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GLQ3205

Géophysique appliquée 2

Méthodes sismiques 3: Sismique réfraction (suite)


Gabriel Fabien-Ouellet

gabriel.fabien-ouellet@polymtl.ca

Été 2019 Plan du cours

1. Révision
2. Vitesses sismiques
3. Méthode du Plus-Minus
4. Mise en oeuvre et applications
5. Étude de cas

1
Révision

Réfractions en sismique
Attention! En sismique, nous avons Onde SV
plusieurs types d’ondes (P et S). Une réfléchie
Onde P
interface produira une conversion de
incidente
mode, et chaque type d’onde
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répond à l’équation de réfraction


généralisée: <latexit sha1_base64="+Fgz57o12n3iA4lDT34AJoFdCCk=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="KLhvd/wEQCcO5HVCbkD8mqfegxE=">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</latexit>

Onde P
<latexit sha1_base64="n9KEtS+Unw2Zv3LJPw7H1u3NkbE=">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</latexit>
réfléchie

<latexit sha1_base64="QuqmkKrXiNhxAgRDLbrKZG+uPfQ=">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</latexit>

Onde SV
réfractée
Onde P
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<latexit sha1_base64="O5ejGBb/YUPNO3NamjQDGLzPphU=">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</latexit>

réfractée

où p est le paramètre de rai.


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2
Révision

Réfraction critique
L’angle critique est donné par:

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• La réfraction critique ne survient <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

que si V2>V1 <latexit sha1_base64="r1c6pt7ZfMwVRZsPbEhCqBWDxjE=">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</latexit>

• L’onde se propage à la vitesse V2 le <latexit sha1_base64="9nWk9wbSr+1h44co3gPgIYvqKEU=">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</latexit>

Réfraction
long de l’interface critique
• Selon le principe de Huygens, une
onde est réémise vers le haut, à un
angle égal à l’angle critique.

3
Révision

Exemple: Interprétation à deux couches


Exemple: Interprétez les temps d’arrivées suivants selon un modèle à deux
couches horizontales.

1. Tracez la dromochronique
t0 = 39 ms
2. Identifiez les brisures de pente et
V2 = 1500 m/s
assigner les arrivées à un réfracteur
3. Obtenir les vitesses par l’inverse des
pentes
V1 = 300 m/s
4. Déterminez le temps d’intercepte et la
distance de croisement
5. Déterminez la profondeur sous le tir: xi = 14.7 m

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4
Révision

Couches inclinées <latexit sha1_base64="76Cwk6vNXXU0hRGDGx8htDu77BI=">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</latexit>

Temps
Les vitesses apparentes du réfracteur
dépendent maintenant de la direction <latexit sha1_base64="XeWOefocAuuE5hvjp+0z1Pnmf0o=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="4g2AXeGd6rBWQc2xG3HWu6tyjmw=">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</latexit>

du tir!

Il faut toujours un tir direct et un <latexit sha1_base64="iSt7gWO5vCdeJPB/T7ZO+WItmsY=">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</latexit>


sha1_base64="/W3MqKeFljqrsatIWUSw3rrAi1M=">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</latexit>
sha1_base64="U0Tuop8WQSjH0xhgmsB3NT1NWjs=">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</latexit>
t0
tir inverse en sismique réfraction ! <latexit sha1_base64="Al/BQTwOYzwLGTH3qglQ4qeYQaE=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="Al/BQTwOYzwLGTH3qglQ4qeYQaE=">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</latexit>

xi Distance
A
<latexit sha1_base64="kvzVSzmipjyr30PIve8Ehq4ACMA=">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</latexit>
sha1_base64="aJraBzedeTvJ0Wg837BeTAjkM1g=">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</latexit>
sha1_base64="CHyhjAMoPsUiAPC0PT8eXrzsYWc=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="+Q1lMK/p3lqSfgb6j1MYVAijKds=">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</latexit>

B
<latexit sha1_base64="r1c6pt7ZfMwVRZsPbEhCqBWDxjE=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="sznPHTSF+cx8p/jwFPYQF4Lqg9E=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">AAADrniclVJNb9NAEH2pgZby1cKRi0WExCmyudBjJHroBVEkkkZqosjebhqr/pK9DlRR/wRX+GP8A/gXvJluUaFCwFqJZ9+893ZmvGmdZ62Loq+9jeDW7TubW3e3791/8PDRzu7jcVt1jbEjU+VVM0mT1uZZaUcuc7md1I1NijS3R+nZa8kfrWzTZlX53p3XdlYkp2W2yEziCE2mbmldMjfznX40iHSFN4PYB334dVjt9g4wxQkqGHQoYFHCMc6RoOVzjBgRamIzrIk1jDLNW1xgm9qOLEtGQvSM/6fcHXu05F48W1UbnpLz11AZ4jk1FXkNYzkt1HynzoL+yXutnlLbOd+p9yqIOiyJ/k13xfxXnfTisMCe9pCxp1oR6c54l06nIpWH17pydKiJSXzCfMPYqPJqzqFqWu1dZpto/psyBZW98dwO332VJZEPOq1C6y/pviYuzBUrkm82U0R8FnqG+KZUfFRcHFut0v6cgOArZf6/ss8TL649UuW+anPty+KN5771E5Gd3ISp7hb0uHxTyzsc/35jbwbjl4M4GsTvov5w6G/zFp7iGV6wllcY4gCHGGkFn/AZX4IoGAezYH5J3eh5zRP8soLlDycLvyY=</latexit>

5 <latexit sha1_base64="9nWk9wbSr+1h44co3gPgIYvqKEU=">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</latexit>
Révision

Difficultés
Inversion de vitesse Couche cachée
Temps

Temps
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<latexit sha1_base64="iieskbBFMC2SC1Z/8GwNV+9PRrY=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="WuVLdgAbTkkLWX24MBrwfOUg3kU=">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</latexit>
Distance <latexit sha1_base64="WuVLdgAbTkkLWX24MBrwfOUg3kU=">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</latexit>
Distance

S R S R

6
Révision

Corrections et limitations

Bref, les dromochroniques sont rarement des droites parfaites en pratique, ce


qui rend l’interprétation non triviale!
Effet combiné de la
topographie de surface
et du roc et des
variations de vitesse!

