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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Newspaper Articles

“Rasputin, Czar’s Aid, Reported Murdered.” New York Times 2 Jan. 1917: 3. PDF file. Extra!

Extra! Rasputin is dead! Found on the banks of the Neva River! As it turns out, Rasputin

was exercising great influence over the Czar and Czarina of Russia! He was a Siberian


“Revolution in Russia; Czar Abdicates; Michael Made Regent, Empress in Hiding; Pro-German

Ministers Reported Slain.” New York Times 16 Mar. 1917: 1 & 2. JSTOR. Web. 24 Oct.

2010. According the New York Times, 1917...

(This annotation is constructed as if this article is the present tense)

On March 15th, 1917, in Petrograd, Russia, Czar Nicholas II, Emperor of Imperial

Russia, abdicated the throne, and his brother, the Grand Duke Michael, was named

Regent. Apparently, the people’s urgent and desperate cries for food turn the Imperial

soldiers against the government, endangering the Czar and his family. Also, the Duma is

on the rise and is helping the uprising quite a bit, lead by a man known as Michael V.

Rodzianko, the leader, appointer, and president of the Duma. “The will of the people

must prevail” Rodzianko had told the Czar. The Imperial Council even advised Nicholas

to cooperate with the Duma and Rodzianko. And with more to come, the Empress

Alexandra was reported to be in hiding. She is in hiding, supposedly, because of the large

influence she had over councils who were opposed to “the wishes of the people.” The

Astoria Hotel and St. Isaac’s Cathedral, on the night of Nicholas’ abdication, held pro-

monarchists and loyalists of the Czar, but their attempts failed. The Imperial Palace in
Tsarskoe-Solo is supposedly under siege, and it is reported that their was an upmost

friendliness between the troops sent out to protect the palace, and the strikers/.



Newspapers 16 Mar. 1917: 1. JSTOR. Web. 25 Oct. 2010. The Czarevitch Alexis was

twelve years old when the picture was taken, and was going to succeed the throne. He

was also a hemophiliac. He meant to take over after his father, Nicholas, but was

murdered before he could. He was the heir to the throne. The photograph was taken of

him in 1917, the year before his murder. In this particular photograph, he appears to sort

of smile, as he was a generally happy boy. But he has lots of sadness, for he has led a

cold and sad life for twelve years.

Paintings, Photographs, and Depictions

Alexei Romanov in chair. N.d. Google Images. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

<http://storage0.dms.mpinteractiv.ro///////-romanov.jpg>. This is used in website on page

for Alexei Romanov. It will help people get the idea of what he looked like.

Black and white photograph of Vladimir Lenin. Private collction. Nations in Transition: Russia:

Revised Edition. By Michael Kort. Trans. Rodian Romanov. 1995. New York City, New

York: Facts on File Inc., 1998. 30. Print. Nations In Transition. “[Vladimir] Lenin...was a

dedicated Marxist who hated capitalism.” He was the founder of the Communist Party.

He was also the founder of the Soviet State. He also was the founder and leader of the

Bolshevik Dictatorship. He... was [also] an idealist who believed that it was possible to

build a perfect socialist society in which all people would live well and be treated

Cartoon. www.stel.ru. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2010.

<http://www.stel.ru//_revolution_1917.htm>. This is a photo. It is showing people getting

shot. The people are from a peaceful demonstration. The people are getting shot under

Vladimir Lenin’s orders. It takes place in Petrograd in the July of 1917.

Murrell, Kathleen Berton. “Grigori Rasputin.” Cartoon. Russia. London: Dorling Kindersley

Limited, 1998. 30. Print. The depiction of Grigori Rasputin was made by russian peasants

at that tine period. Most of the russian commoners thought of Rasputin as a demon, a

monster, and so that is how they drew him. Most cartoon depictions of Rasputin show

him as a tall, eerie man who has let his beard grow in an un-orthodox fashion, and his

eyes are usually frightening. Supposedly, these adjectives are not far off from Rasputin’s

actual personality. He was hated nationally so much that he was murdered by a relative of

the Czar himself!

