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Revised Thermocouple + Thermocouple

Grade
MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE
Thermocouple Grade

Reference Tables – 328 to 662°F
– 200 to 350°C
Extension Grade
– 76 to 212°F
– 60 to 100°C

T
TYPE
Reference
Copper
vs.
LIMITS OF ERROR
(whichever is greater)
Standard: 1.0°C or 0.75% Above 0°C
1.0°C or 1.5% Below 0°C
Tables
Copper-Nickel Special: 0.5°C or 0.4%
+ COMMENTS, BARE WIRE ENVIRONMENT:
N.I.S.T. Mild Oxidizing, Reducing Vacuum or Inert; Good
Monograph 175 – Where Moisture Is Present; Low Temperature
and Cryogenic Applications
Revised to Extension TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES °C
ITS-90 Grade REFERENCE JUNCTION AT 0°C

Thermoelectric Voltage in Millivolts


°C -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 °C °C 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 °C
50 2.036 2.079 2.122 2.165 2.208 2.251 2.294 2.338 2.381 2.425 2.468 50
60 2.468 2.512 2.556 2.600 2.643 2.687 2.732 2.776 2.820 2.864 2.909 60
70 2.909 2.953 2.998 3.043 3.087 3.132 3.177 3.222 3.267 3.312 3.358 70
-260 -6.258 -6.256 -6.255 -6.253 -6.251 -6.248 -6.245 -6.242 -6.239 -6.236 -6.232 -260 80 3.358 3.403 3.448 3.494 3.539 3.585 3.631 3.677 3.722 3.768 3.814 80
-250 -6.232 -6.228 -6.223 -6.219 -6.214 -6.209 -6.204 -6.198 -6.193 -6.187 -6.180 -250 90 3.814 3.860 3.907 3.953 3.999 4.046 4.092 4.138 4.185 4.232 4.279 90

