Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 48

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 

 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


AN ENGINEER’S VIEW

Our World after


the World Cup
My greatest hope is that the evident, positive and extraordinary atmosphere, ener-
gy charge and positive outlook that have emerged as a result of the way we staged
the World Cup will serve to enable us to believe in ourselves and our abilities to Chris Reay
reach the best standards for South Africa. Every citizen, and in our case, every Chairman of the Working
engineering resource, has the opportunity and an obligation do something to get a Committee: Communications
(SA Institution of Mechanical
new show on the road. We simply must not fall into a state of post party hangover Engineering)
or depression, or back to business as usual.

I
am personally tired of observing and commenting This is the recent mining commitment plan which
so much of our past failures in this leader column. followed the Citibank International report that South
How many of them are actually easily enabled to Africa sits on the most valuable mineral wealth
be turned around and developed for the benefit in the world by far, streets ahead of Russia and
of South African citizens? If we can project manage Australia in second and third places.
the WC with all its first-time challenges, why can’t We have R18 Trillion in an un-mined prize waiting
we get the relatively straight forward function of for initiative, co-operation, funding, innovation,
municipal service delivery right? supporting infrastructure, skills development,
employment and all the other benefits of a good,
Sits on the most valuable mineral wealth in the world by long term plan. Even Malema should be excited.
far, streets ahead of Russia and Australia in second and It noticeably seems however to have eluded the
third places government’s own planning commission, but we
all know how evident that has been.
Let’s do it
The root cause is clear. Get rid of lousy, incompetent, Outgoing action
unqualified, corrupt management; fire the officials Power and energy. Big plans now in hand for private
who seem incapable of delivering, and are misusing power generation, and additionally an exciting devel-
funds. No more paid suspension and jobs for pals. opment in advanced waste coal carbon combustion
But let’s do it. Time to get private power producers technology with almost no carbon footprint. Unless
going. Time to get the Acts amended that mess with co-generation gets going, then any major mining
our potential to exploit our minerals. Time to get and industrial initiatives will not have the power
effective engineering training going. due to Eskom’s limitations.
Get measures agreed to radically reduce the mas- Can we catalyse the World Cup energy into ongo-
sive unemployment level. We will go bankrupt at the ing action? It is up to everyone to make it happen.
rate we pay more receivers of social benefits than Tourism just has to escalate, which means major
have jobs. Reducing unemployment is our biggest options for the service industry. I heard countless
challenge. Here is a thought, though. It comes from comments from foreign visitors at Cape Town’s V
a recent SAIEE Presidential address. “If one is look- and A waterfront at the semi-final on a beautiful
ing for modern examples of the good old fashioned evening that it must be the best all-round place
engineering approach to economic development, for a World Cup.
one needs to look to the East. When President The new SAIMechE website has the functions to
Hu of China appointed his first cabinet in 2002, enable interaction and debate. Can this connectiv-
every one of them was an Engineer. Perhaps this in ity and our a new feeling of optimism improve our
part explains China’s ongoing extraordinary economic collective advance into getting Engineers into the
growth and industrialization”. main arena? Sceptics, step aside. Let the game
So, Members, how shall we go for the world cup begin.
in transforming a system that has been taking us
for a ride for too long? A very positive development
has just been announced and which exemplifies the
ability of a lot of adversarial parties to get together
and formulate a new deal all with a common goal.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 


at
Visit us

o. 5D23
stand N

U
U
U

'%!2EFRIGERATION
GEA Grasso (Africa) (Pty) Ltd
19 Chain AVENUEs-ONTAGUE'ARDENSs0/"OX#HEMPET
TeLs&AX
Website: www.GRASSOCOZA

 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


August 2010  VOLUME 60  NUMBER 8

Hansen Transmissions
Contents
Tel: (011) 397-2495
Email: Monthly Column 27 Power Generation News
ffourie@hansentransmissions.
com
8 One Stormy Night ...
Computers in Engineering
Cover Story 29 What’s Actually in There?
11 Extending Gearbox Life 33 We are Being Ripped Off
Power Transmission Regulars
13 New Electric Motors
15 More Than Just Bearings 3 An Engineer’s View
6 Institution News
Pipes, Pumps & Valves 28 Nuclear Institute (SA Branch)
Copyright 35 SAINT
All rights reserved. No editorial 17 The Key is Stocking Up
matter published in “SA Mechani- 19 Diesel Power 37 SAIT
cal Engineer” may be reproduced 39 Market Forum
in any form or language without POWER GENERATION TODAY 46 On the Move
written permission of the publish- 21 Power of Water
ers. While every effort is made to
ensure accurate reproduction, the
editor, authors, publishers and
their employees or agents shall
not be responsible or in any way
liable for any errors, omissions or
inaccuracies in the publication,
whether arising from negligence or
otherwise or for any consequences
arising therefrom. The inclusion
or exclusion of any product does
not mean that the publisher or
editorial board advocates or rejects
its use either generally or in any
The monthly circulation is 4 242
particular field or fields.

Produced by:
Official Publication of
PROMECH PUBLISHING, THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
P O Box 373, Pinegowrie, 2123 and endorsed by:
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (011) 781-1401, Fax: (011) 781-1403  CORROSION INSTITUTE OF SA
Email: editorial@promech.co.za  SA PUMP MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
Website: www.promech.co.za  SA VALVE AND ACTUATORS MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
Managing Editor Susan Custers  THE SA INSTITUTE OF TRIBOLOGY
Editor Kowie Hamman  NUCLEAR INSTITUTE
Advertising Pauline Bouwer  SA INSTITUTE FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Circulation Catherine Macdiva
 NATIONAL SOCIETY OF BLACK ENGINEERS
DTP Zinobia Docrat/Sanette Lehanie
 INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATED MECHANICAL AND
Disclaimer ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS
PROMECH Publishing and The South African Institution of Mechanical
 SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS
Engineering as well as any other body do not take responsibility for
the opinions expressed by individuals.  ASSOCIATION OF SOCIETIES FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
Printed by: Typo Colour Printing, Tel: (011) 402-3468/9 AND HEALTH

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 


THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Council 2009/2010
Office Bearers
President....................................................G Barbic (George)
Dinner
Dance
President Elect...............................................D Findeis (Dirk)
National Treasurer.................................KK Nyangoni (Kudzai)
Branch Chairpersons
Central .........................................................M Cramer (Mike)
Eastern Cape.................................................W Rall (William)
KwaZulu Natal...........................................M Black (Malcolm)
Western Cape ..........................Prof B Collier-Reed (Brandon)

The Central Branch


Portfolios Dinner Dance
Communications............................................CD Reay (Chris) Date: Saturday 9th
Education – Universities...............................................Vacant October 2010
Education – Universities of Technology.........E Zawilska (Ewa)
Membership..................................................E Zawilska (Ewa) Time: 18:30 for 19:00
Seminars and Workshops...............................D Findeis (Dirk) Venue: Killarney
Candidate Phase Development . ........................................TBA Golf Club
Technology Programme...............................SZ Hrabar (Steve)
To be confirmed...............................................A Roos (Andre) Dress: Black Tie/
To be confirmed....................................G. Bartholomew (Bart) Traditional/Smart
Cost: R3 500 per table
Chief Executive Officer: Vaughan Rimbault of 10 or R350 for
individual tickets.
National Office Manager: Anisa Nanabhay
PO Box 511, Bruma, 2026 R.S.V.P. by no later than
Tel: (011) 615-5660, Fax: (011) 388-5356 17th September 2007.
Contact Lynne on (011)
Email: info@saimeche.org.za
615-5660/ central@
Website: www.saimeche.org.za
saimech.org.za
Membership: Central, Eastern Cape & KZN:
membership@saimeche.org.za
Membership: Western Cape: saimeche.wc@vodamail.co.za

Company Affiliates
Alstom Power Service SA Rotek Engineering
Babcock Africa Limited RSD a division of DCD-Dorbyl
Bateman Engineered Technologies S.A.M.E Water
Bosch Projects Sasol Technologies
Fluor SA SEW Eurodrive
GEA Air-cooled Systems Siemens
Hansen Transmissions SA SNC-Lavalin SA Saimeche,
Hatch Africa Spicer Axle SA Western Cape
Annual Dinner &
Howden Power Spirax Sarco SA
Dance 2010
Howden Projects Thyssenkrupp Engineering
Industrial Water Cooling Transvaal Pressed Nuts & Bolts To be held on Friday
MBE Minerals (SA) (Pty) Ltd (previ- Ultra-Flow Engineering Services The
ously KHD Humboldt Wedag SA Vital Engineering 29th Of October
2010.
Megchem Eng & Drafting Services Weir Minerals Africa
Details To Follow Soon!
Osborn Engineered Products SA Winder Controls

 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SAIMechE National AGM


The National AGM held on 28 July 2010 was well
attended by members, guests, council and commit-
tee members and friends of the Institution.
A Special General Meeting preceded the AGM
where Constitutional amendments were tabled
and accepted.
Mr Stefan de Nagy Koves Hrabar and Dr Raimund
Loubser had each been awarded an Honorary
Fellowship.
Prof Thomas Harms was acknowledged for the
work done as Editor of the Research Journal for a
number of years.
The President acknowledged Council and branch
committee members who have continued to man- Du Toit Grober (SAIEE Past President) handing over certificate from SAIEE
to Mr George Barbic in recognition of SAIMechE’s contribution to SAIEE
age the affairs of the Institution in an effective and the engineering profession as a sister Voluntary Association. Mr Dirk
way, as well as staff for their contribution, and Findeis (SAIMechE Vice President) seated on the left and Mr Kudzai Nyan-
the various role-players that continue to support goni (SAIMechE National Treasurer) seated on the right
the Institution.
Visit the SAIMechE website to view the Annual
Report 2010 as presented at the AGM – www.
saimeche.org.za

Dr Raimund Loubser (recipient of Honorary Fellowship),


Some of the guests at the AGM enjoying the sumptuous
Mr George Barbic (SAIMechE President), and Steve Hra-
dinner, socialising and networking
bar (recipient of Honorary Fellowship and SAIMechE Past
President)

SAIMechE Training Events Calendar : Sep to Nov 2010


Whilst every effort is made to ensure that events take place as scheduled, SAIMechE reserves the right to change the schedule
as circumstances dictate. A registration form and full terms and conditions may be obtained from Carey Evans on E-mail: carey@
saimeche.org.za or Tel. 031-764-7136. Also, detailed individual event programmes are available from Carey. Corporations wishing
to book In-House Workshops may contact Linda Robinson on E-mail: linda@saimeche.org.za or Tel: 031 764 7136.
Event Code Workshop & Seminar Names Dates Region
E0610 The Engineer As Manager 09-Sep-10 East Rand
C3310 Stainless Steel - Complete Overview for Engineers Including Design with Stainless 15-Sep-10 Cape Town
Steel
H1310 Structured Problem Solving Techniques 16-Sep-10 Rivonia
EFP10 Fire Prevention and Control 16-Sep-10 East Rand
APS10 Engineering of Piping Systems 21-Sep-10 Durban
C4710 Capital Budgeting for Projects 22-Sep-10 Cape Town
B0610 The Engineer As Manager 23-Sep-10 Port Elizabeth
C1210 Psychrometrics & Psychrometric Processes 29-Sep-10 Cape Town
C0610 The Engineer As Manager 30-Sep-10 Cape Town
E3510 Plastics - A Complete Overview for Engineers Including Design with Plastics 30-Sep-10 East Rand

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 


MONTHLY COLUMN

One Stormy Night…


It’s a moonless stormy night, outside his bedroom the howling wind is lashing at the trees. Leaves thrash
against the windows and the roof creaks under the strain, but it’s not the storm that wakes him up at 2am.
It’s the piercing ring of the cellphone on the bedside table and he’s up immediately, prompted by the special
ring tone he’s assigned to emergency calls.

