Appendix 10.2
AN EXAMPLE OF AIRPLANE
PRELIMINARY DESIGN
PROCEDURE - JET TRANSPORT
E.G.Tulapurkara
A.Venkattraman
V.Ganesh
REPORT NO: AE TR 2007-4
APRIL 2007
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An Example of Airplane Preliminary Design
Procedure - Jet Transport
E.G.Tulapurkara
A.Venkattraman†
V.Ganesh‡
Abstract
In this report, we present an application of the preliminary design
procedure followed in aircraft design course. A 150 seater jet airplane
cruising at M = 0.8, at 11 km altitude and having a gross still
air
range(GSAR) of 4000 km is considered. The presentation is divided
into eight sections
• Data collection
• Preliminary Weight estimation
• Optimization of wing loading and thrust loading
• Wing design
• Fuselage design, preliminary design of tail surface and prelimi-
nary layout
• c.g. calculation
• Control surface design
• Features of designed airplane
• Details of performance estimation
AICTE Emeritus Fellow, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
†B.Tech Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
‡Dual Degree Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
1
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Contents
1 Data Collection
6
1.1 The Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.1 Type of Aircraft and Market . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.2 Budget and Time Constraints . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 7
1.1.3 Other Constraints and Standards . . . .
. . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Preliminary Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.1 Preliminary Weight Estimate . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 9
1.2.2 Wing parameters . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.3 Empennage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.4 Control Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.5 Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.6 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.7 Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 12
1.3 Overall height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 12
2 Revised Weight Estimation
21
2.1 Fuel fraction estimation . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.1 Warm up and Take o . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 21
2.1.2 Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.3 Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 22
2.1.4 Loiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 23
2.1.5 Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 23
2.2 Empty Weight Fraction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 23
3 Wing Loading and Thrust Loading
25
3.1 Landing Distance Consideration . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 25
3.2 Maximum Speed(Vmax) Consideration . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 27
3.2.1 Estimation of K . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 27
3.3 (R/C)max consideration . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 32
3.4 Based on Minimum Fuel for Range (Wfmin ) . .
. . . . . . . . . 33
3.5 Based on Absolute Ceiling . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 34
3.6 Summary of Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 36
3.7 Consideration of Wing Weight (Ww ) . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 36
3.8 Choosing a W/S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 37
3.9 Thrust Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 37
3.9.1 Requirement for Vmax . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 38
3.10 Requirements for (R/C)max . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 38
3.11 Take-O Thrust Requirements . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 38
3.12 Engine Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 39
2
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3.13 Engine Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 39
4 Wing Design
42
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2 Airfoil Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 42
4.2.1 Design Lift Coe cient . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 43
4.2.2 Airfoil Thickness Ratio and Wing Sweep
. . . . . . . . 43
4.3 Other Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 44
4.3.1 Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3.2 Taper Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.3 Root and Tip Chords . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.4 Dihedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.5 Wing Twist . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.4 Cranked Wing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 46
4.5 Wing Incidence(iw ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 47
4.6 Vertical Location of Wing . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 47
4.7 Areas of Flaps and Ailerons . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 48
5 Fuselage and Tail Layout
48
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 48
5.2 Initial Estimate of Fuselage Length . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 48
5.3 Nose and Cockpit - Front Fuselage . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 49
5.4 Passenger Cabin Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 49
5.4.1 Cabin Cross Section . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 50
5.4.2 Cabin length . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 50
5.4.3 Cabin Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 51
5.5 Rear Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.6 Total Fuselage Length . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 51
5.7 Tail surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 52
5.8 Engine Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 54
5.9 Landing Gear Arrangement . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 54
6 Estimation of Component Weights and C.G Location
55
6.1 Aircraft mass statement . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 55
6.1.1 Structures Group . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 55
6.1.2 Propulsion Group . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 56
6.1.3 Fixed equipment group . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 56
6.2 Weights of Various Components . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 57
6.3 C.G Location and C.G Travel . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 57
6.3.1 Wing Location on Fuselage . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 57
6.4 C.G Travel for Critical Cases . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 58
3
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6.4.1 Full Payload and No Fuel . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 58
6.4.2 No Payload and No Fuel . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 58
6.4.3 No Payload and Full fuel . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 59
6.4.4 Payload distribution for 15% c.g travel .
. . . . . . . . 59
6.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 59
7 Control Surfaces
60
7.1 Stability and Controllability . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 60
7.2 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control . . . .
. . . . . . . . 60
7.2.1 Speci cations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 60
7.2.2 Aft Center of gravity limit . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 60
7.2.3 Forward center of Gravity Limit . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 61
7.2.4 Determination of initial parameters . . .
. . . . . . . . 61
7.3 Lateral Stability and Control . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 65
7.3.1 Speci cations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 65
7.3.2 Equations for directional stability . . . .
. . . . . . . . 65
7.3.3 Determination of initial parameters . . .
. . . . . . . . 65
8 Features of the Designed Airplane
67
8.1 Three View Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 67
8.2 Overall Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 67
8.3 Engine details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 67
8.4 Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 67
8.5 Wing Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 69
8.6 Fuselage Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 69
8.7 Nacelle Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 69
8.8 Horizontal Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 69
8.9 Vertical Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 70
8.10 Other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 70
8.11 Crew and Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 70
8.12 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 70
9 Performance Estimation
72
9.1 Estimation of Drag Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 72
9.1.1 Estimation of (CDo )W B . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 72
9.1.2 Estimation of (CDo )V and (CDo )H . . .
. . . . . . . . 74
9.1.3 Estimation of Misc Drag - Nacelle . . . . .
. . . . . . . 75
9.1.4 CDo of the airplane . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 75
9.1.5 Induced Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 75
9.1.6 Final Drag Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 76
9.2 Engine Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 77
4
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9.3 Level Flight Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 80
9.3.1 Stalling speed . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 80
9.3.2 Variation of Vmin and Vmax with Altitude .
. . . . . . . 82
9.4 Steady Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 90
9.5 Range and Endurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 96
9.6 Turning Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 99
9.7 Take-o distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 103
9.8 Landing distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 104
9.9 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 105
10 Acknowledgements
107
5
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1 Data Collection
1.1 The Design Philosophy
The conceptual design forms the initial stage of the design process. In spite
of the fact that there are numerous aircrafts, each having its own special fea-
tures, one can nd common features underlying most of them. For example,
the following aspects would dominate the conceptual design of a commercial
transport jet.