-240 -6.180 -6.174 -6.167 -6.160 -6.153 -6.146 -6.138 -6.130 -6.122 -6.114 -6.105 -240 100 4.279 4.325 4.372 4.419 4.466 4.513 4.561 4.608 4.655 4.702 4.750 100
-230 -6.105 -6.096 -6.087 -6.078 -6.068 -6.059 -6.049 -6.038 -6.028 -6.017 -6.007 -230 110 4.750 4.798 4.845 4.893 4.941 4.988 5.036 5.084 5.132 5.180 5.228 110
-220 -6.007 -5.996 -5.985 -5.973 -5.962 -5.950 -5.938 -5.926 -5.914 -5.901 -5.888 -220 120 5.228 5.277 5.325 5.373 5.422 5.470 5.519 5.567 5.616 5.665 5.714 120
-210 -5.888 -5.876 -5.863 -5.850 -5.836 -5.823 -5.809 -5.795 -5.782 -5.767 -5.753 -210 130 5.714 5.763 5.812 5.861 5.910 5.959 6.008 6.057 6.107 6.156 6.206 130
-200 -5.753 -5.739 -5.724 -5.710 -5.695 -5.680 -5.665 -5.650 -5.634 -5.619 -5.603 -200 140 6.206 6.255 6.305 6.355 6.404 6.454 6.504 6.554 6.604 6.654 6.704 140
-190 -5.603 -5.587 -5.571 -5.555 -5.539 -5.523 -5.506 -5.489 -5.473 -5.456 -5.439 -190 150 6.704 6.754 6.805 6.855 6.905 6.956 7.006 7.057 7.107 7.158 7.209 150
-180 -5.439 -5.421 -5.404 -5.387 -5.369 -5.351 -5.334 -5.316 -5.297 -5.279 -5.261 -180 160 7.209 7.260 7.310 7.361 7.412 7.463 7.515 7.566 7.617 7.668 7.720 160
-170 -5.261 -5.242 -5.224 -5.205 -5.186 -5.167 -5.148 -5.128 -5.109 -5.089 -5.070 -170 170 7.720 7.771 7.823 7.874 7.926 7.977 8.029 8.081 8.133 8.185 8.237 170
-160 -5.070 -5.050 -5.030 -5.010 -4.989 -4.969 -4.949 -4.928 -4.907 -4.886 -4.865 -160 180 8.237 8.289 8.341 8.393 8.445 8.497 8.550 8.602 8.654 8.707 8.759 180
-150 -4.865 -4.844 -4.823 -4.802 -4.780 -4.759 -4.737 -4.715 -4.693 -4.671 -4.648 -150 190 8.759 8.812 8.865 8.917 8.970 9.023 9.076 9.129 9.182 9.235 9.288 190
-140 -4.648 -4.626 -4.604 -4.581 -4.558 -4.535 -4.512 -4.489 -4.466 -4.443 -4.419 -140 200 9.288 9.341 9.395 9.448 9.501 9.555 9.608 9.662 9.715 9.769 9.822 200
-130 -4.419 -4.395 -4.372 -4.348 -4.324 -4.300 -4.275 -4.251 -4.226 -4.202 -4.177 -130 210 9.822 9.876 9.930 9.984 10.038 10.092 10.146 10.200 10.254 10.308 10.362 210
-120 -4.177 -4.152 -4.127 -4.102 -4.077 -4.052 -4.026 -4.000 -3.975 -3.949 -3.923 -120 220 10.362 10.417 10.471 10.525 10.580 10.634 10.689 10.743 10.798 10.853 10.907 220
-110 -3.923 -3.897 -3.871 -3.844 -3.818 -3.791 -3.765 -3.738 -3.711 -3.684 -3.657 -110 230 10.907 10.962 11.017 11.072 11.127 11.182 11.237 11.292 11.347 11.403 11.458 230
-100 -3.657 -3.629 -3.602 -3.574 -3.547 -3.519 -3.491 -3.463 -3.435 -3.407 -3.379 -100 240 11.458 11.513 11.569 11.624 11.680 11.735 11.791 11.846 11.902 11.958 12.013 240
-90 -3.379 -3.350 -3.322 -3.293 -3.264 -3.235 -3.206 -3.177 -3.148 -3.118 -3.089 -90 250 12.013 12.069 12.125 12.181 12.237 12.293 12.349 12.405 12.461 12.518 12.574 250
-80 -3.089 -3.059 -3.030 -3.000 -2.970 -2.940 -2.910 -2.879 -2.849 -2.818 -2.788 -80 260 12.574 12.630 12.687 12.743 12.799 12.856 12.912 12.969 13.026 13.082 13.139 260
-70 -2.788 -2.757 -2.726 -2.695 -2.664 -2.633 -2.602 -2.571 -2.539 -2.507 -2.476 -70 270 13.139 13.196 13.253 13.310 13.366 13.423 13.480 13.537 13.595 13.652 13.709 270
-60 -2.476 -2.444 -2.412 -2.380 -2.348 -2.316 -2.283 -2.251 -2.218 -2.186 -2.153 -60 280 13.709 13.766 13.823 13.881 13.938 13.995 14.053 14.110 14.168 14.226 14.283 280
-50 -2.153 -2.120 -2.087 -2.054 -2.021 -1.987 -1.954 -1.920 -1.887 -1.853 -1.819 -50 290 14.283 14.341 14.399 14.456 14.514 14.572 14.630 14.688 14.746 14.804 14.862 290

