
Proceed to calculations as explained in Section A.
4) Observations and Calculations:
a) observations:

A -> ethyl acetate


B -> NaOH
Concentration of NaOH in the stock solution= gmol/L
Concentration of ethyl acetate in the stock solution= gmol/L

 = moles of B/ moles of A

Initial concentration of A in the reaction mixture, =.....gmol/L

Initial concentration of B in the reaction mixture  =.....gmol/L


CAS and CBS are the concentrations of stock solutions of A and B.

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Tabular column: For Temperature=

b) Calculations:
Concentration of unreacted NaOH in the reaction mixture= CB=gmol/L
(from conductivity meter calibration)
As the conductivity meter calibration is available only at 280C, the conductivity meter
reading obtained at a given temperature of reaction is to be corrected for 280C.
Temperature compensation for conductivity meter

Where, YT =conductivity meter reading at any temperature T in mS/cm


Y28 = conductivity meter reading at a temperature of 280c in mS/cm
Obtain Y28 corresponding to measured conductivity meter reading ( YT) using the equation
above.
Conductivity meter is calibrated for concentrations of NaOH in the reaction mixture at a
temperature of 280.
Obtain the Concentration of NaOH at 280 using the calibration equation given below

Where, CB= Concentration of NaOH at time t


Y28= Conductivity meter reading for solution at time t, corrected for 280c
Concentration of ethyl acetate in the reaction mixture,

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= gm ol/L

Conversion of EA,

 =
since the reaction is elementary, the reaction rate is given by.

Where, k is the rate constant.


In terms of conversion and for M>1,

Where
M=CBo/CAo and XA is the conversion of A.
After breakdown into partial fractions, integration and rearrangement, the final result is

Where 
t= time, M=CBo/CAo and XA, XA is conversion of A at given time
the above equation is valid for M>1.
5) Plotting

The rate constant may be calculated from the slope of the line = .
If M=1, then

The rate equation may be approximated as 

Then the integrated form of the rate equation is 

then the plot f (Ca) =


The plot will yield a straight line with slope=k.

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or plot XA/1-XAthe slope of the line is kCA0. Obtain k
Rate constant =........ (litre / gmol)min-1
Obtain the rate constant at three or more different temperatures.

Temperature Rate constant k


T in 0 k in (L/gmol)min-1

From Arrhenius Equation,

Plot lnk vs 1/T


Determine the activation energy (E) and the frequency factor (ko) from the slope and intercept
of the above plot.
Intercept= lnk0
Slope=-E/R
R is the gas constant
Activation energy= E= J/mol
Frequency factor, k0= min-1(litre/gmol)
Activation energy= E= J/mol
6) Result:
The rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate with NaOH at a temperature of 0C
is, = k = min-1(L/gmol)
Discuss and conclude on the temperature dependency of rate constant.
The activation energy (E) for the reaction= J/mol
the frequency factor (ko) = min-1(L/gmol)
7) Reference:
. Octave Levenspiel, chemical reaction engineering, 3th Ed., OSU Bookstores, Corvallis, OR,
1996.

6
Experiment No.2

Mixed flow reactor


1) Aim:
Conduct simulation based experiments to determine the rate constant for the saponification
of ethyl acetate with NaOH at different temperatures using a mixed flow reactor (continuous
stirred tank reactor). Also calculate the frequency factor and activation energy for the
reaction. Discuss on temperature dependency of rate constant
CH3COOC2H5 (A) + NaOH (B) ->CH3COONa + C2H5OH It is an elementary reaction
Ethyl acetate is the limiting reactant.
2) Apparatus: conductivity meter.
3) Procedure:
1.Standardise the NaOH stock solution and note down its concentration.
2. Calculate the concentration of ethyl acetate in stock solution
3.Fill the reservoirs with NaOH and ethyl acetate stock solutions
4.Measure the volume of the reactor.
5. Switch on the pump and allow ethyl acetate to flow into the reactor at certain flow rate and

measure the flow rate ( ) using rotameter.

6. Set the required temperature to be maintained in the reactor. Switch on the heater to heat
the reactor contents to the required temperature.

7. Calculate the flow rate of NaOH( ) required to keep the desired value

of  . M may be greater than or equal to one. Calculate


the total flow rate (Q).
8. Adjust the flow rate of NaOH to the calculated value, without changing the EA flowrate.
9. Calculate the actual value of M obtained after adjusting the flow rates.
10. Calculate the space time using the total flow rate.
11. Start the stirrer in the reactor. Close the drain valve completely. Allow the reaction to

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proceed till steady state is attained, as indicated by constant reading in the conductivity meter.
12. Note down the conductivity (in mS/cm) of the reaction mixture in, after steady state is
attained. Note: Some conductivity meters may display conductance (mS) not the conductivity
(mS/cm) [Refer theory for more information].
13. Determine the concentration of unreacted NaOH in the reaction mixture by using the
conductivity meter calibration equation.
14. Repeat steps (6) to (12) for different EA flow rates.
15. Conduct the experiment at different temperatures
4) Observations and calculations:
A-Ethyl acetate
B-NaOH

Strength of Ethyl acetate in stock =   = ------------------gmol/L

Strength of NaOH in stock solution= = ------------------gmol/L


Diameter of the reaction vessel, d = ---------------------------cm
Height of the vessel up to reactor outlet, h = ---------------------cm

V = volume of the reactor= = = ------------------cm3= L

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Calculations:

Ethyl acetate flow rate =  = ------------------------------LPH


VB/VA = M(CAS/CBS) Flow rate of NaOH required to keep the desired M ,

Flow rate of NaOH set, = LPH Total flow rate Q= VA+VB = Space time , = V/Q = min Actual

value of M(obtained in the experiment) = 


= Initial concentration of ethyl acetate in the feed mixture,

CAo = --------------------gmol/L
Concentartion of NaOH in the feed mixture,
CBo = (VB*CBS)/Q CBo = --------------------gmol/L
As the conductivity meter calibration is available only at 280C, the conductivity
meter reading obtained at a given temperature of reaction is to be corrected for 280C.
Temperature compensation for conductivity meter

9
Where ,
YT =conductivity meter reading at any temperature T in mS/cm

= conductivity meter reading at a temperature of 280C in mS/cm

Obtain   corresponding to measured conductivity meter reading ( YT) using the


equation above.
Conductivity meter is calibrated for concentrations of NaOH in the reaction mixture at a
temperature of 280C. Obtain the Concentration of NaOH at 280C using the calibration
equation given below
Conductivity meter calibration equation for 280C.