H
is name is Sean Serfontein and he is The fishermen
the Durban NSRI Duty Controller. The had given up on
call is from the Harbour Master’s of- the inflatable,
fice, alerting him to a fishing trawler in as they could
distress off the Durban coast. The wind is driving not get the en-
fierce waves in all directions, making it impos- gine started.
sible for any sane human being to even think Sean’s techni-
of launching a rescue boat in the open sea. The cal training had
only way Sean can assist is by helicopter. He im- prepared him
mediately dials the number, which connects him for this type
directly to the pilot on duty for the rescue helicopter. of problem and
before long the
That’s how people lose fingers just because they’re engine was run- David Sievwright of the National Sea
ning. Rescue Institute in Durban
monkeying around with a rope
A short while
With a powerful searchlight and the exceptional skill later, a navy vessel and other boats arrived to
of the aviator, they quickly locate the crippled trawler. assist. Sean, using the inflatable boat, collected
Fearing their vessel will sink, the 17 crew had already several fishermen at a time from the life raft and
abandoned ship and were huddled into four life raft motored some distance away so the helicopter
grouped together with a little inflatable boat. Being could hover lower and hoist the survivors, one at
a strong swimmer, Sean is lowered down into the a time, into the helicopter. In turn, all 17 crew
stormy sea and after unclipping himself, he swims were lowered to safety on the vessels standing by.
the seventy metres across to the inflatable boat. The next day, when the sea had calmed down,

 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


MONTHLY COLUMN

the authorities along with the owners were able station’s R7.5 million pride and joy of is ready to
to save the trawler and tow it back to harbour. launch within a minute or two. “It is a purpose-
For this brave rescue, Sean received an NSRI built rescue vessel of 10 metres imported from the
Gallantry award, one of the highest recogni- UK,” explains David. “There are no fancy frills on
tions for bravery bestowed on a crewmember. this vessel, but it has all the bells and whistles a
dedicated working rescue boat needs. Apart from
The NSRI
the robust hardy hull, it’s equipped with all the
“SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks to David Sievwright
latest technology that has been tried and tested in
of the National Sea Rescue Institute in Durban about
search and rescue operations around the world.”
the boats and people who make up this voluntary
rescue organisation based throughout South Africa.
“Over the past 40 years, the NSRI has saved
There is no place for the Rambo-types who “know it all”
and assisted around 28 500 people in 14 500
rescue operations along the South African coast,” Skipper training
he says. “This amounts to almost one rescue A good rescue boat is as good as its skipper and here
operation every single day over the last 40 years. NSRI’s training goes beyond the normal standard.
“We’re similar to other voluntary organisations in
Personal skills
many ways, but our people give that little bit extra
“The main reasons people end up in trouble at sea
by putting their life on the line,” says David. “There
are ascribed to lack of training, poor equipment
is a bit of adventure but we also have plenty of
on their boats and a disregard for bad weather,”
opportunities to have fun. When it comes to an
David explains. “In the past, a huge problem used
operation, it’s the camaraderie and professional
to be people just going out to sea without telling
training that gives us our exceptional safety record.
anyone where they were going. Now regulations
require the skipper to fill in a launch register or “Our skippers, for example, undergo thorough in-
at least tell someone where they’re going and house training scheme that covers all the usual
when they expect to be back. It’s similar to an skipper training,” adds David. “Once a candidate
aircraft filing a flight plan before setting off.” has successfully mastered these skills, they go on
to write a national set of exams for the various
Usually, NSRI rescue operations involve one of
grades, putting our skippers a notch above those
their specialised rescue vessels, but with Sean’s
who have a normal skipper’s ticket. Our skippers,
operation, other skills are sometimes brought to
for example, will have an extra radio licence, a
bear. “Sean is a very strong swimmer and also
first aid certificate, a life saving certificate, a mo-
happens to have good technical know-how to
torman certificate, knowledge of helicopter work
figure out the problem with the engine,” says
and understand the various rescue techniques.”
David. “Each member usually has something to
contribute from a personal skills perspective.” Drowning is permanent
Water, especially the sea, is no place to fool around.
Strict training
“Drowning is permanent. Most importantly it is vital
Although membership is voluntary, training is strict and
to remember that sea water and booze do not mix,”
highly disciplined. “Due to the nature of the work and
David says in conclusion. “People should always go
in terms of safety and the gruelling conditions, there
out to sea prepared and remember to respect the
just has to be a discipline. The Coxswains word is law.
sea. The waters are there to enjoy yourself, but they
“I’ve spent a lot of time at sea and I’ve seen some can turn dangerous in an instant if you don’t know
nasty accidents where people have taken a chance or what you’re doing and you flout the regulations.”
not done what they were told to do, that’s how people
David Sievwright, NSRI, Durban, Tel: (031) 332-9772,
lose fingers just because they’re monkeying around
Email: kzn@searescue.org.za,
with a rope. There is no place for the Rambo-types
who “know it all” and want to join the NSRI just
for the prospect of adventures at sea.” says David.
Special boats
Starting from a small organisation in 1967, today the
NSRI has thirty rescue stations along the coastline
and three inland stations. “We operate a fleet of just
over 100 rescue craft which has a replacement value
of 138 million rand,” says David. “Nationally we
have a permanent staff complement of 25 people, the
rest is made up entirely of 920 voluntary male and
female members who come from all walks of life, from
architects to doctors, technicians and secretaries.”
David walks us through the boat shed on the
pier near the harbour mouth where the Durban

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 


The earlier you
book the more
you save!
Complete the relpy form
below

Hear from 13 - 15 September 2010


Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa

Nelisiwe Magubane
Director General – Electricity Profit
Department of Energy,
South Africa

Strategy, investment and


best practice for industry,
Antonio Saide power and government
Chairman
National Directorate of
Renewable Energies,
Mozambique Policy-making: the difference in 2010!
Hear the latest developments on power purchase agreements, feed-in tariffs
and electricity wheeling in the private sector

Source innovative IPP solutions just for you


Find out how you can translate the recent IPP policy challenges into opportunities
Mohammed Abdelrahman – your utility has no other choice but to buy your power
Energy Specialist
NEPAD Secretariat,
South Africa Sugar developments
Get new ideas around bagasse generation, sugar technology and energy pricing
in the sector

2 workshops, 1 day – Post-conference workshops: 15 September 2010


Bernard Osawa Sugar law, technology and advanced Energy policy and power purchase
bagasse generation OR agreements in Africa
Director – Renewables
Electricity Regulatory
Commission, Kenya
www.terrapinn.com/2010/cogenza

Reply form Fax: +27 (0)11 707 8359


Yes! I am interested in Co-Generation World Africa 2010 Voucher code: A3 601207
2782 SA Mechanical Engineer

c I would like to attend – please register me c My company would like to participate – please send me more information
Mike Eyre
Name ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Technical Director
IPSA Group, Job title ............................................................................................................Organisation...................................................................................................
United Kingdom
Address ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Produced by: Post code ..........................................................................................................Country ...........................................................................................................

Tel .....................................................................................................................Fax ..................................................................................................................

Email.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

BOOK
10NOW!THE
online www.terrapinn.com/2010/cogenza
SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER | email taryn.vanzanten@terrapinn.co.za
VOL 61 August 2010 | phone +27 (0)11 516 4026 | fax +27 (0)11 707 8359
COVER STORY

Extending Gearbox Life


Compared with the cost of a plant as a whole, that of a gearbox is a fraction of the overall capital outlay
which, coupled with the fact that gearboxes generally have a long life, tends to result in a certain degree of
neglect in terms of routine maintenance. The general shortage of skilled maintenance technicians also contrib-
utes to the neglect of this equipment.

I
n today’s economic climate, who now carry out tasks like
optimum productivity plays a installations, commissioning and
critical role. No-one can afford breakdowns. “We’re busy creat-
a set-back caused by even ing the infrastructure for dedi-
one of the gearboxes in a plant cated teams who are equipped
failing unexpectedly, bringing an and trained to do routine main-
entire plant to a grinding halt. tenance and general upkeep of
Increasingly end-users are com- power transmission plant such
ing to the realisation that regular as replacing filters, cleaning and
maintenance not only mitigates replacing breathers and chang-
against unexpected failures but ing the oil at regular intervals.
also extends gearbox life optimally. “These maintenance teams will
Routine maintenance also carry out regular condition
monitoring and vibration test
contracts
to minimise unexpected break-
Optimal means better reliability
downs,” he adds. “This will pro-
and long-term service life which
vide us with the necessary infor-
is where Hansen Transmissions in
mation to know when something
Jet Park comes in. They are now
starts going wrong in the early
offering routine maintenance con- Fritz Fourie, managing director of
stages before it turns into a cata-
tracts to clients to help them get Hansen South Africa
strophic failure that damages oth-
the most out of their gearboxes.
er components in the drive train.”
“SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks
to managing director of Hansen South Africa, Fritz Life expectancy
Fourie. “We’re in an advanced stage of finalising Market requirements have changed and end users
negotiations to take over the routine maintenance are now increasingly considering the long-term
and servicing of all the gearboxes on one of the costs of maintenance. “Clients go to great lengths
mines of a prominent mining group,” he says. to select gearboxes that will at least give them
100 000 hours’ life,” adds Fritz. “In addition they
Regular maintenance not only mitigates against are considering fitting instrumentation, additional
unexpected failures but also extends gearbox life optimally filtration systems and extra oil cooling systems, all
to ensure a longer life of the gearbox. Even though
“After delivering a series of gearboxes for an opti- this increases initial costs, they prefer to con-
misation project on the mine, they approached us sider the benefits over an extended period of time.
with this request and we see it as a huge opportu- “Similarly, regular and proper routine maintenance
nity for us to expand our service offering to clients. by professional technicians will contribute to an
“All sectors of industry battle with the shortage extended gearbox life. If it’s not done properly you
of qualified maintenance technicians resulting in could lose half the life of a gearbox,” explains Fritz.
the general deterioration of machinery which we “Our maintenance offering will now become part
increasingly come across in the field,” adds Fritz. and parcel of a ‘packaged drive solution’ where
“For many years we’ve offered a repair service we provide the whole drive system, including all
which has seen our field service teams grow over the instrumentation and all other extras that may
the last few years, but we’ve never ventured into be required to get optimum life out of a gearbox.”
maintenance and upkeep of power transmission New ‘black box’
equipment on site on behalf of the client, and this To complement the range of accessories that can
seems to be what the market now desperately needs.” be fitted to a drive system, Hansen South Africa
Dedicated teams is sponsoring the development of a ‘black-box’
The maintenance and upkeep service will not be that monitors gearbox vibration. “One of our wind
provided by the existing Hansen field service teams turbine gearbox specialists is a South African

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 11


COVER STORY

working in Belgium and he suggested we ap- Leadership award


proach Pretoria University’s mechanical engineer- Hansen has in the past eighteen months landed
ing faculty to develop such a black-box,” explains huge contracts with the power station projects
Fritz. “The challenge is to design an instrument underway in South Africa which has increased
which, at a reasonable price, can be fitted to the company’s market share in South Africa sig-
every gearbox to constantly monitor its condition. nificantly. “A feather in our cap was getting the
2009 Marketing Leadership Award from Frost and
Proper routine maintenance by professional technicians Sullivan for our increased market share to now lead
will contribute to an extended gearbox life the South African market by having a 33.8% share
“It will pick up any malfunction and sound an alarm to in term of helical gearboxes,” Fritz proudly states.
indicate that something is out of the ordinary in terms “We’ve all worked very hard on the big projects over
of the specified running conditions for a particular the past year and it has paid off. However, in retro-
gearbox,” adds Fritz. “We’re close to finalising the spect we have also realised that you can easily shift
first prototype, developed specifically for the harsh focus in such a situation and end up neglecting your
conditions that gearboxes in Africa operate under. regular end-users. To prevent this from happening,
It will also help in situations where there simply we’ve increased our staff complement specifically
aren’t technicians with the qualifications to do proper so as not to lose touch with longstanding clients.”
condition monitoring. We regularly come across Fritz Fourie, Hansen Transmissions, Tel: (011) 397-2495,
breakdowns on big mines where they don’t do any Email: ffourie@hansentransmissions.com
condition monitoring at all, hence the breakdown.”

