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Nanometer
•One billionth (10-9 ) of a meter
•Hydrogen atom 0.04 nm
•Proteins ~ 1-20 nm
•Feature size of computer chips 90 nm
(in 2005)
•Diameter of human hair ~ 10 µm
Nanotechnology is the creation ofUSEFUL/FUNCTI ONAL
materials, devices and systems (of any useful size) through
control/manipulation of matter on the nanometer length scale and
exploitation of novel phenomena and properties which arise because
of the nanometer length scale:
• Physical
• Chemical
• Electrical
• Mechanical
• Optical
• Magnetic
••
What Is Nanotechnology?
What Is Nanotechnology?
Research and technology development aimed
to understand and control matter at
dimensions ofapproximately 1 - 100
nanometer – the nanoscale
Ability to understand, create, and use
structures, devices and systems that have
fundamentally new properties and functions
because of their nanoscale structure
Ability to image, measure, model, and
manipulate matter on the nanoscale to exploit
those properties and functions
Ability to integrate those properties and
functions into systems spanning from nano- to
macro-scopic scales
Corral of Fe Atoms – D.
Eigler
Nanoarea Electron
Diffraction of DW Carbon
Nanotube – Zuo, et.al
(Definition from the NNI)
• Examples
- Carbon Nanotubes
-Proteins, DNA
-Single electron transistors
•Not just size reduction but phenomena
intrinsic to nanoscale
-Size confinement
-Dominance of interfacial phenomena
-Quantum mechanics
•New behavior at nanoscale is not
necessarily predictable from what we
know at macroscales.
AFM Image of DNA
•Quantum size effects result in unique mechanical, electronic, photonic,
and magnetic properties of nanoscale materials
•Chemical reactivity of nanoscale materials greatly different from more
macroscopic form, e.g., gold
•Vastly increased surface area per unit mass, e.g., upwards of 1000 m2
per gram
•New chemical forms of common chemical elements, e.g., fullerenes,
nanotubes of carbon, titanium oxide, zinc oxide, other layered
compounds
Unique Properties of Nanoscale Materials
Unique Properties of Nanoscale Materials
•Atoms and molecules are generally less than a nm and we study them in
chemistry.Condensed matter physics deals with solids with infinite array
of bound atoms.Nanoscience deals with the in-between meso-world
•Quantum chemistry does not apply (although fundamental laws hold) and
the systems are not large enough for classical laws of physics
• Size-dependent properties
•Surface to volume ratio
-
A 3 nm iron particle has 50% atoms on the surface
-
A 10 nm particle
20% on the surface
-
A 30 nm particle
only 5% on the surface
•Many existing technologies already depend on nanoscale materials
and processes
-photography, catalysts are “old” examples
-developed empirically decades ago
•In existing technologies using nanomaterials/processes, role of
nanoscale phenomena not understood until recently; serendipitous
discoveries
-with understanding comes opportunities for improvement
•Ability to design more complex systems in the future is ahead
-designer material that is hard and strong but low weight
- self-healing materials
•Recently, there has been an explosion of research
on the nanoscale behavior
-Nanostructures through sub-micron self
assembly creating entities from “bottom-up”
instead of “top-down”
-Characterization and applications
-Highly sophisticated computer simulations to
enhance understanding as well as create
‘designer materials’
•1959 Feynman Lecture“There is Plenty of Room at the
Bottom”provided the vision of exciting new discoveries if
one could fabricate materials/devices at the atomic/molecular
scale.
•Emergence of instruments in the 1980s; STM, AFM
providing the “eyes”, “fingers” for nanoscale manipulation,
measurement…
STM
Image of Highly Oriented
Pyrolitic Graphite
• Cluster
-A collection of units (atoms or reactive molecules) of up to
about 50 units
• Colloids
-A stable liquid phase containing particles in the 1-1000 nm
range.A colloid particle is one such 1-1000 nm particle.
• Nanoparticle
-A solid particle in the 1-100 nm range that could be
noncrystalline, an aggregate of crystallites or a single
crystallite
• Nanocrystal
-A solid particle that is a single crystal in the nanometer range

Nanotechnology in Bio-Medical Applications


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