Where,

= Concentration of NaOH in the reaction mixture at steady state


Y28 = Conductivity meter reading for solution, corrected for 280C
Concentration of unreacted NaOH in the reaction mixture at steady state,
CB=         gmol/L (obtained from the conductivity meter calibration graph)
Concentration of ethyl acetate in the reaction mixture at steady state,

= --------------------gmol/L

10
Conversion of ethyl acetate, 

Performance equation for MFR with rate equation of the form 


can be written as = ( ) (B) for MFR
Plotting ( ) vs yields a straight line passing through origin. The slope=k. The equation holds

good for M=1 or greater than 1. Plot a graph of   Vs  CAoT 

 
From the graph get, k = -------------------------------litre/((gmol)(min)) Similarly the experiment
may be performed with different temperatures and the rate constants at these temperatures
may be determined.
Obtain the rate constant at three or more different temperatures.
From Arrhenius Equation,

Plot lnk vs 1/T


Determine the activation energy (E) and the frequency factor (ko) from the slope and
intercept of the above plot.

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Intercept= lnk0
Slope=-E/R
R is the gas constant
Frequency factor, ko= min-1(litre / gmol)
Activation energy= E= J/mol
5) Results:
The rate constant for the saponification of Ethy acetate with NaOH at a temp of ToC, k=
----litre/ ((mol) (min)) Discuss and conclude on the temperature dependency of rate constant.
The activation energy (E) for the reaction= J/mol
The frequency factor (ko) = min-1(litre / gmol)
6) References:
. Octave Levenspiel, chemical reaction engineering, 3th Ed., OSU Bookstores, Corvallis, OR,
1996.
. Corcoran, W. H., and Lacey, W. N., Introduction to Chemical Engineering Problems,
McGraw Hill, New York, 1970, p. 103.
Experiment No: 3

Plug Flow Reactor

1) Aim:
To determine the rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate with NaOH at ambient
temperature of 280C using a Plug flow reactor.
CH3COOC2H5 (A) + NaOH (B) -> CH3COONa + C2H5OH. It is an elementary reaction
Ethyl acetate is the limiting reaction
2)Procedure for conducting the experiment:
1) Note down the concentration of ethyl acetate(EA) and NaOH in stock solution
2) Fill the reservoirs with NaOH and ethyl acetate stock solution
3) Calculate the volume of the tubular reactor.
4) Switch on the pump and allow ethyl acetate to flow into the reactor at certain flow rate and
measure the flow rate (vA) using rota meter.
5) Set the required temperature to be maintained in the reactor. Switch on the heater to heat
the reactor contents to the required temperature.

6) Calculate the flow rate of NaOH (  ) required to keep the desired value of

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). M may be greater than or equal to one. Calculate the
total flow rate (Q).
7) Adjust the flow rate of NaOH to the calculated value, without changing the EA flow rate.
8) Calculate the actual value of M obtained after adjusting the flow rates.
9) Calculate the space time using the total flow rate.
10) Start the stirrer in the reactor. Close the drain valve completely. Allow the reaction to
proceed till steady state is attained, as indicated by constant reading in the conductivity meter.
11) Note down the conductivity (in mS/cm) of the reaction mixture in, after steady state is
attained. Note: Some conductivity meters may display conductance (mS) not the conductivity
(mS/cm) [Refer theory for more information].
12) Determine the concentration of unreacted NaOH in the reaction mixture by using the
conductivity meter calibration equation.
13) Repeat steps (6) to (12) for different EA flow rates.
14) Conduct the experiment at different temperatures
3) Observations and calculations:
A -> Ethyl acetate
B -> NaOH

Strength of Ethyl acetate in stock solution =  = ------------------------ gmol/L

Strength of NaOH in stock solution=  = ------------------------ gmol/L


Diameter of the tube,d = -----------------------cm
Coil diameter , Dc =        cm
Number of turns= Nt =
V = volume of tubular reactor = ( d2/4)× Dc Nt = = -----------------------cm3
V =----------------------- L
Tabular columns:

13
Calculations:

Calculate the total flow rate Q=  +  = LPM


Calculate the space time , = V/Q =       min

Set value of M = 

Concentration of ethyl acetate in the feed mixture,

CAo = --------------------gmol/L
Concentration of NaOH in the feed mixture,

CBo = --------------------gmol/L
As the conductivity meter calibration is available only at 280C, the conductivity

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meter reading obtained at a given temperature of reaction is to be corrected for 280C.
Temperature compensation for conductivity me

Where,
YT =conductivity meter reading at any temperature T in mS/cm
Y28 = conductivity meter reading at a temperature of 280C in mS/cm
Obtain Y28 corresponding to measured conductivity meter reading ( YT) using the equation
above.
Conductivity meter is calibrated for concentrations of NaOH in the reaction mixture at a
temperature of 280C.
Obtain the Concentration of NaOH at 280C using the calibration equation given below
Conductivity meter calibration equation for 280C.

Where,
CB= Concentration of NaOH in the reaction mixture at steady state
Y28 = Conductivity meter reading for solution, corrected for 280C
Concentration of unreacted NaOH in the reaction mixture at steady state,
CB= gmol/L (obtained from the conductivity meter calibration graph)
Concentration of ethyl acetate in the reaction mixture at steady state,

CA= --------------------gmol/L

15
Conversion of ethyl acetate,  =
(CA/ CAo)= Performance equation for PFR with rate equation of the

form 
for M>1 , can be written as

4) Plotting   Vs   yields a


straight line passing through
origin if the assumed rate equation is correct. The slope=k.

For M=1, the performance equation is 

so the plot of   vs 

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yields a straight line passing through origin. The slope=k.

17
Graph for M >1 
From the graph we get,
Slope = k =.............. L/(g mole. min)
Similarly the experiment may be performed with differet temperatures and the
rate constants at these temperatures may be determined.

Obtain the rate constant at three or more different temperatures.


From Arrhenius Equation,

Plot lnk vs 1/T


Determine the activation energy (E) and the frequency factor (ko) from the slope and intercept
of the above plot.
Intercept= lnk0
Slope=-E/R
R is the gas constant
Frequency factor, ko=min-1(litre / gmol)
Activation energy= E= J/mol
5) Results:
The rate constant for the saponification of Ethy acetate with NaOH at a temp of ToC,
k = -------------------------------litre/ ((mol) (min))

18
6) Discuss and conclude: on the temperature dependency of rate constant.
The activation energy (E) for the reaction=J/mol
the frequency factor (ko) = min-1(litre / gmol)
7) References:
. Octave Levenspiel, chemical reaction engineering, 3th Ed., OSU Bookstores, Corvallis, OR,
1996.
. Corcoran, W. H., and Lacey, W. N., Introduction to Chemical Engineering Problems,
McGraw Hill, New York, 1970, p. 103.