7
Vitesses sismiques

8
Vitesses sismiques

Ondes P et ondes S
Ondes P Ondes S

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La vitesse des ondes P est toujours plus grande que celle des ondes S !

9
Vitesses sismiques

Coefficient de Poisson
Les modules élastiques et la densité sont donc directement liés aux
vitesses sismiques!

Il est possible d’obtenir le coefficient de Poisson à partir des vitesses:

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Le rapport Vp/Vs est donc fondamental!

10
Vitesses sismiques

Vitesses sismiques
Plusieurs facteurs affectent les vitesses sismiques:
• Lithologie: D’énormes différences sont rencontrées entre roches et dépôts
granulaires, qui sont dues aux différences de rigidité de la matrice.
• Minéralogie: La structure atomique des minéraux et la composition des
roches affectent leur densité et leur module élastique.
• Porosité: Une grande porosité diminue les vitesses sismiques.
• Saturation: La nature des fluides contenus dans les pores affecte
grandement la vitesse des ondes P.
• Pression effective: Plus la pression effective est grande, plus les vitesses
augmentent.
• Compaction et cimentation: Lorsque les sédiments se compactent, la
porosité diminue et la vitesse augmente. Lors de la cimentation, les grains
deviennent solidaires, ce qui augmente la rigidité de la matrice et donc les
vitesses sismiques.

11
Vitesses sismiques

Lithologie
La lithologie affecte grandement les vitesses sismiques. En particulier, des
variations de 10x sont rencontrées entre dépôts granulaires et roches.
Roches
Matériau Ondes P Ondes S
(m/s) (m/s)
Grès 2000-3500 800-1800 Sédiments
saturés
Marne 2000 - 3000 750 - 1500 Matériau Ondes P Ondes S
Craie 2300 - 2600 1100 - 1300 (m/s) (m/s)
Charbon 2200 - 2700 1000 - 1400 Air 343 N/A
Sel 4500 - 5500 2500 - 3100 Eau 1450 - 1500 N/A
Anhydrites 4000 - 5500 2200 - 3100 Glace 3400 - 3800 1700 - 1900
Calcaires 3500 - 6000 2000 - 3300 Huile 1200 - 1250 N/A
Dolomites 3500 - 6500 1900 - 3600 Sol végétal 300 - 700 100 - 300
Granite 4500 - 6000 2500 - 3300 Sables secs 400 - 1200 100 - 500
Basalte 5000 - 6000 2800 - 2400 Sables saturés 1500 - 2000 400 - 600
Gneiss 4400 - 5200 2700 - 3200 Argiles saturés 1100 - 2500 80 - 800
https://gpg.geosci.xyz/content/physical_properties/tables/index.html
12
Vitesses sismiques

Vitesses sismiques
Nous ferons une distinction entre matériaux granulaires et roches dans ce qui suit.

Matériaux granulaires Roches

13
Vitesses sismiques

Vitesses sismiques
Nous ferons une distinction entre matériaux granulaires et roches dans ce qui suit.

Matériaux granulaires Roches

14
Vitesses sismiques

Vitesses sismiques
Nous ferons une distinction entre matériaux granulaires et roches dans ce qui suit

• La rigidité des dépôts granulaires


• Nous considérerons les roches
est fonction des contacts entre les comme un matériau poreux
grains contenant des fractures à toutes
les échelles
• Ce contact dépend de la forme
des grains et de la pression
• Ces deux types de porosité ont
des formes différentes et
• Le nombre de contacts dépend réagissent différemment aux
du triage et de la granulométrie contraintes: les fissures se ferment
plus facilement que les pores

Matériaux granulaires Roches

15
Vitesses sismiques

Contrainte effective
Les vitesses sismiques dépendent de la
contrainte effective. Celle-ci dépend
de la contrainte totale et de la
contrainte du fluide:

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Lorsque la pression des pores est très


élevée, la cohésion des dépôts
granulaires peut être perdue et la
résistance au cisaillement devient nulle.

La pression effective agit sur la matrice


des roches et des matériaux
granulaires en augmentant leur rigidité.

16
Vitesses sismiques

Roches: Pression effective

• Les vitesses augmentent avec les • L’amplitude du changement est


contraintes effectives
proportionnelle au niveau de
• Cette dépendance provient de la fracturation

fermeture des fractures qui rigidifie • La forme des fractures régit la pression
la matrice à laquelle l’asymptote est atteinte

17
Vitesses sismiques

Dépôts granulaires: Pression effective

Les vitesses dans les dépôts meubles dépendent fortement de la pression


effective!

18
Vitesses sismiques

Dépôts granulaires: Taille des grains et


consolidation
La taille des grains et leur triage affectent dans une moindre mesure les
vitesses.

19
Vitesses sismiques

Dépôts granulaires: Compaction


Pour un même dépôt, la compaction augmente sensiblement les vitesses
sismiques pour une même pression effective.

20
Vitesses sismiques

Dépôts granulaires: Porosité


Les vitesses des ondes P sont plus sensibles aux changements de porosité
que les ondes S.

21
Vitesses sismiques

Dépôts granulaires: Porosité


Le rapport Vp/Vs est beaucoup moins sensible aux effets de porosité et est
plus lié à la pression effective.

