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Appendix 10.2
AN EXAMPLE OF AIRPLANE
PRELIMINARY DESIGN
PROCEDURE - JET TRANSPORT
E.G.Tulapurkara
A.Venkattraman
V.Ganesh
REPORT NO: AE TR 2007-4
APRIL 2007
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An Example of Airplane Preliminary Design
Procedure - Jet Transport
E.G.Tulapurkara
A.Venkattraman†
V.Ganesh‡
Abstract
In this report, we present an application of the preliminary design
procedure followed in aircraft design course. A 150 seater jet airplane
cruising at M = 0.8, at 11 km altitude and having a gross still
air
range(GSAR) of 4000 km is considered. The presentation is divided
into eight sections
• Data collection
• Preliminary Weight estimation
• Optimization of wing loading and thrust loading
• Wing design
• Fuselage design, preliminary design of tail surface and prelimi-
nary layout
• c.g. calculation
• Control surface design
• Features of designed airplane
• Details of performance estimation
AICTE Emeritus Fellow, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
†B.Tech Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
‡Dual Degree Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
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Contents
1 Data Collection
6
1.1 The Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.1 Type of Aircraft and Market . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.2 Budget and Time Constraints . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 7
1.1.3 Other Constraints and Standards . . . .
. . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Preliminary Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.1 Preliminary Weight Estimate . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 9
1.2.2 Wing parameters . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.3 Empennage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.4 Control Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.5 Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.6 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.7 Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 12
1.3 Overall height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 12
2 Revised Weight Estimation
21
2.1 Fuel fraction estimation . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.1 Warm up and Take o . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 21
2.1.2 Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.3 Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 22
2.1.4 Loiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 23
2.1.5 Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 23
2.2 Empty Weight Fraction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 23
3 Wing Loading and Thrust Loading
25
3.1 Landing Distance Consideration . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 25
3.2 Maximum Speed(Vmax) Consideration . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 27
3.2.1 Estimation of K . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 27
3.3 (R/C)max consideration . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 32
3.4 Based on Minimum Fuel for Range (Wfmin ) . .
. . . . . . . . . 33
3.5 Based on Absolute Ceiling . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 34
3.6 Summary of Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 36
3.7 Consideration of Wing Weight (Ww ) . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 36
3.8 Choosing a W/S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 37
3.9 Thrust Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 37
3.9.1 Requirement for Vmax . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 38
3.10 Requirements for (R/C)max . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 38
3.11 Take-O Thrust Requirements . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 38
3.12 Engine Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 39
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3.13 Engine Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 39
4 Wing Design
42
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2 Airfoil Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 42
4.2.1 Design Lift Coe cient . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 43
4.2.2 Airfoil Thickness Ratio and Wing Sweep
. . . . . . . . 43
4.3 Other Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 44
4.3.1 Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3.2 Taper Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.3 Root and Tip Chords . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.4 Dihedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.5 Wing Twist . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.4 Cranked Wing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 46
4.5 Wing Incidence(iw ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 47
4.6 Vertical Location of Wing . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 47
4.7 Areas of Flaps and Ailerons . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 48
5 Fuselage and Tail Layout
48
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 48
5.2 Initial Estimate of Fuselage Length . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 48
5.3 Nose and Cockpit - Front Fuselage . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 49
5.4 Passenger Cabin Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 49
5.4.1 Cabin Cross Section . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 50
5.4.2 Cabin length . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 50
5.4.3 Cabin Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 51
5.5 Rear Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.6 Total Fuselage Length . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 51
5.7 Tail surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 52
5.8 Engine Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 54
5.9 Landing Gear Arrangement . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 54
6 Estimation of Component Weights and C.G Location
55
6.1 Aircraft mass statement . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 55
6.1.1 Structures Group . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 55
6.1.2 Propulsion Group . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 56
6.1.3 Fixed equipment group . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 56
6.2 Weights of Various Components . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 57
6.3 C.G Location and C.G Travel . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 57
6.3.1 Wing Location on Fuselage . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 57
6.4 C.G Travel for Critical Cases . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 58
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6.4.1 Full Payload and No Fuel . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 58
6.4.2 No Payload and No Fuel . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 58
6.4.3 No Payload and Full fuel . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 59
6.4.4 Payload distribution for 15% c.g travel .
. . . . . . . . 59
6.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 59
7 Control Surfaces
60
7.1 Stability and Controllability . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 60
7.2 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control . . . .
. . . . . . . . 60
7.2.1 Speci cations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 60
7.2.2 Aft Center of gravity limit . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 60
7.2.3 Forward center of Gravity Limit . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 61
7.2.4 Determination of initial parameters . . .
. . . . . . . . 61
7.3 Lateral Stability and Control . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 65
7.3.1 Speci cations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 65
7.3.2 Equations for directional stability . . . .
. . . . . . . . 65
7.3.3 Determination of initial parameters . . .
. . . . . . . . 65
8 Features of the Designed Airplane
67
8.1 Three View Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 67
8.2 Overall Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 67
8.3 Engine details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 67
8.4 Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 67
8.5 Wing Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 69
8.6 Fuselage Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 69
8.7 Nacelle Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 69
8.8 Horizontal Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 69
8.9 Vertical Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 70
8.10 Other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 70
8.11 Crew and Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 70
8.12 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 70
9 Performance Estimation
72
9.1 Estimation of Drag Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 72
9.1.1 Estimation of (CDo )W B . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 72
9.1.2 Estimation of (CDo )V and (CDo )H . . .
. . . . . . . . 74
9.1.3 Estimation of Misc Drag - Nacelle . . . . .
. . . . . . . 75
9.1.4 CDo of the airplane . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 75
9.1.5 Induced Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 75
9.1.6 Final Drag Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 76
9.2 Engine Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 77
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9.3 Level Flight Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 80
9.3.1 Stalling speed . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 80
9.3.2 Variation of Vmin and Vmax with Altitude .
. . . . . . . 82
9.4 Steady Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 90
9.5 Range and Endurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 96
9.6 Turning Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 99
9.7 Take-o distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 103
9.8 Landing distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 104
9.9 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 105
10 Acknowledgements
107
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1 Data Collection
1.1 The Design Philosophy
The conceptual design forms the initial stage of the design process. In spite
of the fact that there are numerous aircrafts, each having its own special fea-
tures, one can nd common features underlying most of them. For example,
the following aspects would dominate the conceptual design of a commercial
transport jet.
1.1.1 Type of Aircraft and Market
The Civil Transport Jets could be classi ed in the following way :
Class No.of Seats Typical GSAR(km) Propulsion
B-747 >400 >13000 High Bypass
type Turbofan
B-757 200-400 10000 High Bypass
type Turbofan
B-737 100-200 5000 Medium Bypass
type Turbofan
Regionals 30-100 2000 Turboprop
Table 1: Classi cation of Civil Jet Airplane
From the values of gross still air range in table, it is clear
that inter-
continental ights would be restricted to the rst two classes while the last
two would handle bulk of the tra c in regional routes. The di erent classes
cater to di erent sections of the market. One decides the range and pa
y-
load(ie passengers) after identifying the target market. In this example,
we
plan to cater to the tra c in regional routes. We will design a Transp
ort
Jet with a Gross Still Air Range(GSAR) of 4000km (=R ) and a single-class
g
seating capacity of 150. We could roughly classify our aircraft as belonging
the B-737 class. We collect data for similar aircrafts and use this data set as
the basis for making initial estimates.
Our aim is to design an aircraft that satis es the following requirements.
• Gross Still Air Range = 4,000 km
• No. of passengers = 150
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• Flight Cruise Mach No. = 0.80
• Altitude =11,000 m
1.1.2 Budget and Time Constraints
Any design team would be required to work with a limited amount of funds
and time. These could dictate various aspects of the design process.For exam-
ple, innovations which could end up in a spiralling budget may be shelved.
Also, in case of highly competitive markets, the ability to get the
aircraft
ready in the prescribed time frame is very crucial. The design team
must
ensure that cost and time over-runs are minimized to the extent possible.
1.1.3 Other Constraints and Standards
Some of the major demands on the design arise from the various mandatory
and operational regulations. All commercial aircrafts must satisfy the
Air-
worthiness requirements of various countries. Typically, each country has its
own Aviation Authority (e.g, DGCA in India, CAA in UK, FAA in USA).
Airworthiness requirements would cover the following aspects of the aircraft
1. Flight
This includes performance items like stall, take-o , climb, cruise,
de-
scent, landing, response to rough air etc. Also included are re
quire-
ments of stability,controllability and manoeuvrability.
2. Structural
Flight loads, ground loads, emergency landing conditions, fatigue eval-
uation etc.
3. Powerplant
Fire protection, auxillary power unit,air intake/exhaust,fuel systems,coo
ling.
4. Other
Materials quality regulations, bird strike.
Passenger Safety is the primary motive behind these speci cations.
Ad-
ditional route-speci c constraints may have to be taken into account on
a
case-by-case basis. e.g, cruise altitude for aircrafts ying over the Himalayas
must be well over 8 km.
In addition to safety and operational requirements, the design must satisfy
the environmental constraints. Two major environmental concerns are noise
and emissions :
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• The Engines are the primary source of noise in an aircraft. The airframe
could also add to this.Maximum noise is produced during take-o and
landing. This can reduced by opting for a shallower approach, as this
reduces the ight time spent near the airport. However the reduction in
noise may not be signi cant. The development of high-bypass turbofan
engines has signi cantly reduced noise production.
• The predominant source of emissions is the engine. The exhaust
con-
tains particles, various gases including carbon dioxide(CO ) , water va-
2
por (H O) , various oxides of nitrates, carbon monoxide(CO),unburnt
2
hydrocarbons and sulphur dioxide(SO ). All components except C
O
2
2
and H O are considered as pollutants Again,as was the case with noise,
2
emissions during landing and take-o are of particular concern due to
the communities near airports. Various aviation authorities ha
ve set
limits on these emissions. The design team must adhere to such con-
straints.
1.2 Preliminary Design
If we look at the commercial transport jets in use, one can nd many common
features amongst them. Some of these are :
• Medium bypass turbofans
This choice regarding the type of engine is due to the following reasons.
In the ight regime of Mach number between 0.6 to 0.85, turbofans give
the best e ciency and moreover reduction in thrust output with speed
is not so rapid. Also, the noise generated by a medium-by pass turbo
fan engine is considerably less. We follow this trend and ch
oose a
medium-by pass turbo fan as our powerplant.
• Wing mounted engines Though not a rule, wing mounted engines
dominate the designs of top aircraft companies like Boeing and Airbus.
Alternative designs could be adopted. But,given the experience gained
with the wing mounted engines and the large data available for
such
con gurations, we adopt two wing mounted engines.
• Swept back wings and a conventional rear-tail con guration is cho-
sen. Again, this choice is dictated by the fact that we have
a large
amount of data(to compare with) for such con gurations.
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1.2.1 Preliminary Weight Estimate
Given the number of passengers, we can estimate the payload in the following
way:
1. Include one cabin crew member for 30 passengers. In our c
ase, this
gives 5 crew members
2. Include ight crew of pilot and co-Pilot.
Thus the total of passenger + crew is 150+5+2 = 157.
3. Allow 110 kg for each passenger (82 kg weight per passenger with carry
on baggage + 28 kg of checkin baggage)(Reference 1.11, page 214)
We thus obtain a payload Wpay of 157 × 110 = 17270 kgf . We now esti-
mate the gross weight of the aircraft (W ).
g
From data collection, we observe the following.
Aircraft No.of passengers Still air range (km) WT O (kgf)
737-300B 149 4185 60636
737-400B 168 3852 64671
737-700A 149 2935 60330
Table 2: Take o weight
Based on the data collected, we choose an initial weight of 60,000 kgf .
1.2.2 Wing parameters
To estimate the wing parameters, we need to choose a value for wing loading(W/S)
.
This is one of the most important parameters that not only decides the wing
parameters but also plays an important role in the performance of the air-
plane.We observe similar airplanes and choose an initial estimate for (W/S)
2
to be 5500 N/m .Once the (W/S) has been decided, the other parameter
s
of the wing are chosen based on similar aircraft.
Aerodynamically, it is desirable to have a large aspect ratio(A).
How-
ever, structural considerations force us to settle for an optimal value. As the
structural design improves, the value of A also keeps increasing. We choose
a value of 9.3. Most modern aircrafts(see data base in Table A) have values
close to 9.The taper ratio(λ) is a geometric parameter that is rough y
the
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same for a the aircrafts in the data set. We choose an average va ue of 0.24

for λ.The wing quarter chord sweep(Λc/4) is chosen as 25 .Consequent y
S = Wg S = 107.02m2
(1)
W
The wing span(b) can be ca cu ated from A and S
b = √SA = 31.55 m
(2)
The root chord(c ) and tip chord(c ) can now be found using the fo owing
r t
equations :
2S
cr = = 5.47 m
(3)
b(1 + λ)
ct = λcr = 1.31 m
(4)
1.2.3 Empennage
As exp ained ear ier,we have chosen the conventiona rear-tai con guration.
The geometric parameters of the horizonta and vertica tai s are obta
ined
here.
The va ues of S /S and S /S are obtained from the data set of
simi ar
h v
airp anes.
We have chosen
Sh
= 0.31
S
Sv
= 0.21
S
Hence,
Sh = 33.18 m2
Sv = 22.47 m2
We choose suitab e aspect ratios(A , A ) from the data set. Our choi
ces
h v
are A = 5 and A = 1.7. Using eq.(2), we get the spans(b , b ) as
h v h v
b = A S = 12.88 m
(5)
h h h
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b = A S = 6.18 m
(6)
v v v
The chosen va ues for the taper ratios(λ , λ ) from the data set are λ
=
h v
h
0.26 λv = 0.3. We can now compute the root chord (crh , crv ) and tip chord
(cth , ctv ) of tai s as
2Sh
crh = = 4.09 m
(7)
b (1 + λ )
h h
c = λ c = 1.06 m
(8)
th h rh
2Sv
crv = = 5.59 m
(9)
b (1 + λ )
v v
c = λ c = 1.68 m
(10)
tv v rv
From the data set, we choose quarter chord sweep back ang es of Λh
= 30◦

and Λv = 35 . This comp etes the broad geometric design of the empennage.
1.2.4 Contro Surfaces
A number of aircraft and their 3-view drawings as we as design data have
been studied and the fo owing parameter va ues are chosen.
• Sf ap/S = 0.17
• Ss at/S = 0.10
• bf ap/b =0.74
• Se e/Sht = 0.22
• Srud/Svt = 0.25
• Trai ing edge aps type : Fow er aps

• eading edge high ift devices : s ats
Hence,
• Se e = 7.53 m2
• Srud = 5.8 m2
• Area of T.E aps = 18.98 m2

• Area of .E s ats = 11.60 m2
• bf ap = 23.7 m
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1.2.5 Fuse age
Aerodynamic considerations wou d demand a s ender fuse age. But
, pas-
senger comfort and structura constraints wou d imit the s enderness.
We
obtain the ength and diameter d by choosing /b = 1.05 and
/d =
f f f
f f
8.86 from data co ection.
Hence,
f = 33.6 m
(11)
df = 3.79 m
(12)
1.2.6 Engines
Observing the thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W) of simi ar airp anes, we arr
ive
at a T/W of 0.3.This imp ies a thrust requirement of
T = 0.3 × Wg = 180 kN or 90 kN per engine
The CFMI FM56-3-B1 mode of Turbofan comes c osest to this re-
quirement.