Painting of The Bloody Massacre Event. What Life Was Like In The Time of War And Peace. By

Denise Dersin. N.p.: Time-Life Books, 1998. 104. Print. This painting was made in 1917

after the event of the Bloody Sunday Massacre. In the painting, there is a giant crowd of

people dressed in peasant coats on the left side, and on the right, there are Imperial

soldiers. Behind them is what apears to be The Winter Palace. There are many peasants

on the ground, and others are clutching their heads. You can see the backs and feet on

people scrambling in the opposit direction of the palace. The soldiers have their guns up,

so, naturally, one gets the impression they are firing at the crowd. If you have background

information on the Bloody Sunday Massacre, you know that the crowd was leading a

peaceful demonstration.

I think the soldiers were cruel, harsh, and unforgiving at a crowd of innocent people who

were showing no signs of violence, and loved their emperor.

Photograph of Romanov Family. N.d. Google Images. Web. 2 Dec. 2010.

<http://www.thehistoryblog.com/-content////russian_royal_family1913.jpg>. This picture

of the Romanov family is a picture most likely taken around 1905-1910. The picture will

be used as the center of the title of my website: The Fall of the Romanovs and Russian


Photograph of Vladimir Lenin. N.d. Google Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011.

<http://image1.findagrave.com/////_123857397210.jpg>. This picture is used on top of

Vladimir Lenin page. It is for the prettiness of the website.

Photo of Michael Rodzianko. “Revolution in Russia...” New York Times Newspapers 16 Mar.

1917: 1. JSTOR. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2010. This photgraph was taken of Michael, or

M., Rodzianko. Michael was before, when, and after the photgraph was taken, the leader

and President of the Duma. Currently, when this photograph was taken, he was on the

front page of the New York Times because of the huge role he played in the revolution so

far. He was a co-leader of the revolution with Lenin. He was also,as of that month,

(March) the President of the Provisional, or temporary, Government.

Sukhanov, Nikolai Nikolaiayevich. Lenin Speaks To ‘The People’. 1917. The Russian

Revolution 1917: A Personal Record. By Nikolai Nikolayevich Sukhanov. N.p.: n.p.,

1922. 491. Print. This is a photo of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, originally Vladimir Ilyich

Ulyanov, but changed to Lenin. The photo was taken in July 1917. In the photo, Lenin,

from a raised point, addresses an enormous crowd of people. His arm is raised as if he
was shouting a cry of war or victory. His face is grim and his eyes are serious. The crowd

appears to be listening intently to Lenin’s words, as if they were to be cherished.


I think Vladimir might have been discussing the failing of Bolshevism, considering

Bolshevism started to drop since June of that year. Lenin also could have been discussing

the relevance of the Provisional Government and WWI (World World I)

Vladimir Lenin. N.d. Google Images. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

<http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_65fJY6BlFC0/LT4r0ZOI//eGEJf8//lenin.jpg>. This will be

used in website on Vladimir Lenin’s page. It will help to visualize him.

Secondary Sources


Adendorff, Jo. The Russian Revolution. Jo Adendorff. Classroom Video, 1989. Pinellas County

Schools-Learn 360. Web. 17 Oct. 2010. <http://www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?

SearchText=russia&Subject=9331684&ID=132220>. “I am not prepared to be a tsar. I

never wanted to become one. I know nothing of the business of ruling. I have no idea of

even talk to the ministers.” quoted the last Tsar of Russia Nickolas Romanov II. He

married a German woman named Alexandria and soon became a family man.

Allan, Tony. “The Russian Revolution.” 20th Century Perspectives. Chicago, Illinois:

Heinemann Library, 2003. 20-21. Print. The Czarina Alexandra was already hated for

being German, but she was hated the most because she was influenced by Rasputin.

Alexandra came to believe that Grigori was sent by God, and therefore was very easily

influenced by him. Rasputin often seduced Alexandra, coaxing her into letting him have

Cash, Anthony. The Russian Revolution. Garden City: Doubleday & Compant Inc. , 1967. Print.

On the night of November 8th, 1917, the WInter Palace was taken from the Bolsheviks.

There was little resistance, and few casualties on eaither side. The two sides were the

supporters of the Bolsheviks, and just about everyone else (Lenin’s side) This event

marked the end of Provisional Government. It also ended most people’s beliefs in

Bolshevism for good.