12 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


POWER TRANSMISSION

New Electric Motors


The cost of an electric motor is relatively small compared
with that of the rest of the plant, but in terms of lifecycle
costs, electric motors add significantly to the overall run-
ning costs of a plant. Energy consumption makes up 95%
of the lifecycle cost of an electric motor and any saving in
this respect results in an accumulative saving over a period
of time.

industry to look for alternative technologies.”


Every possible way
The DR series is only being introduced to the local
market now because it hasn’t been a priority in the past
to optimise energy consumption in every possible way.
“We’ve always strived to bring energy efficient drive
solutions to the local industry through variable speed
drive technology and other refinements,” says Conrad.
“However, since the recent electricity shortage crisis
in South Africa, the demand for more optimisation
has grown and we decided to introduce the DR
range to the South African market so we can assist
our customers in achieving energy saving margins.
Calculated savings
Conrad Pilger, sales and project manager at SEW Euro-
drive in South Africa “We’re not just saying this motor design will save
power and waste less energy, we’ve actually devised


a calculator whereby we convert the savings into
SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks to Conrad rands and cents so clients can understand what
Pilger, sales and project manager at SEW we’re talking about,” adds Conrad. “We started
Eurodrive in South Africa about the range of introducing the motor to some customers a couple
energy efficient electric motors they’re now of months ago and it has been warmly received.
introducing to the South African market. “The energy
consumption of a motor has a decisive influence “Over a hundred have already been installed at various
on the follow-up costs of a drive system,” he says. customers to date and right now 80% of the motors that
leave our factory in Johannesburg are from the DR range.”
“Optimising the energy efficiency of each in-
dividual component and combining the drive Global motor
technology to match a specific application, The new motor range is a modular system for AC
will achieve significant economic benefits.” motors, offering millions of drive combinations
that can be used in many different applications.
DR range was to make it fully interchangeable with “Independent of the required energy efficiency
existing gearboxes class, the whole range of DR motor options is
available in all efficiency levels,” says Conrad.
New technology “The motor complies with international standards and
SEW Eurodrive is the first company in the world already meets the latest requirements of the IEC motor
to successfully implement die-cast copper technol- standard. As it was designed with energy efficiency
ogy in mass industrial production. “This process classes from all over the world in mind, you could refer
employs liquid copper technology to make the die to it as a global motor. It complies with IEC 60034,
cast cage of the motor,” says Conrad. “The result- NEMA MG1 and CSA C22.2 requirements as well.”
ing range of motors is a compact, high efficiency
design at a highly competitive price resulting in a Energy ratings
payback time of less than a year in most cases. The modular DR motor system comprises three
energy efficient motor variants (IE1, IE2 and IE3)
“Moreover, the motor’s efficiency characteristics
and offers an ideally matched brake concept as well
have been proven in installations across the globe
as encoders which are integrated in the motor. “By
where energy saving regulations have forced
combining all the different requirements, this design

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 13


POWER TRANSMISSION

saves time and opti-


mises processes in
the areas of motor
selection, ordering
and logistics,” says
Conrad. “Additional
features such as
brake monitoring,
shaft centred hol-
low shaft encoder,
thermal motor pro-
tection, temperature
detection, air filters,
fans and backstops,
among other fea-
tures, can be added
depending on the
customer’s require-
ments.”
One of the main cri-
teria in the design
of the DR range was
to make it fully in-
terchangeable with existing gearboxes and other type motors now come in for repairs, we introduce
applications already in the market. “It’s no use customers to the new technology motors which
fitting a new motor that will save you money, but are easily fitted in place of the old ones in spite
you then have to spend almost as much modify- of the new ones being more compact in design.”
ing the application,” says Conrad. “As the older
New gearbox range
Officially the DR series of motors will be launched
to the broad industry at the Electra Mining show
in October, coinciding with the showcasing of
a new range of planetary gearboxes from SEW
Eurodrive. “We’ve already stocked up and the P-
series planetary gearbox is available right now,”
Conrad says. “It is a heavy duty planetary gear-
box that handles high torque at low speeds. The
speed reducer is a compact design that fits into
constrained spaces and we deliberately stocked up
enough to eliminate long lead times for delivery.

We’ve actually devised a calculator


whereby we convert the savings into
rands and cents

“With the introduction of our own range of energy


efficient electric motors, we’ve move closer to the
ideal of serving customers on a partnership basis,”
Conrad says in conclusion. “As a business partner
we want our customers to save money by playing a
role in selecting the optimum drive solution. It’s no
use running the latest in motor technology on an old
type of gearbox, for instance. Ultimately, many vari-
ables affect lifecycle costs and we want to assist our
customers in arriving at the best solution possible.”
Rene Rose, SEW Eurodrive, Tel: (011) 248-7000, Email:
rrose@sew.co.za, Website: http://www.sew.co.za

Promech Publishing has a BEE


a of 97.2%

14 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


POWER TRANSMISSION

More Than Just


Bearings
The challenge in achieving optimum power transmission in machinery is to find bearings that are mutually
compatible with all the power transmission components in a drive system.


SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks to Varma Parag, mission products,
SKF’s product manager, Power Transmission, we can now offer
to talk about a range of power transmission products that are
products now finding its way into the South well matched and
African market under the SKF brand. give engineers a
“As we progress into the new millennium, custom- wide design choice
ers the world over, are looking for better solutions. according to spe-
Increasing the demand for a wider range of products cific performance
from fewer suppliers. With single sourcing, efficiency and cost consid-
goes up and transaction costs go down. erations.

As bearings and power transmission equipment are “Customers today


often found working together, we believe that power expect more from
transmission products, ideally compliment our exist- suppliers than just
ing product profile.” selling product. To Varma Parag, product manager,
meet this trend, power transmission, SKF
Better performance SKF undertook a
“Power transmission products play an important role thorough analysis of the market to determine customer
in overall bearing performance,” Varma says. “They requirements,” says Varma. “It was first rolled out
are the vital link between moving parts in equipment. in Europe where everybody welcomed the move and
Industry as a whole spends about twice as much on now we’re extending the footprint to all corners of
these products as it does on the actual bearings. the world. As far as I know, we’re the first bearing
By creating our own unique range of power trans- manufacturer to consolidate the sales and supply of
power transmission products in this way.”
One brand
Bringing power transmission products under a single
brand offers significant benefits to end-users beside
the confidence that comes from a well-known brand.
“We can provide a convenient single supply source
for a wide range of products and services with a large
stockholding,” says Varma. “This, in turn, gives us
the opportunity to simplify logistics to end users and
reduce administrative work.
“SKF has a very sophisticated worldwide warehous-
ing and logistics systems through which power
transmission products can be supplied quickly. This
provides us with access to more than 8 000 power
transmission items and growing, enabling distributors
to keep smaller stocks so that less capital is tied up
in inventory.”
Making inroads
The programme is rigorously driven by SKF’s coun-
trywide distribution network, who are supported by
Varma and SKF’s engineering team. “Together we
make a concerted effort to assist customers with
solutions to power transmission problems. “Power

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 15


POWER TRANSMISSION

transmission and bearings work together in many “There are also those items that have special
industries including food and beverage, oil and gas, characteristics as is required for very specific
pulp and paper, textile, steel, packaging, mining, types of applications.” All the power transmission
mineral processing, agriculture, material handling products are identified by an SKF specific desig-
and power generation,” Varma explains. nation prefix. In addition, the designation follows
Although the division is relatively new to the South international standards for easy recognition and
African market, they have already made inroads in cross-referencing of the parts.
some applications locally. “One of our long-stand- “So far the industry has responded very positively
ing customers has had a problem with a chain in to these products and has welcomed the concept,”
a very corrosive environment for many years,” says Varma says in conclusion. “Future expansion
Varma. “They fitted one of our stainless steel chain along these lines may very well include certain
products eight months ago, and they haven’t had a gearboxes and the acquisition of associated com-
problem since.” ponents as well.”
It was first rolled out in Europe where everybody Varma Parag, SKF, Tel: (011) 821-3500, Email: Varma.
parag@skf.com, Website: www.skfptp.com
welcomed the move

The product range Engineer Placements


The power transmission range covers the most com-
Professional opportunities
mon types of products which can be divided into six
Our job board continues to display a wide variety of
main categories; belts, pulleys, chains, sprockets, excellent job positions that you can review and apply
couplings and bushings and hubs. “The range is quite for on- line. Keep your credentials on our secure and
comprehensive. Pulleys, sprockets and couplings of- confidential database, update them at any time.
fer different fixing methods. While chains, coupling We keep in touch with you.
www.engineerplacements.com
elements and belts offer some material choices,”
explains Varma.

Donaldson breathes life into...


Africa’s mining, construction, transport and agriculture industries.
Every day, customers all over the world rely on
Donaldson filtration products to extend the
operating life of equipment and keep potentially
toxic working environments safe. We also
purify air for a range of critical manufacturing
applications. And here in Africa’s harsh,
sometimes punishing environment, our
Engine and Vehicle Compressed Air filtration technology still performs under
� Engine air cleaner assemblies � Industrial filtration demanding conditions.
� First fit replacement elements � Process filtration
� Intake and outlet accessories � Adsorption driers
� Oil, fuel and transmission filters � Compressed air filtration
� Fuel filter water separators � Condensate management
� Coolant filters, hose and coolant � Water chillers
Industrial Hydraulic Industrial Air
� Lubrication system filtration � Dust and fume control
� Hydraulic filtration - full range � Control room/ambient air filtration
� Bulk fuel and oil filtration � Complete installations www.donaldson.co.za
� Elements for competitor housings � Testing, inspection and service
� System accessories � Spares, cartridges and filterbags Johannesburg (011) 997 6000 Cape Town (021) 530 2900
� Gas turbine filtration

16 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


PIPES PUMPS & VALVES

The Key is Stocking Up


Gone are the days when customers kept a legion of spare parts in their warehouses. More and more, suppliers
are stocking critical spares for their key customers. The willingness of suppliers to partner in such a way is
now becoming the differentiator that lands them the business over extended periods of time.

T
his is the business philosophy of Keith Hedges,
branch manager of Gemu Valves Africa.
To learn more, “SA Mechanical Engineer”
visits him at the company’s new premises
in Northlands Business Park near Randburg. “As
an importer of a vast range of valve solutions it
is impossible to keep the full range available at
all times, but you quickly learn what the market
requirements are and then stock up accordingly,”
he says. “Service distinguishes the best from the
rest and having the right product available when
someone is asking for it, is what service is all about.

