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Chapter

Lessons Fraction Sums and Differences


Lesson 39
Simplifying Fractions Chapter Objectives
Lesson 40
Common ■ Use prime factorization to simplify fractions.
Denominators
■ Find equivalent fractions to simplify fractions.
Lesson 41
Adding Fractions ■ Compare fractions, add fractions, and find differences of fractions.

Lesson 42 ■ Express fractions greater than a whole using mixed number notation.
Mixed Numbers
■ Use whole numbers, fractions and mixed numbers to solve problems and
Lesson 43 estimate measurements.
Fractional Differences

Are You Ready?


Express each number in prime factored form using exponents.

1.  24

2.  50

3.  The following number line shows equal jumps where three jumps equal a
whole. What fraction is represented by point p?

4.  Solve the following equation.


3 5
__
​ 8 ​× __
​ 9 ​ = k

5.  Use division to compare the fractions by placing a <, >, or = symbol to
make the statement true.
__ 7
​ 47 ​ ​ __
11  ​ 

 chapter 8  ������������������� ������������   |    377


Fractions Sums and Differences 
Lesson 39 Simplifying Fractions

Objectives
Vocabulary
■  Use prime factorization to determine if fractions are equivalent.
equivalent
fractions ■  Simplify fractions by using prime factorization.

simplified fraction ■  Simplify expressions involving exponents with a common base.


■  Apply fraction simplification to solving problems involving rates.

Concepts and Skills


RN.7 Determine if two fractions are equivalent.
RO.6 Use prime factorization to simplify fractions, generate equivalent
fractions and find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.
ER.1 Use exponents to represent repeated multiplication.
ER.6 Multiply, divide and simplify exponential expressions involving
exponents with a common base.

Remember from Before


■  What are equivalent fractions?
■  What is a simplified fraction?
■  What is the multiplicative property of one?

Get Your Brain in Gear


1.  Use mental math to find the value of each expression.
4 2
a. ​2​ ​ b. ​9​ ​
3 0 2 2
c. ​3​ ​ d. ​7​ ​× ​3​ ​× ​2​ ​
3 1 3 3
e. ​2​ ​× ​5​ ​ f. ​2​ ​× ​5​ ​

378   |    Chapter 8  Fraction Sums and Differences


Lesson 39 Simplifying Fractions

Concepts and Skills: RN.7, RO.6, In the previous few lessons we learned how to describe the composition of whole
ER.1, ER.6 numbers using prime factors. Here we will use prime factorization to gain a better
understanding of equivalent fractions.

Equivalent Let’s first review the meaning of equivalent fractions. When two fractions describe
Fractions the same point on the number line it means they equal the same number. We call
such fractions equivalent fractions. For example __​ 10 _2
15 ​ and ​ 3 ​ are equivalent fractions.
Let’s use the number line to see why this is true.
Here is���� ��� ​ __
10
15 ​ ��������������������
on the number line:
�������������������

​ 23 ​ ������������������������������������������������
And here is���� ��� __ expressed on the other side of the number line:
�����������������������������������������������

Since both fractions represent the same point, they are equal:
10
__
​ 23 ​
​ 15 ​  = __

Prime factorization of a whole number tells us the basic building blocks that
compose that whole number. We can also use this building-block view to see
why two fractions are equivalent. For example, let’s use this approach to see why���� ��� ​ __
10
15 ​
_2
equals���� ��� ​ 3 ​.
Here are the prime factorizations of 10 and 15:

10 = 2 × 5
15 = 3 × 5

We can use these representations to express the fraction���� ��__


​ 10
15 ​:
10
__ 2×5
​ 15 ​  = ___
​ 3 × 5  ​

From what we know about multiplying fractions, we can rewrite���� ��___


​ 23 × 55   ​�������������
as follows:
�����������
×

10
__
​ 23 ​× ​ __55 ​
​ 15 ​  = __

 Lesson 39 ������������ ����������   |    379


Simplifying Fractions 
Since _​ 55 ​ equals 1, we get:
10
__
​ 23 ​× 1
​ 15 ​  = __

Finally, let’s remove the ×1 part because the multiplicative property of 1 tells us
that multiplying by 1 doesn’t change the product:
10
__
​ 23 ​
​ 15 ​  = __

We just used prime factorization to show that���� ��__


​ 10 and���� ��_​ 23 ​���������������������������
15 ​���������
������� are equivalent fractions.
�������������������������

Check for 1.  Use prime factorization to find equivalent fractions for the following
Understanding numbers:
6 15
a. ​ __
10  ​   b. ​ __
9  ​
4
c. ​ __
14  ​  
14
d. ​ __
7  ​

Simplified Sometimes we run across fractions that look complicated, such as ___ 90
​ 360   . 
​ By using
Fractions prime factorization, we can often find an equivalent fraction that is simpler. Let’s
try this.
Here is the prime factorization for 90:

And here is the prime factorization for 360:

This means we can express ​ ___


90
360   ​ like this:

Immediately we see that this fraction has many multiplications by 1, such as _​ 33 ​, _​ 22 ​
and _​ 55 ​:

380   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Since multiplication by 1 doesn’t change the product, we can eliminate these from
the expression:

This fraction is a lot simpler, but we can simplify it even further by using what we
know about the properties of multiplication:

Since 2 × 2 equals 4, we conclude that���� ��� _​ 14 ​ ��������


and���� ��� ___
������� 90
​ 360   ​ ��������������������������
  �������������������������
are equivalent fractions:
90
___
​ 360  ​���������
  ������ ​ 14 ​
=����� ��__

Obviously _​ 14 ​ is a much simpler fraction to work with. When a fraction is simplified
as much as possible, we call it a simplified fraction.
Instead of writing out all of the steps, we can use a shorthand notation for this
simplification process. We can simply cross out matching prime factors in the
numerator and the denominator like this:

Check for 2.  Find the simplified fraction for each of the following numbers:
Understanding 25 270 30 9
a. ​ ___
100  ​  b. ​ ___
360  ​ c. ​ __
75 ​  d. ​ __
20  ​ 


Simplifying In Lesson 38 we learned how to use exponents to represent the repeated factors in
Expressions a prime factorization. Using this knowledge, let’s simplify the following fraction:
with Exponents

Here the numerator and denominator are already in prime factorization form. Notice
3
that we are using exponents to represent the repeated factors. Here ​2​ ​ means we
have three factors of 2 in the numerator:

 Lesson 39 ������������ ����������   |    381


Simplifying Fractions 
2
The ​7​ ​means that there are two factors of 7 in the numerator:

2
In the denominator we have ​2​ ​, which means there are two factors of 2:

1
Finally, the ​7​ ​means there is just one factor of 7:

Now we can simplify this fraction as we learned earlier:

From this we see that the original complicated looking fraction simplifies to the
whole number 14.

Check for 3.  Simplify the expression.


Understanding

Simplifying We can also use prime factorization to help us solve problems involving rates. As
with Rates an example, consider the following situation:

We bought 5 pies for $20. At this rate, how much does ​ _12 ​of a pie cost?

The problem asks us to convert from pies to dollars, so here is the rate:

To find how much ​ _12 ​of a pie costs, we multiply by the above rate:

382   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
To make the problem less cluttered, let’s remove the units for the moment. We just
need to remember that the value of the expression will have units of dollars:

Let’s multiply the fractions:

Now we simplify using prime factorization. Since 20 equals 2×2×5, we rewrite the
fraction as:

We can cancel out a _​ 22 ​ and a _​ 55 ​ because the multiplicative property of 1 tells us
that multiplying by _​ nn ​ doesn't change the value of an expression:

From this we conclude that���� ��� _​ 12 ​ ��������������������������������������������������������


of
�������������������������������������������������������
a pie costs 2 dollars. We can summarize this result
with the following equation:

It’s easy to visualize why $2 for���� ��� _​ 12 ​ ���������������������������������������������


of a pie is the same rate as $20 for 5 pies:
��������������������������������������������

Here we have 10 “half pies” coming together to form 5 whole pies. Since each half
pie costs $2, the 5 whole pies cost $20.

Check for 4.  If 8 batteries get used up every 6 hours, how many batteries are used after
Understanding 15 hours?

