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' BF
Science &
The Relationship
Between the Measure
Formulae and the Zodiac

Arthur M. Young



$4.95 Science/Astrology

■ Science & Astrology is not an attempt to

define or explain the zodiac or the measure
formulae but is an examination of the com-
mon foundation shared by both, an exam-
ination that holds regardless of the use or
abuse of either. Of course, in our day and
age, astrology wears the disguise of the
bawdy courtesan, but behind this masquer-
ade lies the flesh and bones of first prin-
ciples. While founded on intuitive insight,
these principles can be shown to correlate to
those on which the measure formulae-the
time-tested vocabulary of physical science-
is based. Indeed, this correlation makes pos-
sible the hope, expressed in 1954 by LL.
Whyte in The British Journal for the Philos-
ophy of Science, that the measure formula
should be expressed in terms of angle. It
also shows the applicability of science to life
and evolution in a manner not previously

■ A graduate of Princeton University, Arthur

M. Young, developer and designer of the
Bell helicopter, is the author of The Reflex-
ive Universe and The Geometry of Meaning,
and founder of the Institute for the Study of
Consciousness in Berkeley, California.

ISBN# 0-931191-06-8

The Relationship Between the
Measure Formulae and the Zodiac

Arthur M. Young


Copyright© 1987 by Arthur M. Young
All rights reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any informa-
tional storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written
permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief
passages in connection with a review written for inclusion in a magazine, newspaper
or broadcast.

Published bv
Robert Briggs Associates
Box 9
Mill Valley, California 94942

Designed by Mark Ong

First Broadside Edition 1987
Printed in the U.S.A.

ISBN# 0-931191-06-8

To the modern mind astrology is dismissed as superstition, a delu-

sion of the prescientific age before it was found that planets go
around the sun rather than the sun and planets around the earth,
and that the earth rotates and the celestial sphere does not. Strictly
speaking, it does not matter to astrology which goes around which,
since astrological measure depends only on angle, but the earlier
geocentric view had become associated with astrology and when the
geocentric view was proved false, astrology dropped out of fashion.
Furthermore, because there is no scientific explanation of how
planets could influence life on earth, and no explanation of why
different planets should be associated with different functions-
Venus with love, Mars with aggression, and so on-the whole basis
of astrology seems too absurd to warrant scientific justification. In
this essay I will make no attempt to answer these questions, nor to
make any defense of natal astrology. Here I will confine myself to
showing the remarkable similarity between the measure formulae of
physics, which constitute the basic vocabulary of science, and the
signs of the zodiac which are basic to astrology. The resemblance
calls for examination.
Despite the rejection of astrology by science, a large segment of
the public nevertheless "believes in" it and seems to derive satis-
faction from knowing which signs of the zodiac were occupied by
the sun and planets at the time of their birth, or the birth of friends.
This could be dismissed as superstition, but a closer look reveals
that many competent astrologers had scientific backgrounds and
arrived at a conviction of the validity of astrology after an initial
skepticism. In fact, all the astrologers I have known personally have
either had a background in science or had succeeded in other careers

before taking up astrology. But since I'm not trying to defend
astrology, I will not press the point. Besides, it does not bear on the
fact that astrology is not scientifically respectable. What I cannot
ignore is the fact that my own study of the subject, which began in
1948, has convinced me of its validity, especially with regard to the
manner in which the arcs and progressions-the method of predic-
tion based on correlation of angles between planets to periods of
time-did accurately correspond to major events and changes in my
own life.
The conflict between science and astrology presents a challenge
that I must resolve. It is not a question of rejecting one in favor
of the other. I cannot reject science; there is so much evidence to
support its findings. On the other hand, I cannot reject astrology
because it has repeatedly been confirmed in so many ways. Perhaps
the only way to resolve this ideological conflict-and it is ideologi-
cal-is to reexamine the interpretations of science and astrology
that produce the conflicting ideologies.
To begin with, facts in themselves do not produce ideologies. Let
me take time to illustrate this point. The facts of astronomy led
Newton to his universal theory of gravitation. These facts had to do
with the exact positions and rates of revolution of the planets. When
Newton, by his invention of calculus, succeeded in compiling laws
that could go beyond known facts and predict the future position of
the planets-and also the behavior of bodies in general, such as
projectiles-science acquired authority over cosmology. Newton's
laws made possible a new ideology, determinism, an ideology that
became the basis for almost all science.
I say that Newton's laws made possible the ideology of deter-
minism. They did not require it, since it could still be the case that
such laws had limits of applicability. If we drop a stone out of a
window it will fall at a predictable rate; knowing the height of the
window, we can predict the time required for the stone to hit the
ground. If a stone were dropped a similar distance on the moon, we
could predict that the time for its fall would be greater and could
predict how much greater; and dropped in the vicinity of a black
hole, the stone would fall near the speed of light. Now, whenever a
law applies in such a variety of applications it leads to a belief in that
law. Thus we can say that what is true for the moon is true for the
black hole, even if we don't make the actual test.
But what about a bird?

If we drop a bird out a window, it doesn't drop-it flies away.
Ah! But that's different. The bird is alive and has acquired this
special ability through millions of years of evolution. However, if
we were to examine and analyze all the complexities of the bird, its
chemistry and such, we would find it to be made up of molecules
that obey the same laws that govern the planets. There is no reason
to think that the matter that makes up the bird behaves differently
from any other matter.
Of course, it is common sense that the flight of a bird cannot be
so easily dismissed, but common sense seldom carries much weight
in a theoretical argument. Common sense has had to give way to
science far too often. And while I am painting this picture in over-
simplified terms, it does demonstrate the issue for and against deter-
minism. Science doesn't recognize the full implication of self ini-
tiated action, and even good philosophers who reject determinism
do not have a proper scientific explanation of how a bird flies.
Scientists are too busy with what they can explain to be concerned
with what they cannot, much the same way that many astrologers
are too preoccupied with what works rather than with why or how
it works.
What is required is that both parties-or someone-admit the
shortcomings of ideology, and perhaps go back and see where things
went wrong.
For instance, if, to combat the ideology of determinism, we try to
use science's failure to explain life, we won't succeed. The failure to
explain life is not the failure of an ideology; it is not the purpose of
ideology to explain. An ideology is rather a promise to explain.
Likewise, if we were to defend astrology against the criticism of
science by a similar appeal, we would fare even worse. At least, we
have some certainty about life. We see it around us; we experience
it; we live it. But, for all but a few practicing astrologers, astrology
is rather remote from life; its correspondences are vague, ambigu-
ous, and dependent on intuition, never on the logic and conceptual
thinking that characterize science.
In thus painting this picture of the conflict, I have no doubt made
the difficulty of reconciliation even greater than it appeared before;
however, we have gained in one respect. We have reached a vantage
point from which we see that it is not the findings of science that
contradict astrology but the ideology itself-the presumption that
laws of determinism are universal. Since our problem is one of

ideologies, it is only fair to go behind the scenes of astrology and
examine those parts of astrology that contribute to resolving this
The problem of the flight of the bird, or more generally, the
problem of evolution, is of a different nature than problems consid-
ered appropriate to science. Even if we could explain all the me-
chanical, chemical, and biological intricacies of evolution there
would still be something missing. Suppose a visitor from another
planet were to see from a great height the traffic in a big city, and
to succeed in dissecting an automobile, analyzing its chemical con-
tent, sectioning it and viewing it through his microscope. He might
find how it worked, how it converted the chemical energy of the gas
into mechanical motion. This would still not tell him how the auto-
mobile evolved, or how it moved about in a purposeful manner. He
could of course discern a change from earlier automobiles and
postulate evolution of the modern car from more primitive ances-
tors, and account for this evolution as a selective process by which
the fittest survived, fitness being defined as, say, having more power
and speed. And suppose, after finding there were people in the
cars who drove them, he extended this analysis to show that the
people were complex mechanico-chemical systems. This would still
not answer the question: what is the free agent controlling the
mechanico-chemical system?
The fact is simply that the goal of science and the goal of astrol-
ogy are diametrically opposed. Science seeks to find the laws and
regularities of material objects. These laws are general and objec-
tive; they apply to classes of things without regard to their indi-
viduality. Astrology is concerned with individuals. While it makes
some use of laws, these laws serve as rules which permit the descrip-
tion of differences having a significant outcome in the life of an
The central dogma of science is that the same experiment, when
repeated at a different time, will yield the same result. The central
dogma of astrology is that different experiments made at the same
time (i.e., simultaneous births) will yield the same result. Science
searches for general laws and principles and provides a map of what
are essentially spatial relationships. Even if time is included it is
treated as space-like and symmetrical. On the other hand, astrology
deals with itineraries unique to individuals, rather than with a gen-
eral map. Astrology reduces all measure to time and timing, and

endeavors to predict the time and, to some extent, the significance
of events to one person. Science deals with time as linear; astrology
with time as cyclic. To science a person, or observer, is needed only
to observe pointer readings-to act as an agent or means to arrive
at a,map that describes the world. To astrology "a map" (an expres-
sion used for a chart of the planet positions at birth) is a means to
describe the life of a person born at that time.
The antithetical nature of these views makes it evident that
science and astrology face in different directions. But they are not so
far different that they do not
have the same basis. Both
could be standing on the same
foundation and yet facing in
opposite directions. To the ex-
tent that both partake of the
truth, they must share the same
This foundation is not just the astronomer's ephemeris, which
provides a simple table of the position of planets each day, and is
necessary for both astronomy and astrology. Rather, the similarity
of foundation to which I refer is the similarity of the measure
formulae to the signs of the zodiac.
It has often been pointed out that astronomy, the measurement
of stars, had its origins in astrology, the knowledge of stars. But this
overlooks the development of modern science that occurred after
astronomy severed itself from astrology. The true origin of modern
science was Newton's invention of the calculus. This made it possi-
ble to go beyond the measurement of position and obtain other
measure formulae which would predict future position. Calculus
provided a formal expression for velocity and acceleration. Velocity
is the rate of change of position-miles per hour. Acceleration is the
rate of change of velocity. A Porsche can accelerate to 60 miles per
hour in 8 seconds. Velocity is expressed as distance (L) divided by
time (T), acceleration as distance divided by time squared:
Position L
Velocity L/T
Acceleration L/T 2