1.2.7 anding Gear
We choose a retractab e tricyc e type anding gear. It is the most common y
found type of anding gear. It is favored for two reasons:
1. During take-o and anding the weight of the p ane is taken entire y by
the rear whee s.
2. It has better atera stabi ity on ground than bicyc e type anding gear.

We choose to have a tota of 10 whee s - 2 be ow the nose and two pairs


each on the sides(near the wing fuse age junction). The ocation of the whee s
was chosen from three-view drawings of simi ar aircraft.
1.3 Overa height
Based on dimensions of Boeing 737 - 300, 400 and 500, the overa height is
taken as 11.13 m.
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TAB E A - Data on Existing Airp anes(150 seater category)
(Source : http://www.bh.com/companions/034074152X/)
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Figure 1: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-300
Source : http://www.virtua swa.com/Boeing737-300/3view.gif
Figure 2: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-500
Source : http://www.virtua swa.com/Boeing737-500/3view.gif
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Figure 3: Three view drawing of Boeing 737-700
Source : http://www.virtua swa.com/Boeing737-700/3view.gif
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2 Revised Weight Estimation
In the previous section, an initia estimate for the aircraft paramete
rs has
been done. The weight estimate is being revised using re ned estimates
of fue weight and empty weight. The fue fractions for various phases
are
worked out in the fo owing steps. The fue fractions for warm-up, take-o ,
c imb and anding are taken from Raymer[4], chapter 3.
2.1 Fue fraction estimation
The fue weight depends on the mission pro e and the fue required as re-
serve. The mission pro e for a civi jet transport aircraft invo ves
• Take o
• C imb
• Cruise

• oiter before anding
• Descent

• anding
2.1.1 Warm up and Take o
The va ue for this stage is taken by fo owing the standards given in Raymer[4],
chapter 3
W1
= 0.97
W0
W0 is the weight at take-o and W1 is the weight at the end of the take-o
phase.
2.1.2 C imb
The weight-ratio for this stage is chosen by fo owing the standards given in
Raymer[4], chapter 3.
W2
= 0.985
W1
21
----------------------- Page 23-----------------------
2.1.3 Cruise
The weight ratio for the cruise phase of ight is ca cu ated using the fo owing
expression from Raymer[4], chapter 3.
W3 = exp −RC (13)

W2 V (L/D)
Gross still air range is 4000 km.Hence
GSAR 4000
Cruise Safe Range = =
= 2667 km
1.5 1.5
(L/D)max is taken as 18 from gure 3.6 of Raymer[4]. This corresponds
to the average value for civil jets.
As prescribed by Raymer[4], chapter 3
(L/D)cruise = 0.866(L/D)max (1
4)
(L/D)cruise = 0.866 × 18 = 15.54
To account for allowances due to head wind during cruise and provision
for diversion to another airport we proceed as follows.
Head wind is taken as 15 m/s. The time to cover the cruise safe range of
2667 km at Vcr of 849.6 km/hr is
2667
T ime = = 3.13 hours
849.6
Therefore, with a head wind of 15 m/s or 54 km/hr the additional dis 
tance that has to be accounted for is
Additional distance = 54 ×3.13 = 169 km
The allowance for diversion to another airport is taken as 400 km.
The total extra distance that has to be accounted for in the calculations
is 169 + 400 = 569 km.
The total distance during cruise = 2667 + 569 = 3236 km.
Substituting the appropriate values in eq.(13) we get,
W3 = exp −3236 ×0.6 = 0.863
W2 849.6 × 15.59
22

 Page 24 


2.1.4 Loiter
The weight ratio for Loiter phase of ight is calculated using the fol
lowing
expression from Raymer[4], chapter 3
W4 = exp −E ×T SF C (15)
W3 (L/D)
During Loiter, the airplane usually operates at (L/D)max and hence the
appropriate value should be used in eq.(15). Also, we design for a loiter time
of 30 minutes.
Therefore we get,
W4 = exp −0.5 ×0.6 = 0.983
W3 18
2.1.5 Landing
Following the standards speci ed by Raymer[4], chapter 3, we take this ratio
as
W5
= 0.995
W4
Therefore,
W5 W5
= = 0.97 ×0.985 ×0.863 ×0.983 ×0.995 = 0.806
Wg W0
Allowing for a reserve fuel of 6% we obtain the fuel fraction(ζ) as
Wf = ζ = 1.06 1 − W5 = 0.205
Wg W0
2.2 Empty Weight Fraction
To determine the empty weight ratio, we follow the method in Raymer[4
],
chapter 3 which gives a relation between W /W and W as follows.
e g g
We −0.06
= 1.02(2.202W ) (16
)
W g
g
where Wg is in kgf .
23
 Page 25 
Hence,
W 17270
Wg = pay = −0.06 (16A)
1 − W /W − W /W 1 − 0.205 − 1.202(2.202W )
f g e g g
We solve this equation by iteration
W (guess) W /W (from eq.(16)) W (from eq.(16A))
g e g g
60000 0.50274 59090
59090 0.50320 59184
59184 0.50315 59174
59174 0.50316 59175
59175 0.50316 59175
Table 3: Iterative procedure for Wg
Hence, the gross weight Wg is obtained as
Wg = 59, 175 kgf
The critical weight ratios are
We
= 0.503
W
g
Wf
= 0.205
W
g
W
pay = 0.292
W
g
24
 Page 26 

3 Wing Loading and Thrust Loading


The thrust to weight ratio (T/W ) and the wing loading(W/S) are the tw
o
most important parameters a ecting aircraft performance. Optimi ation
of
these parameters forms a major part of the design activities conducted after
initial weight estimation. For example, if the wing loading used for the initia
l
layout is low, then the area would be large and there would be enough space
for the landing gear and fuel tanks. However it results in a heavier wing.
Wing loading and thrust to weight ratio are interconnected for a number
of critical performance items, such as take o distance, maximum speed etc.
These are often the design drivers. A requirement for short takeo can
be
met by using a large wing (low W/S) with a relatively low T/W . O
n the
other hand, the same takeo distance could be met with a high W/S along
with a higher T/W .
In this section, we use di erent criteria and optimi e the wing loa
ding
and thrust loading.
Wing loading a ects stalling speed, climb rate,takeo and landing dis 
tances, minimum fuel required and turn performance.
Similarly, a higher thrust loading would result in more cost which is un 
desirable. However it would also lead to enhanced climb performance.
Hence a trade o is needed while choosing W/S and T/W . Optimi ation
of W/S and T/W based on various considerations is carried out in the fol 
lowing subsections.
3.1 Landing Distance Consideration
To decide the wing loading from landing distance consideration we need
to choose the landing eld length. Based on data collection of similar
air 
craft(Table A) the landing eld length is chosen to be 1425 m.
sLand = 1425 m
Next,we choose the CLmax of the airplane. The Maximum lift coe cient
depends upon the wing geometry,airfoil shape, ap geometry and span,leading
edge slot or slat geometry,Reynolds number,surface texture and interference
25
 Page 27 

from other parts of the aircraft such as the fuselage,nacelles or pylons.


Raymer[4], chapter 5 provides a chart for CLmax as a function of Λc/4
for
di erent types of high ift devices( gure 5.3 of Raymer[4]). For our airp ane
we decided to use Fow er ap and s at as the high ift devices. This gives us
 o
a C max of 2.5 for a Λc/4 = 25 .

C max = 2.5
To ca cu ate W/S based on anding considerations,we use the formu a
W 1
= ρV 2CLmax (
17)
S 2 s
The stalling speed Vs is estimated in the following way,
sLand = 1425 m
The app oach speed (V ) in knots is elated to the landing distance(s
)
a
Land
in feet as,
V (in knots) = sLand = 128.34 knots = 64.17 ms−1
a
0.3
F om the app oach speed, the stalling speed can be calculated,
Va −1
Vs = = 49 ms
(18)
0.3
Now, using this value fo  Vs in eq.(17),
W = 3743 Nm−2
S
Land
Since WLand = 0.85Wt.o the W/S at take o is,
W = 1 W = 4403 Nm−2
S 0.85 S
t.o Land
Allowing a 10 % va iation in Vs we get a ange of wing loading as
3639 < p < 5328 N/m2
26
 Page 28 

3.2 Maximum Speed(Vmax) Conside ation


Gene ally the Mmax is dete mined as follows
Mmax = Mc  + 0.04
Hence,fo  ou  ai plane,
Mmax = 0.80 + 0.04 = 0.84
The d ag pola  is gene ally exp essed as
CD = CD0 + KC2 (1
9)
L
whe e,
1
K = (2
0)
πAe
CD0 for the airlane is given as
Swet
CD0 = Cfe × (21)
S
Swet/S = 6.33 from Fig 2.5 of Raymer[4].
3.2.1 Estimation of K
We estimate ‘e’ from Roskam[6], chater 2
1 1 1
= + + 0.05 (22
)
e ewing efuse
ewing = 0.84 for unswet wing of A = 9.3 and λ = 0.25.
Hence,ewing for the swept wing is
ewing = 0.84 cos(Λ − 5) = 0.84 cos(25 − 5) = 0.7893 (23)
1
= 0.1
efuse
Hence,
1 1
= + 0.1 + 0.05 = 1.417
e 0.7893
e = 0.707
27
 Page 29 
1
K = = 0.0482
π ×9.3 ×0.707
To get CD0 we note from gure 3.6 of Raymer[4] that (L/D)max=18.This
has already been used in section 2.
1
(L/D)max = (24)
2 CD0 K
Hence,
1 1
CD0 = 2 = 2 = 0.0161
4K(L/D)max 4 ×0.0482 × 18
Further,
Swet
CD0 = Cfe (25)
S
gives,
0.0161
Cfe = = 0.00254
6.33
Hence, the drag olar is
CD0 = 0.0161 + 0.0482C2
L
To obtain the otimum W/S based on maximum seed,we the follow
method given in Lebedinski[7], chater IV of writing the drag olar a
s a
function of  (=W/S)
C = F + F  + F  2 (26)
D 1 2 3
where,
F1 = Cfe 1 + Sht + Svt Swet = CfeKt (27)

S S S
w
(C − F )
Do 1
F2 = (28)
W/S
K
F3 = 2 (29)
q
To calculate F , F , F values for our airlane we roceed as follows.
1 2 3
28
 Page 30 

From our reliminary estimations ,


Sht
= 0.31
S
Svt
= 0.21
S
Hence,
Sht Svt
Kt = 1 + + = 1.52
S S
Swet(exosed)
CDo = Cfe (3
0)
S
W W
To calculate (Swet(exosed)/S)W we need to obtain dimensions of the
ex 
osed wing.We roceed as follows. From reliminary estimate in section 1

• S = 107.02 m2
• λ = 0.24
• A = 9.3
• cr = 5.47 m
• ct = 1.31 m
• Λc/4 = 25◦
Hence, for the equiva ent trapezoida wing, the chord distribution is given
by
cr − ct
c(y) = cr − y
b/2
= 5.47 − 0.264y
Taking fuselage diameter of 3.79 m, the chord at y = 1.895 m is
cr(exosed) = 4.97 m
3.79
bexosedwing = 15.78 − = 13.89 m
2
29
 Page 31 

Swet = 2Sexosed 1 + 1.2(t/c)avg


(31)
1
Sexosedwing = (4.97 + 1.31) × 13.89 ×2 = 87.23 m2
2
Assuming (t/c)avg of 12.5%
Swet(exosedwing) = 2 1 + 1.2(0.125)87.23 = 200.63 m2
Hence,
200.63
(CDo)W = 0.0025 × = 0.004687
107.02
F1 = 1.52 ×0.004687 = 0.007124
We also know that the drag olar is
CD = 0.0161 + 0.0482C2
L
CDo − F1 −6 2
F2 = = 1.632 × 10 m /N
W/S
The above drag olar will not be valid at M greater than the Mc
ruise .
Hence we need to estimate the drag olar (values of CDo and K) at Mmax
.
The drag divergence Mach number(MDD) for the aircraft is xed at M = 0.82
which is 0.02 greater than Mcruise . This would ensure that there is no wave
drag at Mcruise of 0.80. To estimate the increase in CDo from M = 0.80
to
M = 0.84, we make a reasonable assumtion that the sloe of the CDo
Vs
M curve remains constant in the region between M = 0.82 and M = 0.84.
The value of this sloe is 0.1 at M = 0.82. Hence, the increase in C
Do is
estimated as 0.02 ×0.1 = 0.002.
From the data on B 787 available in website[2] we observe that the varia 
tion in K is not signi cant in the range M = 0.82 to M = 0.84. Hence,value
of K is retained as in subcritical ow. However better estimates are used in
erformance calculations resented later.