Service distinguishes the best from the rest


New premises
“We’ve now set up a solid infrastructure and have
stocked up at the new premises,” Keith adds. “The sales
team is supported by a technical engineer and our lo-
gistics have been set up with enough vehicles and store
managers to ensure quick delivery throughout South
Africa. We’re planning to extend our offering to include
a facility that offers servicing at accredited service
levels in terms of calibration and testing equipment.” Keith Hedges branch manager of Gemu Valves Africa

Although Gemu products are well known in the phar-


maceutical and food processing industries in South enterprise management system that links all the
Africa, the local branch, branches and manufacturing plants across the
which is a direct subsidiary globe, source components and solutions to all
of the head office in Ger- valve-related problems very effectively,” says Keith.
many, has made its mark on
the industrial sector as well. “An example is a trial we’re currently running with
a local client. We’ve installed a flow meter in a very
“We have long-standing re- challenging application that has been troubling this
lationships with some of the particular client for many years. The flow meter
major corporate companies is fitted with a blue-tooth module that communi-
in the petrochemical and the cates directly to our German engineers through a
mining industries, but we’re con- modem. This allows them to constantly monitor
stantly looking at the needs of other the performance of the test installation, analyse it
sectors as well. Our range of products, and then make recommendations to the client in
which includes valves, actuators, and a wide terms of settings to achieve optimum performance.”
choice of measuring and control systems,
is used in specialised applications such Modular concept
as highly-corrosive chemical environments Gemu’s wide range of valves in all sizes and type
as well as highly-abrasive applications are modular in design and can systematically
such as slurry pumping. We’re now also be enhanced to suit all budgets. “Some start off
targeting the power generation industry with a manual valve system, for instance, which
because our products can be used in many they can easily change to an actuated system,”
applications in this developing market. says Keith. “It’s simply a matter of removing the
manual works on top of the valve while in the
Global network line and then fitting the actuated control system
The Gemu K490 chemical butterfly “The benefit of being part of a global
valve has found a solid footing in its place. Then you just connect the power
company is that we can, through our and it’s ready for control through a PLC system.”
in South Africa

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 17


PIPES PUMPS & VALVES

Spare parts of the


popular components
used in the South
African market

The valve bodies are made of a variety of materials


ranging from cast iron to stainless steel and can be
coated inside and out for protection against cor-
rosion and wear. Adds Keith, “The most common
lining is a rubber compound, but we also have a
stainless steel body with a PFA lining which is not
commonly found. This coating is ideal for very
aggressive atmospheric conditions combined with
a highly corrosive medium in the line. Germany
can, for example, manufacture very special valve
bodies which are machined from a solid block
of stainless steel on multi-axis CNC machines.”
Unique coating
One of products that has found a solid footing in South
Africa is the butterfly valves. “We’ve had exceptional
success in South Africa with the Gemu K490 chemical
butterfly valve,” says Keith. “Feedback from customers
has been overwhelming. It is used in very aggressive
chemical applications and is unique in that it not
only has a PFA over-moulded disk, but also has a
PTFE based liner which is not a basic PTFE grade.
“The layman’s term for it is Ultrafon or TFM and consists
of a special structure of PTFE which increases the
density much more effectively than ever before. Anyone
who knows chlorine, know that PTFE resists chlorine
penetration, but eventually it does find its way through.
This liner prolongs that penetration period even more.”
Keith says in conclusion. “We have the ad-
vantage that Gemu is an ISO certified man-
ufacturer which, alone, gives our sales staff
and customers confidence in our products.”
Keith Hedges, Gemu Valves Africa, Tel: (011) 462-7795,
Email: keith.hedges@gemue.co.za, Website: www.gemu.
de

18 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


PIPES, PUMPS & VALVES

Diesel Power
Now, for the first time, you can rent a self-priming diesel maximum head of 130 metres at their best effi-
pump on local shores. ciency point,” Scott says. “At shut-off, they handle
150 metres head, so that units can be used at a
far greater depth in the opencast pit, an important

I
TT Water & Wastewater has addressed these consideration for our South African conditions. At full
issues by increasing its rental fleet with the flow, they manage 100 litres per second obtaining
addition of five Godwin self-priming diesel heads of 80 metres,” he says.
pumps. Advantages
The pumps can run for up to seven hours at a rated
The pumps can handle a range of different media, capacity of 138 kW at 2 200 rpm, the fuel tank
including raw sewage, slurries with solids and other being able to hold 300 litres. The unit itself is 3
liquids 200 mm by 1 303 mm with a height of 1 800 mm
and a dry weight of 3 200 kg.
“Diesel power means there is no need for electric- A further advantage is that its maximum sound level
ity, which is often a complication at mining and is 81 dbA at 2 400 rpm as the Godwin HL 150 M
construction operations,” Scott Gilchrist, rental Hushpac is a completely soundproofed unit.
manager at ITT Water & Wastewater, points out.
“It is an all cast-iron construction, with a cast

Diesel power means there is no need for electricity

chromium steel impeller. The continuously oper-


“Conventional solutions rely on electricity for ated Godwin venture air ejector priming device
operation, generally running off a generator set, features a belt-driven air compressor which requires
however the Godwin self-priming diesel pumps no form of periodic adjustment or control, adding
are capable of performing better than most pumps, to the simple maintenance characteristics of the
including dewatering applications where solids are equipment.”
present.”
Furthermore, its dry running, high pressure oil
In fact, the pumps have extensive application flex- bath mechanical seal has abrasion-resistant, solid
ibility, handling liquids with solids up to 35 mm silicon carbide interfaces. The solids-handling,
in diameter. swing-type non-return valve features a renewable,
Optimum flexibility flexible rubber seat.
The pumps can handle a range of different media, “The pumps are available for hire directly from ITT
including raw sewage, slurries with solids and other Water & Wastewater as well as from our distributor
liquids, providing optimum flexibility in various network,” Scott concludes.
environments.
ITT Water & Wastewater , Lanelle Wheeler, Tel: (011) 966
“The pumps can handle 70 litres per second at a 9300, www.flygt.co.za

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 19


20 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010
POWER GENERATION

Produced by:
PROMECH PUBLISHING,
P O Box 373, Pinegowrie, 2123
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (011) 781-1401
Fax: (011) 781-1403
Email: editorial@promech.co.za
Website: www.promech.co.za

Managing Editor Susan Custers


Editor Kowie Hamman
Advertising Pauline Bouwer
Circulation Catherine Macdiva
DTP Zinobia Docrat/Sanette A view from the northeast towards the position for the proposed bridge and the temporary bypass
Lehanie

Power of Water
Disclaimer
PROMECH Publishing does not
take responsibility for the
opinions expressed by individuals.

Printed by:
Typo Colour Printing
The main reason South Africa does not have many hydro-electricity generat-
Tel: (011) 402-3468/9 ing installations is we’re a relatively dry country with only a few rivers suit-
able for hydroelectric schemes. This is why local hydro schemes operate
slightly differently from the traditional way whereby the natural flow of water
is utilised to generate electricity.

T
Copyright
he only two hydro-electric generat- Ingula
All rights reserved. No edi-
ing plants in South Africa, Palmiet Located about 23km north east of Van
torial matter published in near Cape Town and Ingula, cur- Reenen, within the little Drakensberg
“Power Generation Today” rently under construction in the mountain range, Ingula involves an upper
may be reproduced in any Drakensberg, both use pumped water reservoir in the Free State, an underground
form or language without that has been stored to generate power power tunnel complex and power station,
written permission of the when most needed. These plants can and a lower reservoir in KwaZulu Natal.
publishers. While every effort respond rapidly to increases in demand The distance between the upper and lower
is made to ensure accurate for electricity and are usually used where reservoirs is about 6km and the elevation
reproduction, the editor, au-
water resources are scarce. Water that difference is approximately 470m.
thors, publishers and their
has been used to generate electricity is
employees or agents shall The upper dam, named Bedford Dam, is
not be responsible or in any pumped back to a storage reservoir to
located on the Wilge River which flows into
way liable for any errors, be used again.
the Vaal River system and it is a concrete-
omissions or inaccuracies Local projects faced roc-fill embankment dam about 50
in the publication, whether
Palmiet has a dual role. Not only does metres high forming a reservoir with a total
arising from negligence or
otherwise or for any conse- it generate 400 MW of power into the volume of 22.6 million cubic metres (MCM)
quences arising therefrom. Eskom national grid at peak times, but and an active storage of 19.3 MCM. The
The inclusion or exclusion of it also forms part of an inter-catchment lower dam, the Braamhoek, is situated on
any product does not mean water project that transfers much needed the Klip River which flows into the Tugela
that the publisher or editorial water to Cape Town. This facility has River. It is a roller-compacted concrete dam
board advocates or rejects its been operative for a couple of years now about 40m high forming a reservoir with a
use either generally or in any while the Ingula scheme is expected to total volume of about 26.3 million cubic
particular field or fields. be fully operational by 2013. metres (MCM) and active storage of 21.9
million cubic metres (MCM).
Eskom’s media desk provided “SA Me-
chanical Engineer” with the latest update The power plant
on Ingula scheme, a scheme that will have The underground power house complex
a capacity of 1 333MW and an energy consists of machine hall, a transformer
storage capacity of 21 000MWh. hall and associated tunnels, shafts and

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 21


POWER GENERATION

draft tubes and a single concrete lined tailrace


tunnel will connect the pump/turbines to the lower
reservoir. Headrace surge shafts and tailrace surge
chambers will also be provided.
How it works
The dams, 4.6 km apart, are connected by these
underground waterways that run through an
underground powerhouse which houses the four
333MW pump turbines. During times of peak
energy demand, water is released from the upper
dam through the pump turbines to the lower dam
to generate electricity. During times of low energy
demand, the pump turbines are used to pump the
water from the lower dam back up to the upper dam
to store the water until it is needed again.
Latest news is that Ingula’s reservoirs are nearing
completion. Both dam walls have reached their
maximum height and major civil works are winding
caverns. The machine hall will house reversible down. At the Bedford Dam, the upper reservoir, a
Francis-type pump/turbines, coupled directly with major milestone was reached when the first concrete
generator/motors, each with a rated generating face slab panel was placed in May this year. On
capacity of 333MW. The rated generating head completion, the massive slab, which is only 300mm
is approximately 434m. thick, will cover an area of around three hectares.
It consists of 32 panels, each 15m wide while the
The pump/turbines will be connected to the upper
longest panel is a mammoth 81m long.
reservoir by twin concrete-lined headrace tunnels
and pressure tunnels and shafts which are steel- Challenges
lined over their lower part. Steel-lined extended To ensure that no water leakage occurs where a slab

102908/1

Full speed ahead with


Mobil Marine Lubricants
The superior performance of Mobil Marine Lubricants like Mobilgard
oils can help extend engine life and deliver peak performance. Mobil
Arma Wire Rope Lubricant, Mobilith greases and the energy-saving
Mobil SHC series provide a full range of supporting products. For more
information call the Engen Customer Service Centre on 08600 36436
or visit www.Engen.co.za or www.mobil.com

102908/1 Engen Mobil Full Speed Ahead 130x176.indd 1 7/30/10 3:00:40 PM


22 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010
POWER GENERATION

panel joins another and its foundation, a double Once a panel is started, work must continue until it
water-stop system is used between slabs. A strong is completed as no construction joints are allowed.
but flexible rubber strip and pre-folded copper sheet With the longest slab being 81m long, it takes up to
is inserted along the edges, allowing the panels 40 hours of continuous concrete pouring at times.
to move without cracking. Slight movements are It’s expected that the face slab concreting will take
expected as the almost one million cubic metres of about six months, translating into finishing at least
rock fill settles after construction and as the dam one slab every week.”
fills with water.
Progress
In winter the area is battered by wind speeds of up Progress on key projects in the underground works
to 140km per hour and temperatures drop as low is on schedule. In the transformer hall, the central
as -10°C, but the extreme freeze-thaw conditions heading is complete and the installation of cable
were taken into consideration when the face slab anchors is in progress. The main drainage excava-
concrete mix was designed. To prevent cracking, a tion gallery has now reached the 51% mark while
special chemical (air entrainer) was mixed into the one of the penstocks is complete and the other is
concrete, creating tiny air bubbles throughout the at 35% complete. Work on the surge chambers is
concrete paste. These air bubbles act as capillary at 5%. Downstream from the construction site, the
breaks and provide space into which the pressure tunnel stands at 47% and upstream, work on the
exerted by freezing water can be dissipated. tunnel has reached the 34% mark.
One a week Protecting biodiversity is one of Eskom’s main
Working against the steep face of the wall is chal- responsibilities at Ingula. An Environmental Man-
lenging and requires special equipment. One of these agement Programme is in place to manage the
is a slipform screed which is slowly pulled upwards day-to-day objectives, but also ensures the rolling
on the top of side shutters which move at a rate out of long-term conservation objectives.
of between two to four metres per hour. Working Dikatso Mametse, Eskom Media Desk, Tel: (011) 800-
on two platforms, workers can safely consolidate 3304/3309, Fax: (011) 800-3805, Email: mediadesk@
the concrete by means of poker vibrators and do eskom.co.za
finishing-off work.