5.  Seven out of 10 people at the company are vegetarians. If there are 56
vegetarians at the company, what is the total number of people at the
company?

6.  If you drive 63 miles per hour, how long will it take to drive 210 miles?

 Lesson 39 ������������ ����������   |    383


Simplifying Fractions 
Problem Set Write the numerator and denominator of each fraction in prime factored form.

12
__ 2×2×3
_______
12
Example: ​ __
30 ​   Solution: ​ 30 ​ = ​ 2 × 3 × 5  

8 40 210
  1. ​ __
12  ​  
  2. ​ __
25 ​  
  3. ​ ___
270  ​

Write the numerator and denominator of each fraction in prime factored form.
Use this to simplify the fraction.

16 45
  4. ​ __28 ​   5. ​ __
18 ​  
  6. ​ __
36 ​ 

63
  7. ​ __ 12
__
14  ​   8. ​ 30 ​ 

Express the exponents as repeated multiplication, then simplify the expression.

  9.  10.  11. 

Which of the fractions below are already simplified? For the other fractions,
write the equivalent simplified fraction.

6
14
12. ​ __
28 ​  
4
13. ​ __
15  ​   14. ​ __
36  ​ 

48
15. ​ __
30 ​  
21
16. ​ __
16 ​  
24
17. ​ __
81 ​ 

Find the value of the expression. Write the result as a simplified fraction.

5 3 7 54 15 25
18. ​ __6 ​× __
​ 5 ​ 19. ​ __ 4
__
12  ​  ​ 3 ​
× 20. ​ __ __
9  ​ ​ 3  ​
× 21. ​ __ 4
__
6  ​ ​ 15  ​ 
×

Use fraction multiplication to find the value of the expression. Don’t forget the
units of your answer.

22.  23. 

24. 

384   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Use fraction multiplication to solve these rate problems. Simplify the result.

25.  The design has 8 leaves for every 4 flowers. If there are 6 flowers, how many
leaves are there?

26.  Six pens cost $4. At this price, how much will 9 pens cost?

27.  Ms. Chen can grade 8 papers in 6 minutes. At this rate, how long will it take
her to grade 28 papers?

28.  The store sells 6 gallons of water for 10 dollars. At this price, how much would
3
it cost to buy __
​ 5 ​of a gallon?

29.  The gizmo moves 3 inches every 5 minutes. At this rate, how long will it take
9
to travel __
​ 8 ​ of an inch?

30.  The student solved 12 one-step problems in 15 minutes. At this rate, how long
will it take to solve 30 one-step problems?

Challenge Problems
1.  Simplify the following fraction:
210
____
​ 1764   

2.  In the previous lesson you learned how to use exponents to express repeated
multiplication. We can also use exponents to express repeated multiplication of
fractions, for example:

Using this, find the value of the following expression:

3.  Here is a two-step problem:

The store sells 10 yards of rope for 6 dollars. How much will it cost to buy 4 feet
of rope? (There are 3 feet in a yard.)

Step 1: Convert 4 feet to yards. The value will be a fraction. That’s okay.
Step 2. Convert yards of rope to dollars.

4.  Here is another two-step problem.

The water increased by 21 liters every 2 weeks. How much did the water increase
in 5 days?

 Lesson 39 ������������ ����������   |    385


Simplifying Fractions 
Multiple Choice Practice
1.  Which is a simplified fraction?
14
 ​ __
49 ​  
14
 ​ __
21 ​  
14
 ​ __
8  ​
14
 ​ __
25 ​ 

3
2.  Here is where __
​ 6 ​is located on the number line:

3
After simplifying __
​ 6 ​, the new location on the number line will be:

  closer to zero.   closer to one.


3
  in the exact same location as __
​ 6 ​.   on the opposite side of zero.

Math Journal Questions


30
1.  Using the fraction __
​ 24 ​,  write clear and logical step by step directions that show
how to simplify the fraction. For each step, explain what mathematical properties
are being used.
2.  Explain how you can tell if a fraction is as simplified as possible.
3.  Explain how you would simplify the expression below without having to write
out all of the factors? What is the value of this expression?

Find the Errors A student made a mistake below. Find and correct the mistake.

looking back
Vocabulary: Equivalent fractions, prime factorization, simplify,
simplified fraction
Student Self Assessment: Do I get it?
1. How do I determine if fractions are equivalent?
2. How do I simplify fractions using prime factorization?
3. Which properties are used to simplify fractions in this way?
4. How is simplifying fractions useful when solving rate problems?

386   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Lesson 40 Common Denominators

Objectives
Vocabulary
■  Use prime factorization to form common denominators.
common
denominator ■  Compare fractions by first forming equivalent fractions with a common
denominator.
equivalent
■  Apply fraction comparison to compare rates such as finding the better price or
fractions
the faster speed.
simplified fraction
Concepts and Skills
RN.9 Find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.
RO.6 Use prime factorization to simplify fractions, generate equivalent
fractions and find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.
RO.7 Compare fractions by first writing them as equivalent fractions with a
common denominator.
SN.8 Solve word problems involving rates.

Remember from Before


■  What are equivalent fractions?
■  What are some ways we’ve learned to compare fractions?
■  What is the multiplicative property of one?

Get Your Brain in Gear


1.  Estimate the value n on the number line below.

2.  Estimate the value m on this next number line.

3.  Name four fractions equivalent to ​ _43 ​.

4.  Find equivalent fractions that have denominators of 10.


3 7 10
a. ​ __5 ​ b. ​ __2 ​ c. ​ __
20 ​ 

 Lesson 40  Common Denominators    |    387


Lesson 40 Common Denominators

Concepts and Skills: RN.9, RO.6, In the previous lesson, we generated equivalent fractions using prime factorization.
RO.7, SN.8 This technique is useful not only for putting fractions in simplified form but it’s
also helpful when getting two fractions to agree on a common denominator. We’ll
discuss this second situation here.

Comparing Let’s start the lesson with a real world example:


Fractions
Brothers John and Bill had a contest to see who could eat the most pie in
6 minutes. John and Bill sliced their pie in different ways:

When the time was up, John had eaten 3 slices whereas Bill had eaten 5
slices. Who won?

Bill ate more “slices”, but Bill’s slices were smaller than John’s. It would have
been easier to compare if they had sliced the pies in the same way in the beginning.
But that’s okay because we can use mathematics to cut the pies into a common
number of slices, even though some of the slices are being digested in John and
Bill’s stomachs. Let’s see how this works.
John ate 3 out of 4 slices, so that’s ​ _34 ​ of a pie. Bill ate 5 out of 8 slices, totaling ​ _58 ​
of a pie:

Let’s now express these fractions using prime factorization:

Since Bill’s fraction has one more factor of 2 in the denominator, let's multiply
John’s fraction by _​ 22 ​ to get an equivalent fraction:

388   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
The multiplicative property of 1 tells us that we can multiply by ​ _22 ​ without changing
the value of the fraction. Now the fractions have a common denominator:

Since 3 × 2 equals 6, and 2 × 2 × 2 equals 8, we end up with the following two


fractions:

We have just used mathematics to slice John’s pie in the same way as Bill’s. This
shows us that John won the competition by eating _​ 68 ​ of a pie, which is more than
the _​ 58 ​ of a pie that Bill ate. We can write this as an inequality:

6
__ 5
>����� ��__
​ 8 ​���������
������ ​ 8 ​

Since _​ 68 ​ is equivalent to _​ 34 ,​ we can also summarize the contest results as:

3
__ 5
>����� ��__
​ 4 ​���������
������ ​ 8 ​

Before we move on, let’s look at the above inequality on the number line:

The number line gives us a good picture of how much more John ate to win the
pie-eating competition.