Consequently the drag olar that is valid at Mmax is estimated as


CD = 0.0181 + 0.0482C2
(32)
L
30

 Page 32 


The change in the CDo is largely due to change in the zero lift drag of the
wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail. This means that the change in
CDo
a ects F1 value alone.
Hence at Mmax
F1 = 0.009124
The value of F3 deends on the dynamic ressure at Vmax .
Vmax = Mmax × seed of sound at hcruise = 0.84 ×295.2 = 248.1m/s
1
qmax = ρV 2 = 0.5 ×0.364 ×2482 = 11200.95
2 max
0.0482
−10 4 2
F3 = 11200.952 = 3.84 × 10 m /N
To obtain the optimum value of W/S, we minimize the th ust equi 
ed
fo  Vmax . The elation between t(ie T/W ) and p is
t = q F1 + F + F p
(33)
Vmax max 2 3
p
On minimizing tVmax , we get
poptimum = F1
F3
poptimum = 0.009124 = 4873.31N/m2
3.84 × 10−10
The tVmax value at popt is found f om eq.(33) as
tVmax = 0.06022
Allowing a 5 % ext a th ust and using the new tVmax in eq. (33) gives
two
values of p viz.
p1 = 3344 Nm−2
p2 = 7101 Nm−2
Thus, any p between p1 and p2 would be acceptable f om Vmax consi
de 
ations with a maximum of 5% deviation f om optimum.
3344 < p < 7101 N/m2
31
 Page 33 
3.3 (R/C)max conside ation
The value fo  (R/C)max at sea level was chosen as 700 m/min (11.67 m/s)
which is typical fo  passenge  ai planes.The th ust equi ed fo  climb at cho 
sen ight speed(V ) is elated to (R/C) in the following way(section 4.2.4 of
text).
R/C q
tR/c = + CD
(34)
V p
But, CD is
C = F + F p + F p2
(35)
D 1 2 3
1
q = ρ σV 2 (3
6)
0
2
R/C 1 V 2 2
∴ t = + ρ σ (F + F p + F p ) (37)
R/C 0 1 2 3
V 2 p
The ight peed fo  optimum climb pe fo mance i  not high and value 
of F1 and F2 co e pond to thei  value  fo  M < Mc ui e . F3 i  a funct
ion of
the dynamic p e u e.
Ou  motive i  to nd the minimum ea level tatic th u t (t R/c ) fo  va iou 
value  of V and then choo e the minimum among t the minima. Fo  a given
V ,
popt = F1
F3
The efo e, a table i  p epa ed fo  di e ent value  of velocity(Table
4)
and the co e ponding tR/C i  obtained u ing eq.(37) and the co e ponding
value of F . Thi  t i  conve ted to t by u ing the plot  p ovi
ded in
3 R/C R/C
Refe ence 1.13, chapte  9. The e plot  p ovide the climb th u t va iation fo 
engine with bypa  atio 6.5 a  a function of velocity and altitude.
U ing
the e plot ,the tR/C i  conve ted to t R/C .
32
----------------------- Page 34-----------------------
V (m/ ) popt tR/C t R/C
80 1507 0.1893 0.2868
100 2355 0.1637 0.2641
120 3391 0.1487 0.2507
140 4615 0.14 0.2469
150 5298 0.1373 0.2483
160 6028 0.1356 0.2510
170 6805 0.1346 0.2554
180 7629 0.1343 0.2617
190 8500 0.1345 0.2691
200 9419 0.1354 0.2780
Table 4: Va iation of tR/C with p fo  (R/C)max
We ob e ve that the value of t  emain  low and almo t con tant fo 

R/C
a ange of V value  f om 120 to 170 m/ . Thi  p ovide  a ange of value  of
p a  given below
p1 = 3391 N/m2
p2 = 6793 N/m2
The efo e, fo 
3391 < p < 6805 N/m2
the climb pe fo mance i  nea  the optimum.
3.4 Ba ed on Minimum Fuel fo  Range (Wfmin )
In c ui e ight, the weight of the fuel u ed (W ) i  elated to the ange(R)
f
and wing loading(p) a  follow ( ection 4.2.5 of [5])
W = R ρ0 T SF C√σq F1 + F + F p (38)

f 2 3
3.6 2 p
The value  of F , F , F co e ponding to c ui e condition  a e a  follow

1 2 3
F1 = 0.007124
F2 = 1.632 × 10−6
33

 Page 35 


Vcruise = Mcruise ×295.2 = 0.8 ×295.2 = 236.3 m/s
qcruise = 0.5 ×ρ × V 2 = 0.5 ×0.364 ×236.32 = 10159.59 N/m2
0.0482
−10 4 2
F3 = = 4.67 × 10 m /N
10159.59
Using eq.(38) we minimize Wf and obtain otimum as
otimum = F1
(39)
F3
otimum = 0.007124 = 3905.84 N/m2
4.67 × 10−10
Using this value of  in eq.(38) along with R = 4000 km and T SF C =
0.6hr−1, we get Wfmin as
Wfmin = 0.1514
Allowing an excess fuel of 5 % i.e. Wfmin = 0.1590 and using eq.(38) we
get two values 1 and 2 as
1 = 2676 N/m2
2 = 5700 N/m2

Thus, any  within 1 and 2 would be accetable from the oint of view
of minimizing Wf .
2676 <  < 5700N/m2
3.5 Based on Absolute Ceiling
At absolute ceiling, the ight is ossible at only one seed. Observing
the
trend of Hmax as hcruise + 0.6 km we choose the absolute ceiling to be Hmax
= 11.6 km. To nd the tHmax , we solve the following two equations(section
4.2.3 of [5]).
34

 Page 36 


t = 4K(F + F ) (
40)
h 1 2
th = 2qhmax F1 + F2
(41)


The F1 and F2 values corresonding to this case are


F1 = 0.007124
F2 = 1.632 × 10−6
In the absence of a rescribed velocity at Hmax , the velocity corresonding
to ight at (L/D)max is taken to calculate qmax . CL value corresonding to
ight at (L/D)max is given by
CL = CDo = 0.016 = 0.577 (
42)
K 0.048
(W/S) 5500
qhmax = = = 9532.06
CL 0.577
The solution for ot is obtained by solving eqs.(40) and (41).
ot = 5500 Nm−2 as it should be.
thmax corresonding to otimum is
thmax = 0.05581
Allowing a 5 % variation in Thrust, we get
thmax1 = 0.05302
thmax2 = 0.05860
The solutions to eq.(40) with the new thmax values are
1 = 4567 Nm−2

2 = 6547 Nm−2

Similarly, using in eq.(41), we get


35
 Page 37 
1 = 4942 Nm−2
2 = 6201 Nm−2

From the above four values, the nal lower and uer bounds from the
ceiling considerations are
1 = 4942 Nm−2
2 = 6201 Nm−2

4942 <  < 6201 N/m2


3.6 Summary of Constraints
We now tabulate the various constraints on the choice of W/S
Performance Criteria Allowable range of W/S in (Nm−2)
sLand 3639  5328
Vmax 3344  7101
(R/C)max 3391  6805
Wf 2676  5700
hmax 4942  6201
Table 5: Choice of (W/S)
From the table, we see that the allowable range of W/S values is
4942 <  < 5328 N/m2
3.7 Consideration of Wing Weight (Ww )
The weight of the wing deends on its area. According to Raymer[4], chater
15, for assenger airlanes, the weight of the wing is roortional to S0.649 .
Thus a wing with lower area will be lighter and for lower wing area, the W/S
must be higher. Hence we examine the advantage of choosing a higher wing
loading than that indicated by minimum fuel requirement. It may be ointed
out that the weight of wing structure is about 12% of W .
g
36

 Page 38 


The otimum W/S from range consideration is 3906 N/m2 wherea
s with

2
a 5% increase in W , the wing loading could go u to 5700 N/m .
If the
f
2 2
wing loading of 5700 N/m is chosen, instead of 3906 N/m , the we
ight of
the wing would decrease by a factor of
39060.649 = 0.782
5700
Taking weight of the wing as 12% of W , the saving in the wing weight
g
will be 2.6%. However this higher wing loading will result in an increase in
the fuel by 5% of W . In the resent case, W would be around 20
% and
g f
hence 5% of Wf means an increase in the weight by 0.05 ×0.2 = 1%.
2
Thus by increasing W/S from 3906 to 5700 N/m , the saving in the Wg
would be around 2.6  1 = 1.6%. Thus it is advantageous to have
higher
W/S.
3.8 Choosing a W/S
We see from the Table 5 that a wide range of  is ermissible which will still
satisfy various requirement with ermissible deviations from the otimum
.
To arrive at the nal choice we consider the take o requirement and choose
highest wing loading which would ermit take o within ermissible distance
without excessive (T/W) requirement. From data collection, the
take o
distance, balanced eld length, is assumed to be 2150 m. From gure
5.4
of Raymer(Reference 1.11) the take o arameter {(W/S)/σCLt.o (T/W )} fo 
2
thi  eld length i  180. With (W/S) in lb/ft . We take σ = 1 (take-o at ea
level),CLt.o = 0.8 × CLmax = 0.8 × 2.5 = 2. Gene ally the e type  of ai c aft
have (T/W) of 0.3.Sub tituting the e value  we get,
pfinal = 108.2 lb/ft2 = 5195 Nm−2
It is reassuring that this value of  lies within the ermissible
values
summarized in Table 5.
3.9 Thrust Requirements
After selecting the W/S for the aircraft, the thrust needed for various design
requirements is obtained. These requirements decide the choice of engine.
37
 Page 39 
3.9.1 Requirement for Vmax
We use the chosen value of  in the following equation
F1
t = q ( + F + F ) (4
3)
Vmax max 2 3


and get the thrust required for Vmax at cruise altitude as


T = 0.0602 (4
4)
W
Mmax
Referring to engine charts in Jenkinson[8], chater 9, for a turbo
fan
engine with byass ratio of 6.5, the sea level static thrust is
T 0.0602
= = 0.334 (4
5)
W 0.18
In our case, this would mean a Thrust requirement of
T = 193.9 kN
req
3.10 Requirements for (R/C)max
As in the case for Vmax , we use our nal design choice for (W/S) in
the
following equation,
R/C 1 V 2 2
t = + ρ σ (F + F p + F p ) (46)
R/c 0 1 2 3
V 2 p
Sub tituting app op iate value , we get
T = 0.252 (4
7)
W
R/C
In ou  ca e, thi  would mean a th u t equi ement of
T = 146.3kN
eq

3.11 Take-O Th u t Requi ement 


The take of (T/W ) i  taken to be 0.3(choice i  motivated by imila  ai c aft).
Thi  implie  a th u t equi ement of
Tto = 0.3 Wg = 174.2 kN
38
----------------------- Page 40-----------------------
3.12 Engine Choice
F om the p eviou  ection, we ee that the max. Th u t equi ement  occu 
f om Take o con ide ation .
Tmax = 193.9 kN
A  we have adopted a twin engine de ign, thi  mean  a pe  engine th u t
of
Tmax = 96.95 kN/engine
We look fo  an engine which upplie  thi  th u t and ha  a TSFC
of
0.6h −1 and byass ratio of around 6.5. Some of the engines with erfo
r
mance close to these numbers are taken from Jenkinson[8], chater 9 a
nd
website[1].
Finally, we chose CFM56 2B model of turbofan with a sea level static
thrust of 97.9 kN as this engine satis es nearly all our requirements.
3.13 Engine Characteristics
For erformance analysis, the variation of thrust and TSFC with seed and
altitude are required. Jenkinson[8], chater 9 has given non dimensiona
l
charts for turbo fan engines with di erent byass ratios. Choosing the charts
for byass ratio = 6.5 and sea level static thrust of 97.9kN , the engine curves
are resented below.
39
 Page 41 

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40
 Page 42 
)
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41
 Page 43 

4 Wing Design
4.1 Introduction
The weight and the wing loading of the airlane have been obtained in sec 
tions 2 and 3 as 59175 kgf (579915 N) and 5195 N/m2 . These give wi
ng area
as 111.63 m2 . The wing design involves choosing the following arameters.
1. Airfoil selection
2. Asect ratio
3. Swee
4. Taer ratio
5. Twist
6. Incidence
7. Dihedral
8. Vertical location
In the following subsections, the factors a ecting the choice of arameters
are mentioned and then the choices are e ected.
4.2 Airfoil Selection
The airfoil shae in uences CLmax , CDmin , CLot , Cmac and stall 
attern.
These in turn in uence stalling seed, fuel consumtion during cruise, turn 
ing erformance and weight of the airlane.
For high subsonic airlanes, the drag divergence Mach number(MDD) is
an imortant consideration. It may be recalled that (MDD) is the
Mach
number at which the increase in the drag coe cient is 0.002 above the value
at low subsonic Mach numbers. A suercritical airfoil is designed to increase
MDD . NASA has carried out tests on several suercritical airfoils and recom 
mends the use of NASA SC(2) series airfoil with aroriate thickness ratio
and camber.
42
 Page 44 

