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Lesson 39

Simplifying Fractions Chapter Objectives

Lesson 40

Common ■ Use prime factorization to simplify fractions.

Denominators

■ Find equivalent fractions to simplify fractions.

Lesson 41

Adding Fractions ■ Compare fractions, add fractions, and find differences of fractions.

Lesson 42 ■ Express fractions greater than a whole using mixed number notation.

Mixed Numbers

■ Use whole numbers, fractions and mixed numbers to solve problems and

Lesson 43 estimate measurements.

Fractional Differences

Express each number in prime factored form using exponents.

1. 24

2. 50

3. The following number line shows equal jumps where three jumps equal a

whole. What fraction is represented by point p?

3 5

__

8 × __

9 = k

5. Use division to compare the fractions by placing a <, >, or = symbol to

make the statement true.

__ 7

47 __

11

Fractions Sums and Differences

Lesson 39 Simplifying Fractions

Objectives

Vocabulary

■ Use prime factorization to determine if fractions are equivalent.

equivalent

fractions ■ Simplify fractions by using prime factorization.

■ Apply fraction simplification to solving problems involving rates.

RN.7 Determine if two fractions are equivalent.

RO.6 Use prime factorization to simplify fractions, generate equivalent

fractions and find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.

ER.1 Use exponents to represent repeated multiplication.

ER.6 Multiply, divide and simplify exponential expressions involving

exponents with a common base.

■ What are equivalent fractions?

■ What is a simplified fraction?

■ What is the multiplicative property of one?

1. Use mental math to find the value of each expression.

4 2

a. 2 b. 9

3 0 2 2

c. 3 d. 7 × 3 × 2

3 1 3 3

e. 2 × 5 f. 2 × 5

Lesson 39 Simplifying Fractions

Concepts and Skills: RN.7, RO.6, In the previous few lessons we learned how to describe the composition of whole

ER.1, ER.6 numbers using prime factors. Here we will use prime factorization to gain a better

understanding of equivalent fractions.

Equivalent Let’s first review the meaning of equivalent fractions. When two fractions describe

Fractions the same point on the number line it means they equal the same number. We call

such fractions equivalent fractions. For example __ 10 _2

15 and 3 are equivalent fractions.

Let’s use the number line to see why this is true.

Here is���� ��� __

10

15 ��������������������

on the number line:

�������������������

23 ������������������������������������������������

And here is���� ��� __ expressed on the other side of the number line:

�����������������������������������������������

Since both fractions represent the same point, they are equal:

10

__

23

15 = __

Prime factorization of a whole number tells us the basic building blocks that

compose that whole number. We can also use this building-block view to see

why two fractions are equivalent. For example, let’s use this approach to see why���� ��� __

10

15

_2

equals���� ��� 3 .

Here are the prime factorizations of 10 and 15:

10 = 2 × 5

15 = 3 × 5

10

15 :

10

__ 2×5

15 = ___

3 × 5

23 × 55 �������������

as follows:

�����������

×

10

__

23 × __55

15 = __

Simplifying Fractions

Since _ 55 equals 1, we get:

10

__

23 × 1

15 = __

Finally, let’s remove the ×1 part because the multiplicative property of 1 tells us

that multiplying by 1 doesn’t change the product:

10

__

23

15 = __

10 and���� ��_ 23 ���������������������������

15 ���������

������� are equivalent fractions.

�������������������������

Check for 1. Use prime factorization to find equivalent fractions for the following

Understanding numbers:

6 15

a. __

10 b. __

9

4

c. __

14

14

d. __

7

Simplified Sometimes we run across fractions that look complicated, such as ___ 90

360 .

By using

Fractions prime factorization, we can often find an equivalent fraction that is simpler. Let’s

try this.

Here is the prime factorization for 90:

90

360 like this:

Immediately we see that this fraction has many multiplications by 1, such as _ 33 , _ 22

and _ 55 :

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

Since multiplication by 1 doesn’t change the product, we can eliminate these from

the expression:

This fraction is a lot simpler, but we can simplify it even further by using what we

know about the properties of multiplication:

and���� ��� ___

������� 90

360 ��������������������������

�������������������������

are equivalent fractions:

90

___

360 ���������

������ 14

=����� ��__

Obviously _ 14 is a much simpler fraction to work with. When a fraction is simplified

as much as possible, we call it a simplified fraction.

Instead of writing out all of the steps, we can use a shorthand notation for this

simplification process. We can simply cross out matching prime factors in the

numerator and the denominator like this:

Check for 2. Find the simplified fraction for each of the following numbers:

Understanding 25 270 30 9

a. ___

100 b. ___

360 c. __

75 d. __

20

Simplifying In Lesson 38 we learned how to use exponents to represent the repeated factors in

Expressions a prime factorization. Using this knowledge, let’s simplify the following fraction:

with Exponents

Here the numerator and denominator are already in prime factorization form. Notice

3

that we are using exponents to represent the repeated factors. Here 2 means we

have three factors of 2 in the numerator:

Simplifying Fractions

2

The 7 means that there are two factors of 7 in the numerator:

2

In the denominator we have 2 , which means there are two factors of 2:

1

Finally, the 7 means there is just one factor of 7:

From this we see that the original complicated looking fraction simplifies to the

whole number 14.

Understanding

Simplifying We can also use prime factorization to help us solve problems involving rates. As

with Rates an example, consider the following situation:

We bought 5 pies for $20. At this rate, how much does _12 of a pie cost?

The problem asks us to convert from pies to dollars, so here is the rate:

To find how much _12 of a pie costs, we multiply by the above rate:

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

To make the problem less cluttered, let’s remove the units for the moment. We just

need to remember that the value of the expression will have units of dollars:

Now we simplify using prime factorization. Since 20 equals 2×2×5, we rewrite the

fraction as:

We can cancel out a _ 22 and a _ 55 because the multiplicative property of 1 tells us

that multiplying by _ nn doesn't change the value of an expression:

of

�������������������������������������������������������

a pie costs 2 dollars. We can summarize this result

with the following equation:

of a pie is the same rate as $20 for 5 pies:

��������������������������������������������

Here we have 10 “half pies” coming together to form 5 whole pies. Since each half

pie costs $2, the 5 whole pies cost $20.