-40 -1.819 -1.785 -1.751 -1.717 -1.683 -1.648 -1.614 -1.579 -1.545 -1.510 -1.475 -40 300 14.862 14.920 14.978 15.036 15.095 15.153 15.211 15.270 15.328 15.386 15.445 300
-30 -1.475 -1.440 -1.405 -1.370 -1.335 -1.299 -1.264 -1.228 -1.192 -1.157 -1.121 -30 310 15.445 15.503 15.562 15.621 15.679 15.738 15.797 15.856 15.914 15.973 16.032 310
-20 -1.121 -1.085 -1.049 -1.013 -0.976 -0.940 -0.904 -0.867 -0.830 -0.794 -0.757 -20 320 16.032 16.091 16.150 16.209 16.268 16.327 16.387 16.446 16.505 16.564 16.624 320
-10 -0.757 -0.720 -0.683 -0.646 -0.608 -0.571 -0.534 -0.496 -0.459 -0.421 -0.383 -10 330 16.624 16.683 16.742 16.802 16.861 16.921 16.980 17.040 17.100 17.159 17.219 330
0 -0.383 -0.345 -0.307 -0.269 -0.231 -0.193 -0.154 -0.116 -0.077 -0.039 0.000 0 340 17.219 17.279 17.339 17.399 17.458 17.518 17.578 17.638 17.698 17.759 17.819 340
0 0.000 0.039 0.078 0.117 0.156 0.195 0.234 0.273 0.312 0.352 0.391 0 350 17.819 17.879 17.939 17.999 18.060 18.120 18.180 18.241 18.301 18.362 18.422 350
10 0.391 0.431 0.470 0.510 0.549 0.589 0.629 0.669 0.709 0.749 0.790 10 360 18.422 18.483 18.543 18.604 18.665 18.725 18.786 18.847 18.908 18.969 19.030 360
20 0.790 0.830 0.870 0.911 0.951 0.992 1.033 1.074 1.114 1.155 1.196 20 370 19.030 19.091 19.152 19.213 19.274 19.335 19.396 19.457 19.518 19.579 19.641 370
30 1.196 1.238 1.279 1.320 1.362 1.403 1.445 1.486 1.528 1.570 1.612 30 380 19.641 19.702 19.763 19.825 19.886 19.947 20.009 20.070 20.132 20.193 20.255 380
40 1.612 1.654 1.696 1.738 1.780 1.823 1.865 1.908 1.950 1.993 2.036 40 390 20.255 20.317 20.378 20.440 20.502 20.563 20.625 20.687 20.748 20.810 20.872 390
°C 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 °C °C 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 °C

Z-207
Cryogenic Temperature Sensors
CY7 Series Silicon Diodes

MADE IN

USA

The new CY7 Series Sensors from OMEGA represent


the first truly new cryogenic sensor technology
introduced in the last decade. The sensors incorporate
uniform sensing elements that exhibit precise,
repeatable, monotonic temperature response over a
wide range. The elements are mounted into rugged,
hermetically sealed packages that have been
specifically designed for proper behavior in a cryogenic
environment.
The result is a family of sensors with temperature
responses so predictable, tightly grouped, and stable
that the sensors can be routinely interchanged with one
another. Precise thermal response of the sensing element itself
A New Proprietary Silicon Diode Chip is of little benefit if thermal errors generated in installing
and using the sensor swamp out its capability. It is in
The key to the sensor’s temperature response lies with minimizing these frequently unsuspected errors that the
the basic sensing element itself. The small silicon chip CY7 excels.
in each sensor has a temperature characteristic that is
so stable, so predictable, and conforms so well from A Sensor Package Designed for Cryogenics
chip to chip, that the CY7’s sensors are the first mass- Sensors for higher temperatures fall far short for
produced, interchangeable cryogenic sensors. cryogenic use. The complex thermal link between the
As shown on the graph on page Z-93, the temperature sensing element and its entire environment must be
response profile of a CY7 is comprised of two distinct taken into account, as must the effect of any
elements. With their inherent dual sensitivity, CY7 measurement-induced self-heating of the sensor, if one
sensors can cover a wide temperature range (up to 475 is to achieve accurate results. In addition, the package
Kelvin) and at the same time exhibit high sensitivity for must also withstand repeated cycling to low
critical low temperature measurement. temperatures without mechanical failure.

Z-90
Cryogenic Temperature Sensors
CY7 Series
The development of the CY7 Series has included the
design of unique sensor packages to solve many of the
problems encountered in low temperature thermometry.
For example, the CY7 hermetic package incorporates a
sapphire substrate for high electrical isolation yet good 2.0
thermal conductivity. The base bottom is metallized for

Tolerance, K (kelvin)
easy anchoring to a sample. Large strong leads form an
integral part of the package and are thermally sunk into the 1.5
substrate. This simplifies making connections to the sensor BAND 4
and at the same time helps reduce measurement errors 1.0
that could be caused by heat conduction along the leads. BAND 2
10 Microampere Excitation Current 0.5
Key to the achievement of error-free measurement is low BAND 1
excitation current. The lower the current, the less power is 0.0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
dissipated in the sensor and the less self-heating occurs. Temperature, K (kelvin)
One measure of the effectiveness of a cryogenic sensor’s
thermal design is the variation in reading obtained Tolerance Bands for CY7 Series Sensors allow
between operation in a vacuum at liquid helium selection of appropriate (and economical)
temperature and immersion directly in the liquid. In a field accuracy levels for a given application.
where discrepancies of a degree or more have been
reported, OMEGA® CY7 sensors exhibit variations as low
as 5 millikelvin.
1.8