1.1.1 Type of Aircraft and Market
The Civil Transport Jets could be classi ed in the following way :
Class No.of Seats Typical GSAR(km) Propulsion
B-747 >400 >13000 High Bypass
type Turbofan
B-757 200-400 10000 High Bypass
type Turbofan
B-737 100-200 5000 Medium Bypass
type Turbofan
Regionals 30-100 2000 Turboprop
Table 1: Classi cation of Civil Jet Airplane
From the values of gross still air range in table, it is clear
that inter-
continental ights would be restricted to the rst two classes while the last
two would handle bulk of the tra c in regional routes. The di erent classes
cater to di erent sections of the market. One decides the range and pa
y-
load(ie passengers) after identifying the target market. In this example,
we
plan to cater to the tra c in regional routes. We will design a Transp
ort
Jet with a Gross Still Air Range(GSAR) of 4000km (=R ) and a single-class
g
seating capacity of 150. We could roughly classify our aircraft as belonging
the B-737 class. We collect data for similar aircrafts and use this data set as
the basis for making initial estimates.
Our aim is to design an aircraft that satis es the following requirements.
• Gross Still Air Range = 4,000 km
• No. of passengers = 150
6
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• Flight Cruise Mach No. = 0.80
• Altitude =11,000 m
1.1.2 Budget and Time Constraints
Any design team would be required to work with a limited amount of funds
and time. These could dictate various aspects of the design process.For exam-
ple, innovations which could end up in a spiralling budget may be shelved.
Also, in case of highly competitive markets, the ability to get the
aircraft
ready in the prescribed time frame is very crucial. The design team
must
ensure that cost and time over-runs are minimized to the extent possible.
1.1.3 Other Constraints and Standards
Some of the major demands on the design arise from the various mandatory
and operational regulations. All commercial aircrafts must satisfy the
Air-
worthiness requirements of various countries. Typically, each country has its
own Aviation Authority (e.g, DGCA in India, CAA in UK, FAA in USA).
Airworthiness requirements would cover the following aspects of the aircraft
1. Flight
This includes performance items like stall, take-o , climb, cruise,
de-
scent, landing, response to rough air etc. Also included are re
quire-
ments of stability,controllability and manoeuvrability.
2. Structural
Flight loads, ground loads, emergency landing conditions, fatigue eval-
uation etc.
3. Powerplant
Fire protection, auxillary power unit,air intake/exhaust,fuel systems,coo
ling.
4. Other
Materials quality regulations, bird strike.
Passenger Safety is the primary motive behind these speci cations.
Ad-
ditional route-speci c constraints may have to be taken into account on
a
case-by-case basis. e.g, cruise altitude for aircrafts ying over the Himalayas
must be well over 8 km.
In addition to safety and operational requirements, the design must satisfy
the environmental constraints. Two major environmental concerns are noise
and emissions :
7
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• The Engines are the primary source of noise in an aircraft. The airframe
could also add to this.Maximum noise is produced during take-o and
landing. This can reduced by opting for a shallower approach, as this
reduces the ight time spent near the airport. However the reduction in
noise may not be signi cant. The development of high-bypass turbofan
engines has signi cantly reduced noise production.
• The predominant source of emissions is the engine. The exhaust
con-
tains particles, various gases including carbon dioxide(CO ) , water va-
2
por (H O) , various oxides of nitrates, carbon monoxide(CO),unburnt
2
hydrocarbons and sulphur dioxide(SO ). All components except C
O
2
2
and H O are considered as pollutants Again,as was the case with noise,
2
emissions during landing and take-o are of particular concern due to
the communities near airports. Various aviation authorities ha
ve set
limits on these emissions. The design team must adhere to such con-
straints.
1.2 Preliminary Design
If we look at the commercial transport jets in use, one can nd many common
features amongst them. Some of these are :
• Medium bypass turbofans
This choice regarding the type of engine is due to the following reasons.
In the ight regime of Mach number between 0.6 to 0.85, turbofans give
the best e ciency and moreover reduction in thrust output with speed
is not so rapid. Also, the noise generated by a medium-by pass turbo
fan engine is considerably less. We follow this trend and ch
oose a
medium-by pass turbo fan as our powerplant.
• Wing mounted engines Though not a rule, wing mounted engines
dominate the designs of top aircraft companies like Boeing and Airbus.
Alternative designs could be adopted. But,given the experience gained
with the wing mounted engines and the large data available for
such
con gurations, we adopt two wing mounted engines.
• Swept back wings and a conventional rear-tail con guration is cho-
sen. Again, this choice is dictated by the fact that we have
a large
amount of data(to compare with) for such con gurations.
8
----------------------- Page 10-----------------------
1.2.1 Preliminary Weight Estimate
Given the number of passengers, we can estimate the payload in the following
way:
1. Include one cabin crew member for 30 passengers. In our c
ase, this
gives 5 crew members
2. Include ight crew of pilot and co-Pilot.
Thus the total of passenger + crew is 150+5+2 = 157.
3. Allow 110 kg for each passenger (82 kg weight per passenger with carry
on baggage + 28 kg of checkin baggage)(Reference 1.11, page 214)
We thus obtain a payload Wpay of 157 × 110 = 17270 kgf . We now esti-
mate the gross weight of the aircraft (W ).
g
From data collection, we observe the following.
Aircraft No.of passengers Still air range (km) WT O (kgf)
737-300B 149 4185 60636
737-400B 168 3852 64671
737-700A 149 2935 60330
Table 2: Take o weight
Based on the data collected, we choose an initial weight of 60,000 kgf .
1.2.2 Wing parameters
To estimate the wing parameters, we need to choose a value for wing loading(W/S)
.
This is one of the most important parameters that not only decides the wing
parameters but also plays an important role in the performance of the air-
plane.We observe similar airplanes and choose an initial estimate for (W/S)
2
to be 5500 N/m .Once the (W/S) has been decided, the other parameter
s
of the wing are chosen based on similar aircraft.