Experiment No: 4

Sechage

1) Introduction:

The rotary dryer is a type of industrial dryer employed to reduce or minimize the liquid
moisture content of the material by bringing it indirect contact with a heated gas. The dryer is
made up of large rotating cylinder which slopes slightly so that the discharged end is lower
than the material feed end in order to convey the material under gravity. Material to be dried
enters the dryer and as the dryer rotates, the materialism lifted up by a series of internal fins
lining the inner wall of the dryer. When materials fall back to the bottom, it passes through the
hot gas stream. In the experiment, the gas stream moves towards the feed end from the
discharge end (counter current flow).Also the material passes through the length of the dryer
at nearly the wet - bulb temperature.

Single pass and three pass rotary dryers are ideal for high moisture, friable, free-flowing
products. The Aero glide Rotary dryer is the choice for high throughput capacity applications
involving high moisture, friable, free-flowing commodity products and by-products. A
rotating drum and strategically positioned flights combine to lift and shower product evenly
through the air stream. Thermostatically controlled discharge air temperature assures precise

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final moistures and great sensitivity to varying product conditions. Single-pass or three-pass
configurations are available to match product characteristics. Heating options include steam,
gas, oil, thermal oil and auxiliary biomass burner system.

2) Aim: To determine the drying characteristic for rotary dryer.

3) Description:

A rotary dryer consists of a cylindrical shell, set with its axis at a right angle to the
horizontal and mounted on rollers so that it can be rotated. The material to be dried is fed to
the high end of the dryer and, by rotation of the dryer, usually assisted by internal shelves of
flight, is gradually advanced to the lower end where it is discharged. The source of heat for a
rotary dryer is usually the hot air that circulates through the dryer. The characteristic
dimensions are:

Rotary dryer ID = D =110 mm = 0.11 m

Dryer length = 1500 mm = 1.5 m

Pre - heating of air using 1.5 KW heater (2 nos)

Air flow rate measurement by a pitot tube

Solid feed: By a screw conveyor

Inlet / Outlet air temperature by a hygrometer

4) Theory:

Consider a rotary continuous counter current dryer fed with a non - porous material
having all moisture as unbound moisture. As the material enters the dryer, it is first heated
to the drying temperature. It will then pass through the length of dryer at nearly the wet - bulb

20
temperature and theoretically at the end of the dryer, the material shall be discharged as dry
material nearly at the wet bulb temperature.

5) Experimental Procedure:

1. Set the pre - heating temperature for air.

2. Fill the feed hopper with wet solid.

3. Measure the initial moisture content of the feed.

4. Start the dryer in rotary motion.

5. Allow the wet solid to flow through the dryer by starting the screw conveyor at the pre
fixed speed.

6. At steady state record the following:

a) Air flow rate (Orifice meter, manometer reading and convert it to volumetric flow rate and
mass flow rate) = GG

b) Air temperature at inlet = tG1

c) Air temperature at outlet = tG2

7. Repeat the above steps for at least 4 gas flow rates.

6) Assumptions:

1. No heat loss from the dryer.

2. Heat is supplied only from the air, not by conduction from the dryer shell.

3. All the moisture present is free moisture.

4. There is no evaporation of moisture in the preliminary heating period.

5. Drying proceeds at a constant wet - bulb temperature until desired amount of water has
been removed.

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7) Calculations:

Consider a rotary dryer for which temperature course is similar to figure 2

CS= Specific heat of material kcal/kg dry solid

tG= Temperature of air stream

t = Temperature of solid

A = Cross sectional area of dryer

Z = Distance along dryer

L = Length of the dryer =1.5 m

U = Overall heat transfer co-efficient, kcal/(h-0C-m2of solid surface)

22
For determining Ua use the equation (perry)

D = Dryer diameter (in feet)

For economic operation of a rotary dryer

Flow sheet describing the steps of calculations in details:

8) References

.R.E Treybol, noss transfer operation, 3td Ed, Mc Grow- Hull, New York, P1990.

.BK Dubba, principles of transfer, ISBN-887-81-203-2990-4, New Delhi 2009.

Experiment No: 5

ASTM Distillation

1) Introduction:

23
Distillation is the method of separating the components of a solution which depends upon
the distribution of the substances between a gas and a liquid phase. Distillation may be done
in two ways:

a. Production of vapor by boiling the liquid mixture to be separated and condensing the vapor
without allowing any to return to the still, there is no reflux.

 b. Returning a part of condensate to the still under such conditions that this returning liquid is
brought into intimate contact with on their way to condenser.

 The distillation column consists of several trays, which allow the simultaneous travel of
liquid down the tray and vapor up the tray, allowing mixing of the two phases and therefore
equilibrium.

The liquid mixture that is to be processed is known as the feed. The feed-tray divides the
column into a top (enriching or rectification) section and a bottom (stripping) section.

The vapour moves up the column, and as it exits the top of the unit, it is cooled by a
condenser. The condensed liquid is stored in a holding vessel known as the reflux drum.Some
of this liquid is recycled back to the top of the column and this is called the reflux.

The condensed liquid that is removed from the system is known as the top product or
distillate.

 2) Aim of this experiment:

The determination of boiling range characteristics of petroleum product by using ASTM


distillation. ASTM Distillation is a standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum
Products at Atmospheric Pressure.

Working Principle: It is based on the principle of differential or simple distillation. A batch


of liquid is charged to a still fitted with some sort of heating device. The charge is boiled
slowly and the vapors are withdrawn as rapidly as they form to a condenser where they are
liquified and the condensate is collected in the reciever.

3) Experimental Procedure:

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a. The distillation flask is filled with 100 ml of sample.

 b. Water in the cooling bath is replaced and cleaned properly for effective cooling.Ice is
placed in the cooling bath for removal of heat produced.

 c. The distillation flash and the receiving cylinder are fitted to the input and output of the
cooling bath by connecting pipe. Thermometer is inserted to distillation flask.

 d. To reduce evaporation loss due to leakage, the various joints in the arrangement (such as
distillation flask - connection pipe and cooling bath output - receiving cylinder) are sealed
properly using some paper.

 e. After all arrangements are completed, heater is switched on and heat is supplied at constant
and standard rate for proper vaporization.

 f. The temperature is noted when first drop of liquid condensed is received at the receiving
cylinder. After that temperature for each 5 ml rise in volume of distillate is noted.

 g. Final boiling point temperature is noted when no further liquid is received at the cylinder,
though heat is supplied at the same rate. Then we stop heating and final volume is recorded.

 h. The residue is cooled, and measured using a measuring cylinder. Thus subtracting from
total volume to volume distillate we get the loss.

