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SEKOLAH MENENGAH

KEBANGSAAN

SERI BINTANG SELATAN

SEKOLAH KLUSTER
KECEMERLANGAN

ACIDS & ALKALI

NAME : : NURUL SHAZATUL SYAHMI


BINTI MOHD. NASIR
CLASS : 2 DAMAR
TEACHER’S NAME : PUAN NORREHAN BINTI
NAWAWI
INTRODUCTION

ACIDS AND ALKALI IN OUR BODY

In humans and many other animals, hydrochloric acid is a part of the gastric acid secreted within
the stomach to converting the inactive pro-enzyme. Citric acid plays a role in one famous stomach
remedy, or antacid. Antacids are more generally associated with alkaline substances, used for their
ability to neutralize stomach acid. It is also used in the production of hair rinses and low-pH
shampoos and toothpastes. Amino acids combine to make up proteins, one of the principal
components in human muscles, skin, and hair.

HISTORY OF ACIDS AND ALKALI

the concepts of acidity came from the ancient Greeks who defined “sour-tasting”
substances as oxein, which mutated into the Latin word for vinegar, acetum, which became
anglicized to “acid”. Acid substances were eventually found not only to taste sour, but also
to change the color of litmus paper and corrode metals.

INDICATOR THAT USES TO SHOW ACID OR ALKALI IN A


SUBSTANCE

The indicator that uses to see the pH of any solution using universal indicator. Universal
indicator is a mixture of dyes. It comes as a solution or in paper.
The pH scale

The Strength of an Acid

The strength of an acid or alkali is shown using a scale of numbers called the pH scale. The
numbers go from 0-14.

An acidic solution has a pH number less than 7

An alkaline solution has a pH number greater than 7

A neutral solution has a pH number of exactly 7.

Universal indicator will change from green to a different colour depending on the pH of
the solution you place it in.
ACID

Definition of acid
An acid in common usage is a substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates,
turns blue litmus paper red, and has a pH less than 7.0 in its standard state.
Examples include acetic acid (in vinegar) and sulfuric acid (used in car batteries). Acids
can occur in solid, liquid or gaseous form, depending on the temperature. They can exist as
pure substances or in solution. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are
said to be acidic.

Properties of acid

Acids are exceptionally reactive compounds which we find in our every day lives. They
usually share the following properties.

• A characteristic sour taste;


• ability to change the color of litmus paper from blue to red;
• react with certain metals to produce gaseous H2 ;
• react with bases to form a salt and water.

Uses of acids

There are numerous uses for acids.


Acids are often used to remove rust and other corrosion from metals in a process
known as pickling. They may be used as an electrolyte in a wet cell battery, such as
sulfuric acid in a car battery. A wasp sting is alkali. It may be neutralized with a
weak acid (lemon juice or vinegar).

Some common acids used in your laboratories at school will be:

1. Hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq)

2. Nitric acid, HNO3(aq)

3. Sulphuric acid, H2SO4(aq)


Alkali

an alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element. Some
authors also define an alkali as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base
has a pH greater than 7.

Uses of alkaline

• Sodium Hydroxide is used to make paper, detergents and soap.


• Potassium Hydroxide is used in farming to make acidic soil more alkaline so that
plants will grow better in it.
• Calcium Carbonate is used as a building material.

Magnesium Hydroxide is used to help with stomach aches or indigestion. It makes the
contents of a stomach less acidic
Comparing acids and alkali

Similarities

• Corrosive

• Only shows it properties in the presence of water

acid properties alkali


Taste
pH
Colour changes in litmus
paper
example