Aerodynamically, it is desirable to have a large aspect ratio(A).
How-
ever, structural considerations force us to settle for an optimal value. As the
structural design improves, the value of A also keeps increasing. We choose
a value of 9.3. Most modern aircrafts(see data base in Table A) have values
close to 9.The taper ratio(λ) is a geometric parameter that is rough y
the
9
----------------------- Page 11-----------------------
same for a the aircrafts in the data set. We choose an average va ue of 0.24
◦
for λ.The wing quarter chord sweep(Λc/4) is chosen as 25 .Consequent y
S = Wg S = 107.02m2
(1)
W
The wing span(b) can be ca cu ated from A and S
b = √SA = 31.55 m
(2)
The root chord(c ) and tip chord(c ) can now be found using the fo owing
r t
equations :
2S
cr = = 5.47 m
(3)
b(1 + λ)
ct = λcr = 1.31 m
(4)
1.2.3 Empennage
As exp ained ear ier,we have chosen the conventiona rear-tai con guration.
The geometric parameters of the horizonta and vertica tai s are obta
ined
here.
The va ues of S /S and S /S are obtained from the data set of
simi ar
h v
airp anes.
We have chosen
Sh
= 0.31
S
Sv
= 0.21
S
Hence,
Sh = 33.18 m2
Sv = 22.47 m2
We choose suitab e aspect ratios(A , A ) from the data set. Our choi
ces
h v
are A = 5 and A = 1.7. Using eq.(2), we get the spans(b , b ) as
h v h v
b = A S = 12.88 m
(5)
h h h
10
----------------------- Page 12-----------------------
b = A S = 6.18 m
(6)
v v v
The chosen va ues for the taper ratios(λ , λ ) from the data set are λ
=
h v
h
0.26 λv = 0.3. We can now compute the root chord (crh , crv ) and tip chord
(cth , ctv ) of tai s as
2Sh
crh = = 4.09 m
(7)
b (1 + λ )
h h
c = λ c = 1.06 m
(8)
th h rh
2Sv
crv = = 5.59 m
(9)
b (1 + λ )
v v
c = λ c = 1.68 m
(10)
tv v rv
From the data set, we choose quarter chord sweep back ang es of Λh
= 30◦
◦
and Λv = 35 . This comp etes the broad geometric design of the empennage.
1.2.4 Contro Surfaces
A number of aircraft and their 3-view drawings as we as design data have
been studied and the fo owing parameter va ues are chosen.
• Sf ap/S = 0.17
• Ss at/S = 0.10
• bf ap/b =0.74
• Se e/Sht = 0.22
• Srud/Svt = 0.25
• Trai ing edge aps type : Fow er aps
• eading edge high ift devices : s ats
Hence,
• Se e = 7.53 m2
• Srud = 5.8 m2
• Area of T.E aps = 18.98 m2
• Area of .E s ats = 11.60 m2
• bf ap = 23.7 m
11
----------------------- Page 13-----------------------
1.2.5 Fuse age
Aerodynamic considerations wou d demand a s ender fuse age. But
, pas-
senger comfort and structura constraints wou d imit the s enderness.
We
obtain the ength and diameter d by choosing /b = 1.05 and
/d =
f f f
f f
8.86 from data co ection.
Hence,
f = 33.6 m
(11)
df = 3.79 m
(12)
1.2.6 Engines
Observing the thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W) of simi ar airp anes, we arr
ive
at a T/W of 0.3.This imp ies a thrust requirement of
T = 0.3 × Wg = 180 kN or 90 kN per engine
The CFMI FM56-3-B1 mode of Turbofan comes c osest to this re-
quirement.
1.2.7 anding Gear
We choose a retractab e tricyc e type anding gear. It is the most common y
found type of anding gear. It is favored for two reasons:
1. During take-o and anding the weight of the p ane is taken entire y by
the rear whee s.
2. It has better atera stabi ity on ground than bicyc e type anding gear.
W2 V (L/D)
Gross still air range is 4000 km.Hence
GSAR 4000
Cruise Safe Range = =
= 2667 km
1.5 1.5
(L/D)max is taken as 18 from gure 3.6 of Raymer[4]. This corresponds
to the average value for civil jets.
As prescribed by Raymer[4], chapter 3
(L/D)cruise = 0.866(L/D)max (1
4)
(L/D)cruise = 0.866 × 18 = 15.54
To account for allowances due to head wind during cruise and provision
for diversion to another airport we proceed as follows.
Head wind is taken as 15 m/s. The time to cover the cruise safe range of
2667 km at Vcr of 849.6 km/hr is
2667
T ime = = 3.13 hours
849.6
Therefore, with a head wind of 15 m/s or 54 km/hr the additional dis
tance that has to be accounted for is
Additional distance = 54 ×3.13 = 169 km
The allowance for diversion to another airport is taken as 400 km.
The total extra distance that has to be accounted for in the calculations
is 169 + 400 = 569 km.
The total distance during cruise = 2667 + 569 = 3236 km.
Substituting the appropriate values in eq.(13) we get,
W3 = exp −3236 ×0.6 = 0.863
W2 849.6 × 15.59
22
S S S
w
(C − F )
Do 1
F2 = (28)
W/S
K
F3 = 2 (29)
q
To calculate F , F , F values for our airlane we roceed as follows.
1 2 3
28
Page 30
• S = 107.02 m2
• λ = 0.24
• A = 9.3
• cr = 5.47 m
• ct = 1.31 m
• Λc/4 = 25◦
Hence, for the equiva ent trapezoida wing, the chord distribution is given
by
cr − ct
c(y) = cr − y
b/2
= 5.47 − 0.264y
Taking fuselage diameter of 3.79 m, the chord at y = 1.895 m is
cr(exosed) = 4.97 m
3.79
bexosedwing = 15.78 − = 13.89 m
2
29
Page 31
R/C
a ange of V value f om 120 to 170 m/ . Thi p ovide a ange of value of
p a given below
p1 = 3391 N/m2
p2 = 6793 N/m2
The efo e, fo
3391 < p < 6805 N/m2
the climb pe fo mance i nea the optimum.
