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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

All business organization’s prime motive is to satisfy the customer requirement


and attain a distinguished position in the world market. During the last few years, the
automobile market has been witnessing an increased competition and rising demand for the
sophisticated seating systems due to globalisation. Due to this ever changing demand and
competition among the companies in these industries, there is tremendous pressure built to
look for newer designs, cost reduction techniques, improving the product quality and process
the products on Just- In -Time (JIT) manufacturing system, in order to be competitive.
Therefore, it is vital to improve the availability, utilization and quality of the product and meet
the demand of the customer on time without fail.
To manage all the tough situations and be a leader in the market, organisations
should concentrate on the following
Productivity
Quality
Cost
Delivery
Morale &
Waste elimination
The main objectives behind this is to achieve the business growth, customer
delight becomes the prime focus for which the above said 6 parameters need to be improved
to world class levels to make the company to move to great heights in the competitive market
In the growing business scenario, where recession has affected some of the major OE’s,
the need for cost cut & cost saving becomes a prime responsibility of any organization
Realization of the actual business against the required growth plays a major role for the
development of any organization. Harita seating being a prime company in the manufacturing
of seats supplies more than 8000 seats to TVS motor per day for their two wheelers.
Thus it gave me a hint for project to be undertaken in the following area where Value
Analysis and Value Engineering (VA/VE) in the two wheeler seat assembly will definitely
give a cost saving there by benefiting the organization.

1.1 Research Background


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Harita Seating Systems Limited (HSSL) is a complete solution provider for seats and
seating systems for both automotive and non-automotive applications. HSSL manufactures,
driver seats for commercial vehicles, buses, tractors, off-road vehicles, cars, multi-utility
vehicles, two wheeler and three wheeler segments; passenger seats for buses, cars, multi-
utility vehicles and three wheeler segments; and seating systems to the railway and auditorium
segment. The company also offers products for automotive industry through polyurethane
composites Established in 1986; HSSL commenced its commercial production in 1988. Today
HSSL has established itself as the leader in development & manufacture of innovative seats &
seating systems for the commercial vehicles, buses, tractors & off-road vehicle industry.
HSSL recorded turnover of Rs .194 Cr in 2007-08.

During the year 2008-09, the company acquired Polyflex Group of companies.
Through this acquisition, the company has paved the way for entry as a Tier-2 polyurethane
foam supplier to reputed customers like Hanil Lear in Chennai, Tata Johnson Controls and
Lear in Pune and Chennai, and Toyota Boshoku in Bangalore. The foam pads supply will go
into the cars of Hyundai, Tata Motors, Ford, Mahindra Renault and Toyota Kirloskar

Table 1.1: List of products and major customers

Segment / Product Customers

Cars & MUV seats Telco, Hindustan Motors, San Motors, Reva Electric Car Co ,Internationl cars
and multi utilility vechiles.
TAFE, M&M, Escorts, New Holland, Same Greaves, L&T John Deere,
Tractors
Eicher,
HMT, International Tractors

Sate Transport Undertakings , Body Builders and major fleet operators across
Bus Passenger seats
The country , VOLVO , Mercedes Benz , Tata Marcopolo , Swaraj Mazda

Commercial Vehicles Telco, Ashok Leyland, Hindustan Motors ,

Construction B E M L, Caterpillar, L&T Komatsu,Tatra Udyog , AMW , Hyundai


Machinery & Forklifts Escorts,Telcon,Godrej,Voltas

State Transport Undertakings, Bus / Truck body builders and


Driver Seats
Transport fleet operators

Two Wheeler TVS Motor Company , Yamaha , Royal Enfield


1.2 Identified problem

HSSL is the major source to TVSM and the share of business is 100 %. The supplies
are made on Just –In-Time (JIT) basis every hour. The customer requirement has been
consistently growing every year. Over all two wheeler in India are growing year to year and
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recorded a growth of minimum of 20 % consistently. But the contribution values of the two
wheeler seats are very low. . Harita seating being a prime company in the manufacturing of
seats supplies more than 8000 seats to TVS motor per day for their two wheelers.
Based on the projected volumes for the year 2011-12 to the tune of 250 Cr, HSSL has
formulated the following objectives and guidelines.

Policy Objectives for 2011-12


Achieve sales from Rs 191 to 255 Cr
Achieve profit from 6.2 Cr to 9.0 Cr
Improve quality of the products and achieve 50 PPM rejection levels at customer end.

