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Experimental Chemistry

Experimental Chemistry Measurement of : Instrument used Time Digital stop watch Temperature Thermometer (Mercury, Alcohol) Electronic

Measurement of :

Instrument used

Time

Digital stop watch

Temperature

Thermometer (Mercury, Alcohol) Electronic temperature sensor

Mass

Electronic balance

Volume

Measuring cylinder (accurate to nearest cm 3 ) Pipette (accurate set volume 20, 25, 50)

Burette (0 to 50.0)

Volume of gas

Gas syringe (up to 100cm 3 ) Electronic sensor

How to collect gases?

Conical flask, rubber bung and gas syringe

Experimental Chemistry Measurement of : Instrument used Time Digital stop watch Temperature Thermometer (Mercury, Alcohol) Electronic
Purification is the separation of mixtures into pure substances Method of separating solid-solid mixtures Mixture of

Purification is the separation of mixtures into pure substances

Method of separating solid-solid mixtures

Mixture of sand and sodium chloride

Use of suitable solvent e.g water NaCl can dissolve in water but sand cannot. After dissolving NaCl, the sand can be removed by filtration. Sand is obtained as the residue and NaCl solution obtained as filtrate. Pure NaCl can then be obtained through crystallization.

Separating solid-liquid mixture (e.g. sand and water mixture) Filtration

Apparatus required: filter paper and filter funnel The solid is collected as the residue on the filter paper while the liquid is obtained as the filtrate.

Crystallization

Solute: solid that dissolves

Purification is the separation of mixtures into pure substances Method of separating solid-solid mixtures Mixture of

Solvent: Liquid that dissolves solute

Heat to evaporate solvent Hot solution is allowed to cool and solid appears as pure crystals

Cold solution is poured off to obtain crystals

Sublimation Sublimation is a technique used by chemists to purify compounds. Typically a solid is placed in a vessel which is then heated under vacuum. Under this reduced pressure the solid volatilizes and condenses as a purified compound on a cooled surface, leaving the non-volatile residue impurities behind. This cooled surface often takes the form of a cold finger. Once heating ceases and the vacuum is released, the purified compound can be collected from the cold surface. Usually this is done using a sublimation apparatus.

Example of substances that sublimes: Carbon dioxide, iodine

Sublimation Sublimation is a technique used by <a href=chemists to purif y compounds . Typicall y a solid is placed in a vessel which is then heated under vacuum . Under this reduced pressure the solid volatilizes and condenses as a purified compound on a cooled surface, leavin g the non - volatile residue impurities behind. This cooled surface often takes the form of a cold finger . Once heating ceases and the vacuum is released, the purified compound can be collected from the cold surface. Usually this is done using a sublimation apparatus . Example of substances that sublimes: Carbon dioxide, iodine Separating liquid- liquid mixtures (miscible) Miscible means that the liquids mix to for a homogenous solution " id="pdf-obj-2-31" src="pdf-obj-2-31.jpg">

Separating liquid- liquid mixtures (miscible)

Miscible means that the liquids mix to for a homogenous solution

Sublimation Sublimation is a technique used by <a href=chemists to purif y compounds . Typicall y a solid is placed in a vessel which is then heated under vacuum . Under this reduced pressure the solid volatilizes and condenses as a purified compound on a cooled surface, leavin g the non - volatile residue impurities behind. This cooled surface often takes the form of a cold finger . Once heating ceases and the vacuum is released, the purified compound can be collected from the cold surface. Usually this is done using a sublimation apparatus . Example of substances that sublimes: Carbon dioxide, iodine Separating liquid- liquid mixtures (miscible) Miscible means that the liquids mix to for a homogenous solution " id="pdf-obj-2-37" src="pdf-obj-2-37.jpg">

Fractional distillation

Example: separating alcohol from water The vapour from the boiling mixture of ethanol and water contain
Example: separating alcohol from
water
The vapour from the boiling mixture of
ethanol and water contain a large
percentage of ethanol.
As the vapour mixture moves up the
fractionating column, it repeatedly
condenses and boils inside the column
Each time the mixture boils, the
percentage of ethanol increases
By the time the vapour reaches the top of
the fractionating column, it has almost
become pure ethanol.
This vapour then passes into the
condenser where it cools and condenses
into liquid ethanol
Fractional distillation Example: separating alcohol from water The vapour from the boiling mixture of ethanol and

Separating liquids that are immiscible

Immiscible liquids,such as oil and water can be separated by using a separating funnel. The mixture is put into a separating funnel, shaken and allowed to settle. The oil and water from two separate layer. The liquid with higher density, in this case water forms the lower layer. Remove the stopper and open the tap after standing. The water runs out through the tap. The oil remains in the funnel and can be run out into another beaker.