Thanks to the technique of the calculus it became possible to

predict the behavior of any inert moving body, and thus to account

for motion with the same precision that geometry had already sup-
plied for measurement of things at rest, i.e., the earth's surface,
buildings under construction, and the like.
When the three measure formulae, position, velocity, and accel-
eration, are multiplied by mass (M), we obtain three more measure
formulae, namely moment, momentum, and force.
Position L x M = ML Moment
Velocity L/T x M = ML/T Momentum
Acceleration L/T 2 x M = ML/T 2 Force

I am aware that many readers will be put off by formulas, but

everyone who drives a car knows and makes use of velocity and
acceleration, and the formula is nothing more than a way of mea-
suring what we are already familiar with. Position of course is
fundamental, forming the basis of geometry (geo = earth; metry =
measure). When position and its derivatives, velocity and acceler-
ation, are multiplied by mass we can deal with force and its aspects,
momentum and moment. When the hammer strikes the nail its
momentum is converted to a force which pushes the nail home.
When we use a crowbar, it is by virtue of its moment (leverage) that
we can move a large stone. Position and its derivatives, together
with moment and its derivatives, provide a science of motion far
more comprehensive than the geometry of Euclid. Before Newton
force was a mystery. Lacking the formulations provided by Newton,
Kepler was obliged to explain force as the "soul" of the universe-
or the anima (soul) mundi (of the world). Today force is an ac-
knowledged reality; soul is not. (Now I might reverse Kepler and
say that soul is the force which animates persons, but that is another
Force has always been difficult for intellect to deal with. Edding-
ton said, "Force is an elusive concept," and Einstein described force
as the bending of space-time, which doesn't help, because space-
time is a mathematical construct that has to be imagined. However,
once we recognize that we have direct knowledge of force through
our feelings-more basic than our sensations of the outer world-
we don't have to conceptualize it. And while this might seem a
digression, it does provide a preview of where we are going-
toward the origins of meaning.
It is difficult, if not impossible, to conceptualize force because
feeling and intellect are vastly different in nature. This difference

underlies many of our psychological problems. Imagine a science
that could depict the relation between intellect and feeling as per-
pendicular coordinates; that is our goal, but to reach it we require
the input of both science and astrology-science for its contribution
of the measure formulae, and astrology for its contribution of the
signs of the zodiac.
Now, let us go back to the formulae already mentioned, adding
one more column by multiplying the second column by L = length.
Position x Mass = Moment x L = Moment of Inertia
L/T ML/T ML 2 /T
Velocity x Mass = Momentum x L = Action
L/T 2 ML/T 2 ML 2/T 2
Acceleration x Mass = Force x L = Energy
ML2/T 3
In doing this we now have all the measure formulae for the
science of motion that are mentioned in the textbooks. Notice that
there is only one third derivative, power, in the bottom row. But are
there other third derivatives to fill in this row? This is the case: there
are two more, L/T 3 and ML/T3 • The first, L/T3, is change of accel-
eration, or control. It is by pushing the accelerator pedal, applying
the brakes, or steering (which is also a change of acceleration) that
we control the car. The second is control times mass-mass
control-the difference between control of a canoe and the control
of an oil tanker.
The omission of control and mass control from scientific text-
books can be accounted for on the grounds that they are not used
to find the laws of nature. To find such laws we must not add or
subtract energy from the system. This has led to the situation in
which "pure" science omits any reference to these derivatives. It is
left for engineers to make use of them, as is done in aeronautics,
where the third derivative of position, L/T 3, is called "jerk" and
that of momentum is called "power control." Neither term is well
chosen. The term jerk must have come about because, with the first
black boxes for automatic control, control was either on or off and
thus discontinuous (much as the motion of a robot is depicted as
jerky). Power control would be better called force control, or mass

Thus there are three sets of four derivatives or, if you prefer, four
sets of three. All are necessary and sufficient for description of
motion, including motion under voluntary control.
There are other measure formulae as well, but these do not
immediately concern us; all are dimensionally equivalent to one of
the above. Pressure, for example, is a measure expressed in pounds
per square inch and correlates with power. The volume of gas or
liquid which exerts the pressure is L3. Their product is energy.
Pressure = lb/(sq. inch) = ML/T2 X 1/L2 x L3 (= volume)
This factors out to ML2 /T2 = Energy.

Let us turn now to astrology and show how the signs of the zodiac
comprise an equally complete and internally consistent system.
As the earth orbits the sun each year, the sun appears to change
its position against the background of the fixed stars. The sun's
path, called the zodiac, is divided into 12 equal sections of 30
degrees each. These 30-degree divisions, called signs, correspond
roughly to the months of the year. Most are named for animals
(hence zodiac) which exemplify the character of the sign. Thus
Aries the ram is the first of the cardinal signs. The ram, charging
with his head down, typifies the blind outrush of energy at the
spring equinox. The sign for the summer solstice, 90 degrees later,
is Cancer, the crab, probably because of the sideways motion of the
crab. This sideways motion can be thought of as a reaction to the
initial blind action of spring, much as the natural reaction to an
onrushing vehicle is to step aside. Similarly, if a tipping movement
is applied to a gyroscope, it reacts by tipping 90 degrees to the
applied force. With the autumn equinox, the sun enters the sign
Libra, the scales. Here the reaction is opposite (180 degrees); it is
the time of harvest and involves consciousness of what has been
initiated, hence Libra the scales, the measure of the spring planting.
The last of this group of signs is Capricorn, symbolized by the
sure-footed mountain goat, the winter solstice, storage of the fruits
of growth, control or conscious action-factors opposite the natu-
ral or unconscious re action of summer. These four signs are called
the cardinal signs, which are all forms of action, not to be confused
with the quantum of action. The four mutable signs precede the
cardinals and the four -fixed signs follow the cardinals. Mutable and
fixed are difficult to define, but for want of a better word we will call

the mutables relations and the fixed states. The mutable and fixed
signs that are compatible with a given cardinal sign are not the ones
immediately preceding and following, but the ones 120 degrees
preceding and following respectively.

card. earth

11],. Scorpio
fixed water

Aries 'Y' "" Libra

card. fire card. air
T1l' Virgo
mut. earth

card. water

The 12 signs thus comprise four triads-fire, water, air and

earth-or three crosses-cardinal, mutable and fixed.
The fire triad is spontaneous, intuitive: Sagittarius, Aries and
The water triad is emotional, motivational: Pisces, Cancer and
The Air triad is conceptual, mental: Gemini, Libra and Aquarius.
The earth triad is practical, based in sensation: Virgo, Capricorn
and Taurus.
The cardinal cross comprises four kinds of action.
The mutable cross comprises four kinds of relation.
The fixed cross comprises four kinds of state.
I now intend to show that these astrological signs have a corre-
spondence with the measure formulae that deal with moving bodies.


To establish the correspondence between the measure formulae and
the signs of the zodiac, it is helpful to refer to the cycle of action. The

cycle of action includes the behaviorists' sequence of stimulus and
response, to which we add that the response (which is an action) is
followed by a result, or a new state. Thus one sees food, eats it, and
is no longer hungry; or one sees an object in a store window, enters
the store, and purchases it. This is the natural or threefold form of
the cycle of action.
But suppose the door doesn't open when pushed. We then be-
come aware of the word "Pull" on the door, so we pull the door and
go in. This illustrates the learning cycle, a special case or variant of
the cycle of action. The learning cycle has four phases:
1. the initial action-pushing the door;
2. the reaction-door won't open;
3. observation-we see the sign; and
4. appropriate action-we pull the door and go in.
These four phases in the learning cycle correspond to Aries, blind
action; Cancer, reaction; Libra, observation; and Capricorn, the
appropriate action, or control.
We can correlate the first three of these phases to ( 1) acceleration
(the start of any cycle), (2) velocity (the change or reaction produced
by the start), and (3) position (the observation of whatever is perti-
nent, in this case the sign "Pull," but in general the position of the
pointer reading on a scale; hence Libra, the scales).