22
Vitesses sismiques

Dépôts granulaires: Saturation


La saturation en eau influence
grandement les vitesses
sismiques:

• Variation non-linéaire de
Vp avec la saturation:
brusque augmentation
autour de 1

• Affecte peu les vitesses des


ondes de cisaillement (légère
diminution de la vitesse avec
une augmentation de la
saturation).

(Domenico, 1977)
23
Vitesses sismiques

Température
La température affecte peu les
vitesses sismiques, sauf lorsque la
viscosité du fluide contenu dans
les pores varient fortement en
fonction de la température:

• Peu de variations pour de


l’eau ou de l’air

• Variations notoires en
présence d’huile.

24
Vitesses sismiques

Résumé: vitesses sismiques


Pour interpréter les variations de vitesse sismique dans les sols, les points
importants sont:

• Une variation marquée de Vp entre saturation partielle et complète pour un


dépôt non-consolidé (de 300 m/s à 1500 m/s)

• Vs est peu influencé par la saturation et par la porosité

• Les vitesses augmentent avec la pression effective, surtout pour les


matériaux en surface.

• La quantité de fractures et leur forme affectent grandement Vp et Vs dans les


roches: les vitesses diminuent avec un degré croissant de fracturation.

25
Méthode du Plus-Minus

26
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Comment tenir compte des variations de vitesse et de la topographie des


réfracteurs ?
Effet combiné de la
topographie de surface et du
roc et des variations de
vitesse!

27
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus
La méthode de Plus-Minus permet une interprétation d’un réfracteur ondulé
dont la vitesse est variable!

Elle se base sur deux temps, le Plus et le Minus:

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A
P
B
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28
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Parcours entre les deux tirs en bout de ligne


A
P
B
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<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="WdJF5UnUnDRH5sNcGTI8rOq7N8c=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="s/5MyT1RsZhGmoGsZSLLA0irkJI=">AAADqXiclVJNb9NAEH2pC7Tlq4VjLxYREhJSZHMpx0hw6AXRCtJGbaPK3m5Sq/6SvQ5UUX8CV/ht/AP4F7yZblGhQsBaiWffvPd2ZrxpnWeti6KvvaVg+dbtOyura3fv3X/wcH3j0V5bdY2xI1PlVTNOk9bmWWlHLnO5HdeNTYo0t/vp2SvJ789t02ZV+d6d13ZSJLMym2YmcYTenR6nx+v9aBDpCm8GsQ/68Gun2uht4wgnqGDQoYBFCcc4R4KWzyFiRKiJTbAg1jDKNG9xgTVqO7IsGQnRM/7PuDv0aMm9eLaqNjwl56+hMsRTairyGsZyWqj5Tp0F/ZP3Qj2ltnO+U+9VEHU4Jfo33RXzX3XSi8MUL7WHjD3Vikh3xrt0OhWpPLzWlaNDTUziE+YbxkaVV3MOVdNq7zLbRPPflCmo7I3ndvjuqyyJfNBpFVp/SfcFcWHOWZF8s4ki4jPVM8Q3peKj4uLYapX25wQEnyvz/5V9nnhx7ZEqX6s2174s3njuWz8R2clNONLdlB6Xb2p5h+Pfb+zNYO/FII4G8W7UHw79bV7BJp7gGWvZwhDb2MGIFczwCZ/xJXge7Abj4OCSutTzmsf4ZQXmB7E1vOk=</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="QbTwwVm+D2+/j49ZZh5WYe/MoaU=">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</latexit>

29
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Parcours entre les deux tirs en bout de ligne


A
P
B
<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="WdJF5UnUnDRH5sNcGTI8rOq7N8c=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="s/5MyT1RsZhGmoGsZSLLA0irkJI=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="QbTwwVm+D2+/j49ZZh5WYe/MoaU=">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</latexit>

30
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Parcours entre les deux tirs en bout de ligne


A
P
B
<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

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<latexit sha1_base64="Nr4MZjz28eXuCpEvAYfsC+y+flw=">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</latexit>

31
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Parcours entre les deux tirs en bout de ligne


A
P
B
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<latexit sha1_base64="s/5MyT1RsZhGmoGsZSLLA0irkJI=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="QbTwwVm+D2+/j49ZZh5WYe/MoaU=">AAAEIXiclVLBbtNAEB3XFEqBNoUjlxUREhIicnqBA4e2cOgFUSTSVqqjaL1dN1Ztr7Veh0aWv4av4Ya4IQ5c4S+YmW6hJULAWoln37z3dma8SZVntYuiz8FSeG35+o2Vm6u3bt9ZW+9t3N2vTWOVHimTG3uYyFrnWalHLnO5PqyslkWS64Pk9AXlD2ba1pkp37p5pceFPCmzNFPSITTpzbd3RCyrypozEadWqnY6kV0bK1O3sZtqJyeq68RjERu0oVPa7Z1OPBFIi50sf5EISq5CJPOeyYLnpNePBhEvsRgMfdAHv/bMRrALMRyDAQUNFKChBIdxDhJqfI5gCBFUiI2hRcxilHFeQwerqG2QpZEhET3F/xPcHXm0xD151qxWeEqOP4tKAQ9RY5BnMabTBOcbdib0T94te1Jtc3wn3qtA1MEU0b/pLpj/qqNeHKTwjHvIsKeKEepOeZeGp0KVi0tdOXSoEKP4GPMWY8XKizkL1tTcO81Wcv4bMwmlvfLcBr77KktE3vG0Cq6/RPcWcWLOsCL6ZmNGyCflM8g3QcUZ4+RYc5X65wQInzHz/5V9PLG79FCVL1mbc18aXnnuaz8R2tFNiHmXosf5G7V4h4e/39jFYH9zMIwGwzdRf+u5v80rcB8ewCOs5SlswS7swQgr+BosB2vBevg+/BB+DD+dU5cCr7kHV1b45QdfCeuy</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="Nr4MZjz28eXuCpEvAYfsC+y+flw=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="43hVa5vHfQkbFYSvMNYJK2JaSHI=">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</latexit>