Check for 4. If 8 batteries get used up every 6 hours, how many batteries are used after

Understanding 15 hours?

5. Seven out of 10 people at the company are vegetarians. If there are 56

vegetarians at the company, what is the total number of people at the

company?

6. If you drive 63 miles per hour, how long will it take to drive 210 miles?

Simplifying Fractions

Problem Set Write the numerator and denominator of each fraction in prime factored form.

12

__ 2×2×3

_______

12

Example: __

30 Solution: 30 = 2 × 3 × 5

8 40 210

1. __

12

2. __

25

3. ___

270

Write the numerator and denominator of each fraction in prime factored form.

Use this to simplify the fraction.

16 45

4. __28 5. __

18

6. __

36

63

7. __ 12

__

14 8. 30

Which of the fractions below are already simplified? For the other fractions,

write the equivalent simplified fraction.

6

14

12. __

28

4

13. __

15 14. __

36

48

15. __

30

21

16. __

16

24

17. __

81

Find the value of the expression. Write the result as a simplified fraction.

5 3 7 54 15 25

18. __6 × __

5 19. __ 4

__

12 3

× 20. __ __

9 3

× 21. __ 4

__

6 15

×

Use fraction multiplication to find the value of the expression. Don’t forget the

units of your answer.

22. 23.

24.

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

Use fraction multiplication to solve these rate problems. Simplify the result.

25. The design has 8 leaves for every 4 flowers. If there are 6 flowers, how many

leaves are there?

26. Six pens cost $4. At this price, how much will 9 pens cost?

27. Ms. Chen can grade 8 papers in 6 minutes. At this rate, how long will it take

her to grade 28 papers?

28. The store sells 6 gallons of water for 10 dollars. At this price, how much would

3

it cost to buy __

5 of a gallon?

29. The gizmo moves 3 inches every 5 minutes. At this rate, how long will it take

9

to travel __

8 of an inch?

30. The student solved 12 one-step problems in 15 minutes. At this rate, how long

will it take to solve 30 one-step problems?

Challenge Problems

1. Simplify the following fraction:

210

____

1764

2. In the previous lesson you learned how to use exponents to express repeated

multiplication. We can also use exponents to express repeated multiplication of

fractions, for example:

The store sells 10 yards of rope for 6 dollars. How much will it cost to buy 4 feet

of rope? (There are 3 feet in a yard.)

Step 1: Convert 4 feet to yards. The value will be a fraction. That’s okay.

Step 2. Convert yards of rope to dollars.

The water increased by 21 liters every 2 weeks. How much did the water increase

in 5 days?

Simplifying Fractions

Multiple Choice Practice

1. Which is a simplified fraction?

14

__

49

14

__

21

14

__

8

14

__

25

3

2. Here is where __

6 is located on the number line:

3

After simplifying __

6 , the new location on the number line will be:

3

in the exact same location as __

6 . on the opposite side of zero.

30

1. Using the fraction __

24 , write clear and logical step by step directions that show

how to simplify the fraction. For each step, explain what mathematical properties

are being used.

2. Explain how you can tell if a fraction is as simplified as possible.

3. Explain how you would simplify the expression below without having to write

out all of the factors? What is the value of this expression?

Find the Errors A student made a mistake below. Find and correct the mistake.

looking back

Vocabulary: Equivalent fractions, prime factorization, simplify,

simplified fraction

Student Self Assessment: Do I get it?

1. How do I determine if fractions are equivalent?

2. How do I simplify fractions using prime factorization?

3. Which properties are used to simplify fractions in this way?

4. How is simplifying fractions useful when solving rate problems?

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

Lesson 40 Common Denominators

Objectives

Vocabulary

■ Use prime factorization to form common denominators.

common

denominator ■ Compare fractions by first forming equivalent fractions with a common

denominator.

equivalent

■ Apply fraction comparison to compare rates such as finding the better price or

fractions

the faster speed.

simplified fraction

Concepts and Skills

RN.9 Find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.

RO.6 Use prime factorization to simplify fractions, generate equivalent

fractions and find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.

RO.7 Compare fractions by first writing them as equivalent fractions with a

common denominator.

SN.8 Solve word problems involving rates.

■ What are equivalent fractions?

■ What are some ways we’ve learned to compare fractions?

■ What is the multiplicative property of one?

1. Estimate the value n on the number line below.

3 7 10

a. __5 b. __2 c. __

20

Lesson 40 Common Denominators

Concepts and Skills: RN.9, RO.6, In the previous lesson, we generated equivalent fractions using prime factorization.

RO.7, SN.8 This technique is useful not only for putting fractions in simplified form but it’s

also helpful when getting two fractions to agree on a common denominator. We’ll

discuss this second situation here.

Fractions

Brothers John and Bill had a contest to see who could eat the most pie in

6 minutes. John and Bill sliced their pie in different ways:

When the time was up, John had eaten 3 slices whereas Bill had eaten 5

slices. Who won?

Bill ate more “slices”, but Bill’s slices were smaller than John’s. It would have

been easier to compare if they had sliced the pies in the same way in the beginning.

But that’s okay because we can use mathematics to cut the pies into a common

number of slices, even though some of the slices are being digested in John and

Bill’s stomachs. Let’s see how this works.