4.2.1 Design Lift Coe cient


The airfoil will have a Clot at which it’s drag coe cient is minimum.
For
general design the airfoil is chosen in such a way that the CLcruise
of the
airlane is equal to the Clot of the airfoil.
(W/S)
CLcruise =
(48)
qcruise
Using the value of (W/S) = 5195 Nm−2 and the q corresondin
g to
M = 0.8 at 11 km altitude, we get
Clcruise = 0.512
(49)
For choice of thickness ratio and wing swee, we take Clot = 0.5
.
4.2.2 Airfoil Thickness Ratio and Wing Swee
Airfoil thickness ratio(t/c) has a direct in uence on drag, maximum lift, stall
characteristics, structural weight and critical Mach number. A higher t/c im 
lies a lower critical Mach number but also a lower wing weight.Thus we need
to choose an otimum t/c for the airfoil.
Clot = 0.5 has been chosen and the cruise Mach number is 0.8. In order
to ensure that the drag divergence Mach number is greater than Mcruise , we
choose MDD as 0.82. This is based on the consideration that there
should
be no increase in drag at Mcruise , ∆CDwave is 0.002 at MDD and the sl
oe of
the CD Vs M curve around MDD is 0.1 . NASA[3] gives exerimental res
ults
for several suer critical airfoils with di erent (t/c) and Clot . Curv
es for
Clot = 0.4,0.7, 1.0 are available in the aforesaid reort. We interolate and
obtain the curve for Clot = 0.5.
The MDD for the wing can be estimated in the following manner.
MDD = (MDD)a/f + ∆MA + ∆MΛ
(50)
where ∆MA and ∆MΛ are corrections for in uences of the aspect rati
o
and the sweep.
The change in MDD with A is a most zero for A > 8. Since
we have
chosen A = 9.3, the second term in the above equation wi not contribute to
MDD . Further from Hoerner[9], chapter 15, the change in MDD due
to sweep
is given as
Λ 1 − MDDΛ
1 − =
(51)
90 1 − MΛ=0
43
----------------------- Page 45-----------------------

The supercritica airfoi with (t/c) = 14% has MDD = 0.74 at C
opt of
0.5. Using this in eq.(51) we obtain Λ which wou d give MDDΛ of 0.82,
Λ 1 − 0.82
1 − =
90 1 − 0.74
∴ Λ = 27.7◦
The average thickness has been arrived at as 14 %. However, to redu
ce
structura weight, the (t/c)root is increased and the (t/c)tip is decreased, C
on-
sidering the features for Airbus A310 and Boeing B 767 which have
Mcr = 0.8 and simi ar va ues of Λc/4 , it is decided that the variation of (t/c)
a ong span be such that (t/c) of 15.2% at root, (t/c) of 11.8% at
spanwise
ocation of the thickness break and (t/c) of 10.3% at the tip.
Thickness break ocation is the spanwise ocation upto which the trai ing
edge is straight. From the data co ection this ocation is at 34% of semispan.

4.3 Other Parameters


4.3.1 Aspect Ratio

The aspect ratio a ects C α , CDi nd wing weight. The v lue of CLα de-
cre ses s A decre ses. For ex mple, in the c se of n elliptic wing,
A
CLα = (Clα ) /f (52
)
A + 2
The induced dr g coe cient c n be expressed s
C2
CDi = L (1 + δ) (
53)
πA
  
where δ een s on A, λ an Λ. A high A increases the san of the wing 
which in turn requiresmore sace in the hangar. A higher Asect ratio wou 
a so resu t in oor ri ing qua ity in turbu ent weather. A these factors nee

carefu otimization.
  However
 at 
 the resent stage of esign we choose
A = 9.3 base on tren s in icate by ata co ection.
 
Correson ing y, the wing san wou be
b = √AS = 32.22m
44
----------------------- Page 46-----------------------
4.3.2 Taer Ratio
   
Wing taer ratio is e ne as the ratio between the ti chor an the cen-

ter ine root chor . Ta er ratio a ects the
  
• In uce rag
• Weight
• Ti sta ing
   
In uce rag is ow for taer ratios between 0.3-0.5. ower the taer ratio,

ower is the weight. A swe t wing a so has higher structura weight
than
unswet wing. Since the   
resent air ane has a swe t wing, a taer ratio of
0.24 has been chosen base on the tren s of current swe t wing air anes.

 
4.3.3 Root an Ti Chor s
   
Root chor an ti chor of the equiva ent traezoi a wing can now
be 
eva uate .
2S
cr = = 5.59 m
b(1 + λ)
c = c λ = 1.34 m
t r
2
2 (1 + λ + λ )
c = cr = 3.9 m
3 (1 + λ)
   
ocation of the quarter chor of the mac from wing ea ing e ge at the
root is 4.76 m

4.3.4 Dihe ra

The Dihe ra is the ang e of the wing with resect to the horizonta
when 
seen in the front view .Dihe ra of the wing a ects the atera stabi  ity of the
air ane.Since there is no sim e technique for arriving  at the ihe ra ang e
that
 takes a the
 consi
 erations into
 e ect we nee to initia y choose a i-
he ra ang e base
  on ata co ecte (Tab e A). Hence we choose a reasonab e
va ue for the ihe ra as
Γ = 5o
4.3.5 Wing Twist

 o
We have assume a inear twist of 3 .
45
----------------------- Page 47-----------------------

4.4 Cranke Wing Design
 
If we observe
 the esign of current highsubsonic air anes, we see that the 
trai ing e ge is ’straight’ for a art of the san, in the inboar regi
on. A   
arger chor in the inboar region has the fo owing a vantages
 
1. more sace for fue an an ing gear
   
 2. the ift istribution is change such that more ift is ro uce
in the   
inboar section which re uce the ben ing moment in the root.
   
This tye of esign is ca e a wing with cranke trai ing e ge. Th
e va ue 
of the san uto which the trai ing e ge is straight has to be obta
ine by  
otimization.
 However 
 at the resentstage of esign, base on the current
tren s, the trai ing e ge is ma e unswe t ti 35% of semi san. Root chor

of the cranke wing is 
crcranke = 7.44 m

San of wing ortion with unswet trai ing e ge = 0.35 ×32.22 = 11.28 m

Figure 7: P an View of Cranke Wing
46
----------------------- Page 48-----------------------

4.5 Wing Inci ence(iw )
 
The wing inci ence ang e is the ang e between wing reference chor an
 
fuse age reference ine. Wing inci ence ang e is  chosen to minimize rag at

some o erating con itions,usua y cruise.The inci ence ang e is chosen  such
that
 when the wing is at the correct ang e of attack for the se
 ecte esign
con ition,the fuse age is at the ang e of attack  for minimum rag(usua y at
zero
 ang e of attack). Usua y wing inci ence is u timate y set using
win  
tunne ata.However, for an initia estimate for our re iminary esign
we
rocee as fo ows
 
C cruise = C α (iw − α0L) (54)
In the present c se,
CLcruise = 0.512
CLα is computed using the following formul  in R ymer[4], ch pter 12,
2πA S
ex

C α = ( )(F ) (
55)
2 + 4 + A2β2 (1 + tan2Λmax ) Sref
η2 β2

w ere,
β2 = 1 − M2
η = 1
F = 1.07 1 + d2

Sexp = area of exposed wing


Su stituting various values, we get


C α = 6.276 r d−1
αL=0 for the irfoil w s c lcul ted using c mber line of the supercritic l


airfoi with 14% thickness
ratio. The va ue
is −5.8
. Su
stituting t e values

yields a value of iw w ic is negative. T is can e attri uted to t e fact t a
t

t e airplane is exi le. Hence t e value of iw is c osen from similar airplanes.

iw = 1◦
which is the va ue recommended in Raymer[4], chapter 4.

4.6 Vertica ocation of Wing
The wing vertica ocation for the designed airp ane has been chosen to be a
ow wing con guration which is typica of simi ar airp anes.
47
----------------------- Page 49-----------------------
4.7 Areas of F aps and Ai erons
These areas are chosen based on the initia data co ection of simi ar aircraft.

1. Trai ing edge : Fow er aps.



2. eading edge : fu span s ats.
We choose
Sf ap
= 0.17
S
Ss at
= 0.1
S
Sai
= 0.03
S

5 Fuse age and Tai ayout
5.1 Introduction
The fuse age ayout is important in the design process as the ength
of the
airp ane depends on this.The ength and diameter of the fuse age are re ated
to the seating arrangement.
The Fuse age of a passenger airp ane can be divided into four basic sec-
tions viz. nose, cockpit, pay oad compartment and tai fuse age.
In this
section, the fuse age design is carried out by choosing the various p
arame-
ters.

5.2 Initia Estimate of Fuse age ength
By observing the /b of simi ar airp anes, we get the rst estimate
of
f
f
for the present case. The /b va ue chosen is 1.05. Using b = 32.
22m as
f
obtained from wing design, the Fuse age ength is 33.83 m.
Raymer[4], chapter 6 provides a re ation between gross weight and ength of
fuse age as fo ows.
f = aW c
(56)
o
48
----------------------- Page 50-----------------------
where Wo is in bs and f in ft. For a jet transport airp ane,
a = 0.67
and c = 0.43. Using Wo = 59175 × 2.205 bf , an f of 31.83 m is obt
ained.
This is in good agreement of the va ue obtained based on data co ection.
5.3 Nose and Cockpit - Front Fuse age
The front fuse age accommodates the forward ooking radar in the nose sec-
tion, the ight deck with associated windscreen, and the nose undercarriage.
Anthropometric data for ight crews has provided the basis for the arrange-
ment of pi ot’s seats, instruments and contro s. Deve opment of e ec
tronic
disp ays has transformed the traditiona ayout of the ight deck.
The air-
craft must be capab e of being own from either pi ot seat position; therefore
the wind screen and front geometry wi be symmetrica about the airc
raft
ongitudina center ine. Modern ’g ass’ cockpit disp ays and side stick con-
tro ers have transformed the ayout of the ight deck from the traditi
ona
aircraft con guration. The front fuse age pro e presents a c assica d
esign
compromise between a smooth shape for ow drag and the need to have at
s oping windows to give good visibi ity. The ayout of the ight d
eck and
the speci ed pi ot window geometry is often the starting point of the overa
fuse age ayout.
For the current design, the ight deck of various simi ar airp anes
are
considered and the fo owing va ue of nose/ f and is chosen.
nose
= 0.03
f
For the cockpit ength ( cockpit), standards have been prescribed by Raymer
(Reference 1.11,chapter 9). cockpit for the two member crew is chosen as
100
inches (2.5 m).
cockpit = 2.5 m

5.4 Passenger Cabin ayout
Two major geometrica parameters that specify the passenger
cabin are 
Cabin Diameter and Cabin ength. These are in turn decided b
y more
speci c detai s ike number of seats, seat width, seating arrangement (num-
ber abreast), seat pitch, ais e width and number of ais es.
49
----------------------- Page 51-----------------------
5.4.1 Cabin Cross Section
The shape of the fuse age cross section is dictated by the structura require-
ments for pressurization. A circu ar she reacts the interna pressure oad
s
by hoop tension. This makes the circu ar section e cient and therefore ow-
est in structura weight. However a fu y circu ar section may resu t in too
much unusab e vo ume above or be ow the cabin space. This prob e
m is
overcome by the use of severa interconnecting circu ar sections to form the
cross-sectiona ayout. The parameters for the current y designed airp
ane
are arrived at by considering simi ar airp anes(Tab e A).
We choose a circu ar cross section for the fuse age.
The overa size must be kept sma to reduce aircraft weight and drag,yet
the resu ting shape must provide a comfortab e and exib e cabin interio
r
which wi appea to the customer air ines. The main decision to be taken is
the number of seats abreast and the ais e arrangement.The number of seats
across wi x the number of rows in the cabin and thereby the fuse a
ge
ength.Design of the cabin cross section is further comp icated by the need to
provide di erent c asses ike rst c ass, business c ass, economy c ass etc.
5.4.2 Cabin ength
Fo owing the trend disp ayed by current aircraft, we choose to have
two
c asses viz Economy c ass and Business c ass.The tota number of seats(150)
is distributed as 138 seats in the economy c ass and 12 seats in the business
c ass.
Cabin parameters are chosen based on standards for simi ar airp anes.
The
various parameters chosen are as fo ows
Parameter Economy C ass Business c ass
Seat Pitch (in inches) 32 38
Seat width (in inches) 20 22
Ais e width (in inches) 22 24
Seats abreast 6 4
Number of Ais es 1 1
Max. Height (in m) 2.2 2.2
Since the business c ass has a 4 abreast seating arrangement,the number
of rows required wi be 3 and the economy c ass wi have 23 rows.The cabin
ength is found out by using the seat pitch for each of the c asses.
50
----------------------- Page 52-----------------------
C ass No.of seats No.of rows Seat Pitch (in) Cabin ength
(m)
Economy 138 23 32 18.4
Business 12 3 38 2.85
Hence,the tota cabin ength wi be 18.4 + 2.85 = 21.25 m.
5.4.3 Cabin Diameter
Using the number of seats abreast,seat width,ais e width we ca cu ate
the
interna diameter of the cabin.
df (interna ) = 22 × 1 + 19 ×6 = 136 in = 3.4 m
According to the standards prescribed by Raymer[4], chapter 9, the struc-
tura thickness is given by
t = 0.02df + 1 = 0.02 × 136 + 1 = 3.72 in = 0.093 m
Therefore the externa diameter of the fuse age is obtained as 3.4+0.093 ×
2 = 3.59 m.
5.5 Rear Fuse age
The rear fuse age pro e is chosen to provide a smooth, ow drag shape which
supports the tai surfaces. The ower side of the pro e must provide
ade-
quate c earance for aircraft when rotation during take o . The rear fuse age
shou d a so house the auxi ary power unit(APU).
Based on data co ected for simi ar aircraft we choose the ratio tai / f
as
0.25.