Guidelines for 2011-12


 Improve productivity through constant/ continuous re-engineering the manufacturing
processes
 Design of Experiment (DOE) for materials cost reduction
 Apply value engineering (VE) technique for low contribution products
 Explore alternate materials for cost reduction
 Implement low cost automation (LCA) projects
 New technologies for product and process.
 JIT supplies to customers
 Flexible Production
 Bench marking
 Lean manufacturing
 3 M elimination
 Standardisation
 Implement waste elimination projects through TEI
This is the main reason for taking in this project.
.
1.3 Need for Study

Harita Seating Systems Limited (HSSL) supplying two wheeler seats to their
prestigious customer TVS motor company located in Hosur & Mysore with 100% business
share for the year 2000 onwards .The supplies are made on just in time (JIT) basis every hour .
TVS Motor (TVSM) confirmed their production ramping up plan during the third quarter of
2011-2012.
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TVSM has also demanded for the cost reduction of the products and increase in the
quantity of production also. The projected volume for 2011-12 is 8,400 seats per day .So from
the projected volume we got a hint that DOE in this area will definitely give a cost
optimization there by benefiting the organization. `

Daily Demand Vs Capacity

10000
8400

7500
6000
Nos / day

5324
5000

2500

0
HSSL Current capacity TVSM Current demand TVSM Projected demand

Fig 1.1 : Demand v/s Capacity

At present, with the increasing trend of the production volume, the contribution of the
two wheeler seats are low due to the increasing prices of the raw materials. Various proposals
have been made to reduce the cost of the seats by using value engineering techniques and
usage of alternate materials in line with our policy objectives and strategies.

Table1. 2: Model wise Seat requirement by TVSM / Day


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Sl.No Products Demand/Day

1 Star Sport 2000


2 XL heavy duty 1500
3 Star Dlx 900
4 U68-Apache 600
5 N45-Star sport 600
6 XLN-Super 700
7 N90-Flame 400
8 Max 100 500
9 Scooty-Pep 500
10 N17-Victor 400
11 U41-Scooty 2S 300
Total 8400

Model wise Seat requirement per


day

200
Qt
y

0
160 200
150
0 0
120 0
0 900
700
800 600 600 500 500 400 400
300
400

0
Ma
Star XLHD Star XLN U68 N45 XL - N90 N17 U41
x
Sport Dlx 100 HD
Model wise

Fig1. 2: Two Wheeler Demand Graph model wise

1.4. Reason for selecting Star Sport Model


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HSSL manufacturing various types of two wheeler seat assemblies for various
two wheeler models and supplies to TVS Motors. The chart below shows the product wise
sales trend of the two wheeler seats. This chart clearly shows the product wise volume of the
two wheeler seats / month.
TW Sales details
20000 120.0
19010

98.1 99.3 99.9 100.0 100.0


16243 94.1 96.6
100.0
90.3
14664 85.6
15000 80.1
73.9 80.0

62.0
Quantity

% Cum
9634
10000 60.0
43.8

40.0
4992
5000 23.6 4400
3816
3097
20.0
1992
1200 960
482
56 24
0 0.0
GX
HD

7
AX

X
8

R
P
Y

U6

N4

N4

N9

U4

N2
GL

TO
AM
IT

RT

M
Xl
C

C
O

CH
AR

VI
SP
ST

AR

Mode l
ST

Fig 1.3: Two wheeler sales details – Model wise

From the above graph it is clear that we have to bring down the material cost /
manufacturing cost of the products like Star Sport, Star city and XL - HD
The manufacturing process of Two – wheeler seat assembly consists of the following
Processes.
1. Polyurethane foaming
2. Powder coating of metal parts
3. Welding
4. Assembly of the seats and seating systems
From the above four processes , polyurethane foaming process is the main process of Two
wheeler seat assembly .This process only contribute the major portion of the seat assembly
manufacturing cost because of the need of various chemicals, machineries and process
methods. So it gives the hint to take Design of Experiments in Foaming process.

1.4.1 Comparative study with other Two Wheeler Models


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A comparative study has been done based on the weight of the cushions running in the
Two Wheeler Foaming Line. Based on the study, we have prepared a chart with the amount of
chemical consumption and weight of the components of various models. .

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20.16
21 17.64
Tons

14
10.37
7.8
7 5.3 4.32

0
Star Sport Victor Star City Scooty Pep Victor GLX Sccoty
Product – Model wise Teenz
Fig1. 4: chemical consumption

From the per day requirements of TVSM, we found Star Sports model demand is more and
from the comparative study of chemical consumption of different models in foaming process
it seems that star sport model was contributing around 25% of the total chemical
consumption. We have studied the foam production process of the Star Sport cushions
and in order to reduce the cost of the end product, we have arrived at reducing the weight of
the cushions.
This can be done by adopting DOE process in cushion manufacturing using
different chemical composition and bring down the weight by 10 % without affecting the
property and hardness of the cushions.
From the above table it is very much relevant that Star Sport model consumes
more chemical monthly, hence we concluded that DOE in the Star Sports model will give
some high cost benefit than other models.
The main objective of this project is to develop the optimal method in the material
composition of two wheeler seat assembly using design of experiments which reduce the
material cost by 1 - 3 % and improve the contribution value from 20% to 22%.

