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Interferometric Measurement of Intraocular Lens Refractive Index Profile

Design Project Proposal

Aaron Bartholomew

Cameron Ghassemi

ENGR 40544, Fiber Optic Communications

Dr. Tayag

Texas Christian University

March 28, 2008


Table of Contents

• Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………p. 2

• Project Description……………………………………………………………………...p. 3

o Background/Application Area…………………………………………………..p.3

o Proposed Experiment…………………………………………………………...p. 5

o Schedule of Work………………………………………………………………p. 8

• Facilities, Equipment, and Other Resources……………………………………………p. 9

• References…………………………………………………………..…………………p. 10

• Appendix A: OWL Submission

• Appendix B: Electronic Sources

• Appendix C: Spatial Filter (and related optics) Product Pages

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Abstract

Characterizing the refractive index profiles of artificial intraocular lenses could aid the

advancement and development of the technology used in their construction. However, this type

of characterization cannot be obtained through any direct form of measurement. Instead, one

way to obtain the three dimensional refractive index profile of an intraocular lens is through

computed tomography (CT). By sweeping an intraocular lens through a full range of angles and

measuring the refractive index of the lens at each of these respective angles, one can gather a

paired set of data, specifying refractive index with respect to angular rotation of the lens. With

this data, it is then possible to reconstruct the three dimensional refractive index profile of the

lens through the process of computed tomography.

One method of measuring the refractive index of an intraocular lens is by placing it in an

interferometer. The phase shift caused by the presence of this lens in an interferometer’s signal

path creates an interference pattern at the interferometer’s output that can be related to the lens’s

refractive index at its given angular position. By rotating the sample lens on a rotation stage

through a full range of angles and recording the interferometer’s output on a CCD camera at each

of these respective angles, it is possible to obtain the necessary data to move forward with the

refractive index profile reconstruction. One advantage of using a laser interferometer system to

make refractive index measurements of an intraocular lens is that the process is nondestructive,

allowing us to preserve the sample lens. Though there are several steps to coming up with the

refractive index profiles of intraocular lenses, as previously described, the focus of our project

will be to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to

obtain certain interference patterns at various angles of incidence on the intraocular lens.

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Project Description

Background/Application Area.

Refractive surgery procedures to correct vision problems such as astigmatism, ametropia,

and presbyopia are becoming ever more popular and commonplace as well as continually

undergoing improvements and advances in methods as well as materials. One of the newest

innovations in this field is a phakic intraocular lens (IOL) which can be implanted in a patient’s

eye to complement the eye’s own optical elements. The phakic IOL has advantages over laser-

based procedures such as LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy in that the lens can be

removed if complications arise, the lens can be used to correct more extreme vision problems,

and the surgery is a relatively simple and inexpensive outpatient procedure1.

Most phakic intraocular lenses are made of a transparent polymer or elastomer material

that allows them to be flexible while still maintaining their shape. They also contain haptics,

supporting spring structures attached to the lens which hold the lens in place within the eye. The

lens is generally implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye between the cornea and the iris.

The IOL is folded and inserted through a small incision of 3 mm or less. The refractive index

profile of each IOL determines the quality and effectiveness of the lens and must be very precise,

thus making it an area of great interest for both scientists and manufacturers1.

The proposed experimental setup for measuring the refractive index profiles of

intraocular lenses requires the construction of an interferometer. An interferometer is a system

of optical devices that allows precise measurement of phase shift caused by an object placed in

its signal path. This measurement is taken by observing the interference patterns at the

interferometer’s output. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer, such as the one proposed for use in

this experiment, is pictured in Figure 1 on the following page.

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Figure 1: Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

The incident polarized beam is split with a 50/50 non-polarizing beam splitter, creating

two separate beams. One of the beams is guided by a fixed mirror through the air to a second

beam splitter, creating a reference path. The other beam is guided by a fixed mirror to the

second beam splitter as well. However, a test sample is placed in this second (signal) path,

creating a phase difference between the signal and reference paths at the second beam splitter

and an interference pattern at the output of the interferometer. This interference pattern can be

related to the refractive index of the object placed in the interferometer’s signal path2.

Computed tomography (CT) is a process which allows a three-dimensional image of an

object to be recreated by the combination of a series of two-dimensional images. There are

many different methods of obtaining the set of two-dimensional scans of the object. They

include x-rays, gamma-rays, electron-positron annihilation, magnetic resonance fields,

ultrasound, electrons, and laser interferometry. The scanning method chosen in a particular

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situation depends on the application and the physical properties of the object being scanned. X-

rays are one of the most common CT scanning methods. They are used in medical applications,

non-destructive testing, and package screening. Gamma rays are used in nuclear medicine, but

they present serious radiation dose concerns. Ultrasound is used to create very crude pictures in

applications such as geological prospecting. When selecting from the many CT scanning

options, a balance is considered between resolution, sensitivity, and patient dosage. The

proposed experiment will use laser light as the CT scanning method. An optical technique must

be used in order to obtain the three dimensional refractive index profile of our intraocular lens3.