3.4 Ba ed on Minimum Fuel fo Range (Wfmin )
In c ui e ight, the weight of the fuel u ed (W ) i elated to the ange(R)
f
and wing loading(p) a follow ( ection 4.2.5 of [5])
W = R ρ0 T SF C√σq F1 + F + F p (38)
f 2 3
3.6 2 p
The value of F , F , F co e ponding to c ui e condition a e a follow
1 2 3
F1 = 0.007124
F2 = 1.632 × 10−6
33
Thus, any within 1 and 2 would be accetable from the oint of view
of minimizing Wf .
2676 < < 5700N/m2
3.5 Based on Absolute Ceiling
At absolute ceiling, the ight is ossible at only one seed. Observing
the
trend of Hmax as hcruise + 0.6 km we choose the absolute ceiling to be Hmax
= 11.6 km. To nd the tHmax , we solve the following two equations(section
4.2.3 of [5]).
34
2 = 6547 Nm−2
From the above four values, the nal lower and uer bounds from the
ceiling considerations are
1 = 4942 Nm−2
2 = 6201 Nm−2
2
a 5% increase in W , the wing loading could go u to 5700 N/m .
If the
f
2 2
wing loading of 5700 N/m is chosen, instead of 3906 N/m , the we
ight of
the wing would decrease by a factor of
39060.649 = 0.782
5700
Taking weight of the wing as 12% of W , the saving in the wing weight
g
will be 2.6%. However this higher wing loading will result in an increase in
the fuel by 5% of W . In the resent case, W would be around 20
% and
g f
hence 5% of Wf means an increase in the weight by 0.05 ×0.2 = 1%.
2
Thus by increasing W/S from 3906 to 5700 N/m , the saving in the Wg
would be around 2.6 1 = 1.6%. Thus it is advantageous to have
higher
W/S.
3.8 Choosing a W/S
We see from the Table 5 that a wide range of is ermissible which will still
satisfy various requirement with ermissible deviations from the otimum
.
To arrive at the nal choice we consider the take o requirement and choose
highest wing loading which would ermit take o within ermissible distance
without excessive (T/W) requirement. From data collection, the
take o
distance, balanced eld length, is assumed to be 2150 m. From gure
5.4
of Raymer(Reference 1.11) the take o arameter {(W/S)/σCLt.o (T/W )} fo
2
thi eld length i 180. With (W/S) in lb/ft . We take σ = 1 (take-o at ea
level),CLt.o = 0.8 × CLmax = 0.8 × 2.5 = 2. Gene ally the e type of ai c aft
have (T/W) of 0.3.Sub tituting the e value we get,
pfinal = 108.2 lb/ft2 = 5195 Nm−2
It is reassuring that this value of lies within the ermissible
values
summarized in Table 5.
3.9 Thrust Requirements
After selecting the W/S for the aircraft, the thrust needed for various design
requirements is obtained. These requirements decide the choice of engine.
37
Page 39
3.9.1 Requirement for Vmax
We use the chosen value of in the following equation
F1
t = q ( + F + F ) (4
3)
Vmax max 2 3
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Page 42
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Page 43
4 Wing Design
4.1 Introduction
The weight and the wing loading of the airlane have been obtained in sec
tions 2 and 3 as 59175 kgf (579915 N) and 5195 N/m2 . These give wi
ng area
as 111.63 m2 . The wing design involves choosing the following arameters.
1. Airfoil selection
2. Asect ratio
3. Swee
4. Taer ratio
5. Twist
6. Incidence
7. Dihedral
8. Vertical location
In the following subsections, the factors a ecting the choice of arameters
are mentioned and then the choices are e ected.
4.2 Airfoil Selection
The airfoil shae in uences CLmax , CDmin , CLot , Cmac and stall
attern.
These in turn in uence stalling seed, fuel consumtion during cruise, turn
ing erformance and weight of the airlane.
For high subsonic airlanes, the drag divergence Mach number(MDD) is
an imortant consideration. It may be recalled that (MDD) is the
Mach
number at which the increase in the drag coe cient is 0.002 above the value
at low subsonic Mach numbers. A suercritical airfoil is designed to increase
MDD . NASA has carried out tests on several suercritical airfoils and recom
mends the use of NASA SC(2) series airfoil with aroriate thickness ratio
and camber.
42
Page 44
o
We have assume a inear twist of 3 .
45
----------------------- Page 47-----------------------
4.4 Cranke Wing Design
If we observe
the esign of current highsubsonic air anes, we see that the
trai ing e ge is ’straight’ for a art of the san, in the inboar regi
on. A
arger chor in the inboar region has the fo owing a vantages
1. more sace for fue an an ing gear
2. the ift istribution is change such that more ift is ro uce
in the
inboar section which re uce the ben ing moment in the root.
This tye of esign is ca e a wing with cranke trai ing e ge. Th
e va ue
of the san uto which the trai ing e ge is straight has to be obta
ine by
otimization.
However
at the resentstage of esign, base on the current
tren s, the trai ing e ge is ma e unswe t ti 35% of semi san. Root chor
of the cranke wing is
crcranke = 7.44 m
San of wing ortion with unswet trai ing e ge = 0.35 ×32.22 = 11.28 m
Figure 7: P an View of Cranke Wing
46
----------------------- Page 48-----------------------
4.5 Wing Inci ence(iw )
The wing inci ence ang e is the ang e between wing reference chor an
fuse age reference ine. Wing inci ence ang e is chosen to minimize rag at
some o erating con itions,usua y cruise.The inci ence ang e is chosen such
that
when the wing is at the correct ang e of attack for the se
ecte esign
con ition,the fuse age is at the ang e of attack for minimum rag(usua y at
zero
ang e of attack). Usua y wing inci ence is u timate y set using
win
tunne ata.However, for an initia estimate for our re iminary esign
we
rocee as fo ows
C cruise = C α (iw − α0L) (54)
In the present c se,
CLcruise = 0.512
CLα is computed using the following formul in R ymer[4], ch pter 12,
2πA S
ex
C α = ( )(F ) (
55)
2 + 4 + A2β2 (1 + tan2Λmax ) Sref
η2 β2
w ere,
β2 = 1 − M2
η = 1
F = 1.07 1 + d2
iw = 1◦
which is the va ue recommended in Raymer[4], chapter 4.