5.6 Tota Fuse age ength
The cabin ength and cockpit ength have been decided to be 32.08 m and
3.3 m respective y.We have a so chosen the ratios of nose and tai ength with
respect to as 3% and 25%. Thus cabin and cockpit ength form 72% of .
f
f
Hence the fuse age ength is ca cu ated as 23.75/0.72 = 33 m.The engths of
51
----------------------- Page 53-----------------------
various parts of the fuse age are indicated be ow
Nose ength = 1 m
Cockpit ength = 2.5 m
Cabin ength = 21.25 m
Rear ength = 8.25 m
T ota = 33 m
5.7 Tai surfaces
The type and area of the tai surfaces are important in determining the sta-
bi ity of the airp ane. A conventiona tai arrangement is chosen.
Some of
the important parameters that decide the aerodynamic characteristics of the
tai are area ratio (S /S), tai vo ume ratio(V and V ), tai arm, t
ai span
t H V
etc. A these parameters have to be decided for both the horizonta
and
vertica tai .
From data co ected on simi ar airp anes, we choose the fo owing va ues
for the tai parameters.
Parameter Horizonta Tai Vertica Tai
Area ratio (S /S) 0.31 0.21
t
Aspect ratio 5 1.7
Taper ratio 0.26 0.31
• Area
The Areas of the horizonta and vertica tai (S and S ) are ca
cu ated
h v
as
Sh = 0.31 × 111.63 = 34.61 m2
Sv = 0.21 × 111.63 = 23.44 m2
• Span
The span of the horizonta and vertica tai (b and b ) are giv
en as
h v
b = A S
(57)
h h h
b = A S
(58)
v v v
52
----------------------- Page 54-----------------------
Taking ARH = 5 and ARV = 1.7, we get
bH = 13.15 m
bV = 6.31 m
• Root and tip chords
The chord engths of the horizonta and vertica tai are obtained as
2Sh
crh = = 4.18 m
b (1 + λ )
h h
2Sv
crv = = 5.67 m
b (1 + λ )
v v
cth = λcrh = 1.09 m
ctv = λcrv = 1.76 m
• Tai arm
Tai arm is the distance between the wing aerodynamics center and
the tai (horizonta or vertica ) aerodynamic center.The va ue of the tai
arm is chosen based on data co ection. ratio.
Choosing h as 45% of f and v as 42% of f yie d,
h = 14.85 m
v = 13.86 m
S
h h
VH = (
59)
Sc
S
VV = v v (
60)
Sb
Hence,
VH = 1.18
VV = 0.09
53
----------------------- Page 55-----------------------

5.8 Engine ocation
The type of Engine mounting and it’s ocation p ay a major ro e in deciding
the overa drag coe cient of the airp ane. A conventiona wing mounted en-
gine is chosen as it faci itates periodic maintenance in an industry where an
unschedu ed downtime cou d mean huge osses to the air iners. The engines
are attached to the ower side of the wing using py ons to reduce drag. The
other reason for choosing a wing mounted engine is the fue is stored in the
wings itse f, thereby reducing the ength of the fue ine.
From the data co ection of simi ar airp anes, the engine ocation is xed
at 34% of the semi span.

5.9 anding Gear Arrangement
One of the principa moving parts on the aircraft is the anding gear. This
must be ight, sma , provide good ride dynamics during taxiing and safe en-
ergy absorption at touch down. It must be retractab e to reduce drag during
ight. So housing of the anding gear is a space constraint.A conventiona tri-
cyc e anding gear is chosen based on trend fo owed by simi ar aircraft. The
important parameters of this type of anding gear are whee track, whee base
and turning radius. The va ues of the parameters(shown be ow)were based
on data co ected from simi ar aircraft.
Parameter Va ue
Whee base (in m) 13.2
Track ength (in m) 5.8
Turning radius (in m) 19.3
54
----------------------- Page 56-----------------------
6 Estimation of Component Weights and C.G
ocation
Aircraft weight is a common factor which inks di erent design activitie
s
(aerodynamics, structures, propu sion, ayout, airworthiness, environmenta ,
economic and operationa aspects).To this end, at each stage of the design,a
check is made on the expected tota mass of the comp eted aircraft. A sepa-
rate design organization(weights department)is emp oyed to assess and con-
tro weight.In the pre iminary design stage,estimates have to made from his-
torica statistica data of a the component parts of the aircraft from simi ar
airp anes. As parts are manufactured and the aircraft prototype reaches com-
p etion it is possib e to check the accuracy of the estimates by weighing each
component and where necessary instigate weight reduction programmes.
6.1 Aircraft mass statement
The weight of the entire airp ane can be sub-divided into empty weight and
usefu oad. The empty weight can be further subdivided into
• Structures group
• Propu sion group
• Equipment group
DCPR(Defense Contractor P anning Report) weight is taken as the weight
obtained after deducting weights of whee s, brakes, tires, engines, sta
rters,
batteries, equipments, avionics etc from the empty weight.DCPR weight is
important for cost estimation, and can be viewed as the weight of the parts of
the airp ane that the manufacturer makes as opposed those of items bought
and insta ed.
It has become norma practice in aircraft design to ist the various com-
ponents of aircraft mass in a standard format.The components are grouped
in convenient subsections as shown be ow.
6.1.1 Structures Group
1. Wing(inc uding contro surfaces)
2. Tai (horizonta and vertica inc uding contro s)
3. Body(or fuse age)
55
----------------------- Page 57-----------------------
4. Nace es

5. anding gear (main and nose units)
6. Surface contro s
6.1.2 Propu sion Group
1. Engine(s)(dry weight)
2. Accessory gearbox and drives
3. Induction system
4. Exhaust system
5. Oi system and coo er
6. Fue system
7. Engine contro s
8. Starting system
9. Thrust reversers
6.1.3 Fixed equipment group
1. Auxi iary power unit
2. F ight contro systems(sometimes inc uded in structura group)
3. Instruments and navigation equipment
4. Hydrau ic systems
5. E ectrica systems
6. Avionics systems
7. Furnishing
8. Air conditioning and anti-icing
9. Oxygen system
10. Misce aneous(e.g. re protection and safety systems)
56
----------------------- Page 58-----------------------
6.2 Weights of Various Components
After making the c assi cation between various groups and isting the com-
ponents in each group,we next proceed to determine the weights of the
se
components.
In the pre iminary design stages it is not possib e to know the size of indi
-
vidua aircraft components in great detai but it is possib e to use prediction
methods that progressive y become more accurate as the aircraft geometr
y
is deve oped.Most aircraft design textbooks contain a set of equations empir-
ica y derived based on existing aircraft. For the present design, we ch
oose
to fo ow equations prescribed in Appendix 8.1 of [5]. Using these equations,
the weights of various individua components are ca cu ated.

6.3 C.G ocation and C.G Trave

6.3.1 Wing ocation on Fuse age
The wing ongitudina ocation is decided based on the consideration the C.G
of the entire airp ane with fu pay oad and fue is around the quarter chord
of the m.a.c.We tabu ate the weights and the corresponding C.G ocations
of various components and then app y moment equi ibrium about the nose
of the airp ane in order to so ve for X .e (the distance of eading edge of root
chord of the wing from the nose).In tabu ating the resu ts,we assume
that
the C.G ocations of wing, horizonta tai and vertica tai are at 40% of the
respective m.a.c.The fuse age C.G is taken to be at 42% of it’s ength
.The
engine C.G ocation was taken to be at 40% of it’s ength.The distance
of
the engine C.G from the root chord was measured for various airp anes and
we chose a distance of 2 m.A other components were taken to have
a net
C.G ocation at 42% of the fuse age ength.The tabu ated va ues are g
iven
be ow.The nose whee was p aced at 14% of the fuse age ength and the main
anding gear position was determined by using the whee base from section 5.
Remark
• Using data for equiva ent trapezoida wing in section 4, the oca
tion
of wing c.g. is at 5.34 m behind the eading edge of the roo
t chord.
The quarter chord of m.a.c is at 4.76 m behind the eading edge of root
chord.
• Noting that the tai arm is 14.85 m and that the c.g of tai
is 15 %
behind the a.c., the distance of horizonta tai c.g. from eadin
g edge
57
----------------------- Page 59-----------------------
of root chord of wing is 20.05 m. In a simi ar way, c.g. of vertica ta
i
is at 19.56 m behind eading edge of the root chord of wing.

Component Weight(kg) C.G ocation from Nose(m)
Wing 5855.41 X e+5.34
Fuse age 6606.60 13.86
Horizonta tai 1160.94 X e+20.05
Vertica tai 746.22 X e+19.56
Engine group 5659.19 X e+2
Nose Whee 363.18 4.62
Main anding gear 1961.25 17.82
Fixed equipment tota 7421.09 13.86
Fue 12130.88 X e+4.76
Pay oad 17270 14.13
Gross Weight 59175 X e+4.76
By app ying moment equi ibrium about the nose of the airp ane,we obtain
ocation of wing eading edge at the root to be 9.85 m from the nose of the
airp ane.
The C.G of the airp ane ies at 14.61 m from the nose.
6.4 C.G Trave for Critica Cases
6.4.1 Fu Pay oad and No Fue
For the case of fu pay oad and no fue ,the fue contribution to the weight
is not present.However, since we have assumed that the c.g of the fu
e to
be at the quarter chord of the m.a.c of the wing(where the c.g of the entire
airp ane has been positioned)there wi be no c.g shift in this case.
Hence,the C.G shift is 0%.
6.4.2 No Pay oad and No Fue
For this case,the fue as we as the pay oad contribution are not present.Since
the c.g of pay oad is not at the c.g of the entire airp ane,the c.g is bound to
shift by a certain amount in this case.The moment ca cu ations were p
er-
formed and the new c.g ocation was obtained as 14.93 m.Therefore the c.g
shift is 14.93 - 14.63 = 0.3 m.
Hence the c.g shift is +7.28% of m.a.c.
58
----------------------- Page 60-----------------------
6.4.3 No Pay oad and Fu fue
For this case,since there is no pay oad, the c.g is bound to shift.On perform-
ing ca cu ations,we obtain the new c.g ocation to be 14.84 m.Therefore the
c.g shift is 14.84 - 14.63 = 0.21 m.
Hence the c.g shift is +5.17% of the m.a.c.
6.4.4 Pay oad distribution for 15% c.g trave

According to ebedenski[7], a tota c.g shift of 15% is acceptab e in genera
for commercia airp anes.Hence,we go on to obtain the maximum pay oad
that can be concentrated in the front portion of the passenger cabin
such
that a c.g shift of 7.5% is produced.
We assume the percentage of pay oad to be x and a so assume the pay-
oad c.g to be at x% of the passenger cabin ength.Performing the ca cu ations
yie ds the va ue of x to be 90%.
Simi ar y,we a so obtain the maximum pay oad that can be concentrated
at the rear ha f of the passenger cabin resu ting in a c.g shift of 15%.
On performing ca cu ations we obtain the va ue of x as 70%.
Hence,the c.g ocations for various critica cases and pay oad distribution
for c.g shift of 15% have been ca cu ated.
6.5 Summary
• Wing ocation( eading edge of root of trapezoida wing) - 9.85 m
• c.g ocation with Fu pay oad and fu fue - 14.61 m
• c.g trave for No Pay oad and No Fue - 7.28%
• c.g trave for No Pay oad and fu Fue - 5.17%
• For a c.g trave of 7.5% on either side of origina c.g ocatio
n,90% of
passengers can be concentrated in the front and 70% in the rear.
59
----------------------- Page 61-----------------------
7 Contro Surfaces
7.1 Stabi ity and Contro abi ity
The abi ity of a vehic e to maintain its equi ibrium is termed stabi
ity and
the in uence which the pi ot or contro system can exert on the equi ibrium
is termed its contro abi ity.The basic requirement for static ongitudina sta-
bi ity of any airp ane is a negative s ope ofthe curve of the pitching moment
coe cient, Cmcg , versus ift coe cient,C . Dynamic stabi ity requires th
at
the vehic e be not on y statica y stab e,but a so that the motions fo owing
a disturbance from equi ibrium be such as to restore the equi ibrium.
Even though the vehic e might be statica y stab e, it is possib e that the
osci ations fo owing a disturbance might increase in magnitude with e
ach
osci ation,thereby making it impossib e to restore the equi ibrium.

7.2 Static ongitudina Stabi ity and Contro
7.2.1 Speci cations
• The horizonta tai must be arge enough
 to insure that the static ongi-
tudina stabi ity criterion,dCmcg /dC wi be negative for a anticipa
ted
center of gravity positions.
• An e evator shou d be provided so that the pi ot wi be ab e t
o trim 
the airp ane(maintain Cm = 0) at a anticipated va ues of C .
• The tai shou d be arge enough and and its e evator powerfu enough
to enab e the pi ot rotate the airp ane during the take-o run t
o the
required ang e of attack.This condition is termed as the Nose w
hee 
ift-o condition.
7.2.2 Aft Center of gravity imit
For the “stick free” case and for sma ang es of attack,the fo owing expres-
sion for the aft center of gravity imit in terms of the tai -size parameter,V
we have the fo owing equation. (Section 9.2 of [5])

(xc.g )aft = xa.c − dCm + at V ηt 1− d 1−C ατ + dCm
 
dCL F us,Nac aw dα Chδ C
ower
(61) 
The va ue of xc.g from above equation is terme the “stick-free neut
ra
oint”,since it is the c.g ocation at which the static stabi ity is neutra .

60
----------------------- Page 62-----------------------
 
7.2.3 Forwar center of ravity imit
   
The forwar c.g. imit is not genera y e en ent on maintaining stabi ity.
As the c.g is move forwar ,the stabi ity contribution xc.g −xa.c of he win
g
becomes more and more nega ive , hereby increasing he s a ic s abili y
.In
order
o keep he airplane in equilibrium as he c.g is moved forwar
d, he
eleva or mus be capable of rimming ou he resul ing nega ive pi chi
ng
momen
.The pi ching momen will be he grea es when he airplane is
a
CLmax when he airplane is landing and ground e ec s decrease he down

wash a he ail.