B:51T[cCT]bX^]BhbcT\
0]X]]^ePcXeT
b^[dcX^]c^
bd__^acQT[cSaXeTb
8cXbR^\\^]Z]^f[TSVTcWPcQT[cb]TTSc^QTRWP]VTS
aTVd[Pa[hP]SbW^d[SWPeTcWTR^aaTRccT]bX^]P]S
P[XV]\T]c6^^SQT[c\PX]cT]P]RTST\P]SbcX\T
P]STUU^ac

CWTB:51T[cCT]bX^]BhbcT\_a^eXSTbP`dXRZP]STPbh
QT[c\PX]cT]P]RTb^[dcX^]

1T]T
cbU^acWTQT[ccT]bX^]bhbcT\) AT[XPQX[XchU^acWTfW^[TbhbcT\)
~ 0bbdaTSaT_TPcPQ[T\PX]cT]P]RT`dP[Xch ~ ATSdRTSR^bcbSdTc^_a^[^]VTSQT[c[XUT
~ @dXRZP]SaT[XPQ[TcT]bX^]RWTRZb ~ 7XVWTad_cX\T^UcWTfW^[TbhbcT\SdTc^[TbbcX\TR^]bd\X]V
~ 4Pbh_aTeT]cXeT\PX]cT]P]RT QaTPZS^f]b
~ BPUTbX\_[TP]SUPbcQT[caT_[PRT\T]c ~ ;TbbeXQaPcX^]bP]ScWTaTU^aTP[b^WXVWTaTU
RXT]RhSdTc^R^aaTRc
QT[ccT]bX^]
~ 4Pbh\PX]cT]P]RT_a^RTSdaTcWTaTQh\X]X\XbX]VcWTaXbZ^U
X]YdaXTb

CWT?^fTa^U:]^f[TSVT4]VX]TTaX]V
B:5B^dcW0UaXRP?ch;X\XcTS
CT[)!& '! "$5Pg)!& '! "$
4\PX[)bP[TbiP/bZUR^\FTQ)fffbZUR^iP

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 23


24 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010
THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 25
26 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010
POWER GENERATION NEWS

Addressing sustainability
Addressing the increased pressure companies are fac-
ing to engage in sustainable business practices and to
track their carbon reduction compliance now and into
the future, Epicor Software Corporation and Village Green
Global have formed a strategic alliance to extend Epicor’s
next-generation enterprise resource planning (ERP).
The suite offerings will provide companies the ability to identify,
analyse, audit, track, manage, benchmark and report on carbon
emissions, environmental impact and energy consumption.
Village Green specialises in enterprise carbon accounting, using
an internationally recognized system for carbon analysis and
trading. The company’s services help deliver scalable reporting
for carbon accounting around electricity use, water consump-
tion, transportation, natural gas, waste and other factors to nuclear motor component, from the motor hardware to the
find ways to save energy and money and enable organizations rotor and stator, fully complies with the appropriate IEEE and
to implement and maintain sustainable business practices. NUREG standards governing nuclear power plants.

“We are pleased to partner with Epicor to help bring enterprise Class 1E nuclear motors are available in a wide range of
carbon accounting solutions to their customers. Together, NEMA and IEC frame sizes, and are designed, manufactured
our goal is to assist these companies become more energy and tested under a nuclear quality assurance program in
efficient, reduce costs and address increasing environmental compliance with the NRC (United States’ Nuclear Regulatory
regulations such as Australia’s National Greenhouse and Energy Commission) 10CFR50 Appendix B standard. Class 1E mo-
Reporting Act, Europe’s Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) tors for use in a harsh environment are qualified for a total
and Restriction, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals radiation dosage of 2 x 106 Gy over a 40-year life; those
(REACH) regulation, and eco-design directive for Energy-using intended for use in a mild environment are qualified for a
Products (EuP Directive), and proposed regulations from the total radiation dose of 1 x 102 Gy over the same period.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to limit green- Baldor UK Ltd, sales.uk@baldor.com
house gas emissions from industry,” says Doug Smith, founder
and CEO of Village Green Global. “There is natural synergy
between Epicor’s next-generation ERP and our enterprise
carbon accounting, which will empower businesses with a
comprehensive solution to develop green business practices.”
Village Green maintains a database of energy values for
VACANCIES
approximately 30 000 devices and its solutions have been
used in more than 6 000 environmental audits worldwide.
www.epicor.com DO YOU HAVE:
s"3##)6),%.').%%2).'%,%#42)#!,%.').%%2).'#(%-)#!,
%.').%%2).'-%#(!.)#!,%.').%%2).'!.$/2
s"4%#(#)6),%.').%%2).'%,%#42)#!,%.').%%2).'
#(%-)#!,%.').%%2).'-%#(!.)#!,%.').%%2).'0,539%!23
0/34 15!,)&)#!4)/.%80%2)%.#%!.$/2
s2%')342!4)/.7)4(%#3!!3!02/&%33)/.!,%.').%%2/2
4%#(./,/')34
Nuclear applications eThekwini, South Africa’s leading Metro, invites you to apply to join our database of highly skilled,
Baldor has published a highly informative brochure detailing self-motivated and energetic Engineers and Technologists. If you are passionate about making a
difference to service delivery we are looking for YOU! Exciting opportunities exist to live and
the extensive range of motors that it produces for nuclear work in the Durban area and enjoy the all year round advantage of “the warmest place to be”.
applications. Applicants will enjoy a competitive salary package with a range of benefits (such as Pension
Fund, Medical Aid, 13th Cheque, payment of relocation expenses) and a supportive training
The product line is the largest available from a single source environment.
Applications are required in writing and should include a Curriculum Vitae, copies of all
and encompasses over 250 000 ratings, types, styles qualifications, registrations, training certificates, all academic results and an identification
and sizes, from 200 W to 11 000 kW. The brochure is a document.
key information resource for anyone seeking to install or Applications must be forwarded by email to hrengrecruit@durban.gov.za for the attention
of the Senior Manager of Human Resources (Engineering).
replace a motor in a nuclear power plant, or in a nuclear
7ELOOKFORWARDTORECEIVINGYOURVALUEDAPPLICATION
fuel reprocessing or radioactive waste management facility.
#/-%*/).53).4(%35.
Typical uses include driving fans, pumps, compressors and • NOTICE FOR THE ADVERTISED POSTS: Priority will be given to applicants who are under-
motorised valve actuators. represented in terms of race, gender and disability within the occupational level of the respective
posts. A work sample and/or psychometric tests may be undertaken as part of the selection process.
The brochure details all the motors that Baldor produces • AREAS OF WORK: Any employee may be required to be deployed and report to any
of the offices, depots or workplaces of the Municipality within its area of jurisdiction.
for use in Class 1E (safety related) Mild and Harsh Environ- • PLEASE NOTE: Canvassing of Councillors and Officials in respect of these positions will lead
ments, as well as radiation-resistant motors for operation in to the disqualification of the applicant.
non-Class 1E commercial or industrial environments. Every 1547/10

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 27


NUCLEAR INSTITUTE (SA BRANCH)

International Youth
Congress – Cape Town
The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) in conjunction with Department of Energy
hosted the first International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC2010) on the African continent from 12 to 18 July
2010 in Cape Town. The event was supported by many local organisations including Necsa, iThemba Labs
and the National Nuclear Regulator and by many international corporations, not least the International Atomic
Energy Agency.

T
he conference was opened by the Minister gave a very interesting example on public com-
of Energy, Ms Dipuo Peters. It attracted munication and education. They reported on their
about 280 delegates comprising young reach out activity where they set up an exhibition
nuclear professionals and experts from 31 stand at a rock festival with a body monitor which
countries in five continents with the exception of measures the natural radiation in human bodies.
South America. These delegates come from various The report describes the amusement and surprise
science and engineering disciplines as well as the shown by the public at the results of their evident
communications and legal sectors. “radioactiveness”.
Throughout the week the young professionals shared With the increasing energy demand the South African
their work and activities through 126 papers pre- Government is considering an energy mix which
sented from different perspectives which included, includes an ‘extensive’ nuclear component as stated
scientific, political, public and corporate views to in the energy policy approved by Cabinet in 2008.
provide balanced and comprehensive discussions With plans to increase the contribution of nuclear
about the nuclear technology. The conference energy to the national grid, it was interesting to see
emphasized the importance and the benefit of a large number of local young professionals and
the safe usage of Nuclear Science and Technology students actively participating in the discussions
within the regulated environment. of new nuclear power plants. The nuclear policy
The main highlights were discussions on nuclear ignited the interest in youth to be part of the nuclear
safety and public acceptance of nuclear technology. renaissance. The outcome of government’s IRP2
Various young generation networks made presen- process is now eagerly awaited by spirited youngsters
tation on the status of public communication and whose future in nuclear depends on it.
education in their countries and the challenges faced Awards and honours
by the industry as well as strategies used to reach South Africa won two of the seven awards in the
out to the public. The Belgian Young Generation Technical program for the best paper and poster
presentation. These were won by Hermann Becker
from the University of Cape Town and Yvotte Brits
from Necsa. The remaining awards were won by
Germany (3), Australia (1) and France (1). This
demonstrates that the local youth are on par with
the rest of the world when it comes to nuclear.
However, we still need to encourage other youth to
take up nuclear studies and undertake research.
Mrs V Msutwana-Qupe and Mr T Maqubela were
honoured by the Minister of Energy on behalf of
SAYNPS for their contribution in opening the door
for SA youth to participate in the International Youth
Nuclear Congress. They both played an important
role in the establishment of SAYNPS.
The next IYNC conference (IYNC2012) will be
hosted by the North American Young Nuclear
Generation in Charlotte.
Patience.Segonyane, www.saynps.co.za, www.iync.org,
Email: Patience.Segonyane@necsa.co.za
Mosa Rasweswe

28 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


COMPUTERS IN ENGINEERING

What’s Reverse engineering not only means


you can put together plans of old

Actually
equipment and plant for which there
no longer are design drawings, but
you can also validate design drawings
against their real-life counterparts.
The reverse-engineering (RE) process

in There?
involves measuring an object and then
reconstructing it as a 3D software
model.