1.6

Average
1.4 Slope
-26mV/K
Forward Voltage –– Vf (volts)

1.2

1.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0.8

0.6
Average
Slope
-2.3mV/K
0.4

0.2

0.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 200 300 400
Temperature, K (kelvin)
Standard Temperature Response (Curve 10) for CY7 Series Sensors.
All Sensors Track this Curve Within Specified Tolerance Bands.
Z-91
Select the Sensor Configuration Best Suited to Your Application

CY7-SD The SD configuration is the CY7-LR With a CY7-SD sensor


smallest package in this series, and is mounted on a slightly more than half-
designed primarily for bonding or clamping to a flat round cylinder, this package is
surface. Since the sensing element is in best thermal designed to be inserted into a 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) diameter
contact with the base (largest surface) of the package, hole. Low temperature epoxy can also be used to install
the package should be mounted with that same surface the sensor, although the mounting is much more
in good contact with the sample. Mounting materials permanent in that case. As with other soldered down
and methods which will not expose the sensor to sensors, the temperature range of the CY7-LR extends
temperatures above 200ºC are required. Low to 325 K.
temperature indium-lead-tin based solder or low
temperature epoxy is recommended. The SD package
style is usable at temperatures up to 475 K.
Z
CY7-ET This convenient
screw-in package is formed
by soldering a basic SD
configuration into a recess in one flat of a hexagonal
cylinder. The cylinder terminates in a standard 6-32
SAE thread. Thus the sensor can be threaded (finger
tight only) into a mounting hole in the sample. A light
coating of vacuum grease on the threads further
enhances the thermal contact between the sensor
package and the sample. The solder used in mounting CY7-CU In this configuration, the SD sensor is
the SD package to this adaptor constrains the upper epoxied into a flat cylindrical disk and the sensor leads
useful temperature of this configuration to 325 K. are thermally anchored to that same disk. The unit can
be mounted to any flat surface with a 4-40 brass screw
(not supplied). The CU style sensor is wired in a four-
CY7-MT The MT package lead configuration with the leads comprised of a 36-inch
is similar to the ET version length of OMEGA’s color coded cryogenic wire.
except the SD package is Temperature range is 1.4 to 325 K.
mounted in a slot in the center of the cylinder and the
stud is a 3 mm x 0.5 metric thread.

CY7-CO A spring-loaded
CY7-D1 This is a two-lead version of the the CY7-CU.
clamp holds a standard SD sensor
in contact with the surface of the
sample in this configuration. This
allows the sensor to be easily CY7-CY Some applications are best served by a
changed or replaced. It also relatively large, robust sensor, and the CY7-CY fills that
enables the sensor to be used over its full operational bill. It is very similar to the CU style except that the disk
temperature range of 1.4 to 475 K. Extra clamps are has a larger center diameter with the mounting hole
available to accommodate applications where frequent directly in the center. The CY sensor has 36-inch heavy
relocation of the sensor is desirable. The 4-40 brass duty (30 AWG, PTFE coated) leads. Special attention
screw used with this clamp has a formed shoulder so must be paid to thermally anchoring the leads to
that, once the screw is properly seated, the spring prevent heat leak induced measurement error.
applies correct pressure to the clamp.

CY7-BO In addition to being


soldered to the mounting block,
the SD sensor in this design has
its leads thermally anchored
(without epoxy) to the block via
a beryllium oxide insert. Since
leads can be a significant heat
path to the sensing element, and
can lead to measurement errors when incorrectly
anchored, this configuration helps maintain the leads
at the same temperature as the sensor. Mounting of Probes The flexibility of the CY7 series sensors
this block is accomplished with a 4-40 screw (not makes them ideal candidates for incorporation into
supplied). Usable temperature range of the CY7-BO various probes and thermowells. However, the
sensor is 1.4 to 325 K. individualized nature of these applications usually
demands customized designs. ®

Z-92
Cryogenic Temperature Sensors
CY7 Series
Polynomial Representation
TABLE 1. Chebychev fit coefficients