John ate 3 out of 4 slices, so that’s _34 of a pie. Bill ate 5 out of 8 slices, totaling _58

of a pie:

Since Bill’s fraction has one more factor of 2 in the denominator, let's multiply

John’s fraction by _ 22 to get an equivalent fraction:

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

The multiplicative property of 1 tells us that we can multiply by _22 without changing

the value of the fraction. Now the fractions have a common denominator:

fractions:

We have just used mathematics to slice John’s pie in the same way as Bill’s. This

shows us that John won the competition by eating _ 68 of a pie, which is more than

the _ 58 of a pie that Bill ate. We can write this as an inequality:

6

__ 5

>����� ��__

8 ���������

������ 8

Since _ 68 is equivalent to _ 34 , we can also summarize the contest results as:

3

__ 5

>����� ��__

4 ���������

������ 8

Before we move on, let’s look at the above inequality on the number line:

The number line gives us a good picture of how much more John ate to win the

pie-eating competition.

Check for 1. Place a <, >, or = sign in each circle to make the statement true.

Understanding

5 5 8 6 9

a. __7 __47 b. __

9 __

27 11

c. __

10

__

5 25

d. __ __

25

Rewriting Both Let’s look at a more sophisticated example by finding which is bigger,���� ��� __3

10 or ��� �� _26 .

�������

������

Fractions The blue parts below show __

3 _2

10 of a strip of paper on the left, and 6 of a strip of

paper on the right:

Visually, these two fractions look almost equal. It’s hard to tell them apart, but with

Common Denominators

prime factorization, we can find out very easily which is bigger. Here are the two

fractions expressed using prime factors:

The fraction on the left has a 5 in the denominator, but the one on the right doesn’t.

So let’s multiply the right fraction by _ 55 :

The denominators aren’t common yet. The fraction on the right has a 3 in the

denominator, but the one on the left doesn’t. So we multiply the left fraction by _33 :

We haven't changed the values of these fractions, but now they share a common

denominator, which makes it easy to compare them. The numerator on the left is

3 × 3 = 9, and the numerator on the right is 2 × 5 = 10:

This shows us that the fraction on the left is smaller, and we can summarize this

with an inequality:

__3

10 ���������

������ 26

<����� ��__

If we place the two strips of paper on top of each other, we can verify visually

that __ 3

10 _2

is less than 6 :

fractions and checked if the result is greater or less than a whole. Let’s use that

method to compare ��� ��__ 3

10 ������ ��_ 26 :

�������

to ���

18

is less than a whole, this verifies that���� ��� __

20 ���������������������������������������������

�������������������������������������������� 3

10 is less than ��� ��_ 26 .

�����������������

����������������

Check for 2. Compare the following fractions by putting a <, >, or = symbol in each

Understanding circle.

3 5 9 63

a. __29 16

__

b. __8 __

12

14

c. ___

100 17

__

d. __

10

__

70

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

Comparing We can compare rates just like we compare fractions. Comparing rates is very useful

Rates in the real world such as when searching for the best prices. For example:

The following two stores have different deals for the same brand of soda.

Which store has the better deal?

First of all, what do we mean by a “better deal”? Here’s one way to think of it: We

have a certain amount of money for buying soda, and we want to buy as much soda

as possible. Which store will give us the most soda for our money?

Store A is selling soda at the rate of 2 bottles for 3 dollars. We want to turn dollars

into bottles of soda, so here is the rate:

Store B is selling 5 bottles of soda for 7 dollars, so here is Store B’s rate:

We now want to compare these two rates to see which gives us more soda. As we

did earlier, we can do this by creating a common denominator.

Store A’s rate has a 3 in the denominator, but Store B’s rate doesn’t. So we multiply

Store B’s rate by _33 :

Store B’s rate has a 7 in the denominator, but Store A’s rate doesn’t, so we multiply

by _77 like this:

Since 2 × 7 = 14, and 5 × 3 = 15, we get the following rates:

From this we see that $21 will only buy 14 bottles of soda at Store A. But $21 will

buy 15 bottles at Store B. This means Store B has the better deal.

Common Denominators

To express this mathematically, we say that Store A’s rate is “less than” Store B’s

rate. We can summarize this with the following inequality:

Check for 3. An 11 pound bag of ice costs $2. A 39 pound bag of ice costs $7. Which is

Understanding the better deal (assuming you will use all the ice you buy)?

Who had the faster average walking speed?

5. Haz wrote 200 lines of code in 8 hours. It took Mike 12 hours to write 300

lines of code. Which computer programmer is the faster coder?

Problem Set 1. For each number find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 12.

16

Example: __ Solution: __16 × __

22 = __2

12

5 3 5

a. __3 b. __4 c. _72 d. __6

2. For each number find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 10.

3

a. __45 b. __2 c. __15 4

d. __

20

3. For each number find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 18.

3 5 7 5

a. __2 b. __3 c. __9 d. __6

4. For each number find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 15.

7 6

a. __23 b. __5 c. __

30

7 5 5 3 3 7

a. __4 __

3 b. __6 __

4 c. __23 __

4 d. __

12 23

__

7 3 3 6 3

a. __5 __

2 b. __25 __

10 c. __

10

__

5

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

7. Compare by first forming a common denominator of 18.

15 5 5 8

a. __49 26

__

b. __

18

__

6 c. __6 __

9 11

d. __

18 32

__

3 10

a. __23 __

5 b. __23 45

__ 11

c. __

15 23

__

d. __

15 23

__

5 7 3 5 19 13 7

9. __9 23

__

10. __

24

__

8 11. __4 __

16 12. __

6

__

3

13. 14.

denominator. Compare the expressions.

15. 16.

17. 18.

For each pair, find equivalent fractions that have a common denominator.

Compare the fractions.

5 3 5 5 7 7 9

19. __6 45

__

20. __4 __

7 21. __

12 __

16 22. __

15 __

20

5 5 7 9 7

4

23. __

15

__

12 24. __

18

__

24 25. __

20

__

24

Common Denominators

26. Use these store ads to answer the questions below.

Erasers...........24 for $7 Erasers...........15 for $4

Pencils...........12 for $5 Pencils............9 for $4

Rulers.............6 for $5 Rulers.............5 for $4

Markers............2 for $1 Markers............9 for $4

b. Which store sells markers for the better price?

c. Which store has the more expensive erasers?

d. Which store has the cheaper rulers?