“Hemophilia Ancestry.” Chart. The Last Tsar: The Life and Death of Nicholas II. By Edvard

Radzinsky. First Edition ed. N.p.: Doubleday, 1992. VIII, IX. Print. Queen Victoria,

great-grandmother of Alexei Romanov, was a female hemophilia carrier. She gave birth

to Victoria, Leopold, Alfred, and Edward. Alice recieved the disorder and was also a

hemophlia carrier. She gave birth to Victoria, Alla, Irene, Frederick, Mary, and

Alexandra Feodrovna. Alexandra, as well as Irene, recieved the disorder and were female

hemophilia carrier. Alexandra married Czar Nicholas II of Russia, and gave birth to Olga,

Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia, and Alexei. Alexei, being a boy, recieved hemophilia and

became a hemophiliac from his mother’s side entirely.

My theory is that if Queen Victoria and her ancestors hadn’t been hemophiacs and

hemophilia carriers, then Alexei wouldn’t have been a hemophiliac. if Alexei hadn’t been

a hemophiliac, there wouldn’t be a Rasputin in the picture. Rasputin made an extremely

large contribution in the revolution. I think it’s possible that if Rasputin hadn’t been part

of the lives of the royal family, that there might have been a slightly different, if not at

all, a Russian Revolution.

Hingley, Ronald. A People In Turmoil: Revolutions In Russia. N.p.: Bodley Head Ltd., n.d. Print.

In August 1917, the commander in Chief of the Russian Anry tried to take over the

government by invading Petrograd. This commander, General Lavr Kornilov, hoped to

restore order. Kornilov’s invasion only helped to unite the Bolsheviks with the

Mensheviks and the Socialists. They worked together to form a militia . Now the

Bolsheviks had an army of 25,000 and easily defeated Kornilov.

Kurth, Peter. Tsar: The Lost world of Nicholas And Alexandria. Canada: Little, Brown &

Company (Canada) Limited, 1995. Print. In the early morning of March 15th, 1917, the

last of the guards on duty at the Alexander Palace, home of the royal family (excluding

Nicholas that day), deserted the palace, on orders by their commander, Grand Duke Kyril

Vladimirovitch, cousin of the tsar. Kyril was the first Romanov to betray the emperor.

The Imperial family was left unguarded.

Later that morning, far away in the city Pskov, Nicholas II had finished breakfast on the

Imperial Train, when he was visited by a small diplomatic group of men. Their leader

was General Nicholas Ruzsky, a respected general of the czar. Ruzsky came with

telegrams from the President of the Duma, Michael Rodzianko, all saying the same thing:

“For the good of the country, you must resign the throne” The general “begged on my

knees” for Nicholas’ abdication. Finally, after much thought, the soon to be former Tsar

Nicholas, Emperror of all Imperial Russia said “I have decided to give up the throne in

favor of my son, Alexei.”

“With a stroke of a pen, the tsar had transformed himself from a ruler of all Russia to a
person with no rights whatsoever.” - Count Alexander Grabbe, commander of the tsar’s

elite guard

Lieven, Dominic. Russia’s Rulers under the Old Regime. Hong Kong: Yale University, 1989.

Print. Nicholas II thought that he knew what the peasants wanted. But his belief in the

divine rights of kings actually clouded his judgement . He believed that his responsibility

to rule was given to him by God. Since he thought he was God’s chosen leader, he never

questioned his decisions. Unfortunately, there was a conflict with his vision for the

peasants and what his subjects actually needed.

Lincoln, Bruce, et al. “White Army.” WikiAnswers. Ed. The Gale Group, Inc. Answers

Corporation, 2010. Web. 11 Oct. 2010. <http://www.answers.com//white-army-1>. “The

Bolsheviks, who saw the anticommunists as more united than they actually were, named

these men ”White,“ a term taken from the reactionary forces during the French

Revolution (the communist forces against which the Whites fought were called the


Excerpt from site.

Murrell, Kathleen Berton. “Russia.” Eyewitness Books. London, United Kingdom: Dorling

Kindersley Limited, 1998. 30-31. Print. In 1917, after the many riots in Petrograd(St.

Petersburg) Czar Nicholas II abdicated the throne in order to allow the Provisional

Government to take over. Nicholas did not wish to leave the throne, but was forced to by

the revolutionaries and the protection over his family.