4.6 Vertica ocation of Wing
The wing vertica ocation for the designed airp ane has been chosen to be a
ow wing con guration which is typica of simi ar airp anes.
47
----------------------- Page 49-----------------------
4.7 Areas of F aps and Ai erons
These areas are chosen based on the initia data co ection of simi ar aircraft.
60
----------------------- Page 62-----------------------
7.2.3 Forwar center of ravity imit
The forwar c.g. imit is not genera y e en ent on maintaining stabi ity.
As the c.g is move forwar ,the stabi ity contribution xc.g −xa.c of he win
g
becomes more and more nega ive , hereby increasing he s a ic s abili y
.In
order
o keep he airplane in equilibrium as he c.g is moved forwar
d, he
eleva or mus be capable of rimming ou he resul ing nega ive pi chi
ng
momen
.The pi ching momen will be he grea es when he airplane is
a
CLmax when he airplane is landing and ground e ec s decrease he down
wash a he ail.
The equa ion of pi ching momen s may be solved for he posi ion of he
mos forward c.g by assuming he airplane rimmed(Cmcg = 0) a CLmax
as
follows(Sec ion 9.2 of [5])
(x ) = x − Cmδ αw − G − iw + i Cmac(flaps) + Cm(fus) + Cm(po
wer)
cg forward ac δemax+ +
C max τ Cmδ
(62)
7.2.4 Determination of initia arameters
• (Cm )F us
C
C K W2
m f f f
=
(63)
C F us Scaw
The va ue of Kf is obtaine as 0.0119 from grah 1-9:1 of K.D.Woo [10].
aw =6.276 /ra ian = 0.1095 / egree
from the va ue obtaine in section 4.5 on wing esign.
Therefore,
Cm = 0.0119 ×3.592 ×33 = 0.1036
C fus 111.63 ×3.9 ×0.1095
The contribution of nace e to ( Cm/ C ) is neg ecte .
• / α
d 114.6 × w
=
(64)
dα πA
61
----------------------- Page 63-----------------------
114.6 ×0.1095
= = 0.4297
α π ×9.3
• Cm
C
ower
Cm = T t (
65)
C W c
ower
t is the istance of thrust ine from c.g(the
istance
is measure er-
en icu ar to the thrust ine).For the esigne air ane we make an
estimate of t to be 0.19 m.At the cruise a titu e, we choose a (T/W )
of 0.06.
Therefore,
Cm = 0.06 ×0.62 = 0.00292
ower,cruise
C 13
• (C )max is taken as 2.5 from Section 3. (C )max with no as is 1.4
.
(∆CL)flas = 1.1.
• awg is the lift curve sloe of the wing close to the ground. It is
ob
tained by calculating the value of aw at lower velocities. A value
of
V = 1.3 ×49 = 63.7m/s corresonds to a value of M = 0.19 and hence
gives a value of
(aw )landing = 4.57/radian = 0.0796.
The awg is obtained by adding the ground e ect to the (aw )landing ob
tained.Hence
(awg )landing = 1.1(aw )landing = 5.027/radian = 0.0877/deg (
66)
• αW g
(CL)m x
αW g = (67
)
k
wg
k is the ground e ect f ctor obt ined from Fig 1-9:4 of Wood[10].
(CL)m x is the v lue without ps nd corresponds to 1.4. k w s ob-
t ined s 1.1((for height of .c bove ground)/semi sp n of 0.1).
αW g = 10.16◦
62
----------------------- Page 64-----------------------
• a and a
t tg
at is obtained as 0.0828/deg by using the tai parameters in eq.(55).
atg is the ift curve s ope of the wing c ose to the ground. I
t is ob-
tained by ca cu ating the va ue of at at ower ve ocities. A
va ue of
V = 1.3 ×49 = 63.7m/s corresponds to a va ue of M = 0.19 and hence
gives a va ue of
(a ) = 3.91/radian = 0.0682/deg.
t anding
The a is obtained by adding the ground e ect to the (a )
ob-
tg t a
nding
tained.Hence
(a ) = 1.1(a ) = 5.027/radian = 0.0877/deg
(68)
tg anding t anding
• iw is taken as 1◦ from Section 4.
• Cmjet at anding = 0
• Cmac(f aps)
S c
Cmac(f aps) = Cmac + ∆Cmac(f) f f
(69)
Sc
Cmac for the airfoil is taken as −0.1 from airfoil database.∆Cmac
is
taken as 0.4 from Perkins and Hage[11], Figure 5.40.
Cmac(flas) = −0.1 − 0.4 0.56 1.1 = −0.3464
• Cm(F us)
dCm = dCm CLalha
(70)
dα fus dCL fus
Hence using the v lue of CLα with ground e ect,
(Cmα )fus = 0.1036 ×0.0877 = 0.0091
Cmfus = 0.0091 × (αw − iw ) = 0.0091(10.16 − 1) = 0.0834
63
Page 65
Sv lv
Cn ( ail) = −av
(74)
S b
av = 0.0378 per degree.
Cn ( ail) = −0.0378 × VV
The value of Cn (desirable) is given by Perkins and Hage[11] as follows
2
Swe w = 2 ×92.41(1 + 1.2 ×0.14) = 215.8m2
Hence,
215.8
(CDf )w = 0.00265 (1 + 1.2 ×0.14) 111.63 = 0.00598
(CDo )B is given as:
(CDO )B = (CDf )B + (CDp )B + CDb
60 lb Swe Sbas
e
(CDO )B = CfB 1 + 3 + 0.0025 + CDb
(l /d) d SB Sre
f
b fus
73
Page 75
8
The Recu off corresponding o he above l/k is 2.6 ×10 . The Cfw is
hen
measured from he graph in [6] as
Cfw = 0.0019
(Swe )fus = 0.75 ×π ×3.59 ×33 = 279m2
π
SB = ×3.592 = 10.12m2
4
Hence.