The equa ion of pi ching momen s may be solved for he posi ion of he
mos forward c.g by assuming he airplane rimmed(Cmcg = 0) a CLmax
as
follows(Sec ion 9.2 of [5])

(x ) = x − Cmδ αw − G − iw + i Cmac(flaps) + Cm(fus) + Cm(po
wer)
cg forward ac  δemax+ +
C max τ Cmδ
(62)
7.2.4 Determination of initia arameters

• (Cm )F us
C  
C K W2
m f f f
=
(63)  
C F us Scaw
 
The va ue of Kf is obtaine as 0.0119 from grah 1-9:1 of K.D.Woo [10].
 
aw =6.276 /ra ian = 0.1095 / egree
 
from the va ue obtaine in section 4.5 on wing esign.
Therefore, 
Cm = 0.0119 ×3.592 ×33 = 0.1036
 
C fus 111.63 ×3.9 ×0.1095
   
The contribution of nace e to ( Cm/ C ) is neg ecte .
 
• / α
d 114.6 × w
=
(64)
dα πA
61
----------------------- Page 63-----------------------

114.6 ×0.1095
 = = 0.4297
 α π ×9.3
• Cm
 
C
ower

Cm = T t (
65)
 
C W c
ower
  
t is the istance of thrust ine from c.g(the
 istance
 is measure er-
en icu ar to the thrust ine).For the esigne air ane we make an

estimate of t to be 0.19 m.At the cruise a titu e, we choose a (T/W )
of 0.06.
Therefore,

Cm = 0.06 ×0.62 = 0.00292
  ower,cruise
C 13
 
• (C )max is taken as 2.5 from Section 3. (C )max with no as is 1.4
.
(∆CL)flas = 1.1.
• awg is the lift curve sloe of the wing close to the ground. It is
ob 
tained by calculating the value of aw at lower velocities. A value
of
V = 1.3 ×49 = 63.7m/s corresonds to a value of M = 0.19 and hence
gives a value of
(aw )landing = 4.57/radian = 0.0796.
The awg is obtained by adding the ground e ect to the (aw )landing ob

tained.Hence
(awg )landing = 1.1(aw )landing = 5.027/radian = 0.0877/deg (
66)
• αW g
(CL)m x
αW g = (67
)
 k
wg
k is the ground e ect f ctor obt ined from Fig 1-9:4 of Wood[10].
(CL)m x is the v lue without ps nd corresponds to 1.4. k w s ob-
t ined s 1.1((for height of .c bove ground)/semi sp n of 0.1).
αW g = 10.16◦
62
----------------------- Page 64-----------------------
• a and a
t tg
at is obtained as 0.0828/deg by using the tai parameters in eq.(55).
atg is the ift curve s ope of the wing c ose to the ground. I
t is ob-
tained by ca cu ating the va ue of at at ower ve ocities. A
va ue of
V = 1.3 ×49 = 63.7m/s corresponds to a va ue of M = 0.19 and hence
gives a va ue of
(a ) = 3.91/radian = 0.0682/deg.
t anding
The a is obtained by adding the ground e ect to the (a )
ob-
tg t a
nding
tained.Hence
(a ) = 1.1(a ) = 5.027/radian = 0.0877/deg
(68)
tg anding t anding
• iw is taken as 1◦ from Section 4.
• Cmjet at anding = 0
• Cmac(f aps)
S c
Cmac(f aps) = Cmac + ∆Cmac(f) f f
(69)
Sc
Cmac for the airfoil is taken as −0.1 from airfoil database.∆Cmac
is
taken as 0.4 from Perkins and Hage[11], Figure 5.40.
Cmac(flas) = −0.1 − 0.4 0.56 1.1 = −0.3464
• Cm(F us)
dCm = dCm CLalha
(70)
dα fus dCL fus
Hence using the v lue of CLα with ground e ect,
(Cmα )fus = 0.1036 ×0.0877 = 0.0091
Cmfus = 0.0091 × (αw − iw ) = 0.0091(10.16 − 1) = 0.0834
63
 Page 65 

• Chα nd Chδ


 
The va ues of Chα nd Chδ are obtaine from Fig 1-9:5 of Woo [10
]. 
Since not much etai is avai ab e about the nature of e evator
s we    
assume the stan ar esign an obtain the fo owing va ues.
Chα=-0.00660
Chδ=-0.01140
• Cmδ
St t
C = −a η τ (
71)
mδ t t
S c
Cmδ = −0.08095 ×0.95 ×0.57 × VH = −0.04438VH
• δemax
δemax is chosen as −25◦ which is typica of most airp anes.
• it For the pre iminary design we assume it = 1 which is the typica
y
the va ue of passenger airp anes.
Now,that we have obtained the various parameters required for the ongi-
tudina stabi ity criterion we go on to ca cu ate V which a ects the horizonta
tai sizing. We adopt the fo owing consideration to determine V .
Cmα is
pproxim tely equ l to -1.15 for tr nsport irpl ne t M = 0.8(R ymer[
4],
ch pter 16). Assuming c.g t .c
dCm = −1.15 = −0.183
dCL 6.276
Hence

xcg(af ) xac
− = −0.183
c c
Subs i u ing in eq.(61), we ge
−0.183 = 0.1036 − 0.2958V + 0.00292
∴ V = 0.98

We ob ain he horizon al ail area o be
64
 Page 66 

0.98 ×3.9 × 111.63


Sh = = 28.71m2
14.86
Remark: Keeping in view he large number of approxima
ions
involved in
calcula ion of parame ers during landing and ake o , he cross check fo
r
c.g. loca ion and nose wheel lif o condi ions are no carried ou a
forward
his s age.

7.3 La eral S abili y and Con rol

7.3.1 Speci ca ions

• The direc ional s abili y cri erion,dC /dC should be nega ive for any
n

an icipa ed speed grea er han 1.2 imes he s alling speed.

• The yawing momen con rol(rudder) mus be powerful enough o (a)

coun erac he yawing momen encoun ered in rolls(”adverse yaw”),
(b)in cross wind landings or akeo s, (c)in one engine o condi ion

and (d)in spin when he recovery is e ec ed primarily by he rud
der
con rol.

• To regain and main
ain
s raigh igh
wi h one
engine inopera ive a a
minimum speed no grea er han 1.3 imes he s alling speed.

7.3.2 Equa ions for direc ional s abili y

The equa ions for direc ional s abili y can be derived as
dCn
= Cn (wing) + Cn (F us) + Cn (power) + Cn (T ail)
(72)
d

7.3.3 De ermina ion of ini ial parame ers

In he preliminary analysis of direc ional s a ic s abili y, he con ribu ions o
f
wing, power and in erference e ec s are ignored.
• Cn (fus)
k V
Cn (fus) = n n
(73)
28.7Sb

The value of k was ob ained from Figure 1:9 2 of Wood[10] as k =0.95
n n
0.95 ×217.86
Cn (fus) = = 0.002005
28.7 × 111.63 ×32.22
65

 Page 67 



• Cn ( ail)

Sv lv
Cn ( ail) = −av
(74)
S b
av = 0.0378 per degree.

Cn ( ail) = −0.0378 × VV
The value of Cn (desirable) is given by Perkins and Hage[11] as follows

Cn (desirable) = −0.0005 W 1/2


(75)
b2

Therefore ,for he presen case we have,
Cn (desirable) = −0.001709
Hence,

Cn (desirable) = Cn (fus) + Cn ( ail)
(76)
−0.001709 = 0.002005 − 0.0378 × VV
(77)
or VV = 0.098
This value is almos he same as wha we ob ained in our ini ial
ail
sizing.
Therefore,ver ical ail area is

111.63 ×32.22 ×0.098


Sv = = 25.43m2
13.86
66

 Page 68 



8 Fea ures of he Designed Airplane
8.1 Three View Drawing

The 3 view drawing of he airplane designed is given in gure
8.2 Overall Dimensions

Leng h : 34.32
Wing Span : 32.22 m
Heigh above ground : 11.17
Wheel base : 13.2 m
Wheel rack : 5.8 m

8.3 Engine de ails

Similar o CFM 56  2B
Seal Level S a ic Thrus : 97.9 kN
By pass ra io : 6.5 (For which he Engine
charac eris
ics are given in [8] )
SFC : a M = 0.8, h = 10972 m(36 000 f ), SF C is aken as 0.6 hr−1

8.4 Weigh s

Gross
Weigh : 59175 kgf
Emp y Weigh : 29706 kgf
Fuel Weigh : 12131 kgf
Payload : 17338 kgf
Maximum Landing Weigh : 50296 kgf
67
 Page 69 
e
n
a
l
p
r
i
a
e
h
f
o
g
n
i
w
a
r
d
w
e
i
v
e
e
r
h
T
:
8
e
r
u
g
i
F
68
 Page 70 

8.5 Wing Geome ry
Planform Shape : Cranked wing
Span : 32.22 m
Area : 111.63 m2

Airfoil
: NASA  SC(2) series, /c = 14%, Clop = 0.5
Roo Chord : 5.59 m (Equivalen Trapezoidal wing)
Tip Chord : 1.34 m (Equivalen Trapezoidal wing)
Roo Chord of Cranked
Wing : 7.44 m
Por ion of wing wi h s raigh railing edge : 11.28 m
Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 3.9 m
Quar er chord Sweep : 27.69o
Dihedral
: 5o
Twis : 3o
Incidence : 1.4o

Taper Ra io : 0.24 (Equivalen Trapezoidal wing)

Aspec Ra io : 9.3

8.6 Fuselage Geome ry

Leng h : 33 m
Maximum Diame er : 3.59 m

8.7 Nacelle Geome ry
No. of nacelles
: 2
Nacelle Diame
er : 1.62 m
Cross sec ional Area : 2.06 m2

Leng h of Nacelle : 3.3 m (based on B737 Nacelle)

8.8 Horizon al Tail Geome ry
Span : 11.98 m
Area : 28.71 m2
Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 2.67 m
Quar er Chord Sweep : 32o

Roo Chord : 3.80 m
Tip chord : 0.99 m
69
 Page 71 

Taper Ra io : 0.26
Aspec Ra io : 5

8.9 Ver ical Tail Geome ry
Span : 6.58 m
Area : 25.43 m2

Roo Chord : 5.90 m
Tip chord : 1.83 m
Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 4.22 m
Quar er Chord Sweep : 37o

Taper Ra io : 0.31
Aspec Ra io : 1.70

8.10 O her de ails

CLmax wi hou ap : 1.4
CLmax wi h landing
aps : 2.7
Maximum Load
Fac or nmax : 3.5
CLmax wi h T.O aps : 2.16
8.11 Crew and Payload

Fligh crew : 2(pilo and co pilo )
Cabin crew : 5
Passenger sea ing : 138 economy and 12 business class
8.12 Performance

The de ailed performance es ima ion is given in sec ion 9. The highligh s are
as follows.

• The performance is worked for a gross weigh of 59175
kgf and wing

loading of 5195 Nm−2 excep for landing where he landing weigh is

aken as 85% of ake o weigh .

• Maximum
Mach No. a 36000 f wi h cruise hrus = 0.859, wi h climb
hrus = 0.874.
70
 Page 72 

• Maximum s ill air range a M = 0.81 and h = 36000 f is 5602 km.

• Maximum ra e of climb a sea level wi h climb hrus = 1087 m/min

• Service ceiling = 11.55 km, Absolu e ceiling = 11.88 km

• Take o dis ance over 50 f = 860 m(2820 f ) and balanced eld leng h
= 1830 m(6000 f )

• Landing dis ance from 15 m = 1140 m(3740 f )

Remark : The designed airplane mee s he requiremen s se ou in h
e
speci
ca ions. The sea ing arrangemen
akes care of he passenger comfor
and he choice of engine re ec s low level of noise.
71
 Page 73 

9 Performance Es ima ion

The de ails regarding overall dimensions, engine
de ails, weigh
s,
geome ric

parame ers of wing, fuselage, nacelle, horizon al ail, ver ical ail, ver ical
ail
and o her de ails like CLmax in various condi ions and maximum
load fac
or
are given in sec ion 8.2  8.10. The de ails of igh condi ion for es ima ion
of drag polar are as follows

Al i ude : 10972 m = 36000 f
Mach number : 0.8
−5 2
Kinema ic Viscosi y : 3.90536 ×10 m /s
Densi y : 0.3639 kg/m3
Speed of Sound : 295.07 m/s
Fligh Speed
: 236.056 m/s
Weigh of he Airplane : 59175 kgf

9.1 Es ima ion of Drag Polar

The drag polar is assumed o be of he form
C2
CD = CDo + L
πAe

The quantity CDO is assume to be given by
CDO = (CDO )W B + (CDO )V + (CDO )H + (CDO )Misc (7
8)
 
where su ces W B, V, H, Misc enote wing-bo y combination, vertica tai ,
horizonta tai , an misce aneous contributions resective y.
9.1.1 Estimation of (CDo )W B
  
Initia y, the rag o ar is obtaine at a Mach number of 0.6 as suggeste by
[6]. (CDo )W B is then given as :
SB
(CDo )W B = (CDo )W + (CDo )B
Sref
 
The su x B enotes fuse age an SB is the maximum fronta area of fuse age.
(CDO )W is given as :
 t Swet
(CDo )W = Cfw 1 +
c Sref wing
72
----------------------- Page 74-----------------------
    ate
Here, the Reyno s number use  to etermine the  turbu ent  at
skin friction coe cient is base on the mean aero ynamic chor ce of
the   
exose wing. (Swet)e is the wette area of the ex ose wing.
Now cr = 5.59m, ct = 1.34m, b/2 = 16.11m an fus = 3.59m. Hence
5.59 − 1.34 3.59
cre = 5.59 − × = 5.116m
16.11 2
1.34
λe = = 0.262
5.116
c = 2 1 + 0.262 + 0.2622
e 5.116 = 3.596m
3 1 + 0.262
(b/2)e = 16.11 − 1.795 = 14.315m
M = 0.6, a = 295.07m/s ⇒ V = 177.12m/s. Also µ = 3.90536 × 10−5 .
Hence,
177.12 ×3.596
Re = = 16.31 × 106
3.90536 × 10−5
k = 1.015 × 10−5m corresponds o s andard camou age pain , average

applica ion (from [4]). Hence
l 3.596
= = 3.543 × 105
k 1.015 × 10−5
6
The Recu off corresponding o he above l/k is 30 ×10 . The Cfw is
hen
measured from he graph in [6] as
Cfw = 0.00265