1.4.2 Idea Simulator – Star Sport Cushion


Based on the discussion held by various department heads for idea simulators it gave
us a positive approach to look for alternate ideas to optimize the weight of PU foam in Star
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Sport model. The optimisation result triggered a good potential for cost benefit as well as
customer complaint elimination.
Table1. 3: Idea Simulator for Star Sport foam

Sl No Idea Stimulators Results


A ELIMINATE - Combine
1 Can it be eliminated entirely? NO
2 Can part of it be eliminated? YES
3 Can two parts be combined into one? NO
4 Is there duplication? NO
5 Can the number of different lengths, colors,types be reduced? NO
B STANDARDIZE - Simplify
1 Could a standard part be used? YES
2 Would a modified standard part? YES
3 Does the standard contribute to cost? YES
4 Is it too complex? NO
5 Can connections be simplified? YES
C CHALLENGE - Identify
1 Does it do more than is required? NO
2 Does it cost more than it is worth? NO
3 IS someone else buying it a lower cost? NO
4
D What is a special aboutMAINTAIN
it ? - Operate YES
51 Is it acceptable
justified? YES
2 Are service calls excessive? NO
3 Would you like to own it and pay for its maintenance? NO
4 Is labor inordinate to the cost of materials? NO
5 How often it is actually used? YES
6 Does it cause problems? NO
7 Have users established procedures to get around it? NO
E REQUIREMENTS - Cost
1 Are any requirements excessive? NO
2 Can less expensive materials be used? NO
3 Is it proprietary? NO
4 Are factors of safety too high? NO
5 Are calculations always rounded off on the high side? NO
6 Would lighter gauge materials work? NO

1.5 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE


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Based on the above stated research problem, the primary objective, secondary
objectives and scope of the project are given below.

1.5.1 Primary Objective

The main objective of this project is to find the optimal method of two-wheeler seat
assembly using Design of Experiment (DOE) in Star sports Model.

1.5.2 Secondary Objectives

• To identify the existing methodology of material composition.


• Introducing Design of Experiment (DOE), in order to obtain the best method.
• To make a comparative study of existing and proposed methodology.

1.5.3 Scope of the Project

The scope of the project is to find the optimal method of two-wheeler


seat assembly using Design of Experiment (DOE).
The objective of this project is to retain the basic functionality of Cushion
manufacturing and reduction of the manufacturing cost.

1.6 EXPECTED DELIVERABLES

a. This project yield gains in terms of cost, quality, delivery, time etc.
b. Increase in the contribution of products
c. Reduced in- house as well as customer end line rejections.
d. This project can result in substantial benefits to the customer.
e. Similar study can be extended to the other products in the organization where
there is a real need of the cost optimization.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
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Design of Experiments
According to Douglas C. Montgomery, Third Edition, Design of experiments is a
structured, organized method for determine the relationship between factors (X) affecting a
process and the output of that process (Y) while using minimum number of experimental runs.
In order to benefit the organization by DOE where the problem is dealt with the
following techniques to eliminate the seat rejection; the techniques will definitely show a
positive trend in PPM as well as rejections. Overall the objective of the organization is taken
care in all aspects in terms of delivery, quality and cost.
Types of DOE
1. Factorial Experiment Design
a. Full Factorial
b. Half/one fourth / one eighth Factorial Design
c. Screening Design
2. Taguchi Approach
3. Central Composite Design
During the improvement of products and processes, there are different “knowledge levels”
starting from a scarce knowledge to a deep knowledge.
Factor:
Anything that contributes causally to a response; "a number of parameters determining the
outcome”. Also called independent variables.
Response:
The output of a process. Also called dependent variables.
Level:
Optimal number of data points in which experiments should be conducted to correctly
conclude the result; a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality.

2.1 RELEVANT LITERATURE REVIEW

REFERENCE: I
http://www.moresteam.com/toolbox/index.cfm
Introduction
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Experimental design can be used at the point of greatest leverage to reduce design costs by
speeding up the design process, reducing late engineering design changes, and reducing product
material and labour complexity. Designed Experiments are also powerful tools to achieve
manufacturing cost savings by minimizing process variation and reducing rework, scrap, and the
need for inspection.
This Toolbox module includes a general overview of Experimental Design, instructions and
templates for conducting simple experiments, and links and other resources to assist you in
conducting more complex experiments. A glossary of terms is also available at any time through
the Help function, and we recommend that you read through it to familiarize yourself with any
unfamiliar terms.
Preparation
If you do not have a general knowledge of statistics, review the Histogram, A class main link
heft"http://www.moresteam.com/toolbox/t404.cfm "Statistical process Control, and Regression
and Correlation Analysis modules of the Toolbox prior to working with this module.
Although you can use the MoreSteam.com DOE spreadsheet templates to analyze several
experimental designs using Excel or lotus, you will need statistical analysis software to go
beyond these basic experiment design templates. Several free packages can be downloaded
through the MoreSteam.com Statistical software module of the Toolbox. In addition, the book
DOE Simplified, by Anderson and Whitcomb, homes with a sample of excellent DOE software
that will work for 180 days after installation.