T
he physical object can be measured us- CMM
ing 3D scanning technologies like CMMs To learn more about CMM equipment and its practi-
(coordinate measuring machines), laser cal application, “SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks
scanners, structured light digitisers or to Bob Metcalfe, director of iQlaser, a company
computed tomography. The measured data alone, that specialises in laser scanning services as well
usually represented as a point cloud, lacks topo- as supplying CMM equipment to the South African
market. “We’ve done everything, from scanning a
Documentation for machines has been lost, or was never saddle, to footwear, complex impellers for turbo
written machinery and even mining tunnels,” he says.
“Our measuring equipment ranges from
laser scanners to portable touch-probe
arms with the latest addition being pho-
togrammetry equipment which, through
triangulation, combines photographs
with metrology to produce 3-dimen-
sional coordinates from two-dimensional
photographs.”
Reverse engineering
Reasons for reverse engineering are
numerous. It can be done to check
interoperability of machines. Very often
it is done because documentation for
machines has been lost, or was never
written. It is frequently used for product
analysis to examine how a product works,
what components are used and to identify
potential patent infringements.
RE is an accurate way to update the CAD
model of a machine in order to match
an as-built condition. It is regularly used
in military or commercial espionage to
learn about an enemy or competitor’s
latest research by stealing or capturing
a prototype and dismantling it. Many
manufacturers also use RE for the re-
moval of copy protection and thereby
circumvent access restrictions so that
they can create unlicensed duplicates
of the machinery.
Bob Metcalfe with the LS Laser Scanner On the upside, RE can help to gain com-
logical information and is therefore often processed petitive technical intelligence in order
and modelled into a more usable format such as a to understand what a competitor is actually doing
triangular-faced mesh, a set of Nurbs surfaces or compared with what they say they’re doing. RE is
a CAD (computer-aided design) model. also used to purely to satisfy curiosity or simply to
learn from others’ mistakes.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 29


COMPUTER IN ENGINEERING

Understand what a competitor is actually doing Translating data


compared with what they say they’re doing “One of our products is a software package called
Geomagic Studio with which you can digitally re-
construct an infinite variety of complex real world
shapes more quickly and
easily than ever before,”
explains Bob.
“Using 3D scan data of
these objects, you’re able
to create accurate models
that capture either the de-
sign intent or the as-built
part. This includes product
design, re-engineering of
parts and mass customisa-
tion to engineering analysis,
rapid prototyping and digital
archiving. It opens up a new
world of possibilities by
bringing your physical parts
into the digital realm.”
Mining
A practical example of a
typical local application of
CMM comes from the mining
industry. “The introduction
A saddle scanned to produce a 3D CAD model of the FARO Laser Scanner

30 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


COMPUTERS IN ENGINEERING

into the South African market opened up


exciting new possibilities for improvements
in the efficiency of planning new mining
projects and in facilitating easy applica-
tion of structural modifications to existing
mine tunnels,” explains Bob. “This scanner
generates photo-realistic 3D grey-scale
images of the environment surrounding the
scanner within a radius of 76 metres. The
images comprise 28 million pixel points
each recorded with their own specific
XYZ coordinates relative to the scanner’s
position in that space.
“Phase-shift measuring electronics allow
these images to be collected extremely
rapidly at rates of 250 000 points per
second so that a scan is created in less
than four and a half minutes,” says Bob.
“Using surveyed references points, it is
possible to locate the scans, referred to as An impeller scanned for reverse engineering
point clouds, precisely within the mine’s
geo-reference coordinate system and therefore a full
3D model of a mine tunnel complex can be formed They can determine more accurately how thick the lining
by compiling a series of point clouds.” is that has actually been applied
Two-fold the mine structure at the time of scanning and can
The benefits of this type of approach are two-fold. be used to compare against similar images generated
“Firstly the images represent a permanent record of at a later stage in the life of the mine to observe

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 31


COMPUTER IN ENGINEERING

“On one mine, for instance, they use this system


to check the thickness of the layers of lining that
subcontractors spray onto the walls of the tunnels,”
adds Bob. “Previously the mine simply had to take
the word of the contractor as to the thickness of the
layer and pay accordingly, but now they do a scan
before and after. By comparing the two images,
they can determine more accurately how thick the
lining is that has actually been applied.”
Detail
CMM equipment is often used to align large ma-
chinery like power station turbines and generators,
but a particularly interesting job for iQlaser right
now is ‘mapping’ an entire aluminium smelter plant
in CAD from the biggest to the smallest piece of
equipment. “To measure intricate machinery, we
often use a combination of the laser scanner and
the touch-probe system in order to produce CAD
data in fine detail of the exterior and interior of a
The Laser Scanner on its tripod
machine and its components,” says Bob.
rock movement, break-out and structural changes “Although laser scanning works on a ‘line-of-sight’
that may have been implemented subsequent to principle, it can even be mounted on a machining
the initial tunnel blasting,” says Bob. centre permanently in order to ‘keep an eye’ on the
“Secondly, the images can be interrogated in the wear rate of a tool for quality control purposes.”
comfort of an office environment and away from Bob Metcalfe, iQlaser, Tel: (011) 659-0346, Email: bob@
the harsh working conditions encountered under- iQlaser.co.za
ground.

32 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


COMPUTER IN ENGINEERING

We are Being Ripped


Off
Are South African’s, like the rest of the world, being ripped off when it comes to the price of toner and ink
cartridges? The answer is a definite Yes! In fact, South African’s are doubly cheated as the already-inflated
price of toner and ink jet cartridges is much higher here than the exact same product overseas.


SA Mechanical Engineer” phoned
local companies, searched the The comparison he supplies speaks for itself
internet and spoke to several Example 1:
end-users who are up in arms The total costs calculated over five years, 15 000 pages per month,
about the price of toner and ink re- 20% density, A3 page, including initial price of printer and all
placement cartridges, especially when consumables except paper.
they cost more than the printer itself.
And it seems that printer manufac- Line Printer (500LPM, 24hr duty cycle) cost = R39 768
turers are not moved by the outcry Versus
about a product that costs ten times Laser printer (50ppm, A3, mono laser printer) cost =
more per gram or millilitre than the R589 444
most expensive caviar or perfume in
the world. Example 2:
The total costs calculated over five years, 5 000 pages per month,
Liquid gold? 20% density, A4 page, including initial price of printer and all
The Mnet actuality programme, Carte consumables except paper.
Blanche, delved into the matter com-
paring the price of fuel at R8 a litre, Dot Matrix Printer (80 column, 570cps printer) cost =
or perfume at R4 000 a litre, against R129 580
that of printer ink that comes in at a Versus
staggering R20 000 a litre. That’s what
Laser Printer (28ppm, A4, mono laser printer) cost =
it costs if you buy an OEM product. And
R1 017 066
no, it does not contain gold dust.
One journalist wrote: ‘Printer ink is
they can.”
one of the most expensive thing in the world when
you break down how much it costs per millilitre. Making up the loss
So why does it cost so much? Simply put, because The main manufacturers are not responding but we
found one comment on the internet trying to justify
the business model they all basically follow. “The
dynamics in terms of the cost of the cartridge needs
to be understood,” says one manufacturer. “As a
consumer, I wouldn’t be looking at it in terms of what
the cost is per litre or per gram, it’s about the yield
that it can deliver. We typically don’t make money in
terms of bringing the hardware to the market and in
some instances we are investing in getting that printer
there. So if the consumer after a short period of time
says, ‘I don’t like this,’ and ditches it, it’s been an
expensive exercise.”
Printer manufacturers argue they are pricing the hard-
ware at a loss so that the printer sells and so they
make up for it with cartridge sales. There are generic
replacement cartridges on the market at a lower cost
than the OEM’s, but everyone we spoke to is reluctant
to use substitute products because they damage the
printers by clogging the print head on ink printers, or

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 33


COMPUTER IN ENGINEERING

the drum on laser printers.


Insult to injury
Sounds a bit like the cellphone industry
where you get the phone for ‘free’ but
the minutes cost plenty. Here, of course,
there is a lot more technology in a phone,
a lot more functionality, a lot more infra-
structure required and it doesn’t usually
last less than a year and cost so much
to fix it’s not worth the trouble.
To add insult to injury, the local cost of
some original cartridges is much higher than the companies we interviewed seemed to be complacent
same brand and model in the United States. The by simply accepting it as one of those things. But
everyone’s ears twitched when we suggested there
As a consumer, I wouldn’t be looking at it in terms of might just be an alternative available.
what the cost is per litre or per gram
Most documents being printed are purely to have
something clearly visible on paper.
They are not printed for presen-
tation purposes and so do not
require the neat clean finish of a
laser printer. Why then not use a
line printer, or even a dot matrix
printer for that matter?
An alternative
“SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks
to Rodney Bartman of Roan Sys-
tems who compares the long term
costs of printing using different
types of printers on a calculator
they specially developed for this
purpose. “Our clients who have
converted to printing all their
everyday internal printing on line
printers will never look back, we’ve
saved them millions in printer
consumables,” he says. “Many
companies do not consider lifecycle
costs and don’t know what their
printers cost them over the long
term. They buy purely on initial
acquisition outlay but we’ve proved
over and again that substantial
costs can be saved by using dif-
ferent print technologies.”
Undoubtedly the price war in ink
and laser cartridge replacement
is here to stay in spite of generic
replacements getting better and
better all the time. As long as
everyone is prepared to pay for
the luxury of laser-printed docu-
ments for everything they print,
the price just won’t come down.
For those who are serious about
lifecycle costs, there may be a
way out.
Rodney Bartman. Roan Systems, Tel:
(011) 462-8880, Email: rodneyb@
roan.co.za

67739 Hytec HFT Filtration.indd 1 7/13/10 9:12:12 AM


34 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010
SAINT

FORTHCOMING
ATTRACTION
Fact or MINING – INDUSTRIAL – CONSTRUCTION
– P O W E R G E N E R AT I O N –

Fiction?
One of the myths in Non Destructive Testing is
that Dye Penetrant Testing is being phased out.

A
dmittedly, new NDT methods have been devel-
oped to improve on the “old school” methods,
for example digital radiography, tomography,
thermography and phased array to name a few.
The question is will the “old school” NDT method of
dye penetrant testing become redundant, forgotten and
replaced with a technology advanced method?
SKETCH 3187/107/10

The honest answer is we don’t know, but at the moment,


dye penetrant testing still has a very strong foothold.
Many power stations, mines, pulp manufacturing plants
PRE-REG
and the like are rapidly aging and require fatigue crack
www.el ISTER AT
detection regularly, what else to use but the reliable dye ectram
Entranc inin
ness ca without a ticke g.co.za
penetrant testing method? Dye penetrant testing still e
remains one of the most trusted NDT methods on site, rd, or pr t, or a b
subject e u
to a R20 -registration issi-
and has many advantages over the latest technologies entranc
e fee.
available like.
Such advantages include cost effectiveness, testing on
most alloys, ease of training personnel, visually positive
and testing of complex geometry parts.
4 - 8 OCTOBER 2010
One of the issues with dye penetrant testing in our high MTN Expo Centre at Nasrec, South Africa
tech life styles is the time required to perform a reliable
test, pre-cleaning is the most neglected or under-rated
step in the whole process.
Why pre-clean the part before the inspection? Most of us
Electra Mining Africa 2010
will say it is to ensure that the indication is not covered
by dirt or that the indication is not clogged up with dirt,
Diarise now!
thus preventing the penetrant from entering the defect, See 1000’s of products, 100’s of exhibitors
correct! But take a minute and ask yourself “why else
is pre-cleaning so important?” 4-8 October 2010, MTN Expo Centre, Nasrec
Pre-cleaning is mostly done on site by wire brushing
followed by solvent or detergent cleaning. This whole Register for your free ticket at
process is done by hand and thus “forces” the techni-
cian to do a visual inspection on the part to be tested.
www.electramining.co.za
Furthermore, pre-cleaning also ensures an improved INCORPORATING
wetting ability on the surface that allows the penetrant
to spread better over the test area. Finally, false indica-
tions could arise, if not cleaned properly Tr a n s p o r t f o r t h e M i n i n g I n d u s t r y

Pre-cleaning a part before dye penetrant testing is prob- For further information contact
ably the most important step in the whole penetrant Specialised Exhibitions
testing method, without which a reliable test cannot Tel: +27 (0) 11 835 1565
Fax: +27 (0) 11 496-1363
be performed. or email veda@specialised.com
or cwood@specialised.com
SAINT, Tel: (011) 719-5717, Email: saint@saint.org.za, www. www.electramining.co.za
saint.org.za