27. Julian walked 30 feet in 7 seconds. Mia walked 50 feet in 13 seconds. Who

walked faster?

28. On the first test Hang got 28 out of 35 problems correct. On the second test he

got 52 out of 65 problems correct. On which test did he get a greater fraction

of the problems correct?

29. Abby made 15 out of 20 shots in the basketball game. Miko made 22 out of 35

shots. Who made a greater fraction of their shots?

30. From the garden hose, 13 gallons of water flow in 2 minutes. From the kitchen

faucet, 40 gallons of water flow in 7 minutes. Which has the higher flow rate?

In other words, which has water flow out at a faster rate?

Challenge Problems

1. Here is a similar question to problem 30 in the problem set, but this time some

unit conversion is needed:

From the garage faucet, 14 gallons of water flow in 3 minutes. From the

upstairs shower, 4 gallons flow every 45 seconds. Which has the higher flow

rate?

Here is one approach: Convert the 3 minutes to seconds first. Then compare the

rates when they are both in gallons per second.

2. Either point a or b on the number line below has the value __ 4

21 . Figure out

__5

which point it must be based on where 28 is located. Justify your answer using

mathematics.

25 13 10 13

a. __

14

__

8 b. __

9

__

12 21

c. __

25 14

__

15

11

d. __

30

__

7

24

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

Multiple Choice Practice

3

1. __23 × __

3 =

6 5

__3 __29 __23 __6

1. Describe how to make two fractions share a common denominator. When you

do this, do the values of the fractions change? Use mathematics to justify your

answer.

2. Can you find a fraction equivalent to __

one, explain how you found it. If you can’t find one, explain why you can’t find

one.

3. Explain the different ways you know how to compare fractions. We’ve discussed

at least four different ways in this book so far.

From this inequality, which rate represents the better deal for buying apples?

Explain your reasoning.

A student made a mistake comparing the fractions below. Identify and correct

the mistake.

looking back

Vocabulary: inequality, equivalent fractions, prime factorization,

multiplicative identity

Student Self Assessment: Do I get it?

1. How do I find a common denominator?

2. How do I rewrite fractions with a common denominator?

3. How do I compare fractions with a common denominator?

4. How do I compare fractions that don’t have a common

denominator?

5. How can I compare rates?

Common Denominators

Lesson 41 Adding Fractions

Objectives

Vocabulary

■ Understand the meaning of addition on the number line and know that the

common meaning is the same whether adding whole numbers or adding fractions.

denominator

■ Add fractions with like and unlike denominators.

mixed number

■ Add whole numbers to fractions and express as a mixed number.

RN.9 Find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.

RO.6 Use prime factorization to simplify fractions, generate equivalent

fractions and find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.

RO.8 Add fractions with like denominators.

RO.10 Add and find the difference of fractions with unlike denominators by first

rewriting them as equivalent fractions with a common denominator.

■ How is addition defined on the number line?

■ How is factoring used to find a common denominator?

1. Find equivalent fractions that have denominators of 12.

7

a. __6 b. __14 c. __43

7 5

a. __9 11

b. __

3 c. __6

Lesson 41 Adding Fractions

Concepts and Skills: RN.9, RO.6, In the previous lesson we compared fractions by finding common denominators.

RO.8, RO.10 Here we’ll find common denominators when adding fractions.

Adding The definition of addition on the number line is to place the start of one expression

Fractions at the end of another expression. We learned this in Lesson 1, and it still works for

fractions. For example, here are expressions for _12 and _ 13 :

To add these two expressions, we simply make one start where the other ends:

We labeled the final point as _ 12 + _13 . To express this number as a single fraction, we

first find a common denominator for _ 12 and _ 13 :

We’ve expressed _12 + _ 13 as _ 36 + _ 26 . Now that we have a common denominator, let’s

show this equivalent expression on the number line:

+ _16 . This is simply the fraction _56 :

3

__ 5

26 = __

6 + __ 6

Adding Fractions

Since _ 36 + _ 26 is equivalent to _ 12 + _ 13 , we arrive at the following conclusion:

__ 5

12 + __

13 = __

6

Once fractions have a common denominator, adding them is easy. We just add the

numerators. We can generalize this result with the following identity:

Understanding

3 7

a. __5 + __

5 b. __17 + __

15 c. __29 + __

43

7 3 5

d. __15 + __

10 e. __5 + __

2

Adding Fractions describe quantities where units are broken into equal parts. But sometimes

Fractions of we run across things in the real world that aren’t broken into equal parts. For

example, let’s determine what fraction of the following unit square is shaded gray:

Area

Since this unit square is not broken into equal parts, we can treat it as adding

fractions with different denominators. The above figure can be formed by adding

the following areas:

__

12 + __

14

__ 3

24 + __

14 = __

4

From this we conclude that the shaded area is _ 34 of a unit square.

We can visualize that the area is _ 34 of a unit square by imagining what it would look

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

like if we rearranged the shaded regions like this:

What fraction of the following unit square is shaded gray?

__

13 + __

16

This means the area is _ 36 of a unit square. If we simplify _36 , we see that it’s equivalent

to _ 12 :

Again, by imagining the shaded areas rearranged, we can visualize that the figure

is _ 12 shaded gray:

Check for 2. What fraction addition reasonably describes how much of each unit square

Understanding is shaded gray? Add the fractions. Check the reasonableness of the result

by comparing it to the original picture.

Adding Fractions

Mixed Numbers Here is an area formed by adding a fraction to a whole number of unit squares:

14

2 + __

fraction _21 :

__

21 + __

14

From this we conclude that the above area is _ 94 of a unit square.

Some people prefer to express _94 as 2 + _14 . It’s convenient because 2 + _ 14 shows us

right away that there’s a little more than 2 whole unit squares. It’s more difficult to

see this from looking at _ 94 .