Check for 1.  Place a <, >, or = sign in each circle to make the statement true.
Understanding
5 5 8 6 9
a. ​ __7 ​ ​ __47 ​ b.  __
​ 9 ​ __
​ 27  ​   11
c.  __
​ 10 ​
__
​ 5 ​ ​ 25 ​
d.  __ __
​ 25  ​ 

Rewriting Both Let’s look at a more sophisticated example by finding which is bigger,���� ��� __3
​ 10 or ��� ��​ _26 ​.
  ​ �������
������
Fractions The blue parts below show ​ __
3 _2
10  ​ of a strip of paper on the left, and ​ 6 ​ of a strip of
paper on the right:

Visually, these two fractions look almost equal. It’s hard to tell them apart, but with

 Lesson 40 ������� �������������   |    389


Common Denominators 
prime factorization, we can find out very easily which is bigger. Here are the two
fractions expressed using prime factors:

The fraction on the left has a 5 in the denominator, but the one on the right doesn’t.
So let’s multiply the right fraction by _​ 55 ​:

The denominators aren’t common yet. The fraction on the right has a 3 in the
denominator, but the one on the left doesn’t. So we multiply the left fraction by ​ _33 ​:

We haven't changed the values of these fractions, but now they share a common
denominator, which makes it easy to compare them. The numerator on the left is
3 × 3 = 9, and the numerator on the right is 2 × 5 = 10:

This shows us that the fraction on the left is smaller, and we can summarize this
with an inequality:
__3
​ 10  ​���������
  ������ ​ 26 ​
<����� ��__

If we place the two strips of paper on top of each other, we can verify visually
that __ 3
​ 10 _2
  ​ is less than ​ 6 ​:

In Lesson 31 we learned another way to compare two fractions. We divided the


fractions and checked if the result is greater or less than a whole. Let’s use that
method to compare ��� ��__ 3
​ 10 ������ ��_​ 26 ​:
  ​ �������
to ���

Since���� ��� ​ __


18
is less than a whole, this verifies that���� ��� __
20 ​ ���������������������������������������������
�������������������������������������������� 3
​ 10 is less than ��� ��_​ 26 ​.
  ​ �����������������
����������������

Check for 2.  Compare the following fractions by putting a <, >, or = symbol in each
Understanding circle.

3 5 9 63
a. ​ __29 ​ ​ 16 ​
__
b. ​ __8 ​ ​ __
12  ​ 
14
c. ​ ___
100  ​  ​ 17 ​
__
d. ​ __
10  ​ 
__
​ 70 ​ 

390   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Comparing We can compare rates just like we compare fractions. Comparing rates is very useful
Rates in the real world such as when searching for the best prices. For example:

The following two stores have different deals for the same brand of soda.
Which store has the better deal?

First of all, what do we mean by a “better deal”? Here’s one way to think of it: We
have a certain amount of money for buying soda, and we want to buy as much soda
as possible. Which store will give us the most soda for our money?
Store A is selling soda at the rate of 2 bottles for 3 dollars. We want to turn dollars
into bottles of soda, so here is the rate:

Store B is selling 5 bottles of soda for 7 dollars, so here is Store B’s rate:

We now want to compare these two rates to see which gives us more soda. As we
did earlier, we can do this by creating a common denominator.
Store A’s rate has a 3 in the denominator, but Store B’s rate doesn’t. So we multiply
Store B’s rate by ​ _33 ​:

Store B’s rate has a 7 in the denominator, but Store A’s rate doesn’t, so we multiply
by ​ _77 ​ like this:

Now the two rates have a common denominator of 3 × 7 = 21.


Since 2 × 7 = 14, and 5 × 3 = 15, we get the following rates:

From this we see that $21 will only buy 14 bottles of soda at Store A. But $21 will
buy 15 bottles at Store B. This means Store B has the better deal.

 Lesson 40 ������� �������������   |    391


Common Denominators 
To express this mathematically, we say that Store A’s rate is “less than” Store B’s
rate. We can summarize this with the following inequality:

Check for 3.  An 11 pound bag of ice costs $2. A 39 pound bag of ice costs $7. Which is
Understanding the better deal (assuming you will use all the ice you buy)?

4.  In 2 minutes Jo walked 9 miles. Delicia walked 13 miles in 3 minutes.


Who had the faster average walking speed?

5.  Haz wrote 200 lines of code in 8 hours. It took Mike 12 hours to write 300
lines of code. Which computer programmer is the faster coder?

Problem Set 1.  For each number find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 12.

​ 16 ​
Example: __ Solution: ​ __16 ​× __
​ 22 ​ = __2
​ 12  ​ 

5 3 5
a. ​ __3 ​ b. ​ __4 ​ c. ​ _72 ​ d. ​ __6 ​

2.  For each number find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 10.

3
a. ​ __45 ​ b. ​ __2 ​ c. ​ __15 ​ 4
d. ​ __
20  ​ 

3.  For each number find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 18.

3 5 7 5
a. ​ __2 ​ b. ​ __3 ​ c. ​ __9 ​ d. ​ __6 ​

4.  For each number find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 15.

7 6
a. ​ __23 ​ b. ​ __5 ​ c. ​ __
30  ​ 

Compare the fractions using the <, >, or = sign.

5.  Compare by first forming a common denominator of 12.

7 5 5 3 3 7
a. ​ __4 ​ __
​ 3 ​ b. ​ __6 ​ __
​ 4 ​ c. ​ __23 ​ __
​ 4 ​ d. ​ __
12  ​  ​ 23 ​
__

6.  Compare by first forming a common denominator of 10.

7 3 3 6 3
a. ​ __5 ​ __
​ 2 ​ b. ​ __25 ​ __
​ 10   ​ c. ​ __
10  ​ 
__
​ 5 ​

392   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
7.  Compare by first forming a common denominator of 18.

15 5 5 8
a. ​ __49 ​ ​ 26 ​
__
b. ​ __
18 ​ 
__
​ 6 ​ c. ​ __6 ​ __
​ 9 ​ 11
d. ​ __
18 ​ ​ 32 ​
__

8.  Compare by first forming a common denominator of 15.

3 10
a. ​ __23 ​ __
​ 5 ​ b. ​ __23 ​ ​ 45 ​
__ 11
c. ​ __
15 ​ ​ 23 ​
__
d. ​ __
15 ​  ​ 23 ​
__

Compare by forming a common denominator.

5 7 3 5 19 13 7
9. ​ __9 ​ ​ 23 ​
__
10. ​ __
24  ​ 
__
​ 8 ​ 11. ​ __4 ​ __
​ 16 ​   12. ​ __
6  ​
__
​ 3 ​

Find an equivalent expression with a denominator of 2 × 3 × 5.

13.  14. 

Find equivalent expressions that are easier to compare by forming a common


denominator. Compare the expressions.

15.  16. 

17.  18. 

For each pair, find equivalent fractions that have a common denominator.
Compare the fractions.

5 3 5 5 7 7 9
19. ​ __6 ​ ​ 45 ​
__
20. ​ __4 ​ __
​ 7 ​ 21. ​ __
12  ​  ​ __
16  ​   22. ​ __
15  ​  ​ __
20  ​ 

5 5 7 9 7
4
23. ​ __
15  ​ 
__
​ 12  ​   24. ​ __
18  ​ 
__
​ 24  ​   25. ​ __
20   ​
__
​ 24  ​ 

 Lesson 40 ������� �������������   |    393


Common Denominators 
26.  Use these store ads to answer the questions below.

The Good Price Store The 400 Cents Store


Erasers...........24 for $7 Erasers...........15 for $4
Pencils...........12 for $5 Pencils............9 for $4
Rulers.............6 for $5 Rulers.............5 for $4
Markers............2 for $1 Markers............9 for $4

a.  Which store has the better deal on pencils?


b.  Which store sells markers for the better price?
c.  Which store has the more expensive erasers?
d.  Which store has the cheaper rulers?

27.  Julian walked 30 feet in 7 seconds. Mia walked 50 feet in 13 seconds. Who
walked faster?

28.  On the first test Hang got 28 out of 35 problems correct. On the second test he
got 52 out of 65 problems correct. On which test did he get a greater fraction
of the problems correct?

29.  Abby made 15 out of 20 shots in the basketball game. Miko made 22 out of 35
shots. Who made a greater fraction of their shots?

30.  From the garden hose, 13 gallons of water flow in 2 minutes. From the kitchen
faucet, 40 gallons of water flow in 7 minutes. Which has the higher flow rate?
In other words, which has water flow out at a faster rate?