Fractional distillation Example: separating alcohol from water The vapour from the boiling mixture of ethanol and

Paper chromatography

Separate and identify mixtures of small amounts of solid e.g. a mixture of dyes A drop of dye is placed on chromatography paper The paper is dipped into suitable solvent The dyes dissolve in the solvent and move up with it The components of the dye move with different speeds and become separated The dyes can then be identified from their position on the paper

Chromatography can also be used to separate and identify colourless substance. The chromatogram is sprayed with a locating agent to show where the substances are on the paper.

A locating agent is a substance that reacts with the substance on the paper to produce a coloured product.

Chromatography can also be used to separate and identify colourless substance. The chromatogram is sprayed with

R f value= (Distance moved by the substance)/ (Distance moved by solvent) R f values can be used to identify substances

Chromatography can also be used to separate and identify colourless substance. The chromatogram is sprayed with

A pure substance has fixed melting point and boiling points. An impure solid melts over a range of temperatures, Impurities in a solid also lower its melting point

An impure liquid boils at a higher temperature than the pure liquid Liquid mixtures also boil over a range of temperatures

Chromatography can also be used to separate and identify colourless substance. The chromatogram is sprayed with

Pure substances are used in industry to make useful products such as food and drugs. Impurities in food and drugs can be dangerous because they can poison people. Government labs routinely test medical products for harmful impurities and vegetables for impurities such as poisonous pesticides.

Sodium Hydroxide Ammonia Ammonium Ammonia gas produced on warming Ammonia gas not produced Calcium White ppt
 

Sodium Hydroxide

Ammonia

Ammonium

Ammonia gas produced on warming

Ammonia gas not produced

Calcium

White ppt insoluble in xs

No precipitate formed

Copper(II)

Blue ppt insoluble in xs

Blue ppt soluble in xs to give dark blue solution

Iron(II)

Dirty green ppt insoluble in xs, slowly turns brown

Dirty green ppt insoluble in xs, slowly turns brown

Iron (III)

Reddish brown ppt insoluble in xs

Reddish brown ppt insoluble in xs

Lead(II)

White ppt soluble in xs

White ppt insoluble in xs

Zinc

White ppt soluble in xs

White ppt soluble in xs

Anion Test Observations Carbonate Addition of dilute acid Use of limewater to test for presence of

Anion

Test

Observations

Carbonate

Addition of dilute acid Use of limewater to test for presence of CO2

Effervescence of colorless odourless gas that form white ppt with limewater

Chloride

Add dilute nitric acid followed by aqueous silver nitrate solution

White ppt of silver chloride is obtained

Nitrate

Add dilute sodium hydroxide followed by a little aluminum powder. Warm

Evolution of colourless pungent gas that turn damp red litmus paper blue. Ammonia gas is produced.

Sulphate

Add dilute nitric acid followed by aqueous barium nitrate

White ppt of barium sulphate is formed

Gas Test Observation Ammonia Use damp red litmus paper Damp red litmus paper turn blue Carbon

Gas

Test

Observation

Ammonia

Use damp red litmus paper

Damp red litmus paper turn blue

Carbon dioxide

Bubble gas through limewater

White ppt formed

Chlorine

Use damp blue litmus paper

Damp blue litmus paper turns red and is then bleached

Hydrogen

Put a burning splint near the gas

Burning splint extinguishes with a pop sound

Oxygen

Put a glowing splint near the gas

Glowing splint is relighted

Sulphur dioxide

Bubble gas through acidified potassium dichromate solution

Acidified orange potassium dichromate turns green

Chemical Symbols

Name

Chemical Symbol

Name

Chemical Symbol

Ammonium ion

 

Carbonate ion

 

Calcium ion

 

Chloride ion

 

Copper(II) ion

 

Nitrate ion

 

Iron(II) ion

 

Sulphate ion

 

Iron (III) ion

 

Ammonia

 

Lead(II) ion

 

Carbon dioxide

 

Zinc ion

 

Chlorine

 

Lithium ion

 

Hydrogen

 

Beryllium ion

 

Oxygen

 

Sodium ion

 

Sulphur dioxide

 

Magnesium ion

 

Sodium oxide

 

Aluminum ion

 

Potassium ion

 

Calcium ion

 

Iodide ion

 

Name

Chemical Symbol

Name

Chemical Symbol

Silver chloride

 

Barium sulphate

 

Lead (II) Iodide

 

Barium ion

 

Hydroxide ion

 

Calcium hydroxide

 

Copper(II)

 

Water

 

hydroxide

Sodium chloride

 

Sodium hydroxide

 

Copper (II) sulphate

 

Sulphuric acid

 

Magnesium

 

Magnesium oxide

 

hydroxide

Sodium sulphate

 

Ammonium

 

sulphate

Calcium nitrate

 

Calcium carbonate

 

Calcium oxide

 

Hydrochloric acid

 

Sodium carbonate