Adding fractions to whole numbers is done so often that people started getting lazy

and began writing 2 + _14 without the + sign:

When one puts a whole number right next to a fraction like this, it’s called a mixed

number. We’ll learn more about mixed numbers in the next lesson.

It’s easy to visualize that 2 + _14 is the same as _ 94 . All we have to do is break each

whole unit square into 4 equal parts:

Now if we count up all of the quarters, we will find that there are 9 of them.

Check for 3. Write each mixed number as the addition of a whole number and a fraction.

Understanding Then add to get a single fraction.

3 9

a. 4 __13 b. 5 __12 c. 7 __

10 d. 5 __

10

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Sums and Differences

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4. For each group of unit squares, what fraction most reasonably describes

the total shaded area?

Problem Set Write the number line expression in symbols and then find the value of the

expression.

1.

2.

3.

4. For each fraction, find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 12.

3 5

a. __23 b. __16 c. __4 d. __2

5. For each fraction, find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 10.

d. __

20

6. For each fraction, find an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 18.

5 7 3

a. __29 b. __6 c. __3 d. __2

Adding Fractions

Add by first forming a common denominator of 6.

5

7. __23 + __

12 8. __43 + __

6

3 5 5

9. __13 + __

4 10. __14 + __

6 11. __ 1

__

12 + 2

3 3 9

12. __12 + __

7 13. __7 + __

14

14. __43 + __

25 4

15. __ 4

__

15 + 5

Add the fractions. Use your knowledge of prime factorization to find a common

denominator.

3 3

16. __27 + __

7 18

17. __4 + __ 18. __43 + __

19

3 3 5 7

16

19. __8 + __ 23

20. __5 + __ 21. __9 + __

6

5 7 5

22. __ 11

__

12 + 12 23. __ __

12 + 8

4

24. __ __4

15 + 25

Add the whole number to the fraction. Express the value as a single fraction.

7 5

25. 3 + __

8 1

26. __

15 + 1 27. 4 + __

9

Write each mixed number as the addition of a whole number and a fraction.

Then, express each value as a single fraction.

8

28. 4 __12 23

29. 7 __ 30. 6 __

15

Challenge Problems

What fraction addition reasonably describes how much of each unit square is

shaded green? Add to find how much each unit square is shaded.

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Sums and Differences

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Find the value of the following expressions.

3 5 3

4. __16 + __

14 + __

8 5. __ __ 1

__

14 + 8 + 2

21

6. The vanpool traveled at a constant rate of 40 miles per hour. They traveled for __

3

of an hour. Then they traveled another __ 5 of an hour. How many miles did they

travel?

3 5

7. Lisa bought __

4 of a yard of flowered fabric, __ 12

8 of a yard of dotted fabric, and __

of a yard of purple fabric. If the fabric costs $2 for every 3 yards, how much did

the fabric cost (before taxes)?

8. The cake was cut into 6 equal slices. Jared and Mickey each took one of the

slices. Jared didn’t want all of his, so he cut his slice into 5 equal pieces and gave

one of the pieces to Mickey. What fraction of the total cake did Mickey get?

7

12 + __

1. Estimate where __ 8 is located on the number line.

15 + __

2. Estimate where __ 29 is located on the number line.

3 10

__46 __42 __8 __

8

Adding Fractions

Math Journal Questions

1. Here is the addition of two generic fractions where the numerators and the

denominators are unknown:

a

__ c

b + __

d

a c

Explain how you would form a common denominator for __ b and __

d . After you form

a common denominator, add the fractions. Use this result to add the fractions

_2 _4

3 + 5 .

2. A tangram is an ancient Chinese puzzle where a square is broken into parts as

shown here:

Can you figure out what fraction of the puzzle each piece represents? For starters,

14 of the puzzle.

the big piece at the very top is __

After you find all the fractions, verify your result by adding all the values

together. They should add to make a whole.

Find the Errors A student made 2 mistakes below. Identify and correct each mistake.

looking back

Vocabulary: mixed number, fractions, common denominator

1. How do I add fractions with common denominators?

2. How do I add fractions with uncommon denominators?

3. How do I add whole numbers to fractions?

4. What are mixed numbers? What do they look like?

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Sums and Differences

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Lesson 42 Mixed Numbers

Objectives

Vocabulary

■ Write mixed numbers using proper notation.

mixed number

■ Express mixed numbers as fractions.

■ Express fractions greater than a whole as mixed numbers using long division.

RN.11 Understand the meaning of mixed number notation.

RN.12 Locate mixed numbers on a number line.

RN.13 Express mixed numbers as improper fractions. Express improper

fractions as mixed numbers.

■ How is addition defined on the number line?

■ How is factoring helpful when adding fractions?

1. Use mental math to find equivalent fractions that have denominators of 15.

7

a. __3 b. __41

78

12

c. __

5 d. __

78

2. Use mental math to find equivalent fractions that have denominators of 6.

27

21

a. __

2 b. __

18

32

11

c. __

3 d. __

24

Lesson 42 Mixed Numbers

Concepts and Skills: RN.11, In the previous lesson we learned how to add rational numbers expressed as

RN.12, RN.13 fractions. We also learned about mixed numbers, which are fractions added to

whole numbers. In this lesson, we’ll discuss mixed numbers in more depth.

Mixed Number As we learned in the previous lesson, we can write expressions such as 2 + _13 in a

Notation shorthand notation by removing the + sign:

13 = 2 _13

2 + __

When we express the addition of a whole number and a fraction in this way, we

call it a mixed number because it mixes together two different ways of notating

numbers.

The following are some rules about the mixed number notation:

1. The whole number part cannot be 0. In other words, 0 + _ 12 should not be

written as 0 _12 . We simply write 0 + _ 12 as _12 .

2. The fractional part must be greater than 0 and less than 1. This means

that 3 + _52 should not be written as 3 _52 because _ 52 is greater than 1.

3. When writing a mixed number, the fractional part should come right after

the whole number part. For example, we should never write 2 _13 as _13 2.