Challenge Problems
1.  Here is a similar question to problem 30 in the problem set, but this time some
unit conversion is needed:
From the garage faucet, 14 gallons of water flow in 3 minutes. From the
upstairs shower, 4 gallons flow every 45 seconds. Which has the higher flow
rate?
Here is one approach: Convert the 3 minutes to seconds first. Then compare the
rates when they are both in gallons per second.
2.  Either point a or b on the number line below has the value __ 4
​ 21  ​.  Figure out
__5
which point it must be based on where ​ 28   ​is located. Justify your answer using
mathematics.

3.  Compare the following fractions.

25 13 10 13
a. ​ __
14 ​ 
__
​ 8  ​ b. ​ __
9  ​
__
​ 12 ​   21
c. ​ __
25 ​  ​ 14
__
15 ​  
11
d. ​ __
30 ​
__
7
​ 24  ​

394   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Multiple Choice Practice
3
1. ​ __23 ​× __
​ 3 ​=

6 5
 ​ __3 ​  ​ __29 ​  ​ __23 ​  ​ __6 ​

Math Journal Questions


1.  Describe how to make two fractions share a common denominator. When you
do this, do the values of the fractions change? Use mathematics to justify your
answer.

​ 13 ​ that has a denominator of 10? If you find


2.  Can you find a fraction equivalent to __
one, explain how you found it. If you can’t find one, explain why you can’t find
one.

3.  Explain the different ways you know how to compare fractions. We’ve discussed
at least four different ways in this book so far.

4.  Consider this comparison of rates:

From this inequality, which rate represents the better deal for buying apples?
Explain your reasoning.

Find the Errors


A student made a mistake comparing the fractions below. Identify and correct
the mistake.

looking back
Vocabulary: inequality, equivalent fractions, prime factorization,
multiplicative identity
Student Self Assessment: Do I get it?
1. How do I find a common denominator?
2. How do I rewrite fractions with a common denominator?
3. How do I compare fractions with a common denominator?
4. How do I compare fractions that don’t have a common
denominator?
5. How can I compare rates?

 Lesson 40 ������� �������������   |    395


Common Denominators 
Lesson 41 Adding Fractions

Objectives
Vocabulary
■  Understand the meaning of addition on the number line and know that the
common meaning is the same whether adding whole numbers or adding fractions.
denominator
■  Add fractions with like and unlike denominators.
mixed number
■  Add whole numbers to fractions and express as a mixed number.

Concepts and Skills


RN.9 Find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.
RO.6 Use prime factorization to simplify fractions, generate equivalent
fractions and find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.
RO.8 Add fractions with like denominators.
RO.10 Add and find the difference of fractions with unlike denominators by first
rewriting them as equivalent fractions with a common denominator.

Remember from Before


■  How is addition defined on the number line?
■  How is factoring used to find a common denominator?

Get Your Brain in Gear


1.  Find equivalent fractions that have denominators of 12.

7
a. ​ __6 ​ b. ​ __14 ​ c. ​ __43 ​

2.  Find equivalent fractions that have denominators of 18.

7 5
a. ​ __9 ​ 11
b. ​ __
3  ​ c. ​ __6 ​

396   |    Chapter 8  Fraction Sums and Differences


Lesson 41 Adding Fractions

Concepts and Skills: RN.9, RO.6, In the previous lesson we compared fractions by finding common denominators.
RO.8, RO.10 Here we’ll find common denominators when adding fractions.

Adding The definition of addition on the number line is to place the start of one expression
Fractions at the end of another expression. We learned this in Lesson 1, and it still works for
fractions. For example, here are expressions for ​ _12 ​ and _​ 13 ​:

To add these two expressions, we simply make one start where the other ends:

We labeled the final point as _​ 12 ​+ ​ _13 ​. To express this number as a single fraction, we
first find a common denominator for _​ 12 ​ and _​ 13 ​:

We’ve expressed ​ _12 ​+ _​ 13 ​ as _​ 36 ​+ _​ 26 ​. Now that we have a common denominator, let’s
show this equivalent expression on the number line:

Here we have 3 jumps of +​ _16 ​plus 2 jumps of +​ _16 ​which equals a total of 5 jumps of


+​ _16 ​. This is simply the fraction ​ _56 ​:

In symbols we write this as:

3
__ 5
​ 26 ​ = __
​ 6 ​ + __ ​ 6 ​

 Lesson 41 ������� ����������   |    397


Adding Fractions 
Since _​ 36 ​+ _​ 26 ​ is equivalent to _​ 12 ​+ _​ 13 ​, we arrive at the following conclusion:

__ 5
​ 12 ​ + __
​ 13 ​ = __
​ 6 ​

Once fractions have a common denominator, adding them is easy. We just add the
numerators. We can generalize this result with the following identity:

Check for 1.  Find the value of the expression.


Understanding
3 7
a. ​ __5 ​ + __
​ 5 ​ b. ​ __17 ​ + __
​ 15 ​ c. ​ __29 ​ + __
​ 43 ​

7 3 5
d. ​ __15 ​ + __
​ 10   ​ e. ​ __5 ​ + __
​ 2 ​

Adding Fractions describe quantities where units are broken into equal parts. But sometimes
Fractions of we run across things in the real world that aren’t broken into equal parts. For
example, let’s determine what fraction of the following unit square is shaded gray:
Area

Since this unit square is not broken into equal parts, we can treat it as adding
fractions with different denominators. The above figure can be formed by adding
the following areas:

We can express this addition in symbols as follows:


__
​ 12 ​ + __
​ 14 ​

To find this value, we first create a common denominator:

Now we add the fractions:


__ 3
​ 24 ​ + __
​ 14 ​ = __
​ 4 ​

From this we conclude that the shaded area is _​ 34 ​ of a unit square.
We can visualize that the area is _​ 34 ​ of a unit square by imagining what it would look

398   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
like if we rearranged the shaded regions like this:

Let’s look at another example.


What fraction of the following unit square is shaded gray?

We can form the above figure by adding fractions together:

In symbols we write this as:


__
​ 13 ​ + __
​ 16 ​

By forming a common denominator, we can easily add the fractions:

This means the area is _​ 36 ​ of a unit square. If we simplify ​ _36 ​, we see that it’s equivalent
to _​ 12 ​:

Again, by imagining the shaded areas rearranged, we can visualize that the figure
is _​ 12 ​ shaded gray:

Check for 2.  What fraction addition reasonably describes how much of each unit square
Understanding is shaded gray? Add the fractions. Check the reasonableness of the result
by comparing it to the original picture.

 Lesson 41 ������� ����������   |    399


Adding Fractions 
Mixed Numbers Here is an area formed by adding a fraction to a whole number of unit squares:

We can describe this as 2 unit squares plus ​ _14 ​ of a unit square:

​ 14 ​
2 + __

To express this as a single fraction, we need to remember that 2 equals the


fraction ​ _21 ​:
__
​ 21 ​ + __
​ 14 ​

Now we form a common denominator and add:

From this we conclude that the above area is _​ 94 ​ of a unit square.
Some people prefer to express ​ _94 ​ as 2 + ​ _14 ​. It’s convenient because 2 + _​ 14 ​ shows us
right away that there’s a little more than 2 whole unit squares. It’s more difficult to
see this from looking at _​ 94 ​.
Adding fractions to whole numbers is done so often that people started getting lazy
and began writing 2 + ​ _14 ​ without the + sign:

When one puts a whole number right next to a fraction like this, it’s called a mixed
number. We’ll learn more about mixed numbers in the next lesson.
It’s easy to visualize that 2 + ​ _14 ​ is the same as _​ 94 .​ All we have to do is break each
whole unit square into 4 equal parts:

Now if we count up all of the quarters, we will find that there are 9 of them.

Check for 3.  Write each mixed number as the addition of a whole number and a fraction.
Understanding Then add to get a single fraction.

3 9
a.  4​ __13 ​ b.  5​ __12 ​ c.  7​ __
10  ​   d.  5​ __
10  ​ 

400   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
4.  For each group of unit squares, what fraction most reasonably describes
the total shaded area?

Problem Set Write the number line expression in symbols and then find the value of the
expression.

1. 

2. 

3. 