279
(CDf )B = 0.0019 × 10.12 = 0.0524
(CD )B = 0.0019 60 3 + 0.0025 × (33/3.59) 279 = 0.00524
(33/3.59) 10.12
CDb is assume to be zero, since base area is a most zero. Hence
(CDO )B = 0.0524 + 0.00524 + 0 = 0.0576
(∆CD)canoy is taken as 0.002. Hence (CDO )B = 0.0596
Finally we have:
10.12
(CDo )W B = 0.00598 + 0.0596 = 0.01138
111.63
9.1.2 Estimation of (CDo )V and (CDo )H
The estimation of (CDo )H and (CDo )V can be done in a manner similar to th
at
for the wing. However the details regarding the exosed tail area etc. would
be needed. In the absence of the detailed data on the shae of fus
elage at
rear etc., a simli ed aroach given in [6] is adoted, wherein CDf = 0.00
25
for both horizontal and vertical tails.
74
Page 76
S = 2(S + S )
W h v
Hence,
1
(CDo )hv = 0.0025(28.71 + 25.43) = 0.0024
(79)
111.63
9.1.3 Estimation of Misc Drag Nacelle
For calculating drag due to the nacelles we use the short cut method
for
which we have:
Swet
(CDo )nacelle = 0.006 ×
Sref
2
where, Swet is the wetted area of nacelle. Here Swet = 16.79m . Si
nce we
have two nacelles the total drag will be twice of this. Finally we get:
16.79
(CDo )nacelle = 0.006 × ×2 = 0.0018
111.63
9.1.4 CDo of the airlane
Taking 2% for the interference drag (from [6]), we get the CDo of the ai
rlane
as
CDo = 1.02 [0.01138 + 0.0024 + 0.0018] = 0.0159
(80)
9.1.5 Induced Drag
The induced drag comonent has the Oswald’s e ciency factor e which is
estimated by adding the e ect of all the aircraft comonents on induced drag.
The rough estimate of e can be obtained from:
1 1 1 1
= + +
e ewing efuselage eother
From [9]
ewing = (ew )Λ=0 cos(Λ − 5)
w ere Λ is t e wing sweep. (ewing )Λ=0 = 0.97 for AR = 9.3, λ = 0.
24
from [12].
Hence ewing = 0.97 ×cos (27.69 − 5) = 0.8948. Also 1/efus = 0.8 for a roun
d
(Sf /S)
fuselage. Hence
1 10.122
= 0.8 × = 0.0725
efus 111.63
75
Page 77
1
= 0.05
eo her
Finally we have:
1
e = = 0.8064
0.8948−1 + 0.0725 + 0.05
Hence
1 1
K = = = 0.04244
πAe π ×9.3 ×0.8064
9.1.6 Fina Drag Po ar
CD = 0.0159 + 0.04244 × C2 (81)
i
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78
Page 80
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e
d
u
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79
Page 81
9.3 Level Fligh Performance
In s eady Level igh , he equa ions of mo ion, in s andard no a ion are
T − D = 0 (82)
L − W = 0 (83)
1 1
L = ρV 2SCL =⇒ W = ρV 2SCL (84)
2 2
1
D = ρV 2SCD = T (85)
2
9.3.1 Stalling peed
In level ight,
V = 2W (86)
ρSCL
Since CL cannot exceed CLmax , the e i a ight peed below which level
ight i not po ible. The ight peed at CL = CLmax i called the talling
peed and i denoted by V
V = 2W (87)
ρSCLmax
Since ρ dec ea e with altitude, V inc ea e with height. We note tha
t
2
W/S = 5195N/m , CLmax = 2.7 with landing ap and CLmax = 1.4 without
ap . The value of talling peed at di e ent altitude and ap etting a e
tabulated in Table 6 and hown in Figu e 12.
80
----------------------- Page 82-----------------------
h ρ V (C = 1.4) V (C = 2.7)
Lmax Lmax
3
(m) (kg/m ) (m/ ) (m/ )
0 1.225 77.83 56.04
2000 1.006 85.86 61.83
4000 0.819 95.18 68.54
6000 0.659 106.06 76.37
8000 0.525 118.87 85.59
10000 0.412 134.09 96.56
11000 0.363 142.80 102.83
12000 0.310 154.52 111.27
Table 6: Va iation of talling peed with altitude
Figu e 12: Stalling peed V Altitude
81
----------------------- Page 83-----------------------
9.3.2 Va iation of Vmin and Vmax with Altitude
To dete mine the Vmin and Vmax at each altitude, the following p ocedu e i
adopted.
• The engine th u t a a function of velocity at each altitude i obtained
f om the moothed data.
• The d ag at each altitude i found a a function of velocity u ing the
d ag pola and the level ight fo mulae given below.
2 (W/S)
CL = 2 (8
8)
ρV
CD = CDo + KC2 (8
9)
L
1
D ag = ρV 2SCD (90)
2
Tavail = f (M) (9
1)
Whe e CDo = 0.0159 and K = 0.04244.
Howeve , the c ui e Mach numbe (Mc ui e) fo thi ai plane i
0.8.
Hence CDo and K a e expected to become function of Mach numbe
above Mc ui e . To get ome guideline about va iation of CDo and K,
we con ide the d ag pola of B-727 given in Volume 6, Chapte 5 of
[13]. The e d ag pola a e hown in the Figu e 13 a di c ete point .
82
----------------------- Page 84-----------------------
Figu e 13: D ag pola at di e ent Mach numbe fo B727-100; Symbol a e
data f om [13] and Solid line a e the pa abolic t
The e pola we e app oximated by the pa abolic pola exp e
ion
namely CD = CDo + K ×C2 . The value of CDo and K fo the va iou
L
Mach numbe a e given in the Table 7. The pa abolic t i al o hown
in Figu e 13.