4. When reading mixed numbers out loud, we separate the whole number

part from the fractional part using the word “and”. For example, 2 __ 35 is

read as “2 and 3 fifths”.

Check for 1. Which of the following are not in correct mixed number notation? Explain

Understanding your reasoning.

9 9 7 0

a. 0 __23 b. 1 __

10 c. 7 __4 d. __8 2 e. 4 __3

2. Rewrite the following expressions using mixed number notation when

appropriate:

3

a. 12 + __

4 b. __23 + 8 45

c. 0 + __ d. Five and two-thirds

Mixed Numbers Mixed number notation is useful because it lets us instantly see how close the

as Fractions number is to a whole number. For example, 3 _14 tells us that the value is + _14 more

than 3. To see this, here is 3 _14 on the number line:

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To express 3 _14 as a single fraction, we simply need to use our knowledge of adding

fractions. The number 3 _14 means:

14

3 + __

3

__

14

1 + __

13

4 :

13

3 __14 = __

4

It’s easy to visualize that these two numbers are the same on the number line. Here

are 13 jumps of + _ 14 :

Check for 3. Rewrite the following mixed numbers as a single fraction:

Understanding

3

a. 5 __12 b. 1 __23 c. 2 __4

4. Write each of the following number line expressions both as a mixed

number and as a single fraction:

a.

b.

c.

Mixed ��������

Fractions as When a fraction is greater than a whole, we can express it as a mixed number. We

Mixed Numbers use the same method that we used several lessons ago to determine if a fraction is a

whole number. Let’s review that briefly.

A fraction is a whole number when the numerator is divisible by the denominator.

For example, to test if __

12

4 is a whole number, we attempt to use 12 unit squares to

create a rectangle of width 4:

The resulting rectangle is 3 units tall. From this we conclude that __

12

4 equals the

whole number 3:

__

12

4 = 3

We use this same process for mixed numbers. For example, let’s express the

following fraction as a mixed number:

7

__

2

We first try to use 7 unit squares to form a rectangle that is 2 units wide:

1 unit square into 2 equal parts, we can add those parts to the top of our rectangle

like this:

Now we have a rectangle that is 2 units wide and 3 + _ 12 tall. This means that _ 72

equals 3 + _ 12 :

7

__

12

2 = 3 + __

7

__

2 = 3 __12

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Sums and Differences

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Let’s go over another example. Consider the following fraction:

8

__

3

rectangle that is 3 units wide. We can use long division to help us with this by

remembering that _ 83 is the same as 8 ÷ 3:

From this we see that 8 ÷ 3 is 2 with a remainder of 2. This means our rectangle will

have a height of 2 units with 2 unit squares left over:

To add the remainder to our rectangle, let’s break each of the left-over squares into

3 equal parts:

The rectangle now has a height of 2 + _23 , which we can express as the mixed number

2 _23 . From this we conclude that _ 83 is equal to 2 _23 :

8

__

3 = 2 __23

Mixed ��������

We can easily visualize this on the number line by making 8 jumps of + _13 :

Understanding

3 7 9

a. __2 b. __4 c. __43 d. __2

Using Long As we saw earlier, long division makes it easy to express fractions as mixed numbers.

Division Let’s consider a more sophisticated fraction such as:

98

__

5

Since this is the same as 98 ÷ 5, we simply carry out the following division:

to our rectangle of height 19, we first divide the 3 remainders by 5. Since 3 ÷ 5 is

_3

5 , we add _ 35 to 19:

98

__ 3

5 = 19 + __

5

98

__ 3

5 = 19 __5

People typically express the result of long division using mixed number notation:

98

5 is equal to 98 ÷ 5. Then we showed that 98 ÷ 5 equals

3

19 with a remainder of 3. In mixed number notation this means that 98 ÷ 5 is 19 __5 .

Let’s examine how this all works in more detail.

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Sums and Differences

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When we say that 98 ÷ 5 equals 19 with a remainder of 3, we mean that when

we multiply 5 × 19, we need to add 3 to get 98. We write this with the following

equation:

5 × 19 + 3 = 98

95 + 3 = 98

This also shows us that 95 ÷ 5 equals 19. We can verify this with long division:

98

__

5

(95 +3)

______

5

95

__ 3

5 + __

5

95

We just showed that __

5 equals 95 ÷ 5 which equals 19. This gives us:

3

19 + __

5

3 3

In mixed number notation 19 + __

5 equals 19 __

5 :

3

19 __5

Check for 6. Express the results of the following long division problems as mixed

Understanding numbers:

Mixed ��������

7. Rewrite the following fractions as mixed numbers:

a. __

3 b. ___

7 c. ___

8 d. ___

155 e. __

10

3 8 7

1. 5 __5 2. 1 __12 3. 17 __

10 4. 340 __9

7. Five sevenths 8. One hundred three and three fifths

Find the value of the number line expression. Write the value as both a mixed

number and as a single fraction.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Draw a rectangle that has the given width using the given number of unit

squares. Express the height as a mixed number.

Answer:

14. A width of 3 out of 13 unit squares.

15. A width of 5 out of 18 unit squares.

412 | Chapter 8 Fraction

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Sums and Differences

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Express each mixed number as the addition of a whole number and a fraction.

Then find the value of the expression as a single fraction.

3

16. 2 __13 17. 4 __12 18. 6 __7

5 3

19. 10 __45 20. 7 __

12 21. 8 __

32

13 23 123

25. __

5 26. __

2 27. ___

4

156 277 7

28. ___

8 29. ___

9 30. __6

Challenge Problems

For each group of unit squares, find the mixed number that most reasonably

represents the total green shaded area.

1.

2.

3.

4.

3 7

12

5. __4 + __ 26 7. __23 + __

6. __9 + __ 45

13 5 7 5 3

8. __ __

9 + 8 9. __14 + __

12 + __

13 10. __2 + __

4 + __

8

Mixed ��������

Multiple Choice Practice

1. Which number is greater than a whole?

17 9 8 15

__

19 __

10 __8 __

14

23 37 5 16

__

21 __

39 __3 __

1

9

3. Estimate where __

4 is located on the number line.