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 35


36 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010
SAIT

“Renewable Lubricants
& Fuels”
T
he SAIT will present a one-day seminar
Bio-ethanol
• Market overview
on “Biofuels“, at Science Park, Northway,
Kelvin on 23 November 2010. We are in- • Logistics and handling of ethanol and blends
viting interested persons to submit papers thereof
for this event. The seminar is intended to bring • Hydrous bioethanol in final fuels
together all parties interested in this important
and topical subject. • Impact of high ethanol blend on vehicles (Elas-
tomer compatibility, metals, corrosion)
The bio industry and engine technology are changing
rapidly, due to a number of international drivers. As • Other
a result, fuel and lubricant requirements are chang- Bio-diesel
ing as well as the handling thereof. The introduc- • Market overview
tion of biofuels may have an impact on the cost of
• Relevance of biodiesel specification
ownership of engines and needs to be handled and
treated correctly. Similarly, bio lubricant technology • Bio diesel stability
is changing and developing rapidly. Awareness in • Cold flow properties of bio fuel blends
this area is of critical importance.
• Bio-diesel feedstocks
Guidelines for speakers
• Impact on DPF’s (diesel particulate filters)
Authors are invited to submit papers on topics that
are informative and current. The following subjects General Biofuels
are a guideline only for the day’s programme. Any • Bio-fuels Innovation, research and develop-
other suggestions, ideas or topics that could be ment
associated with the subject, will be welcome:
• General presentations and publication of Bio-
Lubricants fuels
• Market overview Please send a brief synopsis of your proposed paper
• Impact of bio fuels on the lubricant for approval, maximum 500 words, to the SAIT, email
requirements secretary@sait.org.za or fax to 011 804-4972, by
30 August 2010. Please include title, authors and
• Formulation using bio base stocks, stability,
affiliation, and your contact details. The full paper
additive requirements
is required by 8 October 2010.
• Applications for biodegradable lubricants – case
The seminar is not a selling platform, and product
studies (hydraulics, cutter bar, other, etc.)
promotional material or sales orientated videos
• Storage and handling should not be included in the presentations.

“Lubrication
Annual Golf Challenge 2010 Engineering”
Once again this year we are adding a new concept five day courses in
to what was a successful 2009 SAIT golf day. Durban, Johannesburg
PowerPlay Golf will be incorporated into this and Cape Town
year’s event. Check out www.powerplay-golf.
com to see what you are in for.
Venue: Glenvista Country Club
For any enquiries regarding the
Date: Tuesday 5th October 2010 technical nature of the seminar please
Sean Farrell, 082 354-9719 or Andrew Kirk, contact Shawn Pharo at 082 856 2100
083 601-9707, Email: sean@golfguys.co.za, or Andrew Kirk at 083 601 9707, and
andrewkirk@isls.co.za for general enquiries phone Gill or
Isabel at 011 802-5145

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 37


38 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010
Market Forum
Ultimate platform certified by a structural engineer, with manufacture carried
Taking place at the MTN Expo Centre, Nasrec, Johannesburg out to the highest Australian quality control standards for
from 4-8 October, Electra Mining Africa is ranked as the applications in forestry, mining, construction, general industry
second largest mining show in the world and, together with and agriculture.
co-located shows Elenex Africa and Transport Expo Africa, Reservoir diameters are adapted to suit the space available
will provide visitors with the ultimate platform to view a vast on site, and the wall height increased to deliver the storage
array of new innovations, products, services, technologies, capacity required. The company recently used this method
trends and industry developments in the mining, construc- of adaptation to fit a reservoir into limited site space at a
tion, industrial and power generation industries. private hospital in Johannesburg.
“Visitors can expect to see many leading-edge South African Rainbow Reservoirs, Wayne Thompson, Tel: (015) 297 7640, E-mail:
companies in the packed halls and outside precincts, as well skywater@mweb.co.za
as high-profile international exhibitors from countries such
as Australia, Austria, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil, Canada,
China, Croatia, France, Germany, India, Italy, Poland, Russia,
Taiwan, Turkey, UK and USA,” says Veda Koekemoer, Exhibi-
tion Manager at Specialised Exhibitions, organisers of the
shows. “Government support is also strong with large stand
areas taken by the Australian Trade Commission and Camese,
Compressed air dryers
and also the French, German and USA Pavilions.”
A new range of compressed air refrigerated dryers is now
“It’s exciting that this year’s show has attracted such a available in South Africa. These compressed air dryers
high-level of international interest, which shows confidence are manufactured in Korea for international markets and
and interest in our market. The international exhibitors see comply with the latest international and EU standards
South Africa as a developing country with growth potential With 13 models available in air and water cooled versions
and a very strong player in the mining industry”. from 2 m³/min to 42 m³/min, the HX is designed for continu-
Entrance without a ticket, or a business card, or pre-reg- ous use in a variety of environments.
istering at www.electramining.co.za is subject to a R20 All the models use a stainless steel plate to plate heat
entrance fee. exchanger for the freon exchangers which forms one space
Specialised Exhibitions, Robyn Milligan, Tel: (011) 835 1565, Email: saving unit.
robyn@specialised.com, www.electramining.co.za The stainless steel exchanger makes the HX dryer ideal for
coastal applications where salt corrosion often attacks the
aluminum multi cell exchangers used in other brands. The
HX series also uses electro plated cabinets that are powder
coated making this dryer more resistant to corrosion.
Dryer performance is shown via an control panel that has a
drain override test button. The same panel also allows for
Massive water storage drain timer adjustment.
Good news for would-be installers of very large panel reservoirs,
water storage capacities are not limited by the dimensions Arctic Dryers, Allen Cockfield, (011) 425 3484, Email: allen@ar-
of standard production models. ticdriers.co.za

Wayne Thompson, managing director of Rainbow Reservoirs,


reports that the company’s Australian principals build to
specification panel-type reservoirs as large as two megali-
tres for installation around
the world.
“This is about three times
bigger than the standard
panel reservoirs listed on
company literature,” says
Wayne.
“Enquiries for very large
capacities are on the up,
and I believe our designers
at Heritage Tanks will soon
increase the maximum limit
of 2 megalitres that they cur-
rently work to,” he adds.
Wayne says that the design
Wayne Thompson of all Rainbow reservoirs is

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 39


+5;174
6*417)* 27 6

&'%4'#5+0)!

1RVKOKUGQRGTCVKQPUCPFOKPKOKUG
FQYPVKOGYKVJVJG9GKT/KPGTCNU/KNN
%KTEWKV5QNWVKQP

9JCVIQGUKPOWUVIQQWV5YKHV5VGCF[0Q
DQVVNGPGEMU6JG9GKT/KNN%KTEWKV5QNWVKQPVJGOQUV
FWTCDNGGSWKROGPVHQT[QWTOQUVETKVKECNRTQEGUUGU
FGNKXGTUNQPIGXKV[ECRCEKV[CPFQRGTCVKPIGHȨEKGPE[
#VCNQYGT6%19GKToUUWRGTKQTJ[FTCWNKEFGUKIPCPF
VJGEQODKPCVKQPQHȨXGRGTHQTOCPEGNGCFKPIDTCPFU
GPUWTGUEQPUVCPVRNCPVVJTQWIJRWV$GECWUGYGMPQY
KVoUOQTGVJCPLWUV[QWTCUUGVQPVJGNKPG
(QTHWTVJGTKPHQTOCVKQPRNGCUGEQPVCEVWUQP

 

ENVIROTECH Š WARMAN Š VULCO Š CAVEXŠ ISOGATE Š


&GYCVGTKPI%GPVTKHWICN2WORU %GPVTKHWICN5NWTT[2WORU 9GCT4GUKUVCPV.KPKPIU *[FTQE[ENQPGU 5NWTT[8CNXGU

'ZEGNNGPV
/KPGTCNU
5QNWVKQPU

40 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


Market Forum
Ready for market
K’Enyuka’s modular coal plant is arousing considerable inter-
est in the small to medium mining sector, both locally and
internationally, particularly among emerging enterprises, for
the numerous attractive advantages it offers.
“It is the ideal solution for beneficiating resources at
the lowest possible cost basis with the best results,”
Trevor Anderson, business development manager at
K’Enyuka, says. “In addition, the modular plant is
specifically tailor-made to clearly identified needs
and can be upgraded as a company grows, ranging
from a basic entry-level type plant to a highly complex
configuration for small, medium and large mining
companies.”
Modifications would depend on the type of in-situ
reserves and the required product specification.
K’Enyuka offers numerous “add-ons” to the standard
plant to cater for the quality of the reserve and the
market specifications. The modular plant can handle
a nominal feed tonnage of 200 tph at a top particle
size of 50 mm. “Modules can also be assembled in
parallel, to augment capacity,” adds Felihle Dumisa,
head of process engineering at K’Enyuka.
“Raw coal handling systems, fine coal washing modules, and
discard and product handling systems can also be designed
and constructed to client specification,” concludes Felihle.
K’Enyuka, Mike Symonds, Tel: (011) 498 6000, www.kenyuka.com

Next generation
IronCad Next Generation allows users to add real design
content during the development process and the embedded
2D design environment ensures users can view detail within
a familiar 2D environment .
The combination of IronCad’s design environment with the
more conventional history-based structured design environ-
ment, allows users to choose, at an individual level, which
process is most appropriate for the particular part they are
designing.
The innovative design element delivers real flexibility, al-
lowing users to directly manipulate the parts independent
of history and constraints while maintaining feature design
information. Essential for conceptual modelling. Its structured
design allows users to build rigid feature dependant parts
with embedded design intent, delivering more control over
future changes.
IronCad Next Generation incorporates a powerful 2D design
environment, offering one of the most powerful annotation
tools on the market today, embedded as a standard drafting
environment.
In addition to its familiar user friendly interface, IronCad’s
new 2D environment offers all the functionality users have
come to expect from some of the market leading standalone
2D design tools.
www.ironcad.co.za

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 41


Market Forum
Contest competitive market and construction, reports the company.
Engen, the African energy company, has extended its Indian www.engenoil.com and www.galana.com
Ocean (IO) coverage with the appointment of leading regional
oil company Galana as its lubricants distributor in Mada-
gascar. With marketing operations in 18 African countries,
Engen further exports its products to over 30 African and
IO countries, and continues to seize acquisitive, organic and
partner growth opportunities in the regions.
Engen International Business Division (IBD) GM Wayne
Hartmaan, says the partnership is exclusive and constitutes
a good platform on which to establish Engen’s brand rela-
tively quickly in the Indian Ocean. “We aim to leverage this
partnership to become one of the leading lubricants suppliers
in the competitive Malagasy market.”
Largest billet inspection
Tectra Automation has supplied components to H. Rohloff
Engen brings a strong South African brand to the table, en- for the design and manufacture of the world’s largest billet
compassing a full range of lubricants of guaranteed quality inspection line. The machine, currently awaiting factory ac-
carrying various approvals from original equipment manu- ceptance by the client, is destined for a Chinese steel mill,
facturers (OEMs), Wayne says. Dalian Steel. The machine is valued at R16 million and uses
Galana, has extensive local market knowledge, an extensive thermography to accurately detect defects.
retail network, industrial and port installations, and a mod- H. Rohloff designed and manufactured a Billet InspectIR
ernised distribution network, giving it 25% of the retail fuel inspection line consisting of six computers, a control desk,
market in the country. a 19-inch signal processing cabinet, induction heater, pre-
Looking to consolidate its position as the leading oil com- wetting station, camera box station and marking station. The
pany in the Indian Ocean, Galana is currently undergoing an line was designed to inspect 360 mm bar.
extensive capital investment programme, including a new According to Lowie van der Walt, Project Engineer, H. Rohloff,
petroleum jetty and ongoing retail network modernisation the company once again partnered with Tectra Automation