( /c)avg = 14% and ( /c)max a x/c > 0.3 ⇒ L = 1.2.
Sexposedplanform = 14.314 5.116 + 1.341 ×2 = 92.41m2

2
Swe w = 2 ×92.41(1 + 1.2 ×0.14) = 215.8m2
Hence,
215.8
(CDf )w = 0.00265 (1 + 1.2 ×0.14) 111.63 = 0.00598
(CDo )B is given as:
(CDO )B = (CDf )B + (CDp )B + CDb
60 lb Swe Sbas
e
(CDO )B = CfB 1 + 3 + 0.0025 + CDb
(l /d) d SB Sre
f
b fus
73
 Page 75 

lf = 33.0m and dmax = 3.59m


177.12 ×33
Reb = = 149.6 × 106
3.905 × 10−5

k = 1.015 × 10−5m corresponds o s andard camou age pain , average

applica ion. Hence
l 33
= = 32.51 × 105
k 1.015 × 10−5

8
The Recu off corresponding o he above l/k is 2.6 ×10 . The Cfw is
hen
measured from he graph in [6] as
Cfw = 0.0019

(Swe )fus = 0.75 ×π ×3.59 ×33 = 279m2
π
SB = ×3.592 = 10.12m2
4
Hence.
279
(CDf )B = 0.0019 × 10.12 = 0.0524
(CD )B = 0.0019 60 3 + 0.0025 × (33/3.59) 279 = 0.00524
(33/3.59) 10.12

CDb is assume to be zero, since base area is a most zero. Hence
(CDO )B = 0.0524 + 0.00524 + 0 = 0.0576
(∆CD)canoy is taken as 0.002. Hence (CDO )B = 0.0596
Finally we have:
10.12
(CDo )W B = 0.00598 + 0.0596 = 0.01138
111.63
9.1.2 Estimation of (CDo )V and (CDo )H
The estimation of (CDo )H and (CDo )V can be done in a manner similar to th
at
for the wing. However the details regarding the exosed tail area etc. would
be needed. In the absence of the detailed data on the shae of fus
elage at
rear etc., a simli ed aroach given in [6] is adoted, wherein CDf = 0.00
25
for both horizontal and vertical tails.
74
 Page 76 

S = 2(S + S )
W h v
Hence,
1
(CDo )hv = 0.0025(28.71 + 25.43) = 0.0024
(79)
111.63
9.1.3 Estimation of Misc Drag  Nacelle
For calculating drag due to the nacelles we use the short cut method
for
which we have:
Swet
(CDo )nacelle = 0.006 ×
Sref
2
where, Swet is the wetted area of nacelle. Here Swet = 16.79m . Si
nce we
have two nacelles the total drag will be twice of this. Finally we get:
16.79
(CDo )nacelle = 0.006 × ×2 = 0.0018
111.63
9.1.4 CDo of the airlane
Taking 2% for the interference drag (from [6]), we get the CDo of the ai
rlane
as
CDo = 1.02 [0.01138 + 0.0024 + 0.0018] = 0.0159
(80)
9.1.5 Induced Drag
The induced drag comonent has the Oswald’s e ciency factor e which is
estimated by adding the e ect of all the aircraft comonents on induced drag.
The rough estimate of e can be obtained from:
1 1 1 1
= + +
e ewing efuselage eother
From [9]
ewing = (ew )Λ=0 cos(Λ − 5)

w ere Λ is t e wing sweep. (ewing )Λ=0 = 0.97 for AR = 9.3, λ = 0.
24
from [12].
Hence ewing = 0.97 ×cos (27.69 − 5) = 0.8948. Also 1/efus = 0.8 for a roun
d
(Sf /S)
fuselage. Hence
1 10.122
= 0.8 × = 0.0725
efus 111.63
75
 Page 77 
1
= 0.05
eo her
Finally we have:
1
e = = 0.8064
0.8948−1 + 0.0725 + 0.05
Hence
1 1
K = = = 0.04244
πAe π ×9.3 ×0.8064
9.1.6 Fina Drag Po ar
CD = 0.0159 + 0.04244 × C2 (81)


Figure 9: Subsonic Drag Po ar


76
----------------------- Page 78-----------------------
Remark

• The o ar given by 81 is va i at subcritica Mach numbers. The
in-   
crease in CDo an K at higher Mach numbers is iscusse in sec
tion
4.2.
 
• The maximum ift to rag ratio (( /D)max) is given by
1

( /D)max =
2 CDo K
 
Using equation 81, ( /D)max is 19.25, which is tyica of mo
ern jet
transort air anes.
    
• It may be note
 that the arabo ic o ar is an a roximation an is not 
va i beyon C max . It is not accurate c ose to C = 0 an C = C
max
9.2 Engine Characteristics
  
Toca cu ate the erformance,
  the variations of thrust an SFC with see
an a titu e are nee e . Chater 9 of [8] contains these variations for turbo-
fan engines with various
 byass ratios. The Thrust variations
 versus Mach
number with a titu e as arameters are given in non- imensiona form f
or   
take-o , cruise an c imb ratings. The
 va ues were rea from the curves an
ater smoothe . The va ues mu ti ie by 97.9 kN, the sea eve static  thrust
rating for the chosen engine, are shown in Figures 10 an 11. Figure
10
a so contains (a) the variation of thrust with Mach number at sea eve with
take-o rating. (b) variations of c imb thrust with Mach number at
h = 38000 an 39000
 ft; these are obtaine by intero ating va ues at 36000

an 40000 ft an are use for comutation of erformance at these a titu es.
The SFC variation is a so given in [8], but is taken as 0.6hr−1 under cruise

condi ions based on he value recommended by [4].
77
 Page 79 
s
e
d
u

i
l
a
s
u
o
i
r
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9.3 Level Fligh Performance

In s eady Level igh , he equa ions of mo ion, in s andard no a ion are
T − D = 0 (82)
L − W = 0 (83)
1 1
L = ρV 2SCL =⇒ W = ρV 2SCL (84)
2 2
1
D = ρV 2SCD = T (85)
2
9.3.1 Stalling peed
In level ight,
V = 2W (86)

ρSCL
Since CL cannot exceed CLmax , the e i  a ight peed below which level
ight i  not po ible. The ight peed at CL = CLmax i  called the talling
peed and i  denoted by V 
V = 2W (87)

ρSCLmax
Since ρ dec ea e  with altitude, V  inc ea e  with height. We note tha
t
2
W/S = 5195N/m , CLmax = 2.7 with landing ap  and CLmax = 1.4 without
ap . The value  of talling peed at di e ent altitude  and ap etting  a e
tabulated in Table 6 and hown in Figu e 12.
80
----------------------- Page 82-----------------------
h ρ V (C = 1.4) V (C = 2.7)
 Lmax  Lmax
3
(m) (kg/m ) (m/ ) (m/ )
0 1.225 77.83 56.04
2000 1.006 85.86 61.83
4000 0.819 95.18 68.54
6000 0.659 106.06 76.37
8000 0.525 118.87 85.59
10000 0.412 134.09 96.56
11000 0.363 142.80 102.83
12000 0.310 154.52 111.27
Table 6: Va iation of talling peed with altitude
Figu e 12: Stalling peed V  Altitude
81
----------------------- Page 83-----------------------
9.3.2 Va iation of Vmin and Vmax with Altitude
To dete mine the Vmin and Vmax at each altitude, the following p ocedu e i 
adopted.
• The engine th u t a  a function of velocity at each altitude i  obtained
f om the moothed data.
• The d ag at each altitude i  found a  a function of velocity u ing the
d ag pola  and the level ight fo mulae given below.
2 (W/S)
CL = 2 (8
8)
ρV
CD = CDo + KC2 (8
9)
L
1
D ag = ρV 2SCD (90)
2
Tavail = f (M) (9
1)
Whe e CDo = 0.0159 and K = 0.04244.
Howeve , the c ui e Mach numbe  (Mc ui e) fo  thi  ai plane i 
0.8.
Hence CDo and K a e expected to become function  of Mach numbe 
above Mc ui e . To get ome guideline  about va iation  of CDo and K,
we con ide  the d ag pola  of B-727 given in Volume 6, Chapte  5 of
[13]. The e d ag pola  a e hown in the Figu e 13 a  di c ete point .
82
----------------------- Page 84-----------------------
Figu e 13: D ag pola  at di e ent Mach numbe  fo  B727-100; Symbol  a e
data f om [13] and Solid line  a e the pa abolic t 
The e pola  we e app oximated by the pa abolic pola  exp e 
ion
namely CD = CDo + K ×C2 . The value  of CDo and K fo  the va iou 
L
Mach numbe  a e given in the Table 7. The pa abolic t i  al o hown
in Figu e 13.
M CDo K
0.7 0.01631 0.04969
0.76 0.01634 0.05257
0.82 0.01668 0.06101
0.84 0.01695 0.06807
0.86 0.01733 0.08183
0.88 0.01792 0.103
Table 7: Va iation of CDo and K with Mach numbe  (Pa abolic t)
The va iation  in CDo and K with Mach numbe  a e plotted in t
he
Figu e  14 and 15. It i  een that the e i  no igni cant inc e
a e in
83
----------------------- Page 85-----------------------
Figu e 14: Va iation of CDo with Mach numbe 
CDo and K upto M = 0.76. Thi  i  expected to be the c ui e Mach
numbe  fo  the ai plane (B727-100). Following analytical exp e ion 
have been found to clo ely ep e ent the change  in CDo and K f om
M = 0.76 to M = 0.86.
CDo =0.01634 − 0.001 × (M − 0.76) + 0.11 × (M − 0.76)2 (92)
K =0.05257 + (M − 0.76)2 + 20.0 × (M − 0.76)3 (93)

In he case of he presen airplane, he cruise Mach number is 0.8. The
varia ions of CDo and K above Mcruise and up o M = 0.9, based on
B727 100 da a is aken as follows.
CDo = 0.0159 − 0.001 × (M − 0.8) + 0.11 × (M − 0.8)2 (94)
K = 0.0455 + (M − 0.8)2 + 20.0 × (M − 0.8)3 (95)
84
 Page 86 

Figure 15: Varia ion of K wi h Mach number

• The hrus available and hrus required curves are plo ed a each
al i ude as a func ion of veloci y. The poin s of in ersec ion give
he
Vmin and Vmax a each al i ude. To arrive a Vmin , he s alling
speed
also needs o be aken in o accoun . Hence in he Figures. 16 o
21,
he por ion of he Vmin curve below Vs is shown as do ed lines, as he

drag polar is no valid here. Vs is aken for CLmax wi hou aps.

The calcula ions are carried ou for h = 0, 10000, 15000, 25000, 30000
and 36000 f , i.e S.L, 3048, 4572,
7620, 9144 and 10972.8
m using Tavail
as
climb
hrus and cruise hrus . Resul s are presen ed only for climb
hrus case.
85
 Page 87 

h h Vs Vmin (m/s) Vmin (m/s) Vmax (m/s) Vmax (m/s)



(in f ) (in m) Tcr Tclimb Tcr Tclimb
S.L 0 77.833 < Vs < Vs 258.711 269.370
10000 3048 90.579 < Vs < Vs 272.060 280.595
15000 4572 98.131 < Vs < Vs 275.613 283.300
25000 7620 116.292 < Vs < Vs 272.929 279.291
30000 9144 127.278 < Vs < Vs 267.854 271.755
36000 10972 142.594 176.054 169.071 253.671 258.154
38000 11582 149.557 217.386 200.896 243.676 248.630
38995 11884 153.159 235.471 229.865 235.483 238.649


Table 8: Varia ion of Vmin and Vmax

Figure 16: Available and Required Thrus a S.L
86
 Page 88 

Figure 17: Available and Required Thrus a h = 3048.0m

Figure 18: Available and Required Thrus a h = 4572.0m
87
 Page 89 

Figure 19: Available and Required Thrus a h = 7620.0m

Figure 20: Available and Required Thrus a h = 9144.0m
88
 Page 90 

Figure 21: Available and Required Thrus a h = 10972.8m

Figure 22: Varia ion of Vmin and Vmax wi h al i ude
89
 Page 91 

9.4 S eady Climb

In his igh , he C.G of he airplane moves along
a s raigh line inclined o
he horizon al a an angle γ. The velocity of i ht is assumed to be constant
durin the climb. Since the i ht is steady, acceleration is zero and
the
equations of motion can be written as:
T − D − W sin γ = 0 (96)
L − W cos γ = 0 (97)
To calculate the variation of rate of climb with i ht velocity at di erent
altitudes, we adopt the followin procedure.
• Choose an altitude.
• Choose a i ht speed.
Notin that CL = 2W cos γ/ρSV 2 , we get
CD = CDo + K 2W co  γ
ρSV 2
Al o
Vc = V in γ
cos γ = 1 − Vc2
V 2
Usin the above equations,
A Vc 2 + B Vc + C = 0 (9
8)
V V
kW2 1 2kW2
A = 1 ; B = −W ; C = Tavail − ρV 2SCDo − (99)
2 ρV 2S 2 ρV 2S
Since altitude and ight velocity have been cho en, the th u t available
i  ead f om the climb th u t cu ve  in 10. Fu the  the va iation of CDo
and K with Mach numbe  i  taken a  in Equation  94 and 95.
90
----------------------- Page 92-----------------------
• Equation 98 give  2 value  of V /V . We choo e the value which i  le 
c
that 1.0 a  in γ cannot be reater than unity. Hence
γ = sin−1(V /V ) (100
)
c
Vc = V sin γ (1
01)
• This procedure is repeated for various speeds between Vmin and Vmax
.
The entire procedure is then repeated for various altitudes.
The variations of (R/C) and γ with velocity and with altitude as pa 
rameters are shown in Fi ure 23 and 25. The variations of (R/C)max
and γmax with altitude are shown in Fi ure 24 and 26. The variations
of V(R/C)max and Vγmax with altitude are shown in Fi ure 27 and 28. A
summary of results is presented in table 9.
h h (R/C)max V(R/C)max γmax Vγmax
(in ft) (in m) (in m/min) (in m/s) (in de rees) (in m/s)
0 0.0 1086.63 149.7 8.7 88.5
10000 3048.0 867.34 167.5 6.0 111.6
15000 4572.0 738.16 174.0 4.7 125.7
25000 7620.0 487.41 198.2 2.6 164.1
30000 9144.0 313.43 212.2 1.5 188.0
36000 10972.8 115.57 236.1 0.5 230.2
38000 11582.4 41.58 236.9 0.2 234.0
38995 11885.7 1.88 235.8 0.0 235.8
Table 9: Climb Performance
91
 Pa e 93 