Royal Hemophilia Family Tree. Chart. Hemophilia: “The Royal Disease.” N.p., n.d. Web. 15

Dec. 2010. <http://www.sciencecases.org//.asp>. This chart will be used in my website as

a reference to the line of hemophiliacs and hemophilia carriers down to Prince Alexei, the

heir to the throne of Russia.

“Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922-1991).” Map. Nations in Transition: Russia:

Revised Edition. By Michael Kort. Trans. Rodian Romanov. 1995. New York City, New

York: Facts on File, Inc., 1998. 34. Print. Nations in Transition.

Documentaries/Video Recordings

Bloody Sunday, 1905. YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgOLaRInUog>. Father Gapon organized the

march on Bloody Sunday, 1905. He was a priest at the Russian Orthodox Church. He also

was the head of the redical Assembly of Russian Factory and Mill workers.

Bloody Sunday, 1905. YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgOLaRInUog>. “Suddenly, the Company of

Cossacks galloped rapidly with drawn swords... I saw the swords lifted and falling... the

men, women and children dropping to the ground like logs of wood, while moans, curses

and shouts filled the air.”

~ Father Gapon, Priest of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Bloody Sunday, 1905. YouTube. Youtube, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/?

v=MgOLaRInUog>. There are many good pictures that can be used.

De Jonge, Alex. Interview. Rasputin: The Mad Monk. A&E Television Networks, 1997. Pinellas

County Schools- Learn 360. Web. 11 Oct. 2010.



“Nicholas II.” Pinellas County Schools- Learn 360. Ed. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. AIM

Education, Inc., 2010. Web. 11 Oct. 2010. <http://www.learn360.com/.aspx?

SearchText=Nicholas+I&ID=292243>. Nicholas II succeeded his father, Alexander III as

Czar of Russia. He was highly influenced by his wife, Alexandra.

“Russian Anastasiya Nikolayevna.” Pinellas County Scools-Learn 360. Ed. Britannica Concise

Encyclopedia and AIM Publication, Inc. AIM Education, Inc., 2010. Web. 11 Oct. 2010.

<http://www.learn360.com/ShowArticle.aspx?ID=272922>. Anastasiya Nikolayevna

Romanov was the Grand Duchess of Czar Nickolas II and his youngest daughter. When

she was only 17 years old, she was executed, along with the rest of her family, by the

Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution of 1917.

The Russian Revolution: Bloody Sunday. Classroom Video, 1998. Learn360. Web. 30 Oct. 2010.


SearchText=The+Russian+Revolution&ID=148133>. On January 22nd of 1905, a

relatively non-harmful and peaceful petition led by a priest by the name of Father

Georgie Gapon marched to the Winter Palace in Petrograd/St. Petersburg. The body of

the petitioners was workers who wanted taxes to be cut. At the time, Czarism was still

welcome and highly supported by most of Russia. When the crowd arrived, they even

sang the Imperial Anthem “God Save The Czar”. But the soldiers positioned at the
entrance to the palace, in panic of the large crowd, fired. There were many casualties, and

no one really knows why the soldiers did this terrible act. This event was known as

Bloody Sunday. From that day, millions of Russian people were turned against the Czar

and his family. In the years leading up to 1917-18, many assanations, secret meetings,

and appearances of angry mobs of people occurred.


Boterbloem, Dr. Cornelis. Personal interview. 17 Dec. 2010. Dr. Boterbloem gave us helpful

information about a variety of this that happened before, during, and after the revolution.

He also gave us a background on the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. He was an

enormous help, and a terrific source to have. Jeffrey and I used his interview on video

throughout the website. He was a great source to have.

Musical Composition

“Farewell of Slavianka.” YouTube: The Rusisan Revolution (Red Army Choir). YouTube, 31 Jan.

2008. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JO5-hM6xKt4>. This

would be very good to add in the documentary. This is because it seems serious enough

that that it could be used with pictures.

“Rosyjskie marsze wojskowe.” YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2010.

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-ESX84HYTo>. Good song for documentary.

Stoltzman, Richard. “Maid With the Flaxen Hair.” Maid With the Flaxen Hair. N.d. MP3 file.

St. Petersburg National Ballerinas. “Dance of the Snowflakes.” YouTube. Web. 2 Jan. 2011.