42 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


Market Forum
in order to ensure compo-
nents for a machine. “Tectra
Automation has worked with
us on the development of our
two previous Billet InspectIR
lines which were supplied
to ArcelorMittal and a steel
manufacturer in Germany. The
Tectra team is ideal because of
their expertise, product quality
and service back-up.
“We worked with Tectra Auto-
mation from the design phase
to ensure that we developed
a sophisticated machine that
met all of our client’s require-
ments.”
Louie notes that the inspection line will be installed in the heavy fuel movement with the amount of energy needed
production line and is unique in that it can inspect round to achieve it.
bar from 40mm to 360mm and square bar up to 250mm.
Ed says that Ecochem would propose a particular design of
“The line features 11 Bosch Rexroth servo motors which are
mixer after considering test results from Milton Roy’s pilot
responsible for positioning the billets. Once the parameters
plant, which simulates the complex process of mixing within
are programmed into the machine, it automatically adjusts
tanks of different dimensions using different Robin models
according to the size of billet being inspected.”
at various levels.
Tectra Automation, Georg Venter, Tel: (011) 971 9400, Email:
Used in combination with computer modelling and residence
georgv@tectra.co.za
time distribution analysis in their pilot plant, this simula-
tion identifies areas in the tank in which mixing may not
be taking place, allowing the mixers to be repositioned to
optimise the outcome.
“The benefits include a power consumption made as low as
possible by shaping the mixing vanes to suit the applica-
Turning sludge into product tion, and by optimising mixer geometry to limit tank wear
Local bio-fuels and petrochemicals engineers need no longer and reduce the scheduled maintenance needed to remove
look abroad for specialist solutions to their tank agitation scale,” he says.
requirements as the Robin range of industrial mixers from Ecochem Pumps, Ed Lemke, Tel: (011) 455 5710, E-mail: ed@eco-
Milton Roy is now being sold and supported by Ecochem chempumps.co.za
Pumps. It has recently announced an extension of its product
offering to include side entry mixers needed for petrochemi-
cals and biofuels processing and storage.
In these applications, thorough agitation is needed to prevent
suspended solids from settling during heavy and unrefined
fuels storage, forming a cake that is difficult and costly to
remove, and which equates to wasted product.
A combination of steam pipes, agitators and mixers is gener-
ally used to keep fuels in motion, with engineers considering
the side-entry swivel-type mixer essential to achieve fuel
motion throughout the tank.
It is this type of Milton Roy mixer which Gauteng-based Eco-
chem Pumps is now importing. The Helisem range offers an
array of standard models, while the Robin series comprises
customised mixers engineered for specialist applications.
Designed for large operating volumes up to 5000m3, Robin
mixers can be manufactured with diameters of up to 9 me-
tres, and with shaft lengths up to 40 metres. Motors up to
630kW supply the power.
Ecochem Pumps managing director, Ed Lemke, explains
that each Robin mixer is designed to optimally balance

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 43


Market Forum
Supports complex requirements of its legacy products, Infor has ensured that all
previous Baan releases have been back-ported and
Now part of software giant Infor, Baan an
are fully compliant with Infor’s new SOA strategy
enterprise resource planning solution has
which enables them to take advantage of the new
survived two acquisitions and, according to
architecture and components.
Softworx, Baan is operated by more than
120 customers across sub-Saharan Africa, www.esoftworx.co.za
with new customers joining all the time.
A good example, says Jane, is Weir Minerals
Africa, which has been a Baan customer
for 12 years and has recently extended its
use with a successful implementation in
its newly acquired Alrode facility.
Canning conundrum solved
Infor ERP Baan IV provides Weir Miner- Shortly after introducing RBC bearings to the South
als with core manufacturing and planning African market in early 2010, sole distributor Bear-
functionality on a scalable, multi-language, Jane Thomson ings International (BI) has solved a longstanding
open-systems platform. productivity issue in the canning industry.
The strength of Infor ERP Baan and Infor ERP Ln lies in its “A canning company’s necking machines were experiencing
ability to support complex manufacturing and distributions premature cam follower failure linked to high load applica-
requirements of industrial equipment and machinery, high-tech tion, lack of lubrication and high operating temperatures,”
electronics, component producers, commercial aerospace, says BI’s RBC Product Manager Athol Palmer “
shipbuilding and other companies. It is a fully integrated
solution providing multi-plant business process modelling Conventionally, a standard cam follower uses a full comple-
and delivers information visibility for decision-makers. ment needle roller design, which is known to cause roller
skewing. This in turn raises operating temperatures and
Infor ERP Baan and Infor ERP Ln help make-to-stock, assemble- inhibits operating speeds. Needle rollers also limit the load
to-order, make-to-order, and engineer-to-order companies carrying capacity, while their gap seals allow contaminants
lower their total cost of technology ownership. In support to intrude.
“With a totally different design, the RBC roller cam
follower has solved all these issues at once. Its double
row cylindrical large diameter rollers are able to
carry high loads, resulting in reduced fatigue. The
precise roller guidance achieved makes it possible
to run up to 10 degrees C cooler.”
He says the contacting lip seals only make contact
with the stud ground diameters, providing a secure
seal that retains lubricants and excludes contami-
nants. A large grease reservoir between the roller
paths contains up to four times more grease than
like-sized needle cam followers.
“The canning company is already enjoying several
benefits, including power savings and lower main-
tenance requirements, since there is less wear
and tear in the internal workings, and significantly
reduced downtime,” says Athol.
Bearings International, Athol Palmer, Tel: (011) 345
8000

New pump generation


Movitec has improved its vertical Movitec high-pres-
sure in-line pumps. It recently announced, sizes 2,
4 and 6 of the new generation pumps. With the
addition of size 6, KSB is now able to offer Movitec
with a full set of uniformly spaced characteristic
curves, so that potential users can select the optimum

44 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


Market Forum
pump to suit their
particular applica-
tion. This allows
an optimised and
energy-efficient
fluid flow with
standardised pipe
diameters. Based
on our know-how
and experience,
we have optimised
the hydraulic sys-
tem and design
of the Movitec
pumps, so that
the new genera-
tion offers our cus-
tomers numerous
additional benefits:
When it comes to keeping system costs down, the cost effectiveness of every system
component has to be analysed in detail and the new Movitec is ideally suited to
take full advantage of potential energy savings.
www.ksbpumps.co.za

Heat exchangers in any size


Transheat, manufacturers of Transon heat exchanger systems, which was acquired
by Bearing Man Group (BMG), has relocated to the BMG Drives Westmead facility
in KwaZulu-Natal.
The new BMG Drives facility, which boasts ISO 9001:2008 accreditation for the
design, manufacture and refurbishing of heat exchangers, was recently audited by
a major international consortium and has been accredited as the preferred supplier
and refurbisher of all brands of heat exchangers,” says Ray Walker, general and
technical manager of BMG’s heat exchanger division.
The company has recently completed the manufacture of a new 4 tonne Transon heat
exchanger, but, the largest Transon exchanger built by BMG to date is a 48 module
unit which was constructed for an extremely corrosive mining application.
Transon’s modular design, which comprises one or more shell and tube type standard
units assembled together, enables installations to be extended to meet increased
capacity requirements
and to overcome space
restraints if neces-
sary.
Single and multi-mod-
ule units can be ar-
ranged in horizontal or
vertical configurations,
depending on capacity
and size requirements.
Mounting stands are
designed for simple,
quick installation to
match the related pipe
work.
Fluid separation is

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 45


Market Forum
an important safety feature of Transon’s heat exchanger
system. In the event of seal deterioration, an atmospheric
gap ensures that fluid leaks externally, preventing internal Subscription
mixing and cross contamination of fluids.
BMG, Ray Walker, Tel: (031) 701 4547, Email: rayw@bmgworld. Please fax us if you wish to subscribe to “SA Mechanical En-
net, www.bmgworld.net gineer” at R400,00 (incl postage and VAT) per year; R945,00
per year for Africa/Overseas. We will post you an invoice on
receipt of your fax.

PROMECH PUBLISHING Fax No: (011) 781-1403


Equipment supplier acquisition
Imperial Holdings Limited, through its subsidiary AMH, has
From:......................................................................................
announced that it has acquired a majority shareholding in
the Goscor Group of companies, a diversified industrial and
(insert your name)
engineering group.
Founded in South Africa, the Goscor Group has been supply- Title: ......................................................................................
ing the local market with industrial equipment and solutions
for the past 26 years. It consists of 6 key divisions, and is
Company: ..............................................................................
a distributor of industrial equipment.
Goscor Lift Truck Company is the sole provider of forklift Address: ...............................................................................
brands such as Crown, Doosan and Bendi in South Africa.
Goscor ARC is a South African supplier of welding and cut- ...............................................................................................
ting solutions. Supplying brands such as Lincoln Electric and
ESAB, which the two most dominant players in the world
...................................................................Code: ..................
welding market., Goscor Arc’s customers include major players
in the steel fabrication, mining, construction and transport
Telephone: ( ) ....................................................................
industries. Goscor Cleaning Equipment provides industrial
cleaning equipment solutions from a wide range of brands
including Tennant, Elgin, Ghibli and Vactor. Goscor Power Fax: ( ) ................................................................................
Products distributes Robin Subaru engines, pumps, genera-
tors and welders. It is also the South African distributor of Email:.....................................................................................
the Meiwa and Laku light construction equipment ranges.
Goscor Compressed Air Systems is the sole distributor for
Sullair Compressors and has been providing the healthcare, Index to Advertisers
cement, packaging and mining industries with holistic solu- Artic 14
tions since 1984. Goscor Rental Company is an equipment AST Inside Front Cover
supplier of lift trucks and industrial cleaning equipment on Atlas Copco 32
a daily, weekly or monthly basis. This equipment can be Axiom Hydraulics 38
supplied with a qualified operator, thereby enhancing per- Bearings International Outside Back Cover
formance and reducing customer risk. Bonfiglioli 20
Imperial Holdings, Manny de Canha, Tel: (011) 398 9100 Chemserve Systems 44
Co-Generation 10
Donaldson 16

On the Move
Eastleigh 24, 25
Electra Mining 35
Engen 22
Engineer Placements 16
Esab 26
Ethekwini Municipality 27
Europair 30
GEA Grasso 4
Hansen Transmission Outside Front Cover
Hytec 34
IronCAD 42
Massyn Jansen van Vuuren
Multotec 36
has been appointed as
Resulta 41
Internal Sales engineer at SEW Inside Back Cover
the Johannesburg offices SKF 23
of SEW-Eurodrive. Verder 45
Voith 31
Weir Minerals 40
Massyn Jansen van Vuuren
Yellotec 12, 18

46 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010


SEW-EURODRIVE - Driving the world

We don’t develop products


we develop solutions.

Suppliers of geared motors, industrial gears, frequency inverters, drive electronics, servo technology and services.
Naturally, as the leading drive-technology specialists, we consistently develop new products that are above all reliable,
energy-efficient and produced cost-efficiently. Moreover, our know-how and experience allows us to go a step further than
the rest – providing solutions that you can build on. That’s what we call Drive 360o – Seeing the big picture: from the system
availability to problem-solving competence, achieving lower operating costs through energy-efficiency right through to
finished systems. We can fulfill all your needs.

SEW-Eurodrive (Pty) Ltd


PO Box 90004 l Bertsham 2013
Tel: +2711 248-7000
Fax: +27 11 248-7289

www.sew.co.za THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010 47


48 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 61 August 2010