32
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Parcours entre les deux tirs en bout de ligne


A
P
B
<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="WdJF5UnUnDRH5sNcGTI8rOq7N8c=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="s/5MyT1RsZhGmoGsZSLLA0irkJI=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="BT23NQ60EXLlJcPtpiO+RO8/iH8=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="vq5Ro9vkN5nKV2OPumNPSL7G7fA=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="joi3jfASsg/PDS7QrKFd8Xkjxdo=">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</latexit>

33
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Plus
Le temps Plus est défini comme:

<latexit sha1_base64="lmuHFNcTeX8Lbw0d3+AiMV4ioXk=">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</latexit>

Grâce aux expressions précédentes:

<latexit sha1_base64="M1w1UYkcgzMrA/MQFNQkOhzhwzc=">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</latexit>

34
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Plus
Le temps Plus est défini comme:

<latexit sha1_base64="lmuHFNcTeX8Lbw0d3+AiMV4ioXk=">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</latexit>

Grâce aux expressions précédentes:

<latexit sha1_base64="M1w1UYkcgzMrA/MQFNQkOhzhwzc=">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</latexit>

35
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Plus
Le temps Plus est défini comme:

<latexit sha1_base64="lmuHFNcTeX8Lbw0d3+AiMV4ioXk=">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</latexit>

Grâce aux expressions précédentes:

<latexit sha1_base64="CAF95oVRaXO3RxH55VeDGj8hUYU=">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</latexit>

36
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Plus
A
P
B
<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">AAADrniclVJNb9NAEH2pgZby1cKRi0WExCmyudBjJHroBVEkkkZqosjebhqr/pK9DlRR/wRX+GP8A/gXvJluUaFCwFqJZ9+893ZmvGmdZ62Loq+9jeDW7TubW3e3791/8PDRzu7jcVt1jbEjU+VVM0mT1uZZaUcuc7md1I1NijS3R+nZa8kfrWzTZlX53p3XdlYkp2W2yEziCE2mbmldMjfznX40iHSFN4PYB334dVjt9g4wxQkqGHQoYFHCMc6RoOVzjBgRamIzrIk1jDLNW1xgm9qOLEtGQvSM/6fcHXu05F48W1UbnpLz11AZ4jk1FXkNYzkt1HynzoL+yXutnlLbOd+p9yqIOiyJ/k13xfxXnfTisMCe9pCxp1oR6c54l06nIpWH17pydKiJSXzCfMPYqPJqzqFqWu1dZpto/psyBZW98dwO332VJZEPOq1C6y/pviYuzBUrkm82U0R8FnqG+KZUfFRcHFut0v6cgOArZf6/ss8TL649UuW+anPty+KN5771E5Gd3ISp7hb0uHxTyzsc/35jbwbjl4M4GsTvov5w6G/zFp7iGV6wllcY4gCHGGkFn/AZX4IoGAezYH5J3eh5zRP8soLlDycLvyY=</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">AAADrniclVJNb9NAEH2pgZby1cKRi0WExCmyudBjJHroBVEkkkZqosjebhqr/pK9DlRR/wRX+GP8A/gXvJluUaFCwFqJZ9+893ZmvGmdZ62Loq+9jeDW7TubW3e3791/8PDRzu7jcVt1jbEjU+VVM0mT1uZZaUcuc7md1I1NijS3R+nZa8kfrWzTZlX53p3XdlYkp2W2yEziCE2mbmldMjfznX40iHSFN4PYB334dVjt9g4wxQkqGHQoYFHCMc6RoOVzjBgRamIzrIk1jDLNW1xgm9qOLEtGQvSM/6fcHXu05F48W1UbnpLz11AZ4jk1FXkNYzkt1HynzoL+yXutnlLbOd+p9yqIOiyJ/k13xfxXnfTisMCe9pCxp1oR6c54l06nIpWH17pydKiJSXzCfMPYqPJqzqFqWu1dZpto/psyBZW98dwO332VJZEPOq1C6y/pviYuzBUrkm82U0R8FnqG+KZUfFRcHFut0v6cgOArZf6/ss8TL649UuW+anPty+KN5771E5Gd3ISp7hb0uHxTyzsc/35jbwbjl4M4GsTvov5w6G/zFp7iGV6wllcY4gCHGGkFn/AZX4IoGAezYH5J3eh5zRP8soLlDycLvyY=</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="WdJF5UnUnDRH5sNcGTI8rOq7N8c=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="s/5MyT1RsZhGmoGsZSLLA0irkJI=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="yQyfBE3vn67y2QbqSk3QqjACwJ0=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="VvOVKq1USt3btWTPpfM4+CCu7Lo=">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</latexit>

