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Shifting from ‘P’
and ‘T’ to ‘C’ and
President Obama’s
visit to India
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No. 12
‘E’ factor It was a much awaited
CHIEF EDITOR Obama’s visit to India is visit as normally the visit
Vivek S Raj historic and also of the President of the
inspiring. India must United States of America
ASSOCIATE EDITOR understand the degree to India tends to be. What
Vinita S Raj of flexibility in US foreign policy and overall made it even more important was the backdrop of
approach towards their economic imperatives. The major shifts in the relations between the world’s
EDITOR AND BUREAU CHIEF superpower has shown ... two largest ...
R K Singh, Ex-civil Servant
EDITOR (HON.) Page 06 Page 08
Dr. Apporva 19 CSAT PREPARATION: CSAT: Beginning of a new chapter Only change is permanent
ASSISTANT EDITOR 22.  Organ Trafficking: Lacunas in the 24.  Role of the Union Public Service Commi-
Law and Respective Solutions ssion in ensuring Good Governance
Vishi S Raj
Manish Singh, Prof. R K Singh, CLIMATE CHANGE
BIODIVERSITY 66.  Conservation Reserves
M.S. Yadav, Rohini Sarkar, 44.  Faunal diversity 67.  Botanical Survey of India (BSI)
Nitesh Khabrani 44.  Floral diversity 68.  Geological Survey of India (GSI)
Subscription Queries: 09871220001 44.  Angiosperms 68.  Forest Survey of India (FSI)
44.  Gymnosperms 69.  Forests diversity
44.  Pteridophytes 69.  Forest Policy
45.  Bryophytes 70.  National Forest Academy (IGNFA)
AGGRAWAL NEWS AGENCY: SHIVAJI STA- 45.  Crop genetic diversity 70.  Project Tiger
DIUM, NEW DELHI, 9810703008 47.  Livestock genetic diversity 71.  Community Reserves
JAGDISH BOOK DEPOT: BER SARAI COMMU- 47.  Fish genetic diversity 72.  World Bank and Project Tiger
NITY CENTRE, NEW DELHI, PH. NO. 26961421. 48.  Mountain diversity 72.  Project Elephant
CENTRAL NEWS AGENCY PVT LTD 48.  Magnitude of Biodiversity 73.  Elephant Landscapes
27/13, CHENNA REDDY STREET, AGMORE, 48.  Problems of Biodiversity 74.  Wildlife
CHENNAI - 8, PH: 09841266521 49.  GMOs and Biodiversity 74.  New Wildlife Action PLAN (2002-16)
RAJU PUSTAK KENDRA: 23/47/50, ALLAHPUR, 50.  NCDMA 74.  Wildlife Research
LABOUR CHAURAHA, ALLAHABAD, PH: 52.  Biological Diversity Act- 2002 74.  Fellowships and Awards
9415697930, 9453460552 52.  National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) 75.  National River Conservation Plan
ASHIRWAD BOOK: Lucknow, Ph. No. 2270019. 52.  CBD and CoP 76.  Damodar Action Plan (DAP)
BOOK SELECTION CENTRE: KD HOUSE, NEAR 52.  Nagoya Biodiversity Summit 76.  Yamuna Action Plan
HYDERABAD, PHONE NO. 040-23446841. 54.  Legislative Measures 78.  Ramsar Convention
EBS CHANDIGARH: 98141-10136 54.  Biodiversity in 2010 79.  Mangroves
VISHAL BOOK CENTRE: 4, TOTTEE LANE, 55.  Protection of Traditional Knowledge 80.  Mangrove under threats
KOLKATA: 033-22527816 55.  Agriculture and Bio-diversity 81.  IUCN
A K NAYAK BHUBNESHWAR: 55.  Research and Development 82.  Marine Mammal Atlas
Ph: 09861046179, 407810 56.  NTFPs 82.  World Heritage Convention
B. JAYAKUMAR NEWS AGENCY: 57.  Invasive alien species 83.  Pollution Control 2009-10
TRIVANDRUM -Ph: 2461246,9846014411. 57.  FDAs-JFMC and NAEB 84.  Hazardous Waste Management
MAURYA BOOK STALL, VARANASI 57.  Regulatory Mechanisms 85.  The National Green Tribunal launched
PH: 09532102070 59.  Bio-sphere Reserves CLIMATE CHANGE
ALKA BOOK AGENCY: SHOP NO.27, BUDDHA 59.  Hot Spots of Biodiversity 