Purpose
Designed experiments have many potential uses in improving processes and products, including:
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Comparing alternatives. In the case of our cake-baking example, we might want to compare the
results from two different types of flour. If it turned out that the flour from different vendors was
not significant, we could select the lowest-cost vendor. If flour were significant, then we could
select the best flour. The experiment(s) should allow us to make an informed decision that evaluates
both quality and cost.
Identifying the Significant Inputs (Factors) Affecting an Output (Response) - separating the vital
few from the trivial many. We might ask a question: "What are the significant factors beyond flour,
eggs, sugar and baking?"
Achieving an Optimal process Output (Response). "What are the necessary factors, and that are the
levels of those factors, to achieve the exact taste and consistency of Mom's chocolate cake?
Reducing variability. "Can the recipe be changed so it is more likely to always come out the same?"
Minimizing, maximizing, or Targeting an Output (Response). "How can the cake be made as moist
as possible without disintegrating?"
Improving process or product "Robustness" - fitness for use under varying conditions. "Can the
factors and their levels (recipe) be modified so the cake will come out nearly the same no matter
what type of oven is used?"

Experiment Design Guidelines

The Design of an experiment addresses the questions outlined above by stipulating the following:
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The factors to be tested.


The levels of those factors.

The structure and layout of experimental runs, or conditions.

Define the Objective

2 Choose Measures of performance


(Output Variables)
Brainstorming
Cause and Effect
Diagram Identify Possible Factors
3 (Control Variables)

Full Factorial
4 Design Programme of Fractional
Replication
Randomization Experiments Factorial
Repetition Screening
Taguchi
5 Collect Data

Graphs
6 Analyze and Interpret Results Regression
ANOVA
7 Verify Results

8 Return to 3 as necessary

Fig 2.1: DOE process map

REFERENCE : II

http://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~apte/CV_PRA_TAGUCHI_INTRO.htm
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TAGUCHI Method:
Dr.Taguchi of Nippon Telephones and Telegraph Company, Japan has developed a
method based on “ORTHOGONAL ARRAY” experiments which gives much educed
“variance” for the experiment with “optimum settings” of control parameters. Thus the
marriage of Design of Experiments with optimization of control parameters to obtain BEST
results is achieved in the Taguchi Method. Orthogonal Arrays" (OA) provide a set of well
balanced (minimum) experiments and Taguchi's Signal-to-Noise ratios (S/N), which are log
functions of desired output, serve as objective functions for optimization, help in data analysis
and prediction of optimum results.

Taguchi Method treats optimization problems in two categories,


1.Static problems:

Generally, a process to be optimized has several control factors which directly decide the
target or desired value of the output. The optimization then involves determining the best
control factor levels of that the output is at the target value. Such a problem is called as a
"STATIC PROBLEM".

This is best explained using a P-Diagram which is shown below ("P" stands for Process or
Product). Noise is shown to be present in the process should have no effect on the output!
This is the primary aim of the taguchi experiments - to minimize variations in output even
though noise is present in the process. The process is then said to have become ROBUST.

2. Dynamic Problems
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If the product to be optimized has a signal input that directly decides the output, the
optimization involves determining the best control factor levels so that the "input signal /
output" ratio is closest to the desired relationship. Such a problem is called as a "DYNAMIC
PROBLEM".
This is best explained by a P-Diagram which is shown below. Again, the primary aim of the
Taguchi experiments - to minimize variations in output even though noise is present in the
process- is achieved by getting improved linearity in the input/output relationship.

Steps in Taguchi Methodology:

STEP-1: IDENTIFY THE MAIN FUNCTION, SIDE EFFECTS, AND FAILURE MODE
STEP-2: IDENTIFY THE NOISE FACTORS, TESTING CONDITIONS, AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS
STEP-3: IDENTIFY THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION TO BE OPTIMIZED
STEP-4: IDENTIFY THE CONTROL FACTORS AND THEIR LEVELS
STEP-5: SELECT THE ORTHOGONAL ARRAY MATRIX EXPERIMENT
STEP-6: CONDUCT THE MATRIX EXPERIMENT
STEP-7: ANALYZE THE DATA, PREDICT THE OPTIMUM LEVELS AND PERFORMANCE
STEP-8: PERFORM THE VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT AND PLAN THE FUTURE ACTION

Table 2.1: Design of Experiments Approach


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Approaches No of variables DOE

Screening
>7
Fractional Factorial Low
(Scarce know-how of the process Resolution (III)
and many variables)

Level of Knowledge
Characterization Full Factorial or Fraction
4-7
Factorial with High Resolution
(Reduced number of variables (IV or V)
and their interactions)

Optimization
2-4 Full Factorial

(Deep investigation for few


variables and their interactions)

CHAPTER 3

METHODLOGY

Research methodology is a systematically solve the research problem. It


may be understood as science of study how research is done scientifically, the methods
adopted in collection of the data, analysis and interpretation of data.