 4) Apparatus Used : Distillation Flask; Cooling Bath; Heater; Thermometer and Receiving
cylinder to collect distillate. 

5) Data, sample calculations and resultats

The following data are obtained by performing the experiment

Initial boiling point of the product = 540C

Volume percent distilled     Temperature 0C


10 65
15 69
20 74
25 78.5

25
30 83.5
35 90
40 94.5
45 100
50 104.5
55 109
60 114
65 119.5
70 125.5
75 133
80 141.5
85 155
90 173
92 150

 Final boiling point of the product = 1730C

Volume distilled = 92 ml

Residue left = 2 ml

Evaporated = 6 ml

 6) Graphs

A plot of volume percent distilled and temperature can be plotted as shown below:

7) Discussions:

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1. The boiling range gives the information on the composition, the properties and the behavior
of the fuel during storage and use.

 2. The distillation characteristics of hydrocarbons have an important effect on their safety and
performance.

 3. Volatility is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to produce
potentially explosive vapor.

8) References:

 R.E. Treybal, Mass Transfer Operation, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York 1990.

 B.K. Dutta, principles of Mass Transfer and Separation Processes, ISBN-987-81-203-


2990-4, New Delhi, 2009.

Experiment No: 6

Determination of viscosity of organic solvents

1) Objective:

 Determine the absolute viscosity of organic liquids.

2) Theory:

The internal property of a fluid for its resistance to flow is known as viscosity. In 1844
Hagen–Poiseuille did their work concerning the interpretation that liquid flow through tubes
and he proposed an equation for viscosity of liquids. This equation is called Poiseuille’s
equation.

   (1)
Where η is called the viscosity coefficient, t is the time of flow of liquid, V is the volume of
the liquid, P is the hydrostatic pressure, and L is the distance travelled by the liquid during

27
time t. In the honor of Hagen–Poiseuille the unit of viscosity is called the Poise (P). The
official SI unit for absolute viscosity is kg/m s (or Pascal-seconds, Pa s).

Viscosity can be measured using a viscometer.


The different types of viscometer are as follows:

1. Ostwald viscometer
2. Falling sphere viscometer
3. Falling piston viscometer
4. Oscillating piston viscometer
5. Vibrational viscometers
6. Rotational viscometers
7. Bubble viscometer  

Ostwald viscometer is a commonly used viscometer, which consists of a U-shaped glass tube
held vertically. For more accurate measurements it is held in a controlled temperature bath. It
is also known as a glass capillary viscometer. A liquid is allowed to flow through its capillary
tube between two etched marks and the time of flow of the liquid is measured using a
stopwatch.
In an Ostwald viscometer the measured distance the liquid travels, L will be always a
constant; the radius, r will always be a constant; and by procedure the volume of liquid, V will
also be constant. Equation (1) can then be simplified to: 
  Ostwald viscometer                     

(2) 

Where K is a constant and     


 The hydrostatic pressure is P proportional to the density of the fluid being measured. In our
experiment we will be measuring the mass of equal volumes of liquid so that the viscosity
will be proportional to the masses measured. Therefore we have the relation:
 

(3) 
Where K and t are defined above and m is the mass of the liquid.

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For finding the viscosity of liquids it is important to calibrate the viscometer using a reference
liquid. Water is a commonly used reference liquid. The viscosity of water at 30.0 °C is 0.8007
centipoise (cP). Knowing the values for the reference liquid and relation (3), we get:

(4)
  Where: ηr is viscosity coefficient of the reference sample (water), mr is the mass of the
reference sample, and tr is the time flow of the reference sample. Note that K cancels out. The
other variables are the viscosity coefficient, mass, and time flow of the sample respectively.
With an Ostwald viscometer we can measure the time flow of a liquid (mass can be
measured using standard laboratory procedures, e.g. a relative density bottle and a scale) and
determine its viscosity by solving equation (4) for η.
 

(5)

Temperature Dependence of Viscosity 

In 1889 Arrhenius expressed an equation for temperature dependent chemical reaction


rates. Since then, many temperature dependent chemical and physical processes have been
found to behave in accordance with Arrhenius-like equations. For the viscosity of many
liquids, the viscosity decreases as the temperature increases in accordance with the following
equation:

(6) 

Where A is a constant known as the Arrhenius constant, Eη is the activation energy for
flow, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is the temperature of the liquid using an absolute scale
(almost always K — the units of Eη and R and T should be chosen so that the ratio is
dimensionless, A will have the same dimensions as η, in our case cP). A plot of η vs. 1/T
should be linear and have a slope equal to Eη /R if the liquid’s viscosity exhibits Arrhenius-
like behavior. 

29
 Determination of unknown composition
Using an Ostwald viscometer, we can also calculate the unknown composition of a
mixture. The viscosities of mixtures of different known compositions are measured and a
graph is plotted with viscosity against the compositions of the different mixtures. From the
graph, the composition of the unknown mixture corresponding to the viscosity can be
determined.

3) Procedure: to determine the coefficient of viscosity of organic liquids.  

1. Select the liquid from the list.


2. Click on the button "Fill the liquid".
3. Click "Start" button. (Note: DO NOT use "Start" button on the stopwatch)
4. Click "Stop" button on stopwatch when liquid reaches "label D". (Mark "Show Label"
for seeing the labels)
5. Note the flow time on the stopwatch.
6. Calculate the Viscosity coefficient of the liquid.

Liquid Mass (g) Density (g/cm3)


Water 25.06 1.002
Toluene 21.55 0.862
Nitrobenzene 30.01 1.200

 4) Observations and Calculations:

30
Flow Time (sec)
Solvents
i Ii Mean
Water      
Toluene      
Nitrobenzene      

 Room temperature = 30oC

Mass of water = 25.06 g

Mass of Toluene = 21.55 g

Mass of Nitrobenzene = 30.01 g

Time of flow of water=...........................sec

Time of flow of Toluene=......................sec

Time of flow of Nitrobenzene =............sec

Absolute viscosity of water,  = 0.8007 centipoise

Absolute viscosity of the Toluene, =........................centipoise

Absolute viscosity of the Nitrobenzene, =...............centipoise

5) Results:

1. Absolute viscosity of the Toluene = .......................centipoise


2. Absolute viscosity of the Nitrobenzene =..............centipoise

6) Points to Remember while Performing the Experiment in a Real Laboratory:

31
1. Always wear lab coat and gloves when you are in the lab. When you enter the lab,
switch on the exhaust fan and make sure that all the chemicals and reagents required
for the experiment are available. If they are not available, prepare the reagents using
the components for reagent preparation.
2. Make sure to clean all your working apparatus with chromic acid and distilled water
and ensure that all the apparatus are free from water droplets while performing the
experiment.
3. Make sure to calibrate the electronic weigh balance before taking the measurements.
4. Ensure that the stop watch and hot air gun are working properly.
5. Clean all glassware with soap and distilled water. Once the experiment is completed
recap the reagent bottles. Switch off the light, and exhaust fan before leaving the lab.
6. Discard the used gloves in a waste bin.