M CDo K
0.7 0.01631 0.04969
0.76 0.01634 0.05257
0.82 0.01668 0.06101
0.84 0.01695 0.06807
0.86 0.01733 0.08183
0.88 0.01792 0.103
Table 7: Va iation of CDo and K with Mach numbe (Pa abolic t)
The va iation in CDo and K with Mach numbe a e plotted in t
he
Figu e 14 and 15. It i een that the e i no igni cant inc e
a e in
83
----------------------- Page 85-----------------------
Figu e 14: Va iation of CDo with Mach numbe
CDo and K upto M = 0.76. Thi i expected to be the c ui e Mach
numbe fo the ai plane (B727-100). Following analytical exp e ion
have been found to clo ely ep e ent the change in CDo and K f om
M = 0.76 to M = 0.86.
CDo =0.01634 − 0.001 × (M − 0.76) + 0.11 × (M − 0.76)2 (92)
K =0.05257 + (M − 0.76)2 + 20.0 × (M − 0.76)3 (93)
In he case of he presen airplane, he cruise Mach number is 0.8. The
varia ions of CDo and K above Mcruise and up o M = 0.9, based on
B727 100 da a is aken as follows.
CDo = 0.0159 − 0.001 × (M − 0.8) + 0.11 × (M − 0.8)2 (94)
K = 0.0455 + (M − 0.8)2 + 20.0 × (M − 0.8)3 (95)
84
Page 86
Figure 15: Varia ion of K wi h Mach number
• The hrus available and hrus required curves are plo ed a each
al i ude as a func ion of veloci y. The poin s of in ersec ion give
he
Vmin and Vmax a each al i ude. To arrive a Vmin , he s alling
speed
also needs o be aken in o accoun . Hence in he Figures. 16 o
21,
he por ion of he Vmin curve below Vs is shown as do ed lines, as he
drag polar is no valid here. Vs is aken for CLmax wi hou aps.
The calculaions are carried ou for h = 0, 10000, 15000, 25000, 30000
and 36000f , i.e S.L, 3048, 4572,
7620, 9144 and 10972.8
m using Tavail
as
climb
hrus and cruise hrus . Resul s are presen ed only for climb
hrus case.
85
Page 87
Table 8: Varia ion of Vmin and Vmax
Figure 16: Available and Required Thrus a S.L
86
Page 88
Figure 17: Available and Required Thrus a h = 3048.0m
Figure 18: Available and Required Thrus a h = 4572.0m
87
Page 89
Figure 19: Available and Required Thrus a h = 7620.0m
Figure 20: Available and Required Thrus a h = 9144.0m
88
Page 90
Figure 21: Available and Required Thrus a h = 10972.8m
Figure 22: Varia ion of Vmin and Vmax wi h al i ude
89
Page 91
9.4 S eady Climb
In his igh , he C.G of he airplane moves along
a s raigh line inclined o
he horizon al a an angle γ. The velocity of i ht is assumed to be constant
durin
the climb. Since the i
ht is steady, acceleration is zero and
the
equations of motion can be written as:
T − D − W sin γ = 0 (96)
L − W cos γ = 0 (97)
To calculate the variation of rate of climb with i
ht velocity at di erent
altitudes, we adopt the followin
procedure.
• Choose an altitude.
• Choose a i
ht speed.
Notin
that CL = 2W cos γ/ρSV 2 , we get
CD = CDo + K 2W co γ
ρSV 2
Al o
Vc = V in γ
cos γ = 1 − Vc2
V 2
Usin
the above equations,
A Vc 2 + B Vc + C = 0 (9
8)
V V
kW2 1 2kW2
A = 1 ; B = −W ; C = Tavail − ρV 2SCDo − (99)
2 ρV 2S 2 ρV 2S
Since altitude and ight velocity have been cho en, the th u t available
i ead f om the climb th u t cu ve in 10. Fu the the va iation of CDo
and K with Mach numbe i taken a in Equation 94 and 95.
90
----------------------- Page 92-----------------------
• Equation 98 give 2 value of V /V . We choo e the value which i le
c
that 1.0 a in γ cannot be
reater than unity. Hence
γ = sin−1(V /V ) (100
)
c
Vc = V sin γ (1
01)
• This procedure is repeated for various speeds between Vmin and Vmax
.
The entire procedure is then repeated for various altitudes.
The variations of (R/C) and γ with velocity and with altitude as pa
rameters are shown in Fi
ure 23 and 25. The variations of (R/C)max
and γmax with altitude are shown in Fi
ure 24 and 26. The variations
of V(R/C)max and Vγmax with altitude are shown in Fi
ure 27 and 28. A
summary of results is presented in table 9.
h h (R/C)max V(R/C)max γmax Vγmax
(in ft) (in m) (in m/min) (in m/s) (in de
rees) (in m/s)
0 0.0 1086.63 149.7 8.7 88.5
10000 3048.0 867.34 167.5 6.0 111.6
15000 4572.0 738.16 174.0 4.7 125.7
25000 7620.0 487.41 198.2 2.6 164.1
30000 9144.0 313.43 212.2 1.5 188.0
36000 10972.8 115.57 236.1 0.5 230.2
38000 11582.4 41.58 236.9 0.2 234.0
38995 11885.7 1.88 235.8 0.0 235.8
Table 9: Climb Performance
91
Pa
e 93
Remarks
1. The discontinuties in slope in Fi
ures 27 and 28 at hi
h velocities are
due to the chan
e in dra
polar as the Mach number exceeds 0.8.
2. From Fi
ure 24, the absolute cielin
(at which (R/C)max is zero)
is
11.88 km. The service cielin
at which (R/C)max = 50m/min is 11.55
km
95
Pa
e 97
9.5 Ran
e and Endurance
In this section, the ran
e of the aircraft in a constant altitude and constant
velocity cruise is studied. Ran
e is
iven by the formula
3.6V −1 2W1 K −1 2W2 K
Pa
e 99
M V CL CD L/D R E
(in m/s) (in km) (in hours)
0.50 147.531 1.312 0.089 14.75 2979.0 5.61
0.55 162.285 1.085 0.066 16.48 3608.0 6.18
0.60 177.038 0.911 0.051 17.82 4189.6 6.57
0.65 191.791 0.777 0.041 18.72 4691.7 6.80
0.70 206.544 0.670 0.035 19.17 5095.6 6.85
0.75 221.297 0.583 0.030 19.23 5396.5 6.77
0.80 236.050 0.513 0.027 18.95 5599.8 6.59
0.81 239.001 0.500 0.027 18.78 5602.3 6.51
0.82 241.952 0.488 0.027 18.36 5527.0 6.35
0.83 244.902 0.476 0.027 17.65 5352.2 6.07
0.84 247.853 0.465 0.028 16.62 5070.1 5.68
0.85 250.803 0.454 0.030 15.29 4691.2 5.20
0.86 253.754 0.444 0.032 13.76 4242.3 4.64
0.87 256.705 0.433 0.036 12.13 3758.8 4.07
0.88 259.655 0.424 0.040 10.52 3275.3 3.50
Table 10: Ran
e and Endurance in Constant Velocity i
ht at h = 10972m
(36000ft)
which is sli
htly hi
her than the Mach number beyond which CDo
and
K increase. This can be explained based on two factors namely
(i)
the ran
e increases as the i
ht speed increases (ii) after Mcruis
e is
exceeded, CDo and K increase thus reducin
(L/D)max .