4.  For each fraction, find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 12.

3 5
a. ​ __23 ​ b. ​ __16 ​ c. ​ __4 ​ d. ​ __2 ​

5.  For each fraction, find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 10.

a. ​ __15 ​ b. ​ __12 ​ c. ​ __25 ​ 4


d. ​ __
20  ​ 

6.  For each fraction, find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 18.

5 7 3
a. ​ __29 ​ b. ​ __6 ​ c. ​ __3 ​ d. ​ __2 ​

 Lesson 41 ������� ����������   |    401


Adding Fractions 
Add by first forming a common denominator of 6.

5
7. ​ __23 ​ + __
​ 12 ​ 8. ​ __43 ​ + __
​ 6 ​

Add by first forming a common denominator of 12.

3 5 5
9. ​ __13 ​ + __
​ 4 ​ 10. ​ __14 ​ + __
​ 6 ​ 11. ​ __ 1
__
12  ​  + ​ 2 ​

Add by first forming a common denominator of 14.

3 3 9
12. ​ __12 ​ + __
​ 7 ​ 13. ​ __7 ​ + __
​ 14   ​

Add by first forming a common denominator of 15.

14. ​ __43 ​ + __
​ 25 ​ 4
15. ​ __ 4
__
15  ​  + ​ 5 ​

Add the fractions. Use your knowledge of prime factorization to find a common
denominator.

3 3
16. ​ __27 ​ + __
​ 7 ​ ​ 18 ​
17. ​ __4 ​ + __ 18. ​ __43 ​ + __
​ 19 ​

3 3 5 7
​ 16 ​
19. ​ __8 ​ + __ ​ 23 ​
20. ​ __5 ​ + __ 21. ​ __9 ​ + __
​ 6 ​

5 7 5
22. ​ __ 11
__
12  ​  + ​ 12 ​ 23. ​ __ __
12  ​  + ​ 8 ​
4
24. ​ __ __4
15  ​  + ​ 25   ​

Add the whole number to the fraction. Express the value as a single fraction.

7 5
25.  3 + __
​ 8 ​ 1
26. ​ __
15  ​  + 1 27.  4 + __
​ 9 ​

Write each mixed number as the addition of a whole number and a fraction.
Then, express each value as a single fraction.

8
28.  4 ​ __12 ​ ​ 23 ​
29.  7 __ 30.  6 __
​ 15  ​ 

Challenge Problems
What fraction addition reasonably describes how much of each unit square is
shaded green? Add to find how much each unit square is shaded.

1.  2.  3. 

402   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Find the value of the following expressions.

3 5 3
4. ​ __16 ​ + __
​ 14 ​ + __
​ 8 ​   5. ​ __ __ 1
__
14   ​ + ​ 8 ​ + ​ 2 ​

Here are some two-step word problems.

​ 21 ​
6.  The vanpool traveled at a constant rate of 40 miles per hour. They traveled for __
3
of an hour. Then they traveled another __​ 5 ​ of an hour. How many miles did they
travel?
3 5
7.  Lisa bought __
​ 4 ​ of a yard of flowered fabric, __ ​ 12 ​
​ 8 ​ of a yard of dotted fabric, and __
of a yard of purple fabric. If the fabric costs $2 for every 3 yards, how much did
the fabric cost (before taxes)?

Here is a tricky one. Read it carefully.

8.  The cake was cut into 6 equal slices. Jared and Mickey each took one of the
slices. Jared didn’t want all of his, so he cut his slice into 5 equal pieces and gave
one of the pieces to Mickey. What fraction of the total cake did Mickey get?

Multiple Choice Practice


7
​ 12 ​ + __
1.  Estimate where __ ​ 8 ​ is located on the number line.

​ 15 ​ + __
2.  Estimate where __ ​ 29 ​ is located on the number line.

3.  What is the value of point k on the number line below?

3 10
 ​ __46 ​  ​ __42 ​  ​ __8 ​  ​ __
8  ​

 Lesson 41 ������� ����������   |    403


Adding Fractions 
Math Journal Questions
1.  Here is the addition of two generic fractions where the numerators and the
denominators are unknown:
a
__ c
​ b ​ + __
​ d ​
a c
Explain how you would form a common denominator for __ ​ b ​and __
​ d ​. After you form
a common denominator, add the fractions. Use this result to add the fractions
_2 _4
​ 3 ​+ ​ 5 ​.
2.  A tangram is an ancient Chinese puzzle where a square is broken into parts as
shown here:

Can you figure out what fraction of the puzzle each piece represents? For starters,
​ 14 ​of the puzzle.
the big piece at the very top is __
After you find all the fractions, verify your result by adding all the values
together. They should add to make a whole.

Find the Errors A student made 2 mistakes below. Identify and correct each mistake.

1.  2.  3. 

looking back
Vocabulary: mixed number, fractions, common denominator

Student Self Assessment: Do I get it?


1. How do I add fractions with common denominators?
2. How do I add fractions with uncommon denominators?
3. How do I add whole numbers to fractions?
4. What are mixed numbers? What do they look like?

404   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Lesson 42 Mixed Numbers

Objectives
Vocabulary
■  Write mixed numbers using proper notation.
mixed number
■  Express mixed numbers as fractions.
■  Express fractions greater than a whole as mixed numbers using long division.

Concepts and Skills


RN.11 Understand the meaning of mixed number notation.
RN.12 Locate mixed numbers on a number line.
RN.13 Express mixed numbers as improper fractions. Express improper
fractions as mixed numbers.

Remember from Before


■  How is addition defined on the number line?
■  How is factoring helpful when adding fractions?

Get Your Brain in Gear


1.  Use mental math to find equivalent fractions that have denominators of 15.

7
a. ​ __3 ​ b. ​ __41 ​

78
12
c. ​ __
5  ​ d. ​ __
78  ​

2.  Use mental math to find equivalent fractions that have denominators of 6.

27
21
a. ​ __
2  ​ b. ​ __
18  ​

32
11
c. ​ __
3  ​ d. ​ __
24  ​

 Lesson 42  Mixed Numbers    |    405


Lesson 42 Mixed Numbers

Concepts and Skills: RN.11, In the previous lesson we learned how to add rational numbers expressed as
RN.12, RN.13 fractions. We also learned about mixed numbers, which are fractions added to
whole numbers. In this lesson, we’ll discuss mixed numbers in more depth.

Mixed Number As we learned in the previous lesson, we can write expressions such as 2 + ​ _13 ​ in a
Notation shorthand notation by removing the + sign:

​ 13 ​ = 2 ​ _13 ​
2 + __

When we express the addition of a whole number and a fraction in this way, we
call it a mixed number because it mixes together two different ways of notating
numbers.
The following are some rules about the mixed number notation:

1. The whole number part cannot be 0. In other words, 0 + _​ 12 ​ should not be
written as 0 ​ _12 ​. We simply write 0 + _​ 12 ​ as ​ _12 ​.
2. The fractional part must be greater than 0 and less than 1. This means
that 3 + ​ _52 ​ should not be written as 3 ​ _52 ​ because _​ 52 ​ is greater than 1.
3. When writing a mixed number, the fractional part should come right after
the whole number part. For example, we should never write 2 ​ _13 ​ as ​ _13 ​ 2.
4. When reading mixed numbers out loud, we separate the whole number
part from the fractional part using the word “and”. For example, 2 ​ __ 35 ​ is
read as “2 and 3 fifths”.


Check for 1.  Which of the following are not in correct mixed number notation? Explain
Understanding your reasoning.

9 9 7 0
a.  0 ​ __23 ​ b.  1 ​ __
10  ​   c.  7 ​ __4 ​ d. ​ __8 ​ 2 e.  4 ​ __3 ​

2.  Rewrite the following expressions using mixed number notation when
appropriate:

3
a.  12 + __
​ 4 ​ b. ​ __23 ​ + 8 ​ 45 ​
c.  0 + __ d.  Five and two-thirds

Mixed Numbers Mixed number notation is useful because it lets us instantly see how close the
as Fractions number is to a whole number. For example, 3 ​ _14 ​ tells us that the value is + ​ _14 ​ more
than 3. To see this, here is 3 ​ _14 ​ on the number line:

406   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
To express 3 ​ _14 ​ as a single fraction, we simply need to use our knowledge of adding
fractions. The number 3 ​ _14 ​ means:

​ 14 ​
3 + __

We can rewrite 3 as _​ 31 :​


3
__
​ 14 ​
​ 1 ​ + __

Now we form a common denominator and add:

From this we conclude that 3 ​ _14 ​ equals __


​ 13
4  :​
13
3 ​ __14 ​ = __
​ 4  ​

It’s easy to visualize that these two numbers are the same on the number line. Here
are 13 jumps of + _​ 14 ​:

We can see that this is just a jump of +​ _14 ​ more than 3.