3.1. Type of Project

There are various types of projects like Exploratory type, Descriptive type,
Survey type and Experimental study, Desk research based on primary or secondary data
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and in combination .Out of these types available Experimental study type has been
selected for this project.
The various data and facts have been collected from different experimental
combination of chemical composition to get the most reliable data and consolidated the
data collected to give the conclusion to the project.

3.2 Research Methodology

In this project, the following methodologies are adopted to find the optimal method of
two wheeler seat assembly (Foam cushion manufacturing area) using design of
experiment.
• Study of the current process
• Usage of Design of Experiment Techniques
• Adaptation of DOE concept
• Literature survey on DOE process in change process
• Idea Simulator to understand the issues involved in the change process.
• Implementation and Standardization
• Trail running with the change process to measure the outcomes
• Collection of data by experiments
• Analyze the data collected thro quality tools

3.3 Target Respondents

The data collection methodology for this project is primary data, which means
information will be collected by experimental type with different experimental trial involved
with different process combination of the manufacturing process.

3.4 Limitations

The DOE techniques used in this project can be horizontally deployed to other
products like Four Wheeler seat assembly which is using Two cavity molds.
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. We could not go about in taking trial of the four cavity mould, of Two wheeler seat
assemblies due to a short time span, the increased investment for change process and the
variation of chemical properties in four cavity mold cushions.

3.5 Proposed Sampling Method

Sampling may be defined as “the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality of


the basis of which a judgment or inference about the aggregate or totality is made.
In this project Full Factorial method is used by considering two main variables of
cushion manufacturing .They are Injection Time and ISO quantity.

3.6 Tools for Analysis

In this project the following tools are used


• Microsoft excel spread sheet.
• Cause and effect diagram is used for causal analysis.
• Trend charts has been used to formulate Production trend.
• Statistical analysis tool kike ANOVA test for validation of results

CHAPTER 4

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

In order to find out the optimal method of Two wheeler seat assembly of Star
Sports model cushion by DOE process we need the following data. By this data we can
achieve cost reduction of cushion manufacturing.

4.1 Types of data needed


• Customer complaints pertaining to star sport
• In house rejection trend of star sport
• Current process parameters of star sport cushion manufacturing.
In addition the following data also collected for supporting the analysis
Process flow diagrams of the Hennecke PU Foaming Machine
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Operation Standards for the Star Sport Foaming Machine.

4.2. Source of data


From the below mentioned sources we can get the required data for the analysis.
• Process flow diagrams can be collected from the Cushion Production Process layout.
• Operation standard formats can be received from the Plant Engineering
• Customer complaint and in-house rejection details from our QAD.
• Chemical consumption and production volume details from our SAP system
• Testing parameters from Quality Testing Department

4.3 Critical Parameter (High Hardness)


There are many properties are checked for assure the Quality of the cushion like
Hardness, Profile, Shape, Weight and other Surface Defects. In the above parameters
Hardness predominantly contributes towards the seat’s comfort level.
Testing of Two Wheeler cushion Hardness is done by as per Japanese Industrial
Standards (JIS 6401).

4.3.1 Criticality of the problem (High Hardness)

The problem of Seat High Hardness is having an average trend of 180 nos
getting rejected annually. There are certain affects to the Quality rating, Delivery commitment
causing line stoppers at the customer’s end. An increased trend of PPM is always alarming to
the company’s growth perspective.
The rejection value of seats getting rejected:

Cost of each seat : 380


No. of seats rejected /year : 180
Total rejection value : Rs.68400
Intangible cost : Rs.5000
Total cost : Rs.73400.

4.3.2 Fish Bone Diagram for High hardness


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Brain storming session conducted with employees and the reasons are
correlated each other using Fish Bone Diagram.

MAN MACHINE
Machine setting
Untrained Operator improper
operator negligence
Input Chemical
Importance not variation
known
High
Hardness
Effect: 100%
Improper
Chemical
Mixing Ratio No proper
Input Chemical traceability
problem No proper pouring
method

MATERIAL METHOD

Fig 4.1: Cause and effect diagram

4.4 CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS

A detailed history of the past year trend has been taken on the seat rejection
by customer due to High Hardness. On an average there were rejections around 130
Nos/annum. For the year 2009-10 the average rejections per month was12 nos.
The below data are collected based on the customer complaint from April
2009 to March 2010.

Table 4.1: Customer Complaints – High hardness

Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar

'09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '10 '10 '10
12 22 15 9 16 18 20 25 18 10 11 13
21

Fig 4.2: Customer complaint due to Seat High Hardness–Year wise

Fig 4.3: Customer complaint due to Seat High Hardness– Month wise

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4.5. IN-HOUSE REJECTIONS

Cushions are Tested JIS 6401. Hardness testing will be carried out
regularly to ensure conformance to the specification during production.