(acceleration) ----+---- Observation

Reaction (change)

This sequence, which reverses the order of the derivatives (L,

L/T, L/T2), represents integration; it is actually the natural order of
events. We start a car, attain a velocity, and get to a position. Since



the derivatives are independent measures they must be shown on

perpendicular coordinates.
What about control, the fourth phase of the learning cycle? It
must go at the top. But the top position is also the derivative of
acceleration, or change of acceleration. As we said it is by change of
acceleration that we control a car. By both criteria we can avail
ourselves of control, or the third derivative, along with position and
its first and second derivatives.
We can now accommodate higher derivatives. Thus the deriva-
tive of control, or that which 'governs' control, has to be L, a
position. This is the case when we drive a car. Our control is gov-
erned by the position of the car on the road, or by other vehicles or
pedestrians-ultimately by our destination, which is a position.
Thus the cyclic arrangement of position and its derivatives not only
meets the criterion that 4 divisions by time of 90° completes the
circle of 360° but it prescribes the nature of higher derivatives.
The diagrammatic representation above also reminds us that the
cycle can begin with control (without it we could not start the car),
and if nothing goes wrong we achieve our goal without learning.
Another example of the learning cycle is shooting at a target.
Even if we have perfect aim, we may miss the bull's eye due to the
pull of gravity on the bullet, the wind, or motion of the target. Once
we have seen where the bullet hits, we can adjust our aim and hit
the bull's eye. Here again there are four factors-the charge, the
trajectory or velocity of the bullet, the target or position, and our
The learning cycle describes the acquisition of control. Once
control is learned and we can perform an action correctly it becomes
instinctive or unconscious. In every case, however, the factors in-
volved include the third derivative, L/T 3 -change of acceleration,
or control.
While the third derivative is obvious in the case of a car, it is
equally applicable to the control we exercise over our own bodies.
We learn control from infancy-to crawl, to walk or use our vocal
cords. Animals do the same, and plants control their metabolism. In
fact it is through control of nature's laws that life becomes possible.
By assigning formal status to control we can achieve a true "sci-
ence" of life. Such a science-one which recognizes that the third
derivative is just as valid as the first and second which made possible
the science of the motion of inert bodies-becomes a science of

living bodies, and is no longer purely deterministic. The third deriv-
ative, or control, makes possible the use of determinism to attain
ends. When we drive an automobile we use both determinism and
control in order to reach our goal. Without determinism the car
would not respond to control; without control we could not use
determinism. Both are necessary. It is not a question of determinism
versus free will; it is a question of learning the laws of determinism
so we can use them to attain our goals.
We have shown that the cardinal signs of astrology deal with four
kinds of action, and the four kinds of action correlate to the four
steps of the learning cycle, beginning with Aries or blind action;
followed by reaction, Cancer the crab; which at the third stage
becomes conscious, Libra, the scales (implying conscious obser-
vation of pointer readings); and ending with conscious action, or
Capricorn, translated as control. These types of action include the
role of the observer, which since Heisenberg is recognized as crucial
m science.
In defining these four types of action, astrology can lay claim to
completeness, in that it is more comprehensive than science. While
science has only recently recognized the role of the observer, astrol-
ogy makes it clear that the observer also participates, both in setting
up the experiment and in applying its findings to further experi-
ments. Above all it directs attention to control, which is neglected
entirely by the scientific mind-set.
It might be said that I have read into astrology what is not there,
but this is like saying that Einstein read the general theory of relativ-
ity into the curved space of Reimann. Like mathematics, astrology
is a conceptual tool kit that may be applied to any subject where it
can be of benefit. As a matter of fact, I did not read the third
derivative into astrology; rather, it was astrology that suggested to
me that I should look for the third derivative in science, where it is
not generally recognized or assigned a function.


A further objection might be that while astrology can be construed
to include observation and the other kinds of action that the scien-
tist uses in setting up experiments, this diagnosis of action does not
apply to the subject matter of science. To be sure, science is a body

of knowledge obtained by observation; but once obtained, it has its
own independent existence that has no further obligation to obser-
vation. In this view science consists of statements of relationship,
much as a map is a statement of relationship. The map, once made,
does not depend on observers.
What does astrology have to say to this? Recall that there are
twelve signs. So far I have selected the so-called cardinal signs and
shown their correlation to position and its derivatives. There remain
two other sets of four signs each-the mutable and the fixed.
The four mutable signs deal with four kinds of relationship.
Although the word "relationship" is hardly adequate, it helps, es-
pecially if we realize that the threefold division of cardinal/fixed/
mutable must cover all possible modes of being, so that what is not
an action and not a state must be a relationship.
The four kinds of relationship, like the four kinds of action, may
be described by the use of two dichotomies-objective versus pro-
jective, and general versus particular. Objective relationships that
are general include all definitions and concepts-for example, a
triangle, or a house. Any word that denotes a class of objects is
objective because it deals with objects and can be communicated
from one person to another, and is general because it has many
members. On the other hand a particular fact or actual object is not
a class, but a member of a class, and falls in the category of partic-
ular and objective.
These two categories, general objective (concepts) and particular
objective (facts), constitute as it were the software and hardware of
science. The laws and theories of science-its knowledge, its state-
ments of relationship-constitute the general objective category.
On the other hand, empirical experimental science deals with par-
ticulars or facts, such as the position of the moon at a particular
time, or the outcome of a particular experiment. Only when the
experiment is repeated a number of times is it possible to establish
the law.
The mutable signs also include projective relationships, both
general and particular. At first sight it would appear that projective
relationships play no part in science, since science claims to deal
only with what is objective. What then are projective relationships?
In human terms, the values we project on things are projective.
Values are general, even if each of us has our pet likes and dislikes
(I dislike flavored yogurt-even thought there are many flavors of

yogurt I've never tasted). Our dislike applies to a whole class of
objects. Likes and dislikes are subjective; they are not inherent in the
object "out there." But what of the case where a lot of people
project the same value, such as the value of a dollar bill? The value
of the dollar is not objective; it might change alarmingly with
inflation, yet it is the same dollar bill. This is a reason for using the
word "projective." It is just as descriptive as "subjective," but is not
limited to persons, and because it is not so limited we can use
"projective" to cover not only the likes and dislikes that motivate
people, but also the forces of attraction and repulsion that motivate
nature-for example, those that move electrical charges toward
charges of opposite sign or away from charges of similar sign.
The category of particular projective includes purpose, intention,
or goal. Purpose, as a category of explanation, is not used in
scientific analysis because it doesn't tell us how a phenomenon
occurs. Purpose also suggests attributes such as consciousness,
which are inappropriate for inert objects; obviously stones don't
intend to fall. However, it is not at all obvious that purpose plays
no part in organic life; yet biologists don't use the word-for a
good reason. To say that the purpose of DNA is to program the
growth of the cell, does not tell us how it does so.
But the anathema against purpose in science should not be
pushed so far. When we expand science to include cosmology-
how the universe operates-we need some dynamic such as pur-
pose to account for the activity of things. And we cannot consis-
tently apply purpose to human beings if we exclude it altogether
from simpler life forms and from the universe itself.
Let us return to the general projective category, which we said
includes forces. It is interesting to observe how science treats force,
committed as it is to dealing only in what is objective. The scientist
would insist that a force is objective: he can measure it; it is "out
there." But the measurement of a force is invariably accomplished
by comparing it with another force. Thus a scale balances the
weight of an object against a standard: a spring scale measures
weight by the deflection of the spring, which is another force. It is
the comparison that is objective, not the force itself. Earlier I men-
tioned Eddington's comment that force is an "elusive concept." I
would suggest that it is not a concept at all. Concepts are objective;
we communicate them intellectually. Forces arc felt; we must experi-
ence them. As an illustration of the projective nature of forces,


consider what happens when a neutral body (A) is brought close to
a charged body (B). The neutral body becomes polarized, causing a
force of attraction. This "self-induced" charge is projective.
The electrons within the neutral body go to the
side near the charged body. A