83

4. Which mixed number is equal to __

79 ?

3 7

8 __

79

4

1 __

79

1

83 __

79 8 __9

3

11

1. The number __ __

4 and the number 2 4 are the same value but in different notations.

Explain why both types of notation are useful. Give two examples of situations

where one notation is more convenient than the other.

2. Explain how you find where a mixed number is located on the number line. As

your example, show where the mixed number 4 __25 is located on a number line.

Make your drawing as precise and as accurate as you can.

Find the Errors A student made 3 mistakes below. Identify and correct each mistake.

1. 2.

3. 4.

Find and correct the mistakes.

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

looking back

Vocabulary: mixed numbers, whole numbers, fractions, addition

1. What is a mixed number?

2. What must I remember when writing a mixed number?

3. How do I rewrite a mixed number as a single fraction?

4. How do I rewrite a fraction as a mixed number?

5. How can I tell if a fraction is greater than, less than, or equal to one?

Mixed ��������

Lesson 43 Fractional Differences

Objectives

Vocabulary

■ Find the difference between two fractions.

accuracy

■ Solve problems involving fraction arithmetic arising from concrete situations.

difference

■ Estimate fractional values and measure the accuracy of an estimate.

distance

estimate Concepts and Skills

RN.9 Find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.

RN.13 Express mixed numbers as improper fractions. Express improper

fractions as mixed numbers.

RO.6 Use prime factorization to simplify fractions, generate equivalent

fractions and find a common denominator for a pair of fractions.

RO.8 Add fractions with like denominators.

RO.9 Find the difference between two fractions with a common denominator.

RO.10 Add and find the difference of fractions with unlike denominators by first

rewriting them as equivalent fractions with a common denominator.

■ How do you find the difference between two whole numbers?

■ What is a mixed number?

■ What is estimation?

1. Use mental math to solve each equation.

a. 5 + a = 12

b. 18 = b + 3

c. 14 = 8 + c

d. 15 + d = 26

Lesson 43 Fractional Differences

Concepts and Skills: RN.9, In the previous lesson we learned about mixed number notation, which provides a

RN.13, RO.6, RO.8, RO.9, RO.10 fast way to see how much more a value is from a whole number. In this lesson we’ll

discuss how to find the distance between any two rational numbers on the number

line by calculating the difference.

Consider the following two strips of paper. The blue portions represents _13 on the

top and _ 12 on the bottom:

What is the difference between _ 12 and _ 13 ? In other words, how much does d

represent in the picture below?

__

13 + d = __12

Here the value d represents the difference between _ 13 and _ 12 . An easy way to find

this difference is to form a common denominator between _ 13 and _ 12 . To do this we

multiply _ 13 by _ 22 to create the equivalent fraction _ 26 :

__ 3

26 + d = __

6

����������� Differences

3

16 to __

It’s clear that we need to add __ 26 to make __

6

__ 3

26 + __

16 = __

6

This means d = __ 16 is the difference between __

13 and __

12 :

__

13 + __

16 = __

12

Check for 1. Find the difference by solving for the variable d.

Understanding

7 17

2

a. __ __

10 + d = 10 b. __49 + d = __

9

3 6 5

11

c. __4 + d = __

12 d. __ __

10 + d = 6

10 ? Write an equation to describe the result.

10 ? Write an equation to describe the result.

Distance Differences are very useful for solving problems in the real world such as finding

how far apart things are. For example, consider the following situation:

It’s _34 of a mile to travel from home to school along the road shown above.

Using the same road, it’s 2 _78 miles to travel from home to the movie

theater. How far is it to travel from school to the movie theater?

Let’s visualize this problem on the number line:

The variable d represents the distance between school and the movie theater, which

is the value we are trying to find. Here is the above equation written with symbols:

3

__

4 + d = 2 _78

To solve this, let’s first express 2 _78 as a single fraction by remembering that 2 _78

equals 2 + _ 78 :

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Sums and Differences

�����������

This means 2 _78 equals __

16 _7

8 + 8 . Let’s add 16 + 7:

23

8 , we can rewrite our equation as follows:

3

__ 23

4 + d = __

8

23

8 :

6

__ 23

8 + d = __

8

23

8 is found by calculating the difference between 6

and 23:

17

8 :

6

__ 17 23

8 + __

8 = __

8

17

8 of a mile to travel from school to the movies.

Let’s express __

17

8 as a mixed number using long division:

17

8 . It shows us that it’s just a little

more than 2 miles to travel from school to the movie theater.

Check for 4. A full can of juice holds 3 _12 liters. Maria opened the can and drank most of

Understanding it. If there is only _ 15 of a liter left, how much did Maria drink? Illustrate the

question on the number line. Write an equation. Then solve.

����������� Differences

5. Kevin is 6 _16 feet tall. Vick is 5 __12 feet tall. How much taller is Kevin

compared to Vick? How much shorter is Vick compared to Kevin?

Accuracy of an Differences are useful when evaluating the accuracy of an estimate. The difference

Estimate between an estimate and the actual value tells us how close the estimate was.

The following strip of paper shows an unspecified fraction colored blue:

When three people were asked to estimate the value of the above fraction, they

came up with three different estimates:

If the actual value is _ 23 , how accurate was the closest estimate?

Person A’s estimate was _ 29 . Since _29 is closer to zero, we know this is not a very good

estimate. The actual value is closer to a whole.

Person B’s estimate was __ 4

11 , which is less than a half. The actual value is more than

a half, so this is probably not a very good estimate.

Person C’s estimate was __ 6

10 which is a little more than half. This seems like a more

accurate estimate than the others. In order to get a measure of the accuracy, let’s find

the difference between __

6 _2

10 and 3 .