Proposed Experiment.

The proposed experiment involves the construction of the optical system shown in Figure

2 on pp. 7. We will use a 514.5nm argon laser as our light source, and we will filter the incident

light with a spatial filter, shown in Figure 3 on pp. 7, to create a clean collimated beam. A

spatial filter works by first focusing down the incident collimated laser beam with an aspheric

lens, then passing the resulting beam through a small aperture (pinhole) to filter the beam. Once

the light has been filtered, the output beam is collimated with a plano-convex lens. The

following calculations are used to determine the desired parameters for the optics of the spatial

filter.

The following equation is used to calculate the necessary pinhole diameter, where we picked an

aspheric input lens with a 15mm focal length4.

Fλ (15 mm )(514 .5nm )


Dopt = = ≈ 5µm , where:
a 1.5mm
D = pinhole diameter
F = input lens focal length
λ = laser wavelength
a = beam radius input to lens

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The following equation is used to calculate the Gaussian beam divergence, which will be

necessary when determining the necessary collimating lens focal length.

λ 514 .5nm
Θ1 = = = .0655 rad , where:
πW0 π (5µm / 2)
Θ1 = Gaussian beam divergence
λ = laser wavelength
W0 = beam waist (pinhole radius)

For our application, when collimating the output beam from the spatial filter, it is necessary to

have a beam diameter greater than one centimeter5.

The following equation is used to determine the necessary focal length of the plano-convex

collimating lens for a beam diameter of 1.5cm.

y2 1.5cm / 2
f = = = 114 .5mm , where:
Θ1 .0655 rad
f = focal length of collimating lens
y 2 = collimated beam radius
Θ1 = Gaussian beam divergence

The following equation demonstrates the low divergence angle of the collimated beam.

y1 2.5µm
Θ2 = = = .00002 rad , where:
f 114 .5mm

Θ2 = collimated beam divergence

y1 = beam waist (pinhole radius)

f = focal length of collimating lens

The necessary optical components for use with the spatial filter, based on the preceding

calculations, are listed in the equipment list.

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Once the incident beam has been filtered and expanded, the resulting beam is used as the

light source for a simple Mach-Zehnder interferometer. As seen in Figure 2, our test object

(intraocular lens) will be placed in the signal path of the interferometer. The lens will be

immersed in index matching fluid and placed in a cuvette mounted on a rotation stage during

testing. The output of the interferometer will be captured by a CCD camera, allowing us to

monitor and record the interference patterns for a given angular offset. Our goal is to have

visible interference patterns when the lens at 0° (incident light orthogonal to center of lens) and

when the lens is rotated 90°.

Figure 2: Experimental Setup

Figure 3: Spatial Filter

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Schedule of Work.

Week of 3-24:

Take inventory of available optical components for project experiment, and purchase

necessary items based on theoretical calculations.

Week of 3-31:

Begin assembly of Mach-Zehnder interferometer system with available components

Week of 4-6:

Complete assembly of measurement system, and attempt to observe a meaningful output

from the system.

Week of 4-13:

Work on preliminary ideas for in-class presentation. Gather supplementary research, if

necessary.

Week of 4-20:

Complete any unfinished lab work and verify functionality of interferometric system.

Collect test data for use in presentation and project conclusion.

Week of 4-27:

Complete presentation and project report. Present project.

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Facilities, Equipment, and Other Resources

• Advanced Electronics Lab, Room 222, Tucker Technology Center, Texas Christian

University, Fort Worth, TX

• Applied Photonics Lab, Room 012, Tucker Technology Center, Texas Christian

University, Fort Worth, TX

• Coherent INNOVA 300 Series Ion Laser, Model # 305, 5W Argon

• Nonpolarizing 50/50 beam splitters, 13mm X 13mm X 13mm

• Cuvette, 10mm width

• Intraocular lens, 6mm diameter

• Thorlabs KT310 Spatial Filter System

• Thorlabs C260TME-A Mounted Geltech Aspheric Lens, AR-Coated: 400-600nm,

f=15.29mm, 0.16 NA

• Thorlabs P5S Φ5μm Mounted Pinhole

• Thorlabs LA1986-A Plano-Convex Lens, AR Coating 350-650nm

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References

1. G. M. Morris and L. T. Nordan, “Phakic Intraocular Lenses: the new focus in refractive

surgery,” Optics and Photonics News, pp. 26-31 (September 2004).

2. H. Suhara, “Interferometric measurement of the refractive-index distribution in plastic lenses

by use of computed tomography,” Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 25, pp. 5317-5325 (September

2002).

3. R. H. T. Bates, K. L. Garden, and P. M. Peters, “Overview of computerized tomography with

emphasis on future development,” Proceed. IEEE, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 356-372 (March 1983).

4. http://newport.com/store/genproduct.aspx?id=144910&lang=1033&section=Summary, see

Appendix B.

5. http://www.newport.com/Focusing-and-Collimating/141191/1033/catalog.aspx, see Appendix

B.

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