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If the manufactured cushions are not meet the quality standards like
hardens, chemical mix-up it is booked as In house rejection and moved to scrap area.
The below In house rejection data which is taken from SAP from April 2009 to March
2010.

20
Table 4.2: In house Rejections – High hardness
22

Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar

'09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '10 '10 '10
8 12 6 9 15 11 16 9 13 10 8 13

Past years trend

250
nti
ua

ty
Q

220

200 180
155
150

100

50

0
07 - 08 08 - 09 09-10
Year

Fig 4.4: In House Rejections–Year wise


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Fig4.5: In house rejections due to Seat High Hardness– Month wise

4.6 PRESENT PROCESS PARAMETERS OF STAR SPORT CUSHION

From the Process Parameters sheet and machine operation data the current process
parameters used for the manufacturing of Star Sport Cushion is listed below

Injection time : 3.55 Seconds

Polyol qty/ Sec : 128 gms

ISO Qty / Sec : 78 gms

Cushion weight : 705 gms

Hardness : 11 - 15 Kgf

Hysterisis : 26 - 28 %

Supplier : Dow Chemicals

ISO : NE 134

Polyol : NF 755

4.7 POLY URETHANE FOAMING PROCESS

The term "POLYURETHANE" is used to describe any polymer that has been
chain extended by reaction with di or poly-isocyanate. In other words "POLYURETHANES"
are polymers formed by the polyaddition of polyfunctional isocyanates with compounds
containing at least two hydroxyl groups.
The term polyurethane is derived from the "URETHANE" group that is
predominantly formed in the reaction. A urethane group is formed by the chemical reaction
between an alcohol and an isocyanate. The isocyanate group (-NCO) can react with any
compound containing 'active' hydrogen atoms. (Active hydrogen atoms are those which react
with a Grignard's reagent, generally methyl magnesium iodide to give methane.)
The typical reaction that depicts the formation of polyurethane’s (PU) is given below:
24

Polyol + water and/or Polyisocyanates or POLY

Blowing agent + catalyst(s) Diisocyanates URETHANE

FOAM

The two wheeler cushion production unit consists of the following machines and equipment

1. High pressure reaction moulding machine – 1 No

2. Linear carousel carrying 14 mould stations

3. 14 individual moulds each with 2 cavity

4. Injection head fitted on a rotary arm

4.7.1 High pressure reaction moulding machine:

This high-pressure reaction moulding machine is of “Hennecke” make from imported


from Germany. The machine consists of storage tanks to hold Polyol and Isocyanate in a
maintained temperature of 21 – 25 degrees centigrade, the control unit, computer controlled
programmable unit, metering units to control the quantity of both the chemicals

High pressure reaction moulding machine

Fig 4.6: High pressure reaction moulding machine


25

4.7.2. Linear Carousel

The linear carousel is nothing but a closed loop telescopic conveyor chain
fitted with a caterpillar drive and used to move the mould carrying fixtures. The movement &
the speed of the conveyor are controlled through a control panel and an automated lubricator
unit ensures the smooth movement of the conveyor. There are 14 moulds carrying stations or
otherwise called as Mould Fixtures (MF), individually operated through hydraulic power
pack. The mould carrying stations are locked with the towveyor chain conveyor through
towing pins.

Fig 4.7: Linear carrousel with mould fixtures

4.7.3. Moulds

Moulds are used to produce PU cushions. The moulds are CNC machined to obtain
the contour of the cushion and made up of Aluminium. Different varieties of mould cavities
are used for various products. We have about 20 varieties of two wheeler moulds.
There are 14 moulds with each with twin cavity are mounted in the mould carrying stations.
Each mould consists of top and bottom cavity. The top cavity is mounted in the top frame of
the MF by means of T bolts and the bottom cavity is fixed to the base frame of the MF by
means of conical locators. Hot water connection is given to the moulds to maintain the mould
temperature always between 55 – 60 degrees centigrade.
26

Fig 4.8: Aluminium mould cavity

4.7.4. Injection head and the Rotary arm.

The injection head is the important part of the machine where is both Polyol
and Isocyanate are mixed thoroughly inside the chamber at a high pressure of 160 – 180 bar
and the laminar flow is created inside for homogenous mixing through the injection nozzle.
Then the homogenous mixture is injected into the mould. The rotary arm consists of a pillar
support, rotary base, pivoted arm with a counter weight and the moving arm where the mixing
head is mounted. The movement of the mixing head is achieved by means of a robot.
Each type of cushion requires certain type of machine setting depend on the size, hardness,
weight and other requirements. These settings are stored in the program logical control of the
machine.
RFID will activate the signal to the foaming machine thro the sensors, The machine has the
input details and gives the signal to the control panel of the Robot , Each individual moulds
having individual program stored in the control panel of the machine. The Robot gets the
input details from the Control panel of the machine and pouring of the chemical in the mould
cavity.
Cushions are checked for its properties like hardness, profile, shape and other surface defects.
The parameter hardness predominantly contributes towards the seat’s comfort level.
27

Testing of hardness is done as per IS 7888 for four wheeler cushions and JIS 6401 for Two
wheeler cushions. Hardness testing will be carried out regularly to ensure conformance to the
specification.