The first step is to form a common denominator:

Now that the fractions have a common denominator, we get the difference by

solving for d in the following equation:

18

__ 20

30 + d = __

30

The solution is d = __ 2

30 :

18

__ 20

30 + __2

30 __

= 30

From this we conclude that Person C’s estimate was merely __

2

30 away from the actual

value. That’s reasonably accurate.

420 | Chapter 8 Fraction

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Sums and Differences

�����������

We can summarize this result with the following equation:

__6

10 + __2

30 2

__

= 3

To easily compare all three estimates (A, B and C), here are the corresponding

points on the number line:

It’s clear that estimate C is closest to the actual value, and therefore is more accurate

than the other estimates.

Check for 6. What fraction is the best estimate of how much of the strip of paper is

Understanding colored blue?

7. What fraction is the best estimate of how much the circle is colored blue?

8. The following number line shows estimates A, B and C. The actual value

is _ 35 . Which estimate is the most accurate? What is the difference between

the best estimate and the actual value?

Problem Set What is the difference between how much the top and bottom strips are colored

green? Write an equation then solve for the difference.

1.

2.

����������� Differences

3.

4.

5 35

11

5. __8 + m = __8 6. __12 + p = __

4

7 8

7. __ 4

__

15 + g = 5 26 = __

8. n + __ 15

7 5

9. 1 __19 10. 3 __

10 11. 6 __7

23 65 165

12. __

7 13. __

5 14. ___

8

For each number line, find the distance between the two points shown. Write

an equation then solve for the difference.

15.

16.

17.

18.

5

19. __6 + d = 2 __13 20. 1 __15 + h = 3 __13

5

21. 2 __12 + z = 4 __25 22. __7 + b = 5 __45

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

Define variables, write an equation, then solve to answer the question.

7

45 compared to __

23. How much more is __ 9 ?

13 of his $57 allowance. How much is left?

24. Ned spent __

9 7

25. The blue bucket was __ 16 filled with sand. The red bucket was __

12 filled with

sand. If the buckets are the same size, which one has more sand in it? How

much more?

7

26. Hugo walked 4 __ 24

__

10 miles. Marie walked 5 miles. Who walked farther? How

much farther did that person walk?

27. Last year’s art class painted a mural 10 __13 feet tall. This year’s class is designing

3

a mural that is 11 __4 feet tall. How much taller will the mural be this year?

28. It was a 3-hour-long movie. The first __ 14 hour was interesting. The next __

12 hour

3

was exciting. The next __

5 of an hour was funny. The rest of the movie was dull.

How many hours of the movie were dull?

Find the closest estimate for the fraction of the rectangle that is blue.

29. If the actual value is __

between the estimate and the actual value.

6

30. If the actual value is __

7 , whose estimate is the most accurate? Find the difference

between the estimate and the actual value.

Challenge Problems

Find the value of the variable in each equation.

20

14 2. 1 __13 + k = __ (

23 + __

5

6 )

(

18 + __

3. p + __

3

)

4 = 1 __14

15

4. __

8

__ 3

__

2 + 4 = 2 4 + b

����������� Differences

Define variables, write an equation, and then solve to answer the question.

5. Kim and Myra recorded how many hours they read for each day during the

week. The information is shown below in their nightly reading log. Who read

more hours? How many more hours?

__ 3 3

Kim 12 __

4 2 1 __12 1 __4

3 3

Myra 2 __14 1 __12 __

4 1 __14 2 __4

6. After the team won the 5 games, the coach bought 3 pizzas to celebrate. One was

3

pepperoni, one was cheese, and the other was vegetarian. After 5 minutes, __ 4 of

5

the vegetarian was gone, __ 12 of the pepperoni

6 of the cheese pizza was eaten, and __

was devoured. How much pizza was left?

1. Estimate the distance between point j and point k on the number line below.

7

14

__

5

11

__

5 __5 __45

2. Which is the best estimate of the fraction of the circle that is colored green?

5

__49 __8

__23 __15

1. Describe the technique you use to visually estimate fractions. For example,

explain how you would estimate what fraction of the square is colored green for

each square below. Describe how you arrived at your estimates.

2. Explain what it means to find the difference between two points on the number

line.

3. Measure how tall you are. Measure how tall your friend is. Record the heights

in units of feet using mixed number notation (each inch is __1

12 of a foot). What is

the difference in height between you and your friend?

������������������

Sums and Differences

�����������

Find the Errors A student made mistakes in all 3 problems below. Identify and correct each

mistake.

3 9

1. Find the distance between __

4 and __

4 .

2.

3.

looking back

Vocabulary: accuracy, estimate, difference, distance, fraction, common

denominator, mixed number

Student Self Assessment: Do I get it?

1. How do I find the difference between two fractions?

2. How do I write equations to represent situations involving

differences?

3. How do I determine which estimate is closest?

4. How do I find the difference between the estimate and the actual

fraction?

����������� Differences

Summary and Review

Differences

Chapter ■ We know how to use prime factorization to simplify fractions.

Accomplishments ■ We know how to find equivalent fractions so that two fractions share a

common denominator.

■ We know how to compare fractions, add fractions, and find differences of

fractions.

■ We understand mixed number notation.

■ We know how to use whole numbers, fractions and mixed numbers to solve

problems and estimate measurements.

Vocabulary from accuracy equivalent fractions

the Chapter common denominator estimate

difference mixed number

distance simplified fraction

6 20

Concepts and 1. Simplify the fraction __

15 . 2. Simplify the fraction __

45 .

Skills Check

90 3

3. Write __ __ 2

__

7 as a mixed number. 4. Add the fractions 8 + 4 .

15 . 6. Simplify the expression:

3

7. Write 7 __4 as a single fraction. 8. Add the mixed numbers 2 __14 + 1 __25 .

1 million 5

9. Simplify _______ .

1 billion 25 + d = __

10. Solve the equation __ 6 .

What’s Next? Next we’ll learn how to use decimal notation to express fractions. Decimal notation

is a way of using place value to represent fractions with denominators that are

powers of ten.

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Sums and Differences

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