2. The ran
e calculated above is the
ross still air ran
e. The safe ran
e
would be about two thirds of this. In the present case, the safe ran
e
would be 3733km.
3. The maximum endurance of 6.85 hours occurs in a i
ht at V
=
206m/s. (742 kmph). It can noted that the endurance is rou
hly
constant over a speed ran
e of 190 m/s to 230 m/s.
98
˙
h rmin Vrmin max V ˙max
(in m) (in m) (in m/s) (in m/s)
0.0 666 126.8 0.1910 127.8
3048.0 945 132.6 0.1410 133.6
4572.0 1155 135.1 0.1170 136.1
7620.0 1971 138.3 0.0731 165.3
9144.0 3247 151.3 0.0513 187.3
10972.8 8582 211.0 0.0256 231.0
Table 12: Turning ight per ormance
Remarks
˙
1. The maximum value o is 0.191 and occurs at a speed o 127.8m/s
at sea level.
2. The minimum radius o turn is 666 m and occurs at a speed o 126.8m/s
at sea level.
3. The various graphs show a discontinuity in slope when the crite
rion
which limits the turn changes rom nmax to thrust available.
9.7 Take o distance
In this section, the take o per ormance o the airplane is evaluated.
The
take o distance consists o take o run, transition and climb to sc
reen
height. Rough estimates o the distance covered in these phases can
be
obtained by writing down the appropriate equations o motion. However the
estimates are approximate and [4] recommends the ollowing ormulae or
take o distance and balance eld length based on the take o parameter.
This parameter is de ned as:
W/S
Take O Parameter =
(103)
σCLT O (T/W )
2
whe e W/S i wing loading in lb/ft , CLT O i 0.8 × CLland = 0.8 ×2.7
=
2.16 and σ i the den ity atio at take-o altitude.
In the p e ent ca e:
W
2 2
= 5195N/m = 108.2lb/ft ; CLT O = 0.8×2.7 = 2.16; σ = 1.0(
ea level)
S
103
----------------------- Page 105-----------------------
T 2 ×97.9kN
and = = 0.3373
W 59175 ×9.81
Hence
108.2
Take O Pa amete = = 148.86 (104
)
1.0 ×2.16 ×0.3373
F om [4], the take o di tance, ove 50’, i 2823 o 861m. The balance
eld length fo the p e ent ca e of two engined ai plane i 6000 o 1829m.
Rema k
It may be noted that the balance eld length i mo e than twice the take o
di tance it elf.
9.8 Landing di tance
In thi ection the landing di tance of the ai plane i calculated. F
om [4]
the landing di tance fo comme icial ai line i given by the fo mula
Sland = 80 W 1 + 1000ft (1
05)
S σCLmax
2
whe e W/S i in lb /ft . In the p e ent ca e:
• (W/S)land = 0.85 × (W/S)takeoff = 0.85 × 108.5 = 92.225lb/ft2
• CLmax = 2.7
• σ = 1.0
Hence
1
Sland = 80 ×92.225 + 1000 = 3732ft = 1138m (106
)
1.0 2.7
104
----------------------- Page 106-----------------------
9.9 Concluding ema k
1. Pe fo mance of a typical comme cial ai line ha been e timated
fo
talling peed, maximum peed, minimum peed, teady climb, ange,
endu ance, tu ning, take-o and landing.
2. The pe fo mance app oximately co e pond to that of B737-200.
3. Figu e 35 p e ent the va iation with altitude of the cha acte i tic ve-
locitie co e ponding to
• talling peed, V
10 Acknowled
ements
The rst author(EGT) thanks AICTE for the fellowship which enabled him
to carry out the work at IIT Madras.
References
[1] http://www.cfm56.com/en
ines/cfm56 5c/tech.html
[2] http://www.lissys.demon.co.uk/samp1/
[3] NASA Technical Paper 2969, Charles Harris (Mar 1990)
[4] Raymer.D.P. Aircraft desi
n a conceptual approach. AIAA’ educational
series, 2006
[5] Tulapurkara.E.G Lecture Notes on Aircraft Desi
n, Department
of
Aerospace En
ineerin
I.I.T Madras, 2007
[6] Roskam J. Methods of estimatin
dra
polars of subsonic a
ir
planesRoskam Aviation & En
ineerin
Corporation, Ottawa, Kansas,
1983
[7] Lebedenski.A.A Aircraft desi
n parametric studies Published by I.I.Sc,
Ban
alore, 1971
[8] Jenkinson L.R., Simpkin P. and Rhodes D. Civil Jet Aircraft Desi
n,
Arnold, 1999
[9] Hoerner S.F. Fluid dynamic dra
, published by Hoerner Fluid Dynamics,
Brick Town, NJ, 1965
[10] Wood K.D. Aerospace vehicle desi
n, Volume 1, Johnson publishin
company, Boulder, Colorado, 1966
[11] Perkins C.D. & Ha
e A.E. Airplane performance syability & control
,
McGraw Hill, 1963
[12] Abbot I.H. and Doenho A.E. Theory of win
sections, Dover publica
tions, 1959
[13] Roskam J. Aircraft desi
n, Roskam Aviation & En
ineerin
Corpora
tion, Ottawa, Kansas, 1990
107
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