37
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Plus
A
P
B
<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">AAADrniclVJNb9NAEH2pgZby1cKRi0WExCmyudBjJHroBVEkkkZqosjebhqr/pK9DlRR/wRX+GP8A/gXvJluUaFCwFqJZ9+893ZmvGmdZ62Loq+9jeDW7TubW3e3791/8PDRzu7jcVt1jbEjU+VVM0mT1uZZaUcuc7md1I1NijS3R+nZa8kfrWzTZlX53p3XdlYkp2W2yEziCE2mbmldMjfznX40iHSFN4PYB334dVjt9g4wxQkqGHQoYFHCMc6RoOVzjBgRamIzrIk1jDLNW1xgm9qOLEtGQvSM/6fcHXu05F48W1UbnpLz11AZ4jk1FXkNYzkt1HynzoL+yXutnlLbOd+p9yqIOiyJ/k13xfxXnfTisMCe9pCxp1oR6c54l06nIpWH17pydKiJSXzCfMPYqPJqzqFqWu1dZpto/psyBZW98dwO332VJZEPOq1C6y/pviYuzBUrkm82U0R8FnqG+KZUfFRcHFut0v6cgOArZf6/ss8TL649UuW+anPty+KN5771E5Gd3ISp7hb0uHxTyzsc/35jbwbjl4M4GsTvov5w6G/zFp7iGV6wllcY4gCHGGkFn/AZX4IoGAezYH5J3eh5zRP8soLlDycLvyY=</latexit>

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Temps d’intercepte
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38
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Plus
A
P
B
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<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">AAADrniclVJNb9NAEH2pgZby1cKRi0WExCmyudBjJHroBVEkkkZqosjebhqr/pK9DlRR/wRX+GP8A/gXvJluUaFCwFqJZ9+893ZmvGmdZ62Loq+9jeDW7TubW3e3791/8PDRzu7jcVt1jbEjU+VVM0mT1uZZaUcuc7md1I1NijS3R+nZa8kfrWzTZlX53p3XdlYkp2W2yEziCE2mbmldMjfznX40iHSFN4PYB334dVjt9g4wxQkqGHQoYFHCMc6RoOVzjBgRamIzrIk1jDLNW1xgm9qOLEtGQvSM/6fcHXu05F48W1UbnpLz11AZ4jk1FXkNYzkt1HynzoL+yXutnlLbOd+p9yqIOiyJ/k13xfxXnfTisMCe9pCxp1oR6c54l06nIpWH17pydKiJSXzCfMPYqPJqzqFqWu1dZpto/psyBZW98dwO332VJZEPOq1C6y/pviYuzBUrkm82U0R8FnqG+KZUfFRcHFut0v6cgOArZf6/ss8TL649UuW+anPty+KN5771E5Gd3ISp7hb0uHxTyzsc/35jbwbjl4M4GsTvov5w6G/zFp7iGV6wllcY4gCHGGkFn/AZX4IoGAezYH5J3eh5zRP8soLlDycLvyY=</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="WdJF5UnUnDRH5sNcGTI8rOq7N8c=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="s/5MyT1RsZhGmoGsZSLLA0irkJI=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="QBDOc3pYwAlkInfCoTQ7AnFnMqg=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="noFFLxh2OKE1KY/l2eoCrdqcvN0=">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</latexit>

Le temps Plus est le temps d’intercepte au point P. Il est relié à la


profondeur sous le géophone.

39
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Minus
Le temps Minus est défini comme:

<latexit sha1_base64="gL7a+dpPMnJOQyLZ8EEoj4LcKKo=">AAADx3iclVLLbtNQED2peZTySmHJAosICQk1shESXRSpFBZlgQhS0lZqQ2S7N8WqX/IjtIq8YMHXsIWP4Q/gLzgzvUWFCgHXsu/MmTnnzoxvWCRxVXve186Cc+HipcuLV5auXrt+42Z3+dZWlTdlZEZRnuTlThhUJokzM6rjOjE7RWmCNEzMdnj4XOLbM1NWcZ4N6+PCjNPgIIuncRTUhCbdu8O3K5PCfeoOJ/Nng3ZF9o1B6z5UYKOddHte39Plnjd8a/Rg1yBf7mxiD/vIEaFBCoMMNe0EASo+u/DhoSA2xpxYSSvWuEGLJXIbZhlmBEQP+T2gt2vRjL5oVsqOeErCtyTTxX1ycuaVtOU0V+ONKgv6J+25akptx9xDq5USrfGO6N94p5n/ypNeakyxqj3E7KlQRLqLrEqjU5HK3TNd1VQoiIm9z3hJO1Lm6Zxd5VTau8w20Pg3zRRU/MjmNvhuq8yIvNdppVp/RvU5ccmcsSL5Z2NFRGeqZ4huSMaR4qJYaZXm5wQEn2nm/zN7PLE980iVL5SbaF8Gr2zuazsR8eQm7Kk3pcbJTi7vsP/7jT1vbD3q+17ff/O4t75mb/Mi7uAeHrCWJ1jHJgYYsYKP+ITP+OK8dHJn5hydpC50LOc2flnOhx9/xMaT</latexit>

Grâce aux expressions précédentes:

<latexit sha1_base64="BT23NQ60EXLlJcPtpiO+RO8/iH8=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="vq5Ro9vkN5nKV2OPumNPSL7G7fA=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="joi3jfASsg/PDS7QrKFd8Xkjxdo=">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</latexit>

40
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Minus
Le temps Minus est défini comme:

<latexit sha1_base64="gL7a+dpPMnJOQyLZ8EEoj4LcKKo=">AAADx3iclVLLbtNQED2peZTySmHJAosICQk1shESXRSpFBZlgQhS0lZqQ2S7N8WqX/IjtIq8YMHXsIWP4Q/gLzgzvUWFCgHXsu/MmTnnzoxvWCRxVXve186Cc+HipcuLV5auXrt+42Z3+dZWlTdlZEZRnuTlThhUJokzM6rjOjE7RWmCNEzMdnj4XOLbM1NWcZ4N6+PCjNPgIIuncRTUhCbdu8O3K5PCfeoOJ/Nng3ZF9o1B6z5UYKOddHte39Plnjd8a/Rg1yBf7mxiD/vIEaFBCoMMNe0EASo+u/DhoSA2xpxYSSvWuEGLJXIbZhlmBEQP+T2gt2vRjL5oVsqOeErCtyTTxX1ycuaVtOU0V+ONKgv6J+25akptx9xDq5USrfGO6N94p5n/ypNeakyxqj3E7KlQRLqLrEqjU5HK3TNd1VQoiIm9z3hJO1Lm6Zxd5VTau8w20Pg3zRRU/MjmNvhuq8yIvNdppVp/RvU5ccmcsSL5Z2NFRGeqZ4huSMaR4qJYaZXm5wQEn2nm/zN7PLE980iVL5SbaF8Gr2zuazsR8eQm7Kk3pcbJTi7vsP/7jT1vbD3q+17ff/O4t75mb/Mi7uAeHrCWJ1jHJgYYsYKP+ITP+OK8dHJn5hydpC50LOc2flnOhx9/xMaT</latexit>

Grâce aux expressions précédentes:

<latexit sha1_base64="vX5wPw9ewdCATDZ0TVxdJhA5iMg=">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</latexit>

41
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Minus
Le temps Minus est défini comme:

<latexit sha1_base64="gL7a+dpPMnJOQyLZ8EEoj4LcKKo=">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</latexit>

Grâce aux expressions précédentes:

<latexit sha1_base64="vX5wPw9ewdCATDZ0TVxdJhA5iMg=">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</latexit>

42
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Minus
A
P
B
<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">AAADrniclVJNb9NAEH2pgZby1cKRi0WExCmyudBjJHroBVEkkkZqosjebhqr/pK9DlRR/wRX+GP8A/gXvJluUaFCwFqJZ9+893ZmvGmdZ62Loq+9jeDW7TubW3e3791/8PDRzu7jcVt1jbEjU+VVM0mT1uZZaUcuc7md1I1NijS3R+nZa8kfrWzTZlX53p3XdlYkp2W2yEziCE2mbmldMjfznX40iHSFN4PYB334dVjt9g4wxQkqGHQoYFHCMc6RoOVzjBgRamIzrIk1jDLNW1xgm9qOLEtGQvSM/6fcHXu05F48W1UbnpLz11AZ4jk1FXkNYzkt1HynzoL+yXutnlLbOd+p9yqIOiyJ/k13xfxXnfTisMCe9pCxp1oR6c54l06nIpWH17pydKiJSXzCfMPYqPJqzqFqWu1dZpto/psyBZW98dwO332VJZEPOq1C6y/pviYuzBUrkm82U0R8FnqG+KZUfFRcHFut0v6cgOArZf6/ss8TL649UuW+anPty+KN5771E5Gd3ISp7hb0uHxTyzsc/35jbwbjl4M4GsTvov5w6G/zFp7iGV6wllcY4gCHGGkFn/AZX4IoGAezYH5J3eh5zRP8soLlDycLvyY=</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="WdJF5UnUnDRH5sNcGTI8rOq7N8c=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="s/5MyT1RsZhGmoGsZSLLA0irkJI=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="UPbROEQG2BAhDUJG7xZHUfte1Vw=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="X6IPXDeZMWk/+TH5eDJgsKqnMC8=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="KjG1VTwFrmEo/hU/skQ7MumTTPo=">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</latexit>

43
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Minus
A
P
B
<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

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Temps d’intercepte
pour A

44
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Le Minus
A
x P
B
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Le temps Minus est le temps entre la source et un point au droit du géophone. Il


dépend de la vitesse près du géophone.

45
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Parcours des Plus et Minus


A
x P
B
<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">AAADrniclVJNb9NAEH2pgZby1cKRi0WExCmyudBjJHroBVEkkkZqosjebhqr/pK9DlRR/wRX+GP8A/gXvJluUaFCwFqJZ9+893ZmvGmdZ62Loq+9jeDW7TubW3e3791/8PDRzu7jcVt1jbEjU+VVM0mT1uZZaUcuc7md1I1NijS3R+nZa8kfrWzTZlX53p3XdlYkp2W2yEziCE2mbmldMjfznX40iHSFN4PYB334dVjt9g4wxQkqGHQoYFHCMc6RoOVzjBgRamIzrIk1jDLNW1xgm9qOLEtGQvSM/6fcHXu05F48W1UbnpLz11AZ4jk1FXkNYzkt1HynzoL+yXutnlLbOd+p9yqIOiyJ/k13xfxXnfTisMCe9pCxp1oR6c54l06nIpWH17pydKiJSXzCfMPYqPJqzqFqWu1dZpto/psyBZW98dwO332VJZEPOq1C6y/pviYuzBUrkm82U0R8FnqG+KZUfFRcHFut0v6cgOArZf6/ss8TL649UuW+anPty+KN5771E5Gd3ISp7hb0uHxTyzsc/35jbwbjl4M4GsTvov5w6G/zFp7iGV6wllcY4gCHGGkFn/AZX4IoGAezYH5J3eh5zRP8soLlDycLvyY=</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="uu/sNIvMs2b7MFkQtMQzsj7R61M=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="WdJF5UnUnDRH5sNcGTI8rOq7N8c=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="s/5MyT1RsZhGmoGsZSLLA0irkJI=">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</latexit>

Le temps Minus Le temps Plus


Sa pente ne dépend que de la Dépend de la profondeur et de
vitesse du réfracteur. la vitesse locale du réfracteur.