4.8 ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.8.1 Choice of Techniques

In order to optimize cost in the Star sport Cushion, we have identified the the
index of potential to achieve maximum benefits. In Cushion manufacturing process, we are
using Polyol and Isocynates as the main chemicals. But Isocyantes is the base chemical
which impact the hardness property and costlier than Polyol In this project we are using
Design of Experiment Technique for find out the optimal method.

4.8.2 Design of Experiment in Star Sport Cushions

For the Reduction in weight of the base chemical in Star Sport Cushion by DOE,
We have taken the present process parameters, specification and observations of the Star Sport
cushions.

Present Process Parameters of Star sport cushion

Injection time : 3.55 Seconds

Polyol qty/ Sec : 128 gms

ISO Qty / Sec : 78 gms

Cushion weight : 705 gms

Hardness : 11 - 15 Kgf

Hysterisis : 26 - 28 %

Supplier : Dow Chemicals

ISO : NE 134

Polyol : NF 755
28

4.8.3 Selection of Factors for DOE

As a first step of DOE, we have analysed on the process parameters with respect to the
local control factors and the factors that can be taken for DOE.

Table 4.3: Selection of Factors for DOE – Star Sport Cushion

Process Parameters
Local control Factors for DOE
1. Injection Time
- 
2. ISO Qty
- 
3. Injection Pressure ISO/Polyol
 -
4. Mould temperature
 -
5. Release agent application
 -
6. Mould
- -
7. Component Temperature
 -

There are different process parameters involved in the cushion


manufacturing process. But Injection Time and ISO quantity is the main parameter for the
cushion hardness property. So we have arrived at the different levels of experimental
combinations by varying the Injection time and the ISO quantity.

So in this project we have taken Injection time and Isocyantes


quantity is the factors for Design of Experiments.
29

4.8.4 Selection of Experimental combination

The main objective of this project is to find out the optimal method in the two
wheeler seat assembly (cushion manufacturing) process. So we have selected different five
levels of each factors are selected for the trail process.
The levels of the selected two main factors are listed below.

Factors Levels

1. Injection Time 3.5, 3.45, 3.35, 3.25, 3.15 secs


2. Isocyantes Qty 78, 80, 82, 84, 86 Gms

4.4 Experimental Combination - Full Factorial

3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x


78 78 78 78 78
3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x
80 80 80 80 80
3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x
82 82 82 82 82
3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x
84 84 84 84 84
3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x
86 86 86 86 86

In this project we used the ANOVA table to find the significance between the different
settings of Injection time and Isocyantes quantity related with cushion hardness. Here we
consider only two variables, so this type of Experiment is known as Full Factorial Design of
Experiments with Optimization approach.

Trail Taken with the above tabulated combination and trail samples are checked as per
the Quality standards.
30

4.8.5 ANOVA Test

Cushion hardness is the main criteria for two wheeler seat assembly. It is checked
using the Hardness Test as per the Quality Standard of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS
6401). As per the Specifications the hardness should be 11 – 15 kgf. Trail results are tabulated
in the ANOVA table for next analysis.

Table 4.5 : ANOVA Table

ISO Qty
78 80 82 84 86
3.15 8.8 9.2 10.8 12.4 14.8
3.25 10.2 10.8 11.2 12.7 15.2
Injection
Time in

3.35
secs

11.4 12.1 12.7 14.8 16.2


3.45 14.8 15.7 16.2 17.9 18.5
3.55 12.5 13.7 14.2 15.8 17.9
ANOVA
F
Source of Variation SS df MS F
122.97 crit
Injection time 94.444 4 23.611 4 3.006917
104.48
ISO Qty 80.244 4 20.061 3.006917
Error 4
3.072 16 0.192

Total 177.76 24
Both Injection time & ISO Qty are significant for Hardness.

F value = 3.006917
F critical = 2.78
So (F value > F critical)
From the ANOVA table results we have drawn the average response graph of the
below critical quality parameters.
1. Weight
2. Hardness and
3. Hysterisis
The ability of Flexible Polyurethane Foam (FPF) to maintain original
characteristics after flexing. Indentation Force Deflection (IFD) is generally measured as
the force in pounds required to compress a 50 sq inch circular indenter tool into four inch
thick sample. Common IFD values are general at 25 and 65% of the initial height.
31