7) References:

 Books:

1. Dr.  J.B Yadev, Advanced practical physical chemistry;


2. O.P Pandey, D.N Bajpai, Practical chemistry;
3. Essentials of physical chemistry, Arun Bahl, B.S Bahl, G.D Giri;
4. A. Halpern and J. Reeves, Experimental Physical Chemistry, 1988, Scott and
Foresman.

 Webliography:

1. www.ias.ac.in/initiat/sci_ed/resources/chemistry/Viscosity.pdf
2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity
3. physics.info/viscosity/

Image Source:

1. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Ubbelohde.jpg/100px-
Ubbelohde.jpg

Experiment No: 7

32
Gas Liquid Absorption

1) Aim:

The object of this experiment is to study gas liquid absorption in an absorption column:

         1. The reaction of carbon dioxide when it is contacted with sodium hydroxide solution.

         2. To compare the performance of a packed column (continuous process) with a bubble
column (semi-batch process).

         3. To observe the effect of different flow rates on the performance of the two columns.

2) Theory:

This exercise deals with the mass transfer operation known as gas absorption in which a
soluble gas is absorbed from its mixture with an inert gas by means of a liquid in which the
solute gas is more or less soluble.

A common apparatus used in gas absorption is packed tower, an example of which is shown
in figure (1). The device consists of a cylindrical column, or tower, equipped with a gas inlet
and distributing space at the bottom; a liquid inlet and a distributor at top; gas and liquid
outlets at the top and bottom respectively; and a supported mass of inert solid shapes, called
tower packing.

The inlet liquid which may be pure solvent or a dilute solution


of some solute (may or may not be same gas) in the solvent is
distributed over the top of the packing by distributor and, in ideal operation, uniformly wets
the surfaces of the packing. The solute containing gas enters the distributing space below the

33
packing and flows upward through the interstices in the packing counter current to the flow of
liquid. The packing provides large area of contact between liquid and gas and encourages
intimate contact between phases. At ideal steady state condition, for a specified flow rates of
liquid and gas phase, the extent of absorption will not change with passage of time. In case of
absorption in semi-batch process as shown in figure (2), the extent of absorption increases
with passage of time as more and more gas is passed through the same liquid.  

The absorption column in the experimental setup was packed with raschig rings. They
provide a large surface area within the volume of the column for the interaction between
liquid and gas and also enhance the contact time between liquid and gas. The liquid phase is
preferably sodium hydroxide solution of known concentration (not more than 2 N), enters
from the top and the mixture of carbon dioxide and air (inert solvent for gaseous phase), and
enters from the bottom of the column. Thus we have counter-current flow column. NaOH is
passed in excess of the theoretical requirement in the column.

The reaction which takes place in absorption column and the bubbling pot is:

 When the samples from the absorption column and bubbling pot are titrated with HCl, first
end-point is obtained using a Phenolphthalein indicator.

 Moles of bicarbonate ion are equal to the moles of carbonate ion present. Also, the moles
of H+ ion reacted is equal to the sum of moles of OH- and CO32- ions.

 Second end-point is obtained using the Methyl Orange indicator which helps us in
determining the total moles of bicarbonate ion (and hence the carbonate ions) present.

3) Procedure:

34
1) Prepare 20 liter of 1N NaOH solution in a feed tank.

 2) check the concentration of the feed solution by titration against 0.1 N HCl.

3) Fill the bubbling pot with 3 liters of above prepared solution.

4) Check the concentration of the bubbling pot solution by titration against 0.1N HCl.

5) Set the flow rate of NaOH solution to 10 L/H.(you can set any point from slider)

 6) Set the flow rate of carbon dioxide gas to 90 L/H. (you can set any point from slider)

 7) Set the flow rate of air to 30 L/H.

 8) Take sample at 10, 20, 30 minutes from column outlet and bubbling pot outlet.

 9) Titrate the sample collected, using phenolphthalein indicator against 0.1N HCl.

 10) Titrate the same sample, using methyl orange indicator against 0.1 N HCl

 11) Calculate the balance on NaOH and CO2.

4) References:

 1. Treybal, R.E., 1980. Mass-transfer operations, McGraw-Hill.

 2. McCabe, W.L., Smith, J.C. & Harriott, P., 2005. Unit operations of chemical engineering,
McGraw-Hill.

35
Experiment No: 8

Heat Conduction

1) Aim:  

1. To find the thermal conductivity of a material by the two slabs guarded hot plate method.
2. To find the thermal resistance of the sample.

2) Apparatus:

A circular main heater plate (MH) is surrounded by an annular guard heater plate (GH)
with a narrow air gap in between. Each heater is made up of electrical resistance wire
sandwiched between two copper plates. Thermocouples are fixed to the plates to measure
their surface temperatures.
Two identical circular slabs of the material to be tested are placed on either side of and in
good thermal contact with the heater plates. On the outer sides of the two slabs, in good
thermal contact, are two circular water-cooled slabs whose surface temperatures can also be
monitored with thermocouples (Fig 1).
The purpose of the guard heater is to prevent heat loss from the edge of the main heater by
maintaining the temperature outside the main heater at the same temperature as the main
heater. This ensures that all heat lost from the main heater flows through the test slabs.

         

36
3) Theory:

The theory of heat transfer seeks to predict the energy transfer that may take place between
material bodies as a result of temperature difference. This energy transfer is defined as heat.
The three modes by which heat can be transferred from one place to another are conduction,
convection and radiation.
In conduction, heat is carried by means of collisions between rapidly moving molecules closer
to the hot end of a body of matter and the slower molecules closer to the cold end. Some of
the kinetic energy of the fast molecules passes to the slow molecules, and as a result of
successive collisions, heat flows through the body of matter from the hot end to the cold end.
Solids, liquids, and gases all conduct heat. Conduction is poorest in gases because their
molecules are relatively far apart and so interact less frequently than in solids and liquids.
Metals are the best conductors of heat because some of their electrons are able to move about
relatively freely and can interact frequently by collisions.
Without the guard heater, cooler air surrounding the edge of the main heater would be heated
by conduction and convection. Thus some of the heat supplied to the main heater would be
carried away by the surrounding air.