<http://www.youtube.com/?v=Z-mFNXa7Mjw>. This will go on the page for the

Romanovs. It adds a nice touch to the website,

Stravinsky, Igor. The Firebird Suite. N.p.: n.p., n.d. YouTube. Web. 27 Jan. 2011.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erOEatu5aH8>. This song will be used for the

closing in Annotated Bibliography. It is a beautiful song by Igor Stravinsky, a Russian

composer, about life, death, and rebirth.

Tchaikovsky, MC. Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairies. Musical composition. Good music for the


- - -.Tchaikovsky, MC Concerto for Piano and Orchestra 1 in B Flat Minor Opus 23 Third

Movement. Musical composition.


BBC History, prod. “BBC History- Vladimir Lenin.” BBC Historic People. BBC , n.d. Web. 30

Jan. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk//_figures/>. This website will be used for quotes, and

will help with the word issue. It is a wonderful and helpful website.

Nosotro, Rit. “Vladimir Lenin.” HyperHistory. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2010. This will be used

for quotes in the website. Helpful with the case of the word limit issue.


“The Bolsheviks in Power.” Ask Jeeves. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Oct. 2010.

<http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/_in_power.htm>. When the Bolsheviks gained

power over Petrograd in the year 1917, there were many issues. For one, they only had

power over an area from Petrograd to about Moscow. Also, outside of that little protected

area they had power over, there were many groups of people that were against the

Bolsheviks and the idea of Provisional Government.

CartoonStock. “Rasputin - You don’t have to be a mad monk to work here but it helps.” Cartoon.

www.cartoonstock.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2010.

<http://www.cartoonstock.com///russian_revolution.asp>. This has to do with Rasputin. It

makes sense because Rasputin worked for the Romanovs. He had many nicknames. One

of them was the “Mad Monk”. This is because he called himself holy, therefore people

thought he was “mad”.

“The Deepening of the Russian Revolution: 1917.” Russian Revolution 1917 Timeline. N.p., n.d.

Web. 11 Oct. 2010. <http://web.mit.edu/russia1917/>. On the day of October 25th, 1917,

during the October Revolution, Vladimir Lenin announced that, after many days, that the

Provisional Government had been officially overthrown. This marked the starting of the

Bolsheviks Power.

Encyclopedia Britannica. “Red Army.” Encyclopedia Britannica Academic Edition. Ed.

Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2010. Web. 11 Oct. 2010.

<http://www.britannica.com//topic//Red-Army>. “The Russian imperial army and navy,

together with other imperial institutions of tsarist Russia, disintegrated after the outbreak

of the Russian Revolution of 1917. By a decree of Jan. 28 (Jan. 15, Old Style), 1918, the

Council of People’s Commissars created a Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army on a

voluntary basis.”

Excerpt from site.

Litwin, Peter. “The Russian Revolution.” Depts.Washington.Edu. Univ. of Washington, 2002.

Web. 25 Oct. 2010. <http://depts.washington.edu///russianrevolution.htm>. The Russian

Revolution (1917) was also known as October Revolution or Bolshevik Revolution. In

fact, there were really two revolutions in 1917. They were known as February Revolution

and the October Revolution. In the February Revolution, Provisional Government took

power because the Czar had abdicated the throne. In the October Revolution, the

Bolsheviks overthrew Provisional Government.


“The October Revolution.” Marxists International Archive. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2010.

<http://www.marxists.org///events/>. The October Revolution was led by Lenin and the

Bolshevik Party. Many Russian workers and peasants followed under the slogan “All

power to the Soviets”. The giant crowds of workers and peasants overthrew the

Provisional Government.

Red Army. N.d. www.wikia.com. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. <http://images.wikia.com/////600px-


Vladimir Lenin & the Russian Revolution. www.stel.ru. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2010.

<http://www.stel.ru//Russian_revolution_1917.htm>. “After the shooting down of these

demonstrators the Provisional Government subjected the Bolshevik Party and workers’

organizations to cruel repressions, just as the last tsarist government had done not long

before. Lenin’s arrest was ordered. It became obvious that further stay in Petrograd

would endanger Lenin’s life. The Central Committee of the Party decided to send him not

far from the Razliv Station (a suburb of Petrograd) to the home of the worker


Excerpt from site.

White Army. N.d. www.warchat.org. Web. 2 Jan. 2011.