Fi ure 23: Rate of Climb Vs Velocity for various altitudes


Fi ure 24: Maximum Rate of Climb Vs Altitude
92
 Pa e 94 

Fi ure 25: An le of Climb Vs Velocity for various altitudes


Fi ure 26: Maximum an le of Climb Vs Altitude
93
 Pa e 95 

Fi ure 27: Velocity at Maximum Rate of Climb Vs Altitude


Fi ure 28: Velocity at Maximum an le of Climb Vs Altitude
94
 Pa e 96 

Remarks
1. The discontinuties in slope in Fi ures 27 and 28 at hi h velocities are
due to the chan e in dra polar as the Mach number exceeds 0.8.
2. From Fi ure 24, the absolute cielin (at which (R/C)max is zero)
is
11.88 km. The service cielin at which (R/C)max = 50m/min is 11.55
km
95
 Pa e 97 
9.5 Ran e and Endurance
In this section, the ran e of the aircraft in a constant altitude and constant
velocity cruise is studied. Ran e is iven by the formula
3.6V −1 2W1 K −1 2W2 K

R = tan 2 − tan 2 (102)


T SF C KCdo ρV S Cdo ρV S Cdo
whe e W1 i  the weight of the ai c aft at the ta t of the c ui e and W2
i  the weight of the ai c aft at the end of the c ui e.
The c ui ing altitude taken i  h = 10972m. TSFC i  taken to be c
on-
tant a  0.6h −1. The variation of dra polar above M = 0.8 is iven b
y
Equation.94 and 95.
W1 = Wo = 59175 ×9.81N
Wf = 0.205 × W1
Allowin 6% fuel as trapped fuel, W2 becomes
W2 = W1 − 0.94 × Wf
The values of endurance (in hours) are obtained by dividin the expres 
sion for ran e by 3.6V where V is in m/s. The values of Ran e(R) and
Endurance(E) in i ht at di erent velocities are presented in Table 10 and
are plotted in Fi ures 29 and 30.
96
 Pa e 98 

Fi ure 29: Constant Velocity Ran e at h = 10972 m


Fi ure 30: Endurance at h = 10972 m
Remarks
1. It is observed that the maximum ran e of 5600 km is obtained
at a
velocity of 239m/s (860 kmph). Correspondin Mach number is 0.81
97

 Pa e 99 
M V CL CD L/D R E
(in m/s) (in km) (in hours)
0.50 147.531 1.312 0.089 14.75 2979.0 5.61
0.55 162.285 1.085 0.066 16.48 3608.0 6.18
0.60 177.038 0.911 0.051 17.82 4189.6 6.57
0.65 191.791 0.777 0.041 18.72 4691.7 6.80
0.70 206.544 0.670 0.035 19.17 5095.6 6.85
0.75 221.297 0.583 0.030 19.23 5396.5 6.77
0.80 236.050 0.513 0.027 18.95 5599.8 6.59
0.81 239.001 0.500 0.027 18.78 5602.3 6.51
0.82 241.952 0.488 0.027 18.36 5527.0 6.35
0.83 244.902 0.476 0.027 17.65 5352.2 6.07
0.84 247.853 0.465 0.028 16.62 5070.1 5.68
0.85 250.803 0.454 0.030 15.29 4691.2 5.20
0.86 253.754 0.444 0.032 13.76 4242.3 4.64
0.87 256.705 0.433 0.036 12.13 3758.8 4.07
0.88 259.655 0.424 0.040 10.52 3275.3 3.50
Table 10: Ran e and Endurance in Constant Velocity i ht at h = 10972m
(36000ft)
which is sli htly hi her than the Mach number beyond which CDo
and
K increase. This can be explained based on two factors namely
(i)
the ran e increases as the i ht speed increases (ii) after Mcruis
e is
exceeded, CDo and K increase thus reducin (L/D)max .
2. The ran e calculated above is the ross still air ran e. The safe ran e
would be about two thirds of this. In the present case, the safe ran
e
would be 3733km.
3. The maximum endurance of 6.85 hours occurs in a i ht at V
=
206m/s. (742 kmph). It can noted that the endurance is rou
hly
constant over a speed ran e of 190 m/s to 230 m/s.
98

 Pa e 100 


9.6 Turnin Performance
In this section, the performance of the airplane in a steady, co ordi
nated,
level turn is studied. The equations of motion in this case are:
T − D = 0
W − L cos φ = 0
W
L sin φ =
g
where φ is the angle o  bank.
These equations give:
V 2
r =
g tan φ
˙ V g tan φ
= =
r V
L 1
Load Factor n = =
W cos φ
˙
where n = L/W is the rate o  turn and r is the radius o  turn.
,
˙
The ollowing procedure is used to obtain rmin and max
1. A ight speed and altitude are chosen and the level ight li t coe cient
CLL is obtained as :
2(W/S)
CLL =
ρV 2
2. If CLmax /CLL < nmax , whe e nmax i  the maximum load facto 
fo 
which the ai c aft i  de igned, then the tu n i  limited by CLm
ax and
CLT1 = CLmax . Howeve  if CLmax /CLL > nmax , then the tu n i  limit
ed
by nmax , and CLT1 = nmaxCLL .
3. F om the d ag pola , CDT1 i  obtained co e ponding to CLT1 . Then
1
DT 1 =
ρV 2SCDT1
2
If D > T , whe e T i  the available th u t at that peed an
d alti-
T 1 a a
tude, then the tu n i  limited by the engine output. In thi  ca e,
the
maximum pe mi ible value of CD in tu ning ight i  found f om
T
CDT = 1 a2
2 ρV S
99
----------------------- Page 101-----------------------
F om the above elation, the value of CLT i  calculated a 
CLT = CDT − CDo
K
However i  D < T , then the turn is not limited by the engine outp
ut
T 1 a
and the value o  CLT calculated in step (ii) is retained.
4. Once CLT is known, the load actor during the turn is determined as
CLT
n =
CLL
˙
Once n is known, the values o  φ, r and can be calulated using t
he
equations given above.
The above steps are then repeated or various speeds and altitudes
. A
typical turning ight per ormance estimation is presented in Table 11.
In
these calculations, CLmax = 1.4 and nmax = 3.5 are assumed. The va
riation
o  turning ight per ormance with altitude is shown in Table. 12. F
igures
31, 32, 33, 34 respectively present (a) radius o  turn with velocity and with
altitude as parameter, (b) minimum radius o  turn with altitude, (c) rate o 
turn with velocity and with altitude as parameter and (d) maximum rate o 
turn with altitude.
˙
v n Clt φ (in degrees) r (in m)
78.83 1.026 1.4000 12.892 2767.70 0.0285
98.83 1.612 1.4000 51.670 787.21 0.1255
118.83 2.331 1.4000 64.596 683.63 0.1738
138.83 2.813 1.2376 69.173 747.41 0.1858
158.83 2.993 1.0062 70.482 911.60 0.1742
178.83 3.089 0.8192 71.112 1115.38 0.1603
198.83 3.080 0.6607 71.053 1383.50 0.1437
218.83 2.930 0.5189 70.045 1772.43 0.1235
238.83 2.573 0.3826 67.132 2452.36 0.0974
241.83 2.494 0.3617 66.363 2609.20 0.0927
Table 11: A typical turning ight per ormance at Sea level
100

 Page 102 


Figure 31: Radius o  Turn Vs Velocity at various altitudes
Figure 32: Velocity at Rmin Vs Altitude
101

 Page 103 


˙
Figure 33: Vs Speed at various altitudes
˙
Figure 34: Velocity at max Vs Altitude
102
 Page 104 

˙
h rmin Vrmin max V ˙max
(in m) (in m) (in m/s) (in m/s)
0.0 666 126.8 0.1910 127.8
3048.0 945 132.6 0.1410 133.6
4572.0 1155 135.1 0.1170 136.1
7620.0 1971 138.3 0.0731 165.3
9144.0 3247 151.3 0.0513 187.3
10972.8 8582 211.0 0.0256 231.0
Table 12: Turning ight per ormance
Remarks
˙
1. The maximum value o  is 0.191 and occurs at a speed o  127.8m/s
at sea level.
2. The minimum radius o  turn is 666 m and occurs at a speed o  126.8m/s
at sea level.
3. The various graphs show a discontinuity in slope when the crite
rion
which limits the turn changes rom nmax to thrust available.
9.7 Take o distance
In this section, the take o per ormance o  the airplane is evaluated.
The
take o distance consists o  take o run, transition and climb to sc
reen
height. Rough estimates o  the distance covered in these phases can
be
obtained by writing down the appropriate equations o  motion. However the
estimates are approximate and [4] recommends the ollowing ormulae or
take o distance and balance eld length based on the take o parameter.
This parameter is de ned as:
W/S
Take O Parameter =
(103)
σCLT O (T/W )
2
whe e W/S i  wing loading in lb/ft , CLT O i  0.8 × CLland = 0.8 ×2.7
=
2.16 and σ i  the den ity atio at take-o altitude.
In the p e ent ca e:
W
2 2
= 5195N/m = 108.2lb/ft ; CLT O = 0.8×2.7 = 2.16; σ = 1.0(
ea level)
S
103
----------------------- Page 105-----------------------
T 2 ×97.9kN
and = = 0.3373
W 59175 ×9.81
Hence
108.2
Take O Pa amete  = = 148.86 (104
)
1.0 ×2.16 ×0.3373
F om [4], the take o di tance, ove  50’, i  2823 o  861m. The balance
eld length fo  the p e ent ca e of two engined ai plane i  6000 o  1829m.
Rema k
It may be noted that the balance eld length i  mo e than twice the take o
di tance it elf.
9.8 Landing di tance
In thi  ection the landing di tance of the ai plane i  calculated. F 
om [4]
the landing di tance fo  comme icial ai line  i  given by the fo mula
Sland = 80 W 1 + 1000ft (1
05)
S σCLmax
2
whe e W/S i  in lb /ft . In the p e ent ca e:
• (W/S)land = 0.85 × (W/S)takeoff = 0.85 × 108.5 = 92.225lb/ft2
• CLmax = 2.7
• σ = 1.0
Hence
1
Sland = 80 ×92.225 + 1000 = 3732ft = 1138m (106
)
1.0 2.7
104
----------------------- Page 106-----------------------
9.9 Concluding ema k 
1. Pe fo mance of a typical comme cial ai line  ha  been e timated
fo 
talling peed, maximum peed, minimum peed, teady climb, ange,
endu ance, tu ning, take-o and landing.
2. The pe fo mance app oximately co e pond  to that of B737-200.
3. Figu e 35 p e ent  the va iation with altitude of the cha acte i tic ve-
locitie  co e ponding to
• talling peed, V 

• maximum peed, Vmax


• minimum peed a  dictated by th u t, Vminth u t
• maximum ate of climb, V(R/C)max
• maximum angle of climb, Vγmax
• maximum rate of turn, V ˙
max
• minimum radius of turn, Vrmin
105
 Pa e 107 
e
p
o
l
e
v
n
E
t
h

i
l
F
:
5
3
e
r
u

i
F
106
 Pa e 108 

10 Acknowled ements
The rst author(EGT) thanks AICTE for the fellowship which enabled him
to carry out the work at IIT Madras.
References
[1] http://www.cfm56.com/en ines/cfm56 5c/tech.html
[2] http://www.lissys.demon.co.uk/samp1/
[3] NASA Technical Paper 2969, Charles Harris (Mar 1990)
[4] Raymer.D.P. Aircraft desi n a conceptual approach. AIAA’ educational
series, 2006
[5] Tulapurkara.E.G Lecture Notes on Aircraft Desi n, Department
of
Aerospace En ineerin I.I.T Madras, 2007
[6] Roskam J. Methods of estimatin dra polars of subsonic a
ir 
planesRoskam Aviation & En ineerin Corporation, Ottawa, Kansas,
1983
[7] Lebedenski.A.A Aircraft desi n parametric studies Published by I.I.Sc,
Ban alore, 1971
[8] Jenkinson L.R., Simpkin P. and Rhodes D. Civil Jet Aircraft Desi
n,
Arnold, 1999
[9] Hoerner S.F. Fluid dynamic dra , published by Hoerner Fluid Dynamics,
Brick Town, NJ, 1965
[10] Wood K.D. Aerospace vehicle desi n, Volume 1, Johnson publishin

company, Boulder, Colorado, 1966
[11] Perkins C.D. & Ha e A.E. Airplane performance syability & control
,
McGraw Hill, 1963
[12] Abbot I.H. and Doenho A.E. Theory of win sections, Dover publica 
tions, 1959
[13] Roskam J. Aircraft desi n, Roskam Aviation & En ineerin Corpora 
tion, Ottawa, Kansas, 1990
107