With the guard heater in place and adjusted to the same temperature as the main heater, the
air in the gap between is maintained at the temperature of the main heater, so no heat is lost at
the edge of the main heater. All heat lost from the main heater must flow into the test slabs.

Consider one dimensional heat conduction (Fig 2). The rate at which heat is conducted
through a slab of a particular material is proportional to the area A of the slab and to the
temperature difference ΔT between its sides and inversely proportional to the slab's thickness
d.

 The amount of heat Q that flows through the slab in the time t is given by

Rate of conduction                                                       

37
 And thus                                                                                  (1)
Where ΔT = T1 – T2, and k is the thermal conductivity of the material, is a measure of its
ability to conduct heat. The SI unit of k is Wm-1K-1.

Thermal conductivity: Note that a heat flow rate is involved, and the numerical value of the
thermal conductivity indicates how fast heat will flow. In general, thermal conductivity is
strongly temperature dependent. It has the units of watts per meter per Kelvin. Heat transfer
by conduction in a solid can be realized through the support of phonons, electrons and
photons. The individual contributions of these carriers widely depend on material and its
temperature. Thermal conductivity is thus a second order tensor, but in a material with cubic
isotropy it reduces to a scalar. It is an intensive property (changing the amount of material
does not change its thermal conductivity) and is a function of both pressure and temperature.

The thermal resistance R of a layer of a material of thickness d and of thermal conductivity


k is given by

                              (2)
The greater the value of R, the greater the resistance to the flow of heat.

 4 Applications: 

Heat transfer has wide applications for the proper functioning of thermal devices and
systems. This principle is used to solve many problems in thermal mechanics: heat
exchangers, building construction works, thermal energy storage devices, heat transfer in
human body, thermopile and infrared thermometer ;thermal resistance in electronics like
thermal diode or thermal rectifier, used in laser cooling, radioactive cooling, magnetic
cooling, etc

5) Performing Simulation: 
1. The Choose Material combo box is used to select the material for the test slab.
2. The Diameter of the material slider is used set the diameter of the portion of the test slab
in contact with the main heater, in cm
3. The Thickness of material slider is used to set the thickness of the test slab, in cm.
4. The Coldwater temperature slider is used to set the temperature (in degrees Celsius) of

38
the water flowing inside the outer plates.
5. The White knobs in simulator can be rotated by clicking side arrows to adjust the voltage
and corresponding current, which can be used to calculate input power.
6. The MH-GH Switch is used to set either main heater (MH) or guard heater (GH) voltage
and current as shown on the meters. Note: For the simulator to be powered on, the voltage for
both heaters must be the same.
7. The Power on button switches on the power after the initial adjustments are done.
8. The Temperature indicator is used to read the temperature at the positions of the various
thermocouples. After a steady state is reached (when the timer shows 20 minutes), click the
arrows on either side of the knob to read temperatures T1 to T8 in degrees Celsius.

6) Procedure for Simulation


1. Choose the material from combo box.
2. using the sliders, fix a particular diameter for the portion of the test slab in contact with the
main heater, and a thickness for the entire slab.
3. Adjust the cold water temperature using the slider.
4. Using the white knobs, fix the value of same voltage and current for both main heater (MH)
and guard heater (GH). With the MH-GH switch set to MH, use white MH knob to set the
voltage and current for the main heater. Then click the MH-GH switch to GH and use the
white GH knob to set the voltage and current for the guard heater to the same values you set
for the main heater.
5. Click the Power On switch to power the unit on.
6. after a steady state is reached (20 minutes in the timer), use the temperature indicator to
read and note down T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 and T8.

7. using the work sheet and the equations from the theory page, calculate the thermal
conductivity of the test slab. Note: since the main heater is in contact with a test slab on both
sides, the area A in equation

(1)  

Where d is the diameter of the MH, not, as might first be assumed.

39
7) Procedure for Real lab:
The procedure for the real lab is quite similar. The main differences are (1) the guard heater
can be set to a slightly different temperature, as needed, to keep the temperature of the main
heater uniform, and (2) the calculations can be extended to allow for and/or find the
dependence of k on ΔT. 

8) Observations and Calculations :

Mean temperature at the surface of the specimen on the heater side,

=            °C

Mean temperature at the surface of the specimen on cold plate side,

=                              °C

Area of heat transfer,

=                       m2

In above equation, d is the diameter of the specimen

Heat transferred,    

40
 

 Δx is the thickness of the specimen

 1Thermal conductivity                                                           k =              Wm-1K-1

 9) Result:

Thermal conductivity of the given specimen by conduction =                        Wm-1K-1

10) References:

Books:

1. Jiji, Latif. Heat Conduction. Berlin: Springer, 2009;


2. Holman, J. Heat transfer in SI units. New Dehli: McGraw-Hill, 2008 ; 
3. James R. Welty, Charles E. Wicks, Gregory Rorrer - 2009 - 776 pages;
4. Pitts, Donald. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of heat transfer. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Webliography:

1.  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_conduction
2.  www.engineeringtoolbox.com/conductive-heat-transfer-d_428.html
3.  www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa_pre_2011/energy/heatrev1.shtml

  Experiment No: 9

Heat Radiation

1) Aim: heat Transfer by Radiation

1. To compare heat transfer between different material surface and the black body
surface by radiation.
2. To find the emissivity of different material surface.

41
 2) Apparatus:

Emissivity measurement apparatus: The experimental set up consists of two circular


aluminum plates identical in size provide with heater coils at the bottom Fig.1

It is kept in an enclosure so as to provide undisturbed natural convection surroundings. The


heat input to the heaters is varied by two regulators and is measured by an ammeter and
voltmeter. Each plate is having three thermocouples; hence an average temperature is taken.
One thermocouple is kept in the enclosure to read the chamber temperature. One plate is
blackened by a layer of enamel black paint to form the idealized black surface whereas the
other plate is the test plate. The temperatures of the plates are measured by using
thermocouples.

 3) Theory: 

In radiation, energy is carried by the electromagnetic waves emitted by every object. In


general, radiation is a volumetric phenomenon. This is because the electrons, atoms and
molecules of all solids, liquids and gases above absolute zero temperature are in constant
motion and hence energy is constantly emitted, absorbed and transmitted throughout the entire
volume of the matter. 