2.0 to 12.0 K
A(0) = 7.556358 VL = 1.32412
Curve #10 can be represented by a polynomial equation based A(1) = -5.917261 VU = 1.69812
on the Chebychev polynomials which are described below. A(2) = 0.237238
Four separate ranges are required to accurately describe the A(3) = 0.334636
curve, with the parameters for these ranges given in Table 1. A(4) = -0.058642
The polynomials represent Curve #10 on the preceding page A(5) = -0.019929
with RMS deviations on the order of 10 mK. A(6) = -0.020715
A(7) = -0.014814
The Chebychev equation is of the form A(8) = -0.008789
T(x) = Σn=0an nt (x) (1)
A(9) = -0.008554

12.0 to 24.5 K
where T(x) represents the temperature in kelvin, tn(x) is a A(0) = 17.304227 VL = 1. 11732
Chebychev polynomial, and a n represents the Chebychev A(1) = -7.894688 VU = 1.42013
coefficients. The parameter x is a normalized variable given by A(2) = 0.453442
A(3) = 0.002243
x= (V-VL)-(VU-V) (2) A(4) = 0.158036
(VU-VL) A(5) = -0.193093
A(6) = 0.155717
where V is the voltage and VL and VU designate the lower and
A(7) = -0.085185
upper limits of the voltage over the fit range.
A(8) = 0.078550
The Chebychev polynomials can be generated from the A(9) = -0.018312
recursion relation A(10) = 0.039255
tn+1 (x)=2xtn(x)-tn-1(x), to(x)=1, t1(x)=x. (3) 24.5 to 100.0 K
Alternately, these polynomials are given by A(0) = 71.818025 VL = 0.923174
A(1) = -53.799888 VU = 1.13935
tn(x)=cos[n*arccos(x)]. (4) A(2) = 1.669931
A(3) = 2.314228
The use of Chebychev polynomials is no more complicated
A(4) = 1.566635
than the use of the regular power series, and they offer
A(5) = 0.723026
significant advantages in the actual fitting process. The first
A(6) = -0.149503
step is to transform the measured voltage into the normalized
A(7) = 0.046876
variable using equation (2). Equation (1) is then used in
A(8) = -0.388555
combination with equation (3) or (4) to calculate the
A(9) = 0.056889
temperature. Programs 1 and 2 give sample BASIC
A(10) = -0.116823
subroutines which will take the voltage and return the
A(11) = 0.058580
temperature T calculated from Chebychev fits.The subroutines
assume that the values VL and VU have been input along with
100 to 475 K
the degree of the fit, Ndegree. The Chebychev coefficients are
A(0) = 287.756797 VL = 0.079767
also assumed to be in an array A(0), A(1), ...,A(Ndegree).
A(1) = -194.144823 VU = 0.999614
An interesting property of the Chebychev fits is evident in the A(2) = -3.837903
form of the Chebychev polynomial given in equation (4). No A(3) = -1.318325
term in equation (1) will be greater than the absolute value of A(4) = -0.109120
the coefficient. This property makes it easy to determine the A(5) = -0.393265
contribution of each term to the temperature calculation and A(6) = 0.146911
where to truncate the series if the full accuracy is not required. A(7) = -0.111192
®
A(8) = 0.028877
A(9) = -0.029286
A(10) = 0.015619
PROGRAM 1. BASIC subroutine for evaluating the
temperature T from the Chebychev series using PROGRAM 2. BASIC subroutine for evaluating the
equations (1) and (3). An array Tc(Ndegree) should temperature T from the Chebychev series
be dimensioned. equations (1) and (4). ACS is used to represent the
100 REM Evaluation of Chebychev series arccosine function.
110 X= ((V-VL)-(VU-V))/(VU-VL)
120 Tc(0) = 1 100 REM Evaluation of Chebychev series
130 Tc(1) = X 110 X = ((V-VL)-(VU-V))/(VU-VL)
140 T = A(0) + A(1) *X 120 T=0
150 FOR I = 2 to Ndegree 130 FOR I = 0 to Ndegree
160 Tc(l) = 2*X*Tc(l-1)-Tc(l-2) 140 T = T + A(I)*COS(I*ACS(X))
170 T = T + A(l) *Tc(l) 150 NEXT I
180 NEXT 1 160 RETURN
190 RETURN

Z-93
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