Check for 3.  Rewrite the following mixed numbers as a single fraction:
Understanding
3
a.  5 ​ __12 ​ b.  1 ​ __23 ​ c.  2 ​ __4 ​

4.  Write each of the following number line expressions both as a mixed
number and as a single fraction:

a. 

b. 

c.  

 Lesson 42 ������ Numbers    |    407


Mixed ��������
Fractions as When a fraction is greater than a whole, we can express it as a mixed number. We
Mixed Numbers use the same method that we used several lessons ago to determine if a fraction is a
whole number. Let’s review that briefly.
A fraction is a whole number when the numerator is divisible by the denominator.
For example, to test if __
​ 12
4  ​ is a whole number, we attempt to use 12 unit squares to
create a rectangle of width 4:

The resulting rectangle is 3 units tall. From this we conclude that ​ __
12
4  ​ equals the
whole number 3:
__
​ 12
4  ​ = 3

We use this same process for mixed numbers. For example, let’s express the
following fraction as a mixed number:
7
__
​ 2 ​

We first try to use 7 unit squares to form a rectangle that is 2 units wide:

Because 7 is not divisible by 2, we have a remainder. If we break the remaining


1 unit square into 2 equal parts, we can add those parts to the top of our rectangle
like this:

Now we have a rectangle that is 2 units wide and 3 + _​ 12 ​ tall. This means that _​ 72 ​
equals 3 + _​ 12 ​:
7
__
​ 12 ​
​ 2 ​ = 3 + __

We can write 3 + _​ 12 ​ as the mixed number 3 ​ _12 :​


7
__
​ 2 ​ = 3 ​ __12 ​

408   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Let’s go over another example. Consider the following fraction:
8
__
​ 3 ​

To express this as a mixed number, we attempt to use 8 unit squares to form a


rectangle that is 3 units wide. We can use long division to help us with this by
remembering that _​ 83 ​ is the same as 8 ÷ 3:

From this we see that 8 ÷ 3 is 2 with a remainder of 2. This means our rectangle will
have a height of 2 units with 2 unit squares left over:

To add the remainder to our rectangle, let’s break each of the left-over squares into
3 equal parts:

Now we add the first left-over unit square like this:

Finally we add the second remainder in a similar way:

The rectangle now has a height of 2 + ​ _23 ​, which we can express as the mixed number
2 ​ _23 ​. From this we conclude that _​ 83 ​ is equal to 2 ​ _23 ​:
8
__
​ 3 ​ = 2 ​ __23 ​

 Lesson 42 ������ Numbers    |    409


Mixed ��������
We can easily visualize this on the number line by making 8 jumps of +​ _13 ​:

It’s clear that this is just two jumps of + ​ _13 ​more than 2.

Check for 5.  Express the following fractions as mixed numbers:


Understanding
3 7 9
a. ​ __2 ​ b. ​ __4 ​ c. ​ __43 ​ d. ​ __2 ​

Using Long As we saw earlier, long division makes it easy to express fractions as mixed numbers.
Division Let’s consider a more sophisticated fraction such as:
98
__
​ 5  ​

Since this is the same as 98 ÷ 5, we simply carry out the following division:

From this we see that 98 ÷ 5 is 19 with a remainder of 3. To add the remainders


to our rectangle of height 19, we first divide the 3 remainders by 5. Since 3 ÷ 5 is
_3
​ 5 ​, we add _​ 35 ​ to 19:
98
__ 3
​ 5  ​ = 19 + __
​ 5 ​

Finally, we write this in mixed number notation:


98
__ 3
​ 5  ​ = 19  ​ __5 ​

People typically express the result of long division using mixed number notation:

A Closer Look Earlier we showed that __


​ 98
5  ​ is equal to 98 ÷ 5. Then we showed that 98 ÷ 5 equals
3
19 with a remainder of 3. In mixed number notation this means that 98 ÷ 5 is 19  ​ __5 ​.
Let’s examine how this all works in more detail.

410   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
When we say that 98 ÷ 5 equals 19 with a remainder of 3, we mean that when
we multiply 5 × 19, we need to add 3 to get 98. We write this with the following
equation:

5 × 19 + 3 = 98

This means that 5 × 19 equals 95, which gives us:

95 + 3 = 98

Let’s verify that 5 × 19 equals 95:

This also shows us that 95 ÷ 5 equals 19. We can verify this with long division:

Now let’s look back at our original fraction:


98
__
​ 5  ​

We know that 98 equals 95 +3, so we can write this as:


(95 +3)
______
​  5    ​ 

Our knowledge of fraction addition tells us that this is equal to:


95
__ 3
​ 5  ​ + __
​ 5 ​
95
We just showed that __
​ 5  ​ equals 95 ÷ 5 which equals 19. This gives us:
3
19 + __
​ 5 ​
3 3
In mixed number notation 19 + __
​ 5 ​ equals 19  __
​ 5 ​:
3
19  ​ ​ __5 ​

This is the same result we got before.

Check for 6.  Express the results of the following long division problems as mixed
Understanding numbers:

a.  b.  c.  d. 

 Lesson 42 ������ Numbers    |    411


Mixed ��������
7.  Rewrite the following fractions as mixed numbers:

10 360 123 156 23


a. __
​ 3  ​ b. ___
​  7   ​   c. ___
​  8   ​   d. ___
​ 155  ​ e. __
​ 10 ​ 

Problem Set Write the mixed numbers using words.


3 8 7
  1.  5 ​ __5 ​   2.  1 ​ __12 ​   3.  17 ​ __
10   ​   4.  340 ​ __9 ​

Express as a fraction or as a mixed number.

  5.  Seventeen forty-fifths   6.  Six and six eighths

  7.  Five sevenths   8.  One hundred three and three fifths

Find the value of the number line expression. Write the value as both a mixed
number and as a single fraction.

  9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

Draw a rectangle that has the given width using the given number of unit
squares. Express the height as a mixed number.

Example:  A width of 7 out of 17 unit squares.


Answer: 

13.  A width of 4 out of 10 unit squares.


14.  A width of 3 out of 13 unit squares.
15.  A width of 5 out of 18 unit squares.
412   |    Chapter 8  Fraction
������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Express each mixed number as the addition of a whole number and a fraction.
Then find the value of the expression as a single fraction.
3
16.  2 ​ __13 ​ 17.  4 ​ __12 ​ 18.  6 ​ __7 ​

5 3
19.  10 ​ __45 ​ 20.  7 ​ __
12  ​   21.  8 ​ __
32  ​ 

Express the result of each long division problem as a mixed number.

22.  23.  24. 

Express the fractions as mixed numbers.

13 23 123
25. ​ __
5  ​ 26. ​ __
2  ​ 27. ​ ___
4    ​

156 277 7
28. ​ ___
8    ​ 29. ​ ___
9    ​ 30. ​ __6 ​

Challenge Problems
For each group of unit squares, find the mixed number that most reasonably
represents the total green shaded area.

1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

Add the fractions, then write in mixed number notation.

3 7
​ 12 ​
5. ​ __4 ​ + __ ​ 26 ​   7. ​ __23 ​ + __
6. ​ __9 ​ + __ ​ 45 ​

13 5 7 5 3
8. ​ __ __
9  ​ + ​ 8 ​ 9. ​ __14 ​ + __
​ 12 ​ + __
​ 13 ​ 10. ​ __2 ​ + __
​ 4 ​ + __
​ 8 ​

 Lesson 42 ������ Numbers    |    413


Mixed ��������
Multiple Choice Practice
1.  Which number is greater than a whole?