Average Response on Weight


Existing
720
708

700
705

680
Weight in gms

669 670
660
661
640
641

620

600
3.15 x 84 3.25 x 84 3.35 x 80 3.35 x 82 3.55 x 78 3.55 x 80

Trial Combination
Fig 4.9: Average Response of Weight – Star Sport Cushion

Average Response on Hardness

17

14 13.7
13.1
Hardness

12.7
12.5 12.4 UCL
12.1

11

LCL

8
3.45 3.45 3.55 3.35 3.45 3.55 3.45 3.25 3.15 3.35 3.45 3.55 3.55 3.35 3.25 3.55 3.15 3.35 3.35 3.25 3.15 3.25 3.25 3.15 3.15
x 86 x 84 x 86 x 86 x 82 x 84 x 80 x 86 x 86 x 84 x 78 x 82 x 80 x 82 x 84 x 78 x 84 x 80 x 78 x 82 x 82 x 80 x 78 x 80 x 78

Trial combination

Fig 4.10: Average Response of Hardness – Star Sport Cushion


32

Av e rage re sponse on Hy ste risis

Parameters
Existing
identified
process
30.4 during
experiments
parameter
30
29.8
Hysterisis in %

28.5
27.2 27.1
27

24
3.15 x 84 3.25 x 84 3.35 x 80
Figure 7.1.3c– Average Response3.35 x 82
of Hysterisis 3.55 x 78 3.55 x 80

Trial Combination

Fig 4.11: Average Response of Hysterisis – Star Sport Cushion

4.8.6 Trial Result

From the above Average Response Graph we concluded that the combination of
Injection Time 3.35 sec and Isocyantes Quantity 82gms/sec meets the quality specifications
and found hardness within specification.

This experimental combination trial samples are futher tested to find out the all other
quality parameters using different testing methods and test report drawn from the Quality
Testing Department.

Based on the test report a comparison of properties in Star Sport Cushion is


tabulated with the present level combination and the proposed level of combination.
33

4.9 TESTING AND PROVING

Figure 7.0h – Methods of Testing

Fig 4.12: Testing and Proving


34

4.9.1 Test Report


Table 4.6: Test Report – Star Sport Cushion

CHAPTER 5
CONCULDING REMARKS
35

5.1 Suggestions & Recommendations

After the complete process of DOE, we found that the Hardness, hysterisis
property which is the main parameters which was satisfied at the weight of 670 Gms. And
based on the Process capability also found hardness was within specification.

By the application of DOE process we found the optimum method of


Injection time 3.35 sec with the chemical combination of ISO quantity of 82 Gms/sec,
which is recommended for the future production of cushion manufacturing in Star Sports
Two Wheeler seat assembly.

By implementation of the project, we were able to reduce the weight of the


Cushion by 5 %

Star Sport Cushion Weight 5 % Reduction


in
weight
750

705
Weight in gms

700
675 670

650

600
Actual Plan Achieved

Fig 5.1: Actual Vs Achieved

5.2. Standardisation
The Listed below activities need to carry out towards standardisation of this Project.

• Drawing modification through Engineering Change Note ( ECN )

• Bill of Material ( BOM ) modification


36

• Intimation to production and updation of the Operation standards

• Norms updated in the system

• Process parameters updated

• Updation of the control plan

• Training imparted to all individuals.

• Approval from customer

5.3 Gains of the project

After standardizing the above activities in the regular production, we could achieve
the following benefits.
1. Cost Savings

By this Project it is recommended that Injection Time 3.35 sec is enough to


produce cushion with all quality specifications .so the chemical consumptions
also reduced by this way we can achieved cost saving of Rs 5.12 Lakhs per
annum .
Cost Savings through DOE in Star Sport Seat -Rs. 5.12.00 Lakhs

2. Improved Productivity

Injection Time is the major factor which affects the cycle time of the
cushion manufacturing. By the reduction of injection time we can
minimize the cycle time of the process which ultimately improve the
productivity.
CONCLUSION

This project yielded gains in terms cost, quality, delivery, time, etc.Apart from
the above, this project also provided an opportunity to understand the PU Foaming Process
and also implementation of projects in practical at field and overcoming the difficulties and
consequences faced. Benefit and improvement gained out of this project has also motivated to
improve my skills in problem solving techniques.
37

This project has given me immense confidence to handle similar projects in the
other areas .It has enhanced my knowledge on usage of Design of Experiment.

This project has benefited the organization in terms of cost reduction to the tune
of Rs. 5.12 lakhs / annum and improve the productivity of two wheeler seat assembly.

This project work has given very good information on the usage of the major
tools like Design of Experiment, ANOVA, Idea simulators etc., It has also provided me
knowledge on the PU Foaming Process.

Tools followed like ANOVA, idea simulators has helped to detect early
failures of the system and also provided opportunity to focus on accident prevention. This
also helped in team building by involving many people in the organization to use those tools.

REFERENCES

1. Design of Experiments – Taguchi


2. Design and Analysis of Experiments – Douglas C. Montgomery, Third Edition
3. Value Engineering for Cost Reduction and Product Improvement – M.S. Vittal;
Systems Consultancy Service, Bangalore.
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4. http://www.moresteam.com/toolbox/index.cfm
5. http://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~apte/CV_PRA_TAGUCHI_INTRO.htm