The radiation from a surface is emitted in all possible directions. A body at a temperature
above absolute zero emits radiation in all directions over a wide range of wavelength. The
amount of radiation from the surface of a body at a given temperature and at a given
wavelength depends on the material of the body and nature of its surface. A concept of an
idealized surface has been made which are perfect emitter and absorber of radiation. This
ideal surface is known as a black body.

42
A black body or ideal radiator is a body that emits and absorbs at any temperature the
maximum possible radiation at any given wavelength.

A black body has the following features       

1. At a specified temperature and wavelength a black body emits more radiation energy
than the real one.
2. It absorbs all incident radiation
regardless of wavelength and
direction
3. It emits radiation energy uniformly in all
direction. That is black body is a
diffuse emitter the term ‘diffuse’ means
independent of direction.

Depending on type of surface, the reflected radiation is specular or diffuse. A smooth and
polished surface is more specular while the rough surface is more diffuse.

The fraction of incident energy absorbed by the surface is called the absorptivity. For a
black body it is equal to one.

Actually black body do not exist in nature through its characteristics are approximated by a
hole in a box filled with highly absorptive material. The emission spectrum of such a black
body was first fully described by Max Planck.

Emissivity of a surface is defined as ratio of the radiation emitted by the surface to the
radiation emitted by the black body at the same temperature.

If a sample is replaced by a black body of temperature of same area at same temperature,


under thermal equilibrium, the emissivity of the body is equal to the absorptivity.

43
Relationship between Absorptivity and Emissivity: 

Consider two flat infinite plates, surface A and surface B, both emitting radiation towards
one another. Surface B is assumed to be an ideal emitter, εB= 1.

Surface A will emit radiation according to Stefan’s Boltzmann law


as

         (1)
And will receive radiation as

        (2)
Net heat flow from surface A will be

   (3)
Now suppose that the two surfaces are at exactly same temperature then, εA = αA
Emissivity of surface will depend on the material of which it is composed.
The radiation emitted per unit area per unit time from the surface of a body is called its
emissive power. The ratio of emissive power of a body to the emissive power of a black body
is called emissivity.

Heat emitted by the black body per unit area, (4)

Heat emitted by the test plate per unit area, (5)


εb :Emissivity of the black plate.
εp: Emissivity of the test plate
σ : Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67×10-8 W m-2K-4
Tb: Black body temperature in Kelvin
Tc: Chamber temperature in Kelvin
Tp : Test plate temperature in Kelvin
Qb = Qp: since input power to the two plates is same and conduction heat loss are also same.

Emissivity,   (6)

4) Procedure:

44
1.  Choose material - This can be used to select the specimen plate.
2.  Diameter of the specimen- Used to vary the diameter of the specimen in centimeter.
3.  Thickness of the specimen- Used to change the thickness of the specimen in
centimeter.
4.  Chamber temperature- This is used to change the temperature in the evacuated
chamber in degree Celsius. 

5) Procedure for Simulation:

1. Choose a particular material to perform simulation.

2.  Fix the value of diameter and thickness of the plate.

3. The temperature is given to the chamber using the slider "chamber temperature".

4. Using tuning switch and white knob, fix the voltage and corresponding current for black
plate and test plate.

5. Note the value of temperature T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 using temperature indicator.

6. Calculate the value of emissivity for a given test plate using equations.

 6) Procedure for Real lab:

  Using emissivity apparatus, the power is given to carry out the experiment using voltmeter
and ammeter. After steady state is reached,(2 hours), Using stop watch, every half an hour,
the temperature in the temperature indicator is noted. Using trial and error method, T 1,T2, T3,
T4, T5, T6, and T7  are noted. Calculate the value of emissivity for a given test plate using
equations.

7) Observations and Calculations:

45
 Heat emitted by the black body,      

                                     W
Heat emitted by the test plate,  

                                     W

εb: Emissivity of the black plate and it is equal to 1


εp: Emissivity of the test plate
σ : Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67×10-8 W m-2K-4

=..........................K

= ...................K

                                            K         
Qb = Qp since input power to the two plates is same and conduction heat loss are also same.

Emissivity of the specimen plate,                              

                                     

8) Result:

Emissivity of test plate surface =

46
9) References:

Books:

1. Siegel, Robert. And John Howell. Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer. London: Taylor
& Francis Group, 2001.
2. Kreith, Frank et.al. Principles of Heat Transfer. City: CL-Engineering, 2010.
3. White, Guy. And Philip Meson. Experimental Techniques in Low-Temperature
Physics. Oxford Eng.: Clarendon, 2002.

Webliography:

 www.engineeringtoolbox.com/radiation-heat-transfer-d_431.html

 www.efunda.com/formulae/heat_transfer/radiation/overview_rad.cfm

 www.biocab.org/Heat_Transfer.html

Experiment No: 10

Flow Through Fittings

1) Aim of the Experiment:


To determine the equivalent length of the following fittings:
(a) Globe valve
(b) gate valve
(c) regular 450 Bend
(d) regular 900 Bend
(f) Return bend 1800 deg
2) Apparatus required: CCL4 manometer, Hg manometer
3) Procedure:

1. Keep the valve leading to fittings open and valves leading to other lines closed.
2. Keep the bypass valve completely open and the main valve completely closed. Switch
on the pump.

47
3. Connect a CCLmanometer to the pressure taps across the globe valve. Ensure that no
air bubbles present and height in both the limbs of manometer are the same.
4. Set a flow rate of water through the pipe by opening the main valve and throttling the
bypass valve suitably using the rotameter.
5. Note down the rotameter reading and manometer reading after a steady state is
attained.
6. Increase the flow rate of water by opening the main valve and throttling the bypass
valve suitably and repeat step 4 and 5.
7. Use mercury manometer for higher flow rates.
8. Take eight readings with CCL4 manometer as well as with Hg manometer.