17 9 8 15
 ​ __
19 ​    ​ __
10  ​    ​ __8 ​  ​ __
14 ​ 

2.  Which number is less than a whole?

23 37 5 16
 ​ __
21 ​    ​ __
39 ​    ​ __3 ​  ​ __
1  ​

9
3.  Estimate where __
​ 4 ​ is located on the number line.

83
4.  Which mixed number is equal to __
​ 79  ​?

3 7
  8 ​ __
79  ​  
4
  1 ​ __
79   ​
1
  83 ​ __
79  ​     8 ​ __9 ​

Math Journal Questions


3
​ 11
1.  The number __ __
4  ​and the number 2 ​ 4 ​are the same value but in different notations.
Explain why both types of notation are useful. Give two examples of situations
where one notation is more convenient than the other.
2.  Explain how you find where a mixed number is located on the number line. As
your example, show where the mixed number 4 ​ __25 ​ is located on a number line.
Make your drawing as precise and as accurate as you can.


Find the Errors A student made 3 mistakes below. Identify and correct each mistake.

  1.    2. 

  3.    4. 

A student wrote 4 of the numbers below in incorrect mixed number notation.


Find and correct the mistakes.

  5.    6.    7.    8.    9. 

10.  11.  12.  13.  14. 

414   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
looking back
Vocabulary: mixed numbers, whole numbers, fractions, addition

Student Self Assessment: Do I get it?


1. What is a mixed number?
2. What must I remember when writing a mixed number?
3. How do I rewrite a mixed number as a single fraction?
4. How do I rewrite a fraction as a mixed number?
5. How can I tell if a fraction is greater than, less than, or equal to one?

 Lesson 42 ������ Numbers    |    415


Mixed ��������
Lesson 43 Fractional Differences

Objectives
Vocabulary
■  Find the difference between two fractions.
accuracy
■  Solve problems involving fraction arithmetic arising from concrete situations.
difference
■  Estimate fractional values and measure the accuracy of an estimate.
distance
estimate Concepts and Skills
RN.9 Find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.
RN.13 Express mixed numbers as improper fractions. Express improper
fractions as mixed numbers.
RO.6 Use prime factorization to simplify fractions, generate equivalent
fractions and find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.
RO.8 Add fractions with like denominators.
RO.9 Find the difference between two fractions with a common denominator.
RO.10 Add and find the difference of fractions with unlike denominators by first
rewriting them as equivalent fractions with a common denominator.

Remember from Before


■  How do you find the difference between two whole numbers?
■  What is a mixed number?
■  What is estimation?

Get Your Brain in Gear


1.  Use mental math to solve each equation.

a.  5 + a = 12

b.  18 = b + 3

c.  14 = 8 + c

d.  15 + d = 26

2.  Estimate the fraction ​ _n5 ​on the number line below.

416   |    Chapter 8  Fraction Sums and Differences


Lesson 43 Fractional Differences

Concepts and Skills: RN.9, In the previous lesson we learned about mixed number notation, which provides a
RN.13, RO.6, RO.8, RO.9, RO.10 fast way to see how much more a value is from a whole number. In this lesson we’ll
discuss how to find the distance between any two rational numbers on the number
line by calculating the difference.
Consider the following two strips of paper. The blue portions represents ​ _13 ​ on the
top and _​ 12 ​ on the bottom:

What is the difference between _​ 12 ​ and _​ 13 ?​ In other words, how much does d
represent in the picture below?

We can describe this question with the following equation:


__
​ 13 ​ + d = ​ __12 ​

Here the value d represents the difference between _​ 13 ​ and _​ 12 ​. An easy way to find
this difference is to form a common denominator between _​ 13 ​ and _​ 12 ​. To do this we
multiply _​ 13 ​ by _​ 22 ​ to create the equivalent fraction _​ 26 ​:

Now we multiply _​ 12 ​by _​ 33 ​ to create the equivalent fraction _​ 36 :​

Now we can use these equivalent fractions in our equation:


__ 3
​ 26 ​ + d = __
​ 6 ​

In the context of our strips of paper, this equation means:

 Lesson 43  Fractional ������������   |    417


����������� Differences 
3
​ 16 ​ to __
It’s clear that we need to add __ ​ 26 ​ to make __
​ 6 ​
__ 3
​ 26 ​ + __
​ 16 ​ = __
​ 6 ​

​ 16 ​is the solution, and therefore __


This means d = __ ​ 16 ​ is the difference between __
​ 13 ​and __
​ 12 ​:
__
​ 13 ​ + __
​ 16 ​ = __
​ 12 ​

Check for 1.  Find the difference by solving for the variable d.
Understanding
7 17
2
a. ​ __ __
10  ​  + d = ​ 10  ​   b. ​ __49 ​ + d = __
​ 9  ​

3 6 5
11
c. ​ __4 ​ + d = __
​ 12 ​ d. ​ __ __
10  ​  + d = ​ 6 ​

2.  How much more is _​ 34 ​ than __7


​ 10  ​? Write an equation to describe the result.

3.  How much more is _​ 13 ​ than __3


​ 10  ​? Write an equation to describe the result.

Distance Differences are very useful for solving problems in the real world such as finding
how far apart things are. For example, consider the following situation:

It’s ​ _34 ​ of a mile to travel from home to school along the road shown above.
Using the same road, it’s 2 ​ _78 ​ miles to travel from home to the movie
theater. How far is it to travel from school to the movie theater?
Let’s visualize this problem on the number line:

The variable d represents the distance between school and the movie theater, which
is the value we are trying to find. Here is the above equation written with symbols:

3
__
​ 4 ​ + d = 2 ​ _78 ​

To solve this, let’s first express 2 ​ _78 ​ as a single fraction by remembering that 2 ​ _78 ​
equals 2 + _​ 78 ​:

418   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
This means 2 ​ _78 ​ equals __
​ 16 _7
8  ​+ ​ 8 ​. Let’s add 16 + 7:

Now we can write 2 ​ _78 ​ as a single fraction:

Since 2 ​ _78 ​ is equivalent to __


​ 23
8  ,​ we can rewrite our equation as follows:

3
__ 23
​ 4 ​ + d = __
​ 8  ​

Now let’s form a common denominator between _​ 34 ​ and __


​ 23
8  :​

This gives us the following equation:

6
__ 23
​ 8 ​ + d = __
​ 8  ​

The difference between _​ 68 ​ and __


​ 23
8  ​ is found by calculating the difference between 6
and 23:

From this we see that the solution is d = __


​ 17
8  :​

6
__ 17 23
​ 8 ​ + __
​ 8  ​ = __
​ 8  ​

This means that it’s __


​ 17
8  ​ of a mile to travel from school to the movies.
Let’s express __
​ 17
8  ​ as a mixed number using long division:

The mixed number 2 ​ _18 ​ is easier to interpret than __


​ 17
8  ​. It shows us that it’s just a little
more than 2 miles to travel from school to the movie theater.

Check for 4.  A full can of juice holds 3 ​ _12 ​ liters. Maria opened the can and drank most of
Understanding it. If there is only _​ 15 ​ of a liter left, how much did Maria drink? Illustrate the
question on the number line. Write an equation. Then solve.

 Lesson 43  Fractional ������������   |    419


����������� Differences 
5. Kevin is 6 ​ _16 ​ feet tall. Vick is 5 ​ __12 ​ feet tall. How much taller is Kevin
compared to Vick? How much shorter is Vick compared to Kevin?