Currently science attempts to explain force as

being due to a shower of particles. Many years B
ago, when I read the scientific explanation of air ~ +
pressure as being due to the impact of moving ~ +
particles of air, I was duly impressed. Then it +
turned out that the air particles-molecules of ox-
ygen, nitrogen, and such-are 99.9% pure space, and that the
impact of molecules is not physical contact between solid objects
but an interaction of force fields. Physical contact is an illusion of
our gross sensibilities; forces are the cause. Now we are similarly
asked to believe that hypothetical gravitons explain the attraction of
gravity. Not only is this a reversion to a less sophisticated expla-
nation, but it is an inversion. How could bombardment by grav-
itons attract? If the impact of solid particles is an illusion of sense
experience and not appropriate for explaining air pressure, why
should it be invoked to explain gravity?
But the case for recognizing the projective aspect of reality rests
on more than just the interpretation of force. It is when we come to
the particular projective that the notion that the universe is exclu-
sively objective must surely be abandoned. Science has discovered
an entity that belongs in this category-the quantum of action, or
photon. This is the light we see by; it is also the unit of action that
causes all chemical and physical changes of state. Photons are single
units of action. They may contain any amount of energy, but the
greater the energy the shorter their duration or period, so that the
product of their energy times the associated time is always the same,
a constant-Planck's quantum of action.
This constant, the product of energy times time, is difficult for
the scientist as well as for the layman to comprehend, but it helps
to think of the quantum of action as decision. We cannot decide to
get out of bed one and a half times; we cannot vote one and a half
times. Such decisions or actions illustrate the wholeness that charac-
terizes the photon. Similarly, a decision to go to California might
involve going by jet, car, or perhaps bicycle. However, the shorter
the time, the more energy must be expended. It is provocative,

exciting in fact, to realize that science has discovered this "atom" of
action to be the most fundamental entity of the universe-a uni-
verse which until recently was supposed to be based on material
The photon is not objective because it cannot be observed more
than once. If one person sees it no one else can; in fact, its obser-
vation is its annihilation. Nor can the photon truly be said to exist
before it is detected and annihilated. This has led scientists to de-
scribe the photon as virtual (virtual = being in essence or effect but
not in fact), and to describe a proton as surrounded by a cloud of
virtual photons waiting to be born when the proton suffers a
We are here on the frontier of science, yet l don't think the
layman should panic. lt is a time and an opportunity to correctly
interpret a finding that science, committed as it is to an exclusively
objective explanation, is unable to comprehend. The layman is not
committed to objectivity; he still retains some intuition of freedom
or of a non-physical aspect of being, and hence is better equipped
to deal with what for science has to remain an enigma because it is
not objective. We are dealing with what Zen philosophy is all about:
the photon is not something seen, it is the act of seeing itself, and yet
it is thanks to science that we know its nature.
The reality of the projective need not be as difficult to accept as
it might seem, since the act of seeing-or any act-is not an object;
it is a verb, and a verb only in the present tense. Now a verb in the
present tense can become an object, i.e., a verb in the past tense. l
am writing. When you read what I've written, it will have become
an object: you read what I've written. My writing was a verb in the
present tense. lt then becomes the object of your reading. Your
reading is now in the present tense. The active verb, like the present,
is on the move ... or you might say it stands still and time flows
through it.
This answers the point that science deals only in objective re-
lationship. While science might prefer to take this view, the world
it has discovered requires that other kinds of relationship be recog-
nized as well. In the first place, there are different kinds of objec-
tivity. Particular facts are as different from relationship as eggs are
different from the price of eggs. Then there are non-objective rela-
tionships, such as forces between particles. Last but not least,
science has discovered the quantum of action-alias uncertainty-
for which a more appropriate term might be initiative.

The difference between the verb in the present tense and other
words in a sentence points out how inadequate the scientific picture
of the universe-as consisting only of objects-has become, and
opens the door to a much wider vista of the totality that should be
acknowledged. It is a central dogma of science that the world is
exclusively objective. But the present moment is not only not objec-
tive, it is the only thing that is; whatever else we might suppose to
be real or important. It is our present activity with regard to the
world, even if this be passive observation, that is important. We are
part of the world, a window by which it views itself. But to endorse
this idea strips away everything else-all systems, all our past, all
our future except as it contributes to the present, which is never the
same. No wonder we ignore this mandate or put it in a box labeled
Zen Philosophy or Existentialism.
But the signs of the zodiac already take the importance of action
into account. Recall that the cardinal signs are actions. Similarly the
measure formulae that correlate to these signs are actions: Aries, or
acceleration; Cancer, or velocity, whose true nature is change-or
more precisely being changed; Libra, or position, strictly speaking,
is the observation of a pointer reading-which is an action even
though passive; and finally Capricorn, control, or imposing a
change. As actions they are stripped of material encumbrance. Note
that position and its derivatives-L, L/T, L/T2, and L/T3 -are the
only measure formulae in which M (mass) is absent.
Acceleration Aries Blind Action
Velocity Cancer Change
Position Libra Observation
Control Capricorn Control


In light of our discussion of the cycle of action, with its 4 positions,
let us now place the measure formulae in 12 positions around a
circle. To do so we need rules based on the "dimensions" of the
parameters mass, length, and time. Time we have already given the
angular dimension of 90 degrees, which is dictated by the mutual
independence of position and its derivatives and confirmed by the
fact that four applications takes us back to the start, that is, 360
degrees. Multiplication by time will thus mean moving 90 degrees.

T = 90° Counterclockwise
M = 120°
., I ""-..... ML Momentum
'- '-IJJ
.\" I T
""I '---;ss
I I '- I
Acceleration _I,_ / 1',
T' r=::::-::--1-----f----/--..:.::::J L Position
'/,, /I'
I .t '-, I~
· IJJilss ~'- 11

Velocity ~ 1

L/Ti and L x T occur together because a full circle is 360 degrees

or four times 90 degrees, so T 4 or 1/T4 = 1.
To Mass we assign the value of 120 degrees and to L 30°. Mass
is volume x density; since Volume is L3 we must include another L
to take care of density. Thus we can put Force (Mass X Acceler-
ation) 120 degrees from Acceleration, at 5 o'clock. This will coin-
cide with Leo, the Lion. Momentum, which is the product of Mass
x Velocity, will then coincide with Scorpio at 2 o'clock; Moment,
M x L, will coincide with Aquarius at 11 o'clock; and lastly the
product of Mass x Control is at 8 o'clock, coinciding with Taurus.
What may strike the reader as arbitrary is the angle assigned to
each parameter-that is, 90 degrees to Time, 120 degrees to Mass,
and 30 degrees to Length. The hint for these assignments comes
from the angular relation of the signs; that is, the four elements are
90 degrees to one another, and the three modalities of each
element-mutable, cardinal and fixed-are 120 degrees apart.
That T = 90 degrees is confirmed by the fact that four successive
divisions by time carry one back to the start, i.e., T 4 = 1. Multi-
plication by Mass corresponds to 120 degrees because the embodi-
ments or results of action are states that follow from the action of


the same element, and states (fixed signs) are 120 degrees from
actions (cardinal signs). Thus the spontaneous action of Aries re-
sults in pure being, Leo; the conscious reaction of Libra, obser-
vation, results in significance, Aquarius; the unconscious reaction of
Cancer, imposed change, results in a change of state or trans-
formation, Scorpio; the conscious action of Capricorn results in
practical accomplishment, Taurus.
We are now ready to place the formulae of the last column on the
clock face. The remaining four gaps are filled by multiplying again
by LT if we are to stay in the same element. (Multiplication by L
gives us the right measure formulae but in the wrong row.) Since LT
must be 120 degrees for signs in the same element and T is 90
degrees, then L, as we said, must be 30 degrees. All operations are
in terms of exponents; hence M = 120° = LT = 30° + 90°. With
these assignments of angle to the parameters, T = 90 degrees, M =
120 degrees, and L = 30 degrees, and the further convention that
multiplication ( = addition because we are dealing in exponents) is
counterclockwise, and division ( = subtraction) is clockwise, we can
move about freely and still keep our bearings.
Strictly speaking, there is nothing in the placement of the mea-
sure formulae around a circle that was not implicit in their nature.
What I have done is to find the ultimate dimension of each formula
and express it as an angle; but I would not have thought of the idea
if I had not first encountered it in astrology.


Acceleration f, L Position

Control ~fT


We now have:
L/T2 ML/T2 ML 2/T
Acceleration x Mass = Force x LT= Action
Velocity x Mass = Momentum x LT = Moment of Inertia
L ML ML2 /T3
Position x Mass = Moment x LT= Power
L/T3 or LT ML/T3 ML 2 /T2
Control x Mass = Mass Control x LT = Energy

To obtain successive derivatives we started at position L, at 3

o'clock, and moved clockwise. The learning cycle starts with accel-
:~. eration at 9 o'clock and moves counterclockwise. As we noted
earlier, this process is the opposite of derivation, and is called inte-
gration. Integration was actually recognized before Newton and
Leibniz developed the deriva-
tives, and was used by Galileo
to state the law of falling bod-
ies. As a body falls under con-
stant acceleration it gains ve- vel.
locity; the velocity increases in
proportion to the time. Thus a
graph of velocity increasing
with time is a straight line at an time
How does the distance the body has moved increase? That was
the question Galileo asked.

vel. j distance j

01 2345678


He recognized that the distance increases more rapidly than the
velocity. Think of the time passing in seconds marked as intervals on
the horizontal axis. During each second the distance it moves in-
creases (because its velocity increases), so the distance it has moved
since it started is the sum of the areas of the narrow rectangles. Each
area is one second long with a height equal to the velocity. After 10
seconds the area of all the rectangles is the area of a triangle whose
base is 10 seconds and whose height is the final velocity. The area
of a triangle is 1/2 base x altitude = (v x time)/2. Since the
velocity is proportional to the time, we have L (distance fallen) T 2 /2.
Thus velocity is proportional to time, and is the integral of accel-
eration, and distance is the double integral = T 2/2, represented by
a parabola.This is the path taken by a stone thrown from a high
building. It falls in a parabola.
Newton recognized that the D
moon in going around the earth is

actually falling away from the
straight line it would follow if the
earth were not attracting it.
Because learning is cumulative,
the learning cycle is also a form of
integration, and suggests the
asymmetry of time. Physicists are
tormented by the asymmetry of
0 ~
time and try to support their preference for symmetry by citing the
equations of physics to indicate that time is symmetrical. I don't
agree. Integration in both its literal and figurative meaning is asym-
metrical. It is not even the inverse of differentiation because, when
we differentiate ax + b, say, we get a, and b disappears. If we then
integrate a we get ax, but we cannot recover b.