4) Data and Calculation


Data:
Diameter of the pipe connected to globe valve = D =      m
Density of water = =     kg/m
Viscosity of water = =cp=     kg/ms
Density of CCl4 = 1600 kg/m
Density of Hg = 13600 kg/m
Calculations:

1. Flow rate:
2. ∆Hm is cm of manometric fluid:
3. Volumetric flow rate, Q =m3/s

4. Pressure drop in m of water hf =

5. Cross sectional area of the pipe A =


6. Average velocity through the pipe = V=Q/A =   m/s
7. Reynolds number

8. Friction factor f is calculated using f =

9. Equivalent length of Globe valve:

48
5) Result:
Report equivalent length of the fitting and compare with other types.
7) Reference:

  1. Warren Lee McCabe, Julian Cleveland Smith, Peter Harriott ,Unit operation of chemical
engineering , 5th Edition,1993;
2. Coulson and Richardson, Chemical Engineering Volume I Pargamon Press 3rd
edition.1977;
3. Walter L. Badger and Julius T. Banchero, Introduction to Chemical engineering, Tata
McGraw-Hill book Edition 1997, India;
4.Perry's , Chemical Engineers', Handbook (7th Edition) Edited by Perry, R.H.; Green, D.W.
© 1997 McGraw-Hill;
5. A. S. Foust, Principles of Unit Operations, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1980;
6. Donald P Eckman, Industrial Instrumentation, Wiley Eastern Publication;
7. Lecture notes by M.Subramanian http://www.msubbu.in/ln/fm/;

Experiment No: 11

EVAPORATION

1) Aim:
Evaporation is a physical change where a substance changes from the liquid state to the
gaseous state. Evaporation of water plays a crucial role in the water cycle which is responsible
for maintaining life on planet Earth. Many disciplines depend on the process of evaporation;

49
one important example is in the field of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, where alcohol is used
as a solvent. The fast rate of evaporation of alcohol allows it to evaporate, leaving only the
active ingredients in action over the skin.

Principle
- A contribution of heat (exchanging) will allow the boiling of this solution;
- Water or the solvent constituting the initial solution will be vaporized;
- The generated vapor is evacuated then condensed;
- The not vaporized solution is thus concentrated from where the name of
concentrated.
The finished product can be:
- Vapor, case of the production of drinking water starting from sea water
- the concentrated solution: dairy, sugar refinery, production of orange juice

2) Theory:

Thermodynamic aspect of evaporation


Evaporation is the passage of the liquid state in a gas state. It is thus a phenomenon of
change of state evaporation is endothermic, i.e. it asks heat the environment. This quantity of
energy is considerable and corresponds to the latent heat of vaporization the latent heat of
vaporization is also called enthalpy of vaporization, molar or mass, and is equal to the
quantity of heat necessary to the unit of quantity of matter (mole) or mass (kg) of a body so
that it passes from the liquid state in a gas state. The latent heat varies with the temperature
Aspects physiques
Implications related to the transfer of heat in an industrial evaporator, the coolant is generally
of the water vapor the vapor condenses on the level of the section of the evaporator conceived
to ensure the transfer of heat; this section plays the role of the heat exchanger Plus one heat
transfer, more one evaporates.
Search for materials offering:
- Conductivity the highest possible ;
- good resistance ;
- with a minimum thickness ;
- a smooth surface easy to clean;
- Choice between pure alloys ;
- And metals thermal Resistance of the layers deposited.

50
Aspects energy
- Evaporation requires a significant thermal contribution
- the majority of the installations uses vapor as coolant theoretical specific
- consumption is about 800 with 1000kkWh per ton of evaporated water
- the energy needs necessary to condensation and with the operation of the
- auxiliary equipment’s are not included in this assessment It is thus a
- unit operation at strong energy cost energy
- optimization passes mainly by a reduction:
- Consumption in hot source (primary vapor) and in cold source (cooling water for
condensation)
- Consumption of the energy stations annex

3) Analyse
Students will analyse their results and write down their observations, it is best if the
teacher draws a table on the board comparing the time measured by each group and take the
average. For more advanced classes they might also calculate the uncertainty by finding the
standard deviation.

Time taken for water to Time taken for alcohol to


Team number
disappear (s) disappear (s)

Average

Standard deviation

Where µ = the average


∑= the sum or the total
x = each value in the population (the individual measurements taken)
n = number of measurements taken

51
Where  is the standard deviation of the entire population
X = each value in the population
µ = the average
∑= the sum or the total
n = number of measurements taken, students can find how longer it took water to evaporate
by measuring the time taken for the ruler to fall. Students will observe to which side did the
ruler fall, it should fall towards the heavier side which is water which evaporates at a slower
rate than alcohol.
The teacher may like to discuss with students how accurate their results are and whether it is
appropriate to compare the results of the whole class or not. It would be appropriate because
even though students may have different amounts of fluid on the paper yet the paper will not
fall until the difference in the fluid weights between the two sides is about the same. These
discussions will enhance students’ critical thinking and research skills; it will also make the
experiment interesting and enjoyable.
For the temperature experiment, the one with the higher temperature will evaporate first. The
same will happen for the one with larger surface area.

4) Problem solving and discussion:


According to the level of students the discussion can involve different depths of knowledge.
For younger classes, they will discuss whether their results agree with their hypothesis or not.
They will explain on what basis they made their hypothesis; some can explain that they know
from their life experience that alcohol evaporates faster than water. Other students can
mention that water is denser than alcohol.
For senior and advanced classes, they will explain that the process of evaporation involves
the breaking of intermolecular bonds to change form the liquid state to the gaseous state. This
explanation shows what happens on the molecular level and how some intermolecular bonds
are stronger than others and they are harder to break. Water has got stronger intermolecular
bonds than alcohol and this is why it requires more energy to break these bonds and it takes a
longer time to evaporate. When heated, the bonds can break easier because they have access
to the energy required to break them.
If the results do not agree with the hypothesis, students can discuss if there were any

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mistakes in their measurements or in the setup of the experiment. Mistakes can include
writing the wrong labels on the paper or making a wrong hypothesis

5) Conclusion:
Students will state whether their hypothesis is supported or not and will present their work in
a suitable format. They can take photos of the steps of their experiment and include them in
their preferred method of presentation.

6) References:

https://www.flickr.com/photos/121476474@N04/24013108450/in/photolist-
oohGPUpqUoZH-s15L2P-oEKno3-oKiidv-jtV6Cr-j9FLyK-hR51cu-Qy9ngE-oEyyGj-
hR29q7-oEyyuf-oKxfXmoEyyi3-oKxetE-hSEdVt-UTb6B5-oEM6KP-ooi76T-S611nt-
iFva6v-CzXsxd-fxDFhV-Aw7o-qQtTts-HGir5NXH9JL4-dmqjh1-XnTjgo-hSAE56-
WUQrE7-9WrrJA-fXmZZu-X2Heo5-7eYKZ2-5tW8C3-9i2LKJ-c7yXSoHxexJ-6G6FVt-
nTDqMn-dpBakQ-dpB1C4-dmqjL7-dpB1tp-fCXqur-dmqhKV-35Kb3e-4CxSHRRQBqa8/
Author Julian Wishahi Licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

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CONCLUSION GENERAL

En ce qui conserne les différentes experiences réalisées ci-haut dans le cadre des travaux
pratiques sur les opérations unitaires,

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