Accuracy of an Differences are useful when evaluating the accuracy of an estimate. The difference
Estimate between an estimate and the actual value tells us how close the estimate was.
The following strip of paper shows an unspecified fraction colored blue:

When three people were asked to estimate the value of the above fraction, they
came up with three different estimates:

If the actual value is _​ 23 ,​ how accurate was the closest estimate?
Person A’s estimate was _​ 29 ​. Since ​ _29 ​ is closer to zero, we know this is not a very good
estimate. The actual value is closer to a whole.
Person B’s estimate was __ 4
​ 11  ​, which is less than a half. The actual value is more than
a half, so this is probably not a very good estimate.
Person C’s estimate was __ 6
​ 10   ​ which is a little more than half. This seems like a more
accurate estimate than the others. In order to get a measure of the accuracy, let’s find
the difference between ​ __
6 _2
10  ​ and ​ 3 ​.
The first step is to form a common denominator:

Now that the fractions have a common denominator, we get the difference by
solving for d in the following equation:

18
__ 20
​ 30 ​  + d = __
​ 30 ​ 

The solution is d = __ 2
​ 30   ​:

18
__ 20
​ 30 ​  + __2
​ 30 __
   ​ = ​ 30  ​

From this we conclude that Person C’s estimate was merely ​ __
2
30  ​ away from the actual
value. That’s reasonably accurate.
420   |    Chapter 8  Fraction
������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
We can summarize this result with the following equation:

__6
​ 10  ​ + __2
​ 30 2
__
   ​ = ​ 3 ​

To easily compare all three estimates (A, B and C), here are the corresponding
points on the number line:

It’s clear that estimate C is closest to the actual value, and therefore is more accurate
than the other estimates.

Check for 6.  What fraction is the best estimate of how much of the strip of paper is
Understanding colored blue?

7.  What fraction is the best estimate of how much the circle is colored blue?

8.  The following number line shows estimates A, B and C. The actual value
is _​ 35 ​. Which estimate is the most accurate? What is the difference between
the best estimate and the actual value?

Problem Set What is the difference between how much the top and bottom strips are colored
green? Write an equation then solve for the difference.

1. 

2. 

 Lesson 43  Fractional ������������   |    421


����������� Differences 
3. 

4. 

Solve for the variable in each equation.

5 35
​ 11
5. ​ __8 ​ + m = __8  ​ 6. ​ __12 ​ + p = __
​ 4  ​

7 8
7. ​ __ 4
__
15  ​  + g = ​ 5 ​ ​ 26 ​ = __
8.  n + __ ​ 15   ​

Express the mixed number as a single fraction.

7 5
9.  1 ​ __19 ​ 10.  3 ​ __
10  ​   11.  6 ​ __7 ​

Express the fraction as a mixed number.

23 65 165
12. ​ __
7  ​ 13. ​ __
5  ​ 14. ​ ___
8    ​

For each number line, find the distance between the two points shown. Write
an equation then solve for the difference.

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

Solve for the variable in each equation.

5
19. ​ __6 ​ + d = 2 ​ __13 ​ 20.  1 ​ __15 ​ + h = 3 ​ __13 ​

5
21.  2 ​ __12 ​ + z = 4 ​ __25 ​ 22. ​ __7 ​ + b = 5 ​ __45 ​

422   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Define variables, write an equation, then solve to answer the question.
7
​ 45 ​ compared to __
23.  How much more is __ ​ 9 ?​
​ 13 ​ of his $57 allowance. How much is left?
24.  Ned spent __
9 7
25.  The blue bucket was __​ 16  ​  filled with sand. The red bucket was ​ __
12   ​ filled with
sand. If the buckets are the same size, which one has more sand in it? How
much more?
7
26.  Hugo walked 4 ​ __ 24
__
10  ​  miles. Marie walked ​ 5  ​ miles. Who walked farther? How
much farther did that person walk?

27.  Last year’s art class painted a mural 10 ​ __13 ​ feet tall. This year’s class is designing
3
a mural that is 11​ __4 ​ feet tall. How much taller will the mural be this year?

28.  It was a 3-hour-long movie. The first __​ 14 ​ hour was interesting. The next __
​ 12 ​ hour
3
was exciting. The next __
​ 5 ​of an hour was funny. The rest of the movie was dull.
How many hours of the movie were dull?

Find the closest estimate for the fraction of the rectangle that is blue.

​ 18 ​, whose estimate is the most accurate? Find the difference


29.  If the actual value is __
between the estimate and the actual value.

6
30.  If the actual value is __
​ 7 ​, whose estimate is the most accurate? Find the difference
between the estimate and the actual value.

Challenge Problems
Find the value of the variable in each equation.

1.  (__​ 57 ​+ __​ 12 ​) + d = __


​ 20
14 ​ 2.  1 ​ __13 ​ + k = __ (
​ 23 ​+ __
5
​ 6 ​ )
(
​ 18 ​+ __
3.  p + __
3
)
​ 4 ​ = 1 ​ __14 ​
15
4. ​ __
8
__ 3
__
2  ​ + ​ 4 ​ = 2 ​ 4 ​ + b

 Lesson 43  Fractional ������������   |    423


����������� Differences 
Define variables, write an equation, and then solve to answer the question.

5.  Kim and Myra recorded how many hours they read for each day during the
week. The information is shown below in their nightly reading log. Who read
more hours? How many more hours?

Name Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday


__ 3 3
Kim ​ 12 ​ __
​ 4 ​ 2 1​ __12 ​ 1​ __4 ​
3 3
Myra 2 ​ __14 ​ 1​ __12 ​ __
​ 4 ​ 1​ __14 ​ 2 ​ __4 ​

6.  After the team won the 5 games, the coach bought 3 pizzas to celebrate. One was
3
pepperoni, one was cheese, and the other was vegetarian. After 5 minutes, __ ​ 4 ​ of
5
the vegetarian was gone, __ ​ 12 ​ of the pepperoni
​ 6 ​ of the cheese pizza was eaten, and __
was devoured. How much pizza was left?

Multiple Choice Practice


1.  Estimate the distance between point j and point k on the number line below.

7
14
 ​ __
5  ​
11
 ​ __
5  ​  ​ __5 ​  ​ __45 ​

2.  Which is the best estimate of the fraction of the circle that is colored green?

5
 ​ __49 ​  ​ __8 ​

 ​ __23 ​  ​ __15 ​

Math Journal Questions


1.  Describe the technique you use to visually estimate fractions. For example,
explain how you would estimate what fraction of the square is colored green for
each square below. Describe how you arrived at your estimates.

2.  Explain what it means to find the difference between two points on the number
line.
3.  Measure how tall you are. Measure how tall your friend is. Record the heights
in units of feet using mixed number notation (each inch is __1
​ 12   ​of a foot). What is
the difference in height between you and your friend?

424   |    Chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������
Find the Errors A student made mistakes in all 3 problems below. Identify and correct each
mistake.
3 9
1.  Find the distance between __
​ 4 ​ and __
​ 4 ​.

2. 

3. 

looking back
Vocabulary: accuracy, estimate, difference, distance, fraction, common
denominator, mixed number
Student Self Assessment: Do I get it?
1. How do I find the difference between two fractions?
2. How do I write equations to represent situations involving
differences?
3. How do I determine which estimate is closest?
4. How do I find the difference between the estimate and the actual
fraction?

 Lesson 43  Fractional ������������   |    425


����������� Differences 
Summary and Review

Chapter 8: Fraction Sums and


Differences

Chapter ■ We know how to use prime factorization to simplify fractions.
Accomplishments ■ We know how to find equivalent fractions so that two fractions share a
common denominator.
■ We know how to compare fractions, add fractions, and find differences of
fractions.
■ We understand mixed number notation.
■ We know how to use whole numbers, fractions and mixed numbers to solve
problems and estimate measurements.


Vocabulary from accuracy equivalent fractions
the Chapter common denominator estimate
difference mixed number
distance simplified fraction

6 20
Concepts and 1.  Simplify the fraction __
​ 15  ​.    2.  Simplify the fraction __
​ 45 ​. 
Skills Check
90 3
3.  Write ​ __ __ 2
__
7  ​as a mixed number.   4.  Add the fractions ​ 8 ​ + ​ 4 .​

5.  Add the fractions ​ __23 ​ + __


​ 15 .​   6.  Simplify the expression:


 3
7. Write 7​ __4 ​as a single fraction.   8.  Add the mixed numbers 2 ​ __14 ​ + 1​ __25 .​

1 million 5
9.  Simplify ​ _______ ​.
1 billion   ​ 25 ​ + d = __
10.  Solve the equation __ ​ 6 ​.

What’s Next? Next we’ll learn how to use decimal notation to express fractions. Decimal notation
is a way of using place value to represent fractions with denominators that are
powers of ten.

426   |    chapter 8  Fraction


������������������
Sums and Differences
�����������