<latexit sha1_base64="gL7a+dpPMnJOQyLZ8EEoj4LcKKo=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="QBDOc3pYwAlkInfCoTQ7AnFnMqg=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="P7nbH4ORN2qNdcUaeXoFFJXE32A=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="noFFLxh2OKE1KY/l2eoCrdqcvN0=">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</latexit>

46
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus

TBP

<latexit sha1_base64="QBDOc3pYwAlkInfCoTQ7AnFnMqg=">AAADyXiclVLLbtNQED2peZTySsuSjSFCQqqIbDawAKktLCoh1CAlbaU2RLZ701r1Cz9CS5QVC76GLXwLf0D/gjPTW1SoEHCtxHPPnHPuzPiGRRJXted9a805ly5fuTp/beH6jZu3brcXlzarvCkjM4jyJC+3w6AySZyZQR3XidkuShOkYWK2wsMXkt+amLKK86xfHxdmmAb7WTyOo6AmNGrf679dHhXuc9ftj6arvZm7LMEag0eKrM1G7Y7X9XS5FwPfBh3Y1csXW+vYxR5yRGiQwiBDzThBgIrPDnx4KIgNMSVWMoo1bzDDArUNWYaMgOgh//e527Foxr14VqqOeErCX0mliwfU5OSVjOU0V/ONOgv6J++pekptx3yH1islWuOA6N90Z8x/1UkvNcZ4qj3E7KlQRLqLrEujU5HK3XNd1XQoiEm8x3zJOFLl2Zxd1VTau8w20Px3ZQoq+8hyG5zYKjMi73Vaqdaf0X1KXJgTViTfbKiI+Iz1DPENqThSXBwrrdL8nIDgE2X+v7LDE2fnHqnypWoT7cvgteVu2InITm7Cru7G9Dh9U8s77P9+Yy8Gm4+7vtf133idlWf2Ns/jLu7jIWt5ghWso4cBK/iEz/iCr84r551z5Hw4pc61rOYOflnOxx+iL8bh</latexit>

TAP <latexit sha1_base64="gL7a+dpPMnJOQyLZ8EEoj4LcKKo=">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</latexit>

Les temps Plus-Minus peuvent


être mesurés directement sur la
dromochronique!

47
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus
1. On peut déterminer la vitesse du réfracteur grâce à la pente du temps Minus:

<latexit sha1_base64="i6dXuPtDrzMc5xXDE5ljo1OzWEQ=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="P7nbH4ORN2qNdcUaeXoFFJXE32A=">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</latexit>

2. À l’aide des temps Plus, on peut déterminer la profondeur en dessous de


chaque géophone:

<latexit sha1_base64="noFFLxh2OKE1KY/l2eoCrdqcvN0=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="89eC82XzciAWLhT+BxkQtR13CYM=">AAAD4XiclVJNb9NAEJ3UfJTylcKRi0WExIXIzgWQilSJHnpBFImklZpg2dt1a9VftdeByvIP4Ia4cuDXcIUz/wD+BW8mWxSoELBW4pm3772dGW9UpkltPO9rb8W5cPHS5dUra1evXb9xs79+a1IXTaX0WBVpUe1FYa3TJNdjk5hU75WVDrMo1bvR8VPe353rqk6K/KU5LfUsCw/zJE5UaAAF/cdHQek+cadxFap2Kyi71p3WJ5VpF4jftZPAfzXqHizlI+RdF/QH3tCT5Z4PfBsMyK6dYr23TVM6oIIUNZSRppwM4pRCqvHsk08elcBm1AKrECWyr6mjNWgbsDQYIdBj/B8i27dojpw9a1ErnJLiV0Hp0j1oCvAqxHyaK/uNODP6J+9WPLm2U7wj65UBNXQE9G+6M+a/6rgXQzE9kh4S9FQKwt0p69LIVLhyd6krA4cSGMcH2K8QK1GezdkVTS2982xD2f8mTEY5V5bb0HdbZQ7ktUwrk/pzuLfAmTlHRfzNZoKwTyxnsG8ExRvB2bGWKvXPCTA+F+b/Kwc4sVt6uMot0abSl6ZnlvvcToQzvglTyWJ4LN7Q4g77v9/Y88FkNPS9of/CG2xu2Nu8SnfoLt1HLQ9pk7Zph8ao4CN9os/0xVHOW+ed835BXelZzW36ZTkffgBTwdNC</latexit>

où Dp est le délai, donné par

<latexit sha1_base64="5UQrbcMBhCd3ryNmxdiIdi3Ndjw=">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</latexit>

48
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus
Méthode du Plus-Minus:

49
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus
Méthode du Plus-Minus:

1. Mesurer la vitesse 1

Temps

Position
A B

50
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus
Méthode du Plus-Minus:

1. Mesurer la vitesse 1

2. Déterminer <latexit sha1_base64="d1/s6DOdeMGdmd/YRNnNHTTDTGU=">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</latexit>

Temps

Position
A B

51
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus
Méthode du Plus-Minus:

1. Mesurer la vitesse 1

2. Déterminer <latexit sha1_base64="d1/s6DOdeMGdmd/YRNnNHTTDTGU=">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</latexit>

3. Déterminer Minus et Plus Temps


<latexit sha1_base64="gL7a+dpPMnJOQyLZ8EEoj4LcKKo=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="lmuHFNcTeX8Lbw0d3+AiMV4ioXk=">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</latexit>

Position
A B

52
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus
Méthode du Plus-Minus:

1. Mesurer la vitesse 1

2. Déterminer <latexit sha1_base64="d1/s6DOdeMGdmd/YRNnNHTTDTGU=">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</latexit>

3. Déterminer Minus et Plus Temps


<latexit sha1_base64="gL7a+dpPMnJOQyLZ8EEoj4LcKKo=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="lmuHFNcTeX8Lbw0d3+AiMV4ioXk=">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</latexit>

4. Calculer
<latexit sha1_base64="i6dXuPtDrzMc5xXDE5ljo1OzWEQ=">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</latexit>

Position
A B

53
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Méthode de Plus-Minus
Méthode du Plus-Minus:

1. Mesurer la vitesse 1

2. Déterminer <latexit sha1_base64="d1/s6DOdeMGdmd/YRNnNHTTDTGU=">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</latexit>

3. Déterminer Minus et Plus Temps


<latexit sha1_base64="gL7a+dpPMnJOQyLZ8EEoj4LcKKo=">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</latexit>

<latexit sha1_base64="lmuHFNcTeX8Lbw0d3+AiMV4ioXk=">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</latexit>

4. Calculer
<latexit sha1_base64="i6dXuPtDrzMc5xXDE5ljo1OzWEQ=">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</latexit>

5. Calculer les épaisseurs


Position
<latexit sha1_base64="MCLIm6JSGhQAO2gX/7yB4r+fgAM=">AAAD1HiclVJNb9NAEJ3UfJTylcKRi0WEhAQEO0JqD0WqBIdeEEVq0kpNGtnuurXqL9brtJXrE+LKgV/DFf4F/wD+BW+mW1SoELBW4tk3772dGW9YpkllPO9rZ865dPnK1flrC9dv3Lx1u7t4Z1QVtY7UMCrSQm+FQaXSJFdDk5hUbZVaBVmYqs3w4AXnN2dKV0mRb5jjUk2yYC9P4iQKDKBp9/H+tHSfu+NYB1GzsfOobQbj6q02jf90NPV3Bu4Tl6MBoraddnte35PlXgx8G/TIrvVisbNGY9qlgiKqKSNFORnEKQVU4dkmnzwqgU2oAaYRJZJX1NICtDVYCowA6AH+97DbtmiOPXtWoo5wSoqfhtKlB9AU4GnEfJor+VqcGf2TdyOeXNsx3qH1yoAa2gf6N90Z81913IuhmJalhwQ9lYJwd5F1qWUqXLl7risDhxIYx7vIa8SRKM/m7Iqmkt55toHkvwmTUd5HllvTd1tlDuRQppVJ/TncG+DMnKEi/mYTQdgnljPYN4TiSHB2rKRK9XMCjM+E+f/KHk5szz1c5UvRptKXoleW+9pOhHd8E8ayi+Fx+oYWd9j//cZeDEaDvu/1/TfPeqsr9jbP0z26Tw9RyxKt0hqt0xAVfKRP9Jm+OCPnxHnnvD+lznWs5i79spwPPwDC0suO</latexit>

A B

54
Méthode du Plus-Minus

Variations de vitesse
Les variations de vitesse peuvent
être mesurées sur la courbe
minus par des pentes différentes.

On peut donc identifier des


vitesses différentes en prenant la
pente des différents segments du
Minus.

Lorsqu’on calcule les


profondeurs avec les délais, il
faut choisir la vitesse du
réfracteur correspondant à la
station pour laquelle on calcule la
profondeur.

55
Exemple
x TA TB Minus Plus v h
G
(m) (ms) (ms) (ms) (ms) (km/s) (m)
0 0.0 90.5
1 5 16.7 90.7
2 10 33.3 90.2
3 15
Tir A Tir B Minus

48.1 88.8
100
90
80

Tir A Tir B
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

4 20 49.4 86.7
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

100
0
0 50 100

50.6 84.6
Tir A Tir B Minus

5 25
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

6 30
Tir A Tir B Minus

52.5 83.1
100

90
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

7 35 55.2 82.6
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50

80
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

Tir A Tir B Minus

8 40 59.5 82.1
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

70
0 50 100

9 45 63.8 81.6
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

10 50 67.3 80.4
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80

60
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

Tir A Tir B Minus

11 55 70.1 78.4
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30

50
20
10
0
0 50 100

12 60 71.3 76.3
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

72.6 74.2
Tir A Tir B Minus

13 65 40
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

Tir A Tir B Minus

14 70 74.5 72.7
100
90
80
70
60

30
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

15 75 77.3 72.3
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

20
0
0 50 100

16 80 80.9 66.7
17 85 84.5 50.0 10
18 90 87.3 33.3
19 95 89.2 16.7 0
100 90.5 0.0 0 50 100

56
Exemple
x TA TB Minus Plus v h
G Mesurer V1
(m) (ms) (ms) (ms) (ms) (km/s) (m)
0 0.0 90.5
1 5 16.7 90.7 <latexit sha1_base64="+WX5KAptse2I0Degy7wcfqwwo8U=">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</latexit>

2 10 33.3 90.2
3 15
Tir A Tir B Minus

48.1 88.8
100
90
80

Tir A Tir B
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

4 20 49.4 86.7
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

100
0
0 50 100

50.6 84.6
Tir A Tir B Minus

5 25
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

6 30
Tir A Tir B Minus

52.5 83.1
100

90
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

7 35 55.2 82.6
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50

80
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

Tir A Tir B Minus

8 40 59.5 82.1
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

70
0 50 100

9 45 63.8 81.6
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

10 50 67.3 80.4
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80

60
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

Tir A Tir B Minus

11 55 70.1 78.4
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30

50
20
10
0
0 50 100

12 60 71.3 76.3
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

72.6 74.2
Tir A Tir B Minus

13 65 40
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

Tir A Tir B Minus

14 70 74.5 72.7
100
90
80
70
60

30
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100

15 75 77.3 72.3
Tir A Tir B Minus
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

20
0
0 50 100

16 80 80.9 66.7
17 85 84.5 50.0 10
18 90 87.3 33.3
19 95 89.2 16.7 0
100 90.5 0.0 0 50 100

57
Exemple
x TA TB Minus Plus v h
G Identification de TAB
(m) (ms) (ms) (ms) (ms) (km/s) (m)
0 0.0 90.5
1 5 16.7 90.7