We should now stand back and try to understand these manipula-

tions with the derivatives. The derivatives of position with respect
to time differ from one another in being independent and orthogo-
nal. When these are multiplied by mass we get a new set, also
differing from one another in that they are orthogonal; but the
contribution of Mass, which distinguishes the first column from
the second, provides a different modality. The difference between
the rows-that is, between the order of the derivatives-is a cate-
gory shift, like the difference between a class and its members. But
the difference contributed by mass is more elusive. It's as difficult to
conceptualize as the difference between present and future.
Science doesn't attempt to define Mass; it is one of the three basic
parameters or undefined terms of which the other two are position
(or length) ,and time, which we have taken for granted in discussing
the derivatives. We too could take Mass for granted, but to get the
most out of our correlation of the measure formulae with the signs
of the zodiac it is worthwhile to give it some thought. What then is
Max Jammer, an eminent physicist, has written a number of
books on the history of physics, among them Concepts of Mass in
Classical & Modern Physics (Harvard University Press, 1961 ). Jam-
mer traces the concept of mass back through Einstein and Newton,
all the way back to the Holy Communion-The Mass-a ceremony
based on the doctrine of transubstantiation, by which the body and
blood of Christ are conveyed to the recipient.

This mass, then, whatever it be, transforms acceleration into
force, gives it embodiment, as it were. Correlation with astrology
translates this as Aries, blind outrush, transformed into Leo, or
being. Leo is the sign ruled by the sun, and is thought to represent
the sun because the lion's mane suggests the sun's radiation.
Similarly velocity (change) multiplied by mass yields momentum.
To astrology this is Cancer to Scorpio, translated as change to

Position multiplied by mass yields moment, Libra to Aquarius, '
translated as observation to significance. In physics, moment is
leverage; with its help we can move a large rock many times our
weight. But the notion of leverage can be applied more generally.
The president of a corporation, due to his position, has more le-
,,ii verage; his opinion has more significance than that of others in the
!'.!: company. We also use the expression, "things of great moment."
q;l Note the differences. In the fire signs the result of pure action is
1::1 "being": the child does things for their own sake. In the air signs the
observer is interested in significance. Both air and fire are noumenal,
the world of being. The same operation in the water signs, trans-
::;: formation as the result of change, is phenomenal, the world of
,,,f becoming. Also phenomenal is the last row, earth, where we have
'I:. control, Capricorn, multiplied by mass to yield establishment,
Taurus. A translation into physics here is not possible because phys-
( ics generally ignores the measure formulae associated with volition.
Let us now look at the mutable signs. Thought of as stimuli to the
action of the cardinal signs, they should be put first; that is, we
should move column 3 ahead of column 1. This will make it easier
to show the interrelations involved.
Mutables are relationships, and since it requires an area to ex-
press relationship, as in a map or drawing, it is significant that the
measure formulae containing L2 correlate to the mutable signs.
Thus the Quantum of Action, ML 2 /T, depends on the area of the
electron orbit as distinct from its radius. In the formula for Moment
of Inertia, ML2, one L is tangential and the other radial, again
suggesting area. In the formulae for Power and Energy, the L2 is the
cross-sectional area of the functioning part, e.g., piston, wire, pipe,


·----- - ---~-·
Stimulus Response Result
Relationship Action State

FIRE ML 2 /T L/T 2 ML/T 2

j Quantum of Action Acceleration Force
Hunch, Intuition Blind Action Being
\ Sagittarius Aries Leo
Moment of Inertia Velocity Momentum
Belief Change Transformation
Pisces Cancer Scorpio
Power Position Moment
Knowledge Observation Significance
Gemini Libra Aquarius
EARTH ML 2 /T 2 L/T 3 or LT ML/T3
Energy Control Establishment
Work, Fact Control Establishment
Virgo Capricorn Taurus
Air and Earth are objective; Fire and Water are projective.
Fire and Air are noumenal; Water and Earth are phenomenal.
Water and Air are general; Fire and Earth are particular.

Let us now consider the mutables for their contribution as we

have already done for the fixed signs, where mass gave embodiment
to the four kinds of action.
First Row: Hunch or intuition is the "stimulus" for blind action,
and results in pure being, play. In physics the quantum of action is
first cause; it is responsible for all exchanges between atoms, mole-
cules, and perhaps cells, as well as for the creation of particle pairs
(proton and antiproton). It is also responsible for all our sensa-
tions-sight, taste, and so on.
Second Row: Faith (Pisces) is that which keeps us going in the
absence of other support. In physics this is Inertia, defined as the
tendency to remain in a given state of rest or motion. When multi-
plied (operated upon) by change it leads to transformation. The
element here is water, that is, emotions, which are not an end in
themselves but can lead to transformation.

Third Row: Knowledge or data (Gemini) is the relation between
facts. In physics this corresponds to Power ("Knowledge is power").
Gemini the twins, or similarity of relationship, leads to theories and
laws, ultimately to significance. The repeatable experiment is of
major importance in science; but the data have to be observed
(Libra), and the purpose of observation is to discover significance
Fourth Row: Energy, which is equivalent to work, is necessary to
obtain facts. The word fact comes from facio, to do. Facts are the
antecedent to control. For example, when the doctor makes a diag-
nosis he draws on the particular facts which apply to his patient-
lab tests, symptoms, and so forth. On the basis of these facts he
prescribes the treatment (control) and this results in the cure. (The
1,i;, sign Rx used to designate a prescription originally meant "I have
!:!1: read your astrological chart," also known as a "radix-~").
••:1: Note the difference between the earth trine (fourth row) and the
1::r: air trine (third row). The latter has to do with laws or principles-in
medicine with the rules for treatment of a disease or other illness.
The earth signs have to do with what disease the patient has, with
:i;: diagnosis. It adds a further constraint on the doctor; he must
not only know what treatment is appropriate for each disease, he
::;:: must discover what disease. This is discrimination as distinct from

l.1 knowledge.
"' Let us now look at the four mutable signs together, much as we
'.H looked at the cardinal signs as phases in the learning cycle. One of
!1:l Synthesis

Thesis ------+-------. Antithesis



the contributions of the philosopher Hegel was the notion of thesis-
antithesis-synthesis. Represented diagramatically, thesis and antith-
esis are opposed, with synthesis on the perpendicular axis. Since
thesis and antithesis are opposite there must also be something
opposite synthesis. This could be analysis. With this addition we
can now insert the signs that correlate with this fourfold.
The issue is not so much whether the thesis or the antithesis is
correct; both are beliefs. But their synthesis will depend on finding
out the facts. This requires analysis. Pisces, the two fishes tied to-
gether and pulling different ways, typifies beliefs-two coming out
of two. Virgo, the virgin birth, is one out of one- an emphasis on
the particularity of facts, their pertinence in matters of dispute.
Gemini is relationship; as the twins it is two out of one (mother) as
against the opposite sign Sagittarius, the centaur shooting an arrow.
The centaur has the body of a horse and the torso of a man, so the
arrow is one coming out of two, i.e., synthesis.

;,?' Sagittarius

:n: Analysis

Another way to look at the four mutable signs is as four kinds of

relationship. We can correlate Gemini with the relation of a thing to
itself. Thus a triangle is a figure made by joining three points not on
the same line.

For pictorial reasons I

have put Gemini on
the right, the self
(projective) on the left.


Such is the objective definition or concept of something. On the
other hand we may observe particular facts about a particular tri-
angle; it may be dented or bent or have other characteristics which
could be evidence that it's not a triangle. This seems trivial but can
be a major issue. The balls in the bearing of a jet engine have to be
perfect to within one ten-thousandth of an inch; the surface of a lens
for a large telescope must be even more exact. These properties of
the object are in a different category from the theoretical relation-
ships that define it. The latter constitute a theoretical ideal (Gemini),
whereas the facts (Virgo) describe individuals.
A third category of relationship, corresponding to Pisces, in-
cludes what the self projects on the object. This would include
value, like or dislike, as well as other emotional associations, such
.,11 ,1
as beauty.
::i1:; A fourth category of relationship, Sagittarius, includes the pur-
pose of the object. Thus a chair is something to sit on. While not
1::r: inherent in the object, it is nonetheless the purpose of any man-
made object that brought it into existence-Aristotle's final cause.
Living objects have their own purpose. Rather than defend this
~: :: controversial issue here, however, let us simply recognize purpose as
.., .. represented in the measure formulae by angular momentum and the
.... quantum of action.
::1: The emphasis of science on objectivity is perhaps the great contribu-
\!·,,, tion of Western culture. In no previous civilization has there been
:;!! such total dedication to objective facts and objective relationship.
But this emphasis on objectivity of method has led to the dogma
"II that the universe is exclusively objective, much as Hindu philosophy
J. led to the dogma that the world is illusion. Neither belief can be
correct since, if the world is objective, it has to be objective to
something, and if subjective it still must involve the distinction
between true and false.
In any case the assumption that the universe is exclusively objec-
tive is a belief, and belief is projective,-one of the two kinds of
projective relationship we have just described.
But how can we show the significance of these measure formulae,
the derivatives of energy, by adhering strictly to their meaning for

science? When we showed the relevance of position and its deriva-
tives to human faculties, we had to begin with acceleration-in
contrast to the scientist who begins with position or pointer read-
ings and works back to find the cause of what is observed.
We can also work back here in the sense that the scientific
method begins with facts and derives theories to relate facts. But this
already assumes the interpretation of energy as "fact." So let us not
interpret the formula-it is ML 2 /T2, period. The derivative of
energy, step 2, is the rate of doing work, or power, ML 2 /T 3 • If the
power of a light bulb is 100 watts, the energy it consumes depends
on how long we use it, watt-hours, which is what the electric com-
pany bills us for.
The next derivative is moment of inertia, ML 2 /T4, but since T 4 =
4 x 90 degrees = 360 degrees, T 4 is unity and is omitted from the
formula for inertia, ML 2 • What is its physical meaning? Inertia
changes the discontinuous power of an engine (derived from a series
of explosions) to a smooth flow. This inertia, contributed by the
flywheel and the weight of the car, governs or controls power.
The next derivative, change of inertia, is action, the quantum of
action. This is the most difficult of the relationships to understand;
its import has been responsible for the change from classical to
quantum physics, so permit me to indulge in another metaphor. We
observed earlier that the quantum of action is like a decision in that
it is a whole; one cannot make one and a half decisions. It is also like
a decision in that it changes our inertia; action is the derivative of
inertia, ML 2 divided by T. And since the quantum of action is
responsible for all changes of state in atoms and molecules, and thus
ultimately for all changes of state, action is very important. Again,
the atom cannot radiate energy unless there is a change of area in
the electron orbit. The quantum of action is change of area with
respect to time. (ML 2 is area multipled by mass.)
The sequence consisting of energy and its derivatives constitutes
a circle of four relationships (just as position and its derivatives
constitute a circle of four types of action). What is the difference
between these successive derivatives? The answer is that work or
energy is only specified in particular instances. In October your
electric bill was $50 for a certain amount of energy used during that
month. It is different each month. The power rating of the lights,
appliances and so forth remains constant; it does not change from
month to month. Power, therefore, having one less constraint than

energy, has a degree of freedom; it is a definition of latent capacity.
What is "behind" power, ML 2 /T 3 (its derivative)? This would be
one's bank account-also a latent capacity, but even less restricted
than the power of the appliances, in that money is a liquid asset as
against the fixed assets, the appliances, which have specific func-
tions. There is therefore an even greater freedom in the bank
account-in the second derivative of energy, ML 2 • The bank ac-
count does change from month to month, but the uses to which the
money is put are completely free. One more step takes us to the
quantum of action, ML 2 /T. Since this is also the quantum of uncer-
tainty it cannot be subject to any constraint or measure. It would
correspond to our option of how to spend our money. We cannot
measure photons (quanta of light) without annihilating them. Re-
.. ,,/ call Heisenberg's discovery that the measurement of an electron's
"\• position disturbed its momentum (and vice versa) but still left the
"... ,.,
,,.. ,>'
electron intact. The measurement of a photon leaves nothing; its

;l, uncertainty is total.
~i We are now in a position to appreciate the astrological inter-
<:,'' pretation of action as Sagittarius, the centaur shooting an arrow.
;1 This symbol expresses precisely the function of the quantum of
._i..,, action, action at a distance. Despite the revolution in thought of
quantum physics, action at a distance remains an enigma. The sym-
bol also conveys the more general notion of speculation, because
() speculation, both in money and in philosophy, deals with the
~~· unknown-chance, the improbable, luck. We have shown that the
quantum of action is not subject to the constraints involved in the
c1:: other three measure formulae. These constraints are maximum in
~!·· energy, which can only be measured for particular tasks, that is, by
.. .,i
three constraints.
The findings of quantum physics tell us that when we measure an
electron the measurement is subject to an inevitable uncertainty; the
ip:·1· electron is unpredictable. Such unpredictability is equivalent to the
freedom of the object. We can insist that such freedom is just a
random motion and devoid of further significance, but when this
uncertainty is embodied in a living creature-a mosquito, a mouse,
a man with a gun-the uncertainty is elevated into intention, and
we must acknowledge its implications. The equivalence of uncer-
tainty and freedom or choice can be seen in that both uncertainty
and choice have a range. The measure appropriate to this range is
angle-either direction in space (where to go) or choice of timing

(when to buy stock). Timing is essentially phase or angle; the ex-
pression "What's your angle?" illustrates the intuitive recognition
of angle as ultimate reference. Both the signs of the zodiac and the
measure formulae as placed on a circle of 360 degrees are angles, or
divisions of a whole.
Now to return to freedom of choice: by correlating choice with
timing or phase, and hence with angle, we give it that freedom it
deserves but do not endow it with powers that it does not have. It
was the substitution of purpose for explanation that gave purpose
a bad name in science. The essence of aim, purpose or uncertainty
is that it is potential. Of course the gun owes its effectiveness to
proper construction, and to the chemical action of the powder in the
bullet; but aim is also important. The importance of aim is that it
initiates process; pulling the trigger is but one of the series of me-
chanical links between brain and bullet, and is subsequent to aim.
We couldn't aim the gun after the trigger was pulled.
We can endow action, then, with what could be called zero
dimensionality, implying that it is without extension and prior to
the dimensions of time and space, and also that its range is the
complete circle of 360 degrees-any direction. Just as the measure
of certainty in a lens is the smallness of the angle between two points
between which it can discriminate, so uncertainty is the largeness of
that angle. Maximum uncertainty is thus the largest possible angle,
360 degrees or 27T.

Harlow Shapley, in an article in Zygon published just before his
death, said that the parameters of science-mass, length, and time,
which are the bases of all the measure formulae-are inadequate;
give no hint of life or consciousness, nor do they suggest the drive
of evolution. He urged that a new parameter which would provide
this drive was needed.
I had myself looked for this extra parameter for years before 1
recognized that it was already in science but had been overlooked.
It is the whole of which mass, length and time are divisions. A
number of measure formulae include all three of these parameters,
six in fact-Energy, Power and Action in column 1 (p. 25), and
Momentum, Force and Establishment in the last column. Only one
of these comes in whole units. This is Action, and can be considered

as the whole whose division creates the others. Thus h (the quantum
of action) = E x time, and energy in turn can be divided into mass
and length. We thus assign the whole circle to action, and so the
divisions of action are divisions of the circle.
Such division, as we have seen, assigns 90 degrees of angle to
time, 120 degrees to mass, and 30 degrees to length. It turns out by
this system that energy has angular measure zero:
Energy = ML2/T 2 = 120° + 2 x 30° - 2 x 90° = 0°
had expected it would be action that would have zero as its
angular measure, but this turned out to be energy, with action as T
or timing.
ML 2 /T = 120° + 2 x 30° - 90° = 90°
This fits choice and may more correctly describe the positive con-
:,., tribution of the quantum of action, but I did not anticipate it; and
~' I have not been able to find any alternative assignment that works.
One more point remains to be answered: Why does the quantum
•< : of action have a freedom or uncertainty of 360 degrees? This is
u because it is itself a cycle, in the literal sense of something going
around a circle. In physics, the unit of action sometimes used is Ii or
{2~· h/2 7T. The 2 7T in this formula indicates the cyclic nature of the
l, Quantum of Action. Thus we have time or timing measured as it is
0 on a clock, or even before clocks, as a fraction of a rotation-a day,
'~· a year, or as with the Hindu tradition, a day in the life of Brahma,
~r:1 4,320,000,000 years.
~ !Ri

We have described the measure formulae as four sets of three-
·r astrologically, as the four elements, fire, water, air and earth. In
addition we have described the measure formulae of columns 1 and
2 of the chart-the former as energy and its derivatives, the latter
as position and its derivatives. We can now describe the formulae in
column 3. While these are more difficult than the others, we haYe
shown how they come about from the four types of action by some
sort of embodiment or incorporation.
Thus force, mass times acceleration, leads to being-or play-
resulting from an unimpeded or spontaneous action. This is not just
the child playing; it can be the playing of an instrument by a great


., ----·-
performer, the role of the actor in a play, any enactment or perform-
ance for its own sake, as in playing games.
Momentum, mass times velocity, leads to transformation. This is
the result or fruit of change. It seems odd that a fixed sign should
deal with change, but the word fixed here has the same meaning it
has in the process of developing photographic film. The image im-
pressed on the sensitized film is first placed in the developer (change
or velocity), then in the -fixing solution, to make the change per-
manent. In strictly scientific terms, we have the production of force
by the momentum of a hammer. To put this even more vividly, the
blacksmith forges the hot iron on an anvil, a very heavy and hard
base. The hammer, moving perhaps 30 feet per second and weigh-
ing, say, 10 pounds, strikes the piece to be forged. Let us suppose
that it compresses the steel 1/10 of an inch with each blow. A rough
estimate shows that the force so exerted is about 40,000 pounds.
The iron or steel is transformed into a sword or a suit of armor. This
is not so far from other uses of the word "transform." (Metamor-
phosis is another example of change of state.)
Moment, mass times position, leads to leverage. I think we have
already filled this in clearly enough, but we might again savor the
difference between Aquarius, an air sign, and Scorpio, the water
sign, or both with Taurus, the earth sign:
Mass x Control = Establishment
The image for the latter might be an elephant standing on a small
table, or Unus standing on one finger while each leg and his unused
arm whirls a hoop.


The sequence in the common /
/ ~
four-cycle automobile engine is: JI '\ Intake
Intake of air (Air) begins
Compression (Earth)
Explosion (Fire)
Exhaust (Water) begins
\ I
"-.. .,,,/

If we assign these functions to the appropriate signs, they occur in
the natural or counterclockwise sequence. It is difficult to find the
inverse or clockwise order occurring in nature, but one that comes
to mind is the growth of grapes to produce brandy:
Planting (Earth)
Growth & fruit (Air)
Fermenting wine (Water)
Distillation of spirits (Fire)
The natural order is that of the signs, of the seasons, and it corre-
sponds to integration. It is also that of the learning cycle. The
opposite order is application.
To understand the threefold, it helps to think of the mutable,
....,. cardinal and fixed as past, present and future-a variant of the
-. stimulus, response and result referred to earlier. The threefold in
;.: turn gives formal status to the asymmetry of time, and could relieve
the discomfort of scientists who feel obliged to think of time as

symmetrical because certain formulas give no indication of time's
arrow. We have made a distinction between projective and objective

~ Stimulus Response Result
ll Relationship Action State
FIRE I ML 2 /T L/T 2 ML/T 2
, .. Quantum of Action
Hunch, Intuition
Blind Action
Sagittarius Aries Leo
lJ.il Moment of Inertia Velocity Momentum
~ Belief Change Transformation
Pisces Cancer Scorpio
Power Position Moment
Knowledge Observation Significance
Gemini Libra Aquarius
EARTH I ML2/T 2 L/T1 or LT ML/T1
Energy Control Establishment
Work, Fact Control Establishment
Virgo Capricorn Taurus


relationships, and stressed the difficulty of conceptualizing belief, of
"seeing" an emotion. Since emotion is subjective (projective) and
concept is objective, they are two different logical categories. But
both are relationship, and can be referred to, talked about, and
hence in a broader sense are objective. So too is the past, whereas
the present moment, which is an act even if passive, and the future
which doesn't yet exist, cannot be objective. Of course we can say
tomorrow I will have breakfast just as I did today; but such regular
repetition is not what the future contributes. A still picture, a map,
can portray what is or was. It cannot portray what will be.
In order to proceed, we need to review the table we presented
earlier (see p. 34 ).


To get from one column to the next, i.e., acceleration to force
(middle of row 1), we multiply by mass, and to go the next step,
from force to action (angular momentum), we multiply by L x T.
We multiply by 1/MLT to get from action back to acceleration. This
is true for each row, so we need only one diagram.

Acceleration ,f,

While Mass, LT, and 1/MLT have the same dimension, 120
degrees, they do not have the same meaning. Thanks to Jammer we
got some hint of what mass might be. The fact that we think we
know what mass is, i.e., its literal meaning, doesn't help understand
what "significance" is, because the literal mass that produces
force-i.e., our weight-is not the same as the "mass" that makes
an observation significant. If embodiment of acceleration produces
force, and embodiment of observation produces significance, we

still have no inkling of what it is that transforms force to angular
momentum, or the quantum of action. But let's cheat a little. The
sign Leo (correlate of force) is ruled by the sun, and the natural
propensity of the sun is to radiate photons. But would we expect
something opposite the sun to throw off "significons"? Put in these
terms, we should mind what we invert. The sign Aquarius, the water
bearer pouring water from heaven, is opposite the sun in its func-
tion, in that it is centripetal whereas the sun is centrifugal-focus as
compared with radiation. In the British emblem, the lion with its
mane splaying out is posed opposite the unicorn, with its two horns
twisted to a point.
Whatever it is that converts force to photons must also convert
significance to knowledge or power, transformation to belief, and
....... establishment to work. This is length x time (L x T) and can be
t thought of as duration; that is, time with something added to pro-
vide the quality it lacks as measured time. If I think of eating (it's
now time for lunch), I am going from a state (hunger, column 3) to


the pertinent stimulus, food (column 1). What makes me do so? The
passage of time invested with longing (L x T). That helps explain
-- what I meant by the mutables all having L2; L2 is area, food as
C "idea," a status it retains until it is eaten. I admit this is far fetched,
~ but I'm trying to interpret a language that has not been translated.
LI The last 120-degree relation, which carries from angular momen-
0 tum (column 1) to acceleration (column 2), from food to eating, is
f- 1/MLT. Because it is division it takes away what was added in the
,,, previous two steps, and we are left with action, which has to be in
..., the present. The past is what we have done, but it needs to be
·,~ objectified in order that we can be in the present, or act in the
..... present. This objectification of the stimulus leads to action and
..i.l could be that L2 that we mentioned as necessary to definition. Ap-
~ plied to the formulae in column 1, knowledge and fact are already
But what about belief? A belief while not objective per se can be
recognized or acknowledged as a postulate. The axiom of Euclid
that parallel lines never meet was considered a self evident truth
until Reimann and others introduced the notion of curved space.
This raised doubts about other "self evident truths" and led to the
current view that many if not all basic axioms are beliefs, that is,
postulates. Applied in the present context, if we can recognize that
a belief is an assumption rather than a self evident truth, we can
undergo the process that results in transformation. As for hunch or


intuition, we are in a different situation altogether. We say, "I acted
on hunch," as though there were a cause and effect, but if it were
a case of spontaneous combustion we might be hard put to separate
cause from effect. Taking a hint from astrology, we are here in the
element fire, and hence outside of space and time and consequently
spontaneous though we still have sequence.
A physical example is firing a bullet. The explosion of the percus-
sion cap ignites the charge which propels the bullet. The ignition is
almost instantaneous; ignition - explosion - force. The force
"motivates" the bullet, giving it velocity and thus momentum, re-
sponsible for its destructive power. There are thus two sequences,
fire and water, the latter correlating to the manifestation in physical
terms, i.e., the propulsion of the bullet. A human example for the
fire triad would be a child playing-spontaneous self expression;
but as we said it could be any creative expression, such as a play, or
even an advertisement especially intended to motivate interest in a
product, sympathy for a cause, or another reaction, leading to a
change of state-the water triad. The latter manifests in physical
terms and requires time.
This provides a further distinction to describe the triads in differ-
ent elements, for the air triad from information through observation
to significance takes longer than the emotional triad, and the earth
triad takes even longer. For example, diagnosis - prescription -
cure may take months or years.


Acceleration L/T 2 Aries Blind Action
Establishment ML/T3 Taurus Establishment
Power ML 2 /T 3 Gemini Knowledge
Velocity L/T Cancer Change
Force ML/T 2 Leo Being
Energy ML 2 /T2 Virgo Work, Fact
Position L Libra Observation
Momentum ML/T Scorpio Transformation
Quantum of Action ML 2 /T Sagittarius Hunch, Intuition
Control L/T 3 or LT Capricorn Control
Moment ML Aquarius Significance
Moment of Inertia ML 2 Pisces Belief


The neatest trick of modern physics was achieved by Eddington in

his unification of relativity and quantum physics. (See Eddington 's
Fundamental Theory, pp. 46-47, Cambridge University Press edi-
tion.) According to Eddington, ordinary space is described as a
sphere, 4/3 1rR3 • When we include uncertainty we multiply this by
21r, a circle or an added circularity. This is equally true at the
quantum or at the cosmic level, and is not dependent on size (size
is given by the value of R). However, we must also include what
Eddington called limitation of scale, a factor of 3/4. I interpret this
as meaning that we limit what could be called outgoingness and
begin to deal with ingoingness. We then have
,. 3/4 X 21r X 4/3 1rR3 = 21r 2R 3
•' ..
~- which is the formula for the Einstein-Eddington hypersphere. It 1s
also the formula for the torus with an infinitely small hole, which I
have dealt with in The Reflexive Universe.
The torus is a vortex which has two directions of rotation, hor-
izontal and vertical, and is a likely candidate for the "form" of a
..'• photon. This is a different subject and beyond the scope of this
work, but its relevance to the measure formulae is that it might help
~ when we are ready to go deeper into the nature of the "circle of
0 meaning" which may be a two-dimensional shadow or projection of
;.. something more complex.
L~ But how does this insertion of 21r unify relativity and quantum
physics? It does so by equating the curvature of space-time with the
curvature of uncertainty. Both the universe and the photon are
;z: going through a cycle-very short for the quanta of action ex-
::i changed by atoms and molecules, and very long for the universe.
Our human time span is about midway between. The curvature of
~ the universe is its closing in on itself, its expansion and contraction.
its breathing, its inspiring and expiring. But everything goes through
its cycle, the shorter encompassed by the larger, as the day is encom-
passed by the year. Einstein was unable to unify relativity and
quantum theory because he was looking for a "field." A field is
two or more dimensional, whereas the unification contributed by
Eddington is at a more fundamental level-that of rotation, or zero


The meaning of uncertainty as a complete circle is that what
happens, or is made to happen, within this circle is indeterminate
until the circle is complete. Our consciousness is only as large as our
lifetime, and can be no shorter (for humans) than, say, the beta
rhythm. When we hear a sound less than 16 beats per second, or see
a movie less than 16 frames per second, it is not recognized as
sound, or as motion.
In other words, we equate a lifetime, no matter on what scale, to
the cycle of action. The phases of this cycle, of which the learning
cycle is an example, give rise to the varieties of meaning involved in
a time period, whether their expression be spontaneous, conscious,
active or reactive. Perhaps the key idea is that when by the addition
of the 21r we equate curvature with uncertainty, with freedom, or
with the quantum of action, we introduce consciousness and mean-
ing as active principles making
the universe take on life. The re-
versal of expansion which the
physicist talks of is not just a col-
lapse of the universe into a black
hole, as it is sometimes envi-
sioned, but is its coming to life, a
return to the unmanifest with the
fruit of what has been gained, an
ingathering or harvest. The scythe
that cuts down the standing wheat
also gathers in the ripened grain.
There are thus two circularities-one spatial, the sphere, and the
other the 21r that gives expression to time and, because time is
cumulative, to meaning.
The hypersphere, which is the volume of space and time, 21r 2 R3,
shows size as Ri. Where is time? Space, which can be any size, is the
1rR3 part (strictly 4/3 1rR3, or spherical volume); time is the other
21r which is not, like space, a measurable extension, but is rather a
completion-completion of a life cycle, an era. We speak of the age
of the universe, implying a process which has a natural terminus,
some kind of life and death. We would never think of space as
having a terminus. So it is that there is no T in the formula for the
hypersphere. Yet the accepted derivation of this formula involves
integration over all time! The complete integration of time, then,

makes time disappear, much as when a period of time is over-a
day, a year, a century-the time of it has no meaning. Thus time
rolls on; day follows day, year follows year. The cycle repeats
We are now ready to appreciate the 3/4 that Eddington slipped
in. When we go around a circle, 271', or 360 degrees, we end where
we started. We cannot tell how many days have passed from the
clock; we would require another slower clock to count the time of
year. The 3/4 must be brought in when we add the extra circularity
to the sphere. We must not go all the way around the circle; if we
do we will just repeat. Instead we stop at the 3/4 point.



, I

1 .------'

3 7 5


!.) 6

0 Recall that this is the point in the learning cycle that corresponds
to control. If we were to go on to 1 again we would start a new
cycle. If we are to stop, or rather if we are not to go past 4, we must
turn back, which reverses the direction of rotation and converts the
learning cycle to a cycle of application. Admittedly this is conjec-
z ture, or is a mere heuristic interpretation of what the hypersphere
::i really is. I do not know; I am groping for an explanation not just of
:t how the universe is, but of why it is. But if we follow the reasoning
... that explains the learning cycle as four steps taken in one direction
and then reversing direction, the reversed cycle will take three more
steps-5, 6, 7-to get back to the start. As an example, we learn to
play tennis-how to hold the racquet, hit the ball, and so on. Then
we play tennis. We have educated our instinctive reaction and ac-
tion, the two first steps which are unconscious, but which now, due
to training and practice, can be depended upon to perform correctly.
The steps in the play then start when we see the ball coming (con-
scious reaction), we move into position (unconscious reaction) and
hit the ball (unconscious action).


decide on action

get in position

Of course in play we are also learning, and we need this practice

continually to remain in top form, but the ultimate goal is to so train
our unconscious action that it can be totally trusted.
All other skills have this "anatomy," involving seven distinct
steps, which begin and end with spontaneous action.


The so-called coloring problem confirms this sevenness. To color a

map on the surface of a sphere requires no more than four colors
(the four-color problem); but the torus, which is the shape of the
figure whose formula is 21r2R3, requires seven colors. I asked
Eugene Wigner, a prominent physicist, if it was known that the
formula for the hypersphere is the same as that for the torus; he
answered that it had not been recognized. A mathematician, Chris
Clarke, admitted that the formula was the same, but stated that the
hypersphere was not the same shape as a torus, though he could not
say what the difference was.
Mathematicians generally
think of the curvature of space-
time as trumpet-shaped (some-
times it is saddle-shaped, but
I believe the more sophisti-
cated interpretation is trumpet-
shaped). What does this mean?
First it means that locally the
two curvatures (one for each of
the two Pi's) are orthogonal and in opposite directions.

But this leaves the ends of the lines unspecified, and I would expect
that they must be permitted to extend to infinity.

Such space would extend to infinity both upward and horizontally.
' Now, if we make a modification as in projective geometry, in which
infinity becomes a point, we "close" this open space and still pre-
serve its trumpet shape. That is, we imagine the horizontal part
going up and around to meet the vertically extending peak .
. ,



.:t"' This is not just a rigid grid but a form of motion. It is the vortex,
tornado, magnetic field-a form so universal that it is the most
natural candidate for a universe.
This exposition regarding the hypersphere may seem a digression
from the subject of this essay, which was to show the similarity
between the measure formulae and the signs of the zodiac.
However, it is justified in that it adds meaning to the circle as a cycle,
and supports the correlation of circularity with the cycle of action.
Science might dismiss this "anthropomorphic" reference, es-
pecially to a cycle as a learning cycle, preferring to say that it is


merely another way of measuring. I have a chart before me turned
out by a computer. It gives the Julian day (the number of days since
4461 B.C.) as 2417152.92682-a number which may be quite
accurate from the measurement point of view, but one singularly
barren of significance. And it is not free of a cyclic (anthro-
pomorphic) reference, since it is in "days." Where was time before
there were days? Maybe there wasn't any.

There are two points to mention before concluding this essay.
1. What we have done is to show that both the measure formulae
and the signs of the zodiac are derived by division of the circle. The
circle is the symbol of the whole. Measurement applies to attributes,
and the assignment of measures to angle implies that since each
measure is partial, i.e., a part of the whole, then two or more
complementary measures are required in any complete account.
Thus position and momentum are complementary; so too are en-
ergy and time.

Mass Control


It will be found that there are four more such complementary

products-control x force, moment x velocity, inertia x power,
and acceleration x mass control. All these products produce action.
Action exists in quanta, or wholes. Therefore, as I said earlier,
action can be regarded as the whole whose division produces the
measures we employ. Since all the measure formulae are combina-
tions of the three parameters, then mass, time and length as well as
combinations of them are created by the division of this cosmic egg,
the quantum of action, which is the true atom. The material atom
does not truly conform to the definition of atom as an "indivisible

unit." The photon does comply with this requirement, so by this
criterion too it is the atom in the sense of the ultimate constituent.
Since action is one of the formulae it is on the periphery, but
it is also the origin of the rest and hence the center of the circle,
which is actually not a circle but the cross section of a torus whose
origin is also on the periphery.





., A sphere can be described as a circle rotated about an axis
passing through its center. But this is a special case; if the axis is
outside the circle, the result is a torus, and if the axis is tangent, the

torus has an infinitely small hole. Since in nature there is a limit to

smallness as well as to largeness, the hole is the quantum of action.
2. While these geometrical facts have profound implications,
z'j their pursuit would take us away from our subject. So let us confine
ourselves to what is pertinent. This is that the circle whose division
.:* creates a vocabulary of meaning is also an expression of time-or
we could say it represents time and interprets time as cyclic. This is
a very old idea, and no longer in fashion, no doubt due to the fact
that cyclic time suggests endless repetition and hence monotony. But
the repetitions we do experience-the 24-hour day and night, the
seasons of the year, youth and age-are not monotonous, and even
if they are it is not because time is made up of days and years.
Further, we can always think of the repetition of the time period as
a spiral; but this spiral can in turn make a larger spiral, and repeti-
tion becomes an indication of what we are finished with. It makes


it possible to devote more attention to the larger cycle which has not
yet repeated, our lifetime. Cyclic time in fact makes it possible for
time to integrate and to be significant.
Now it is possible to define meaning as arising from angle-180
degrees being opposition, 90 degrees being mediation or meaning,
and so forth. But this is still a static description. The richer meaning
is provided by sequence, as in the learning cycle, which occurs in
time. Here perhaps the resemblance between science and astrology
ceases. Science thinks of its laws as essentially timeless; it doesn't
quite know what to do with entropy, which goes down, or with
evolution, which goes up. Astrology on the other hand can over-
emphasize time in that its prognostications are equated to fate. But
neither interpretation of time is warranted by the zodiac, or even by
the measure formulae as completed by the addition of the third
derivatives. In fact with the acknowledgment of the third deriva-
tives, including action which can be thought of as the third deriva-
tive of energy, we have, if not the basis for the science of life, at least
an invitation to live.
Perhaps the true message of spiritual teachings is not that we
should worship, but that we should not worship idols. Both science
and astrology generate idols-science can idolize determinism,
astrology can idolize fate-but such idolatry in both cases rests on
the omission of first cause which is our freedom-represented in the
measure formulae as the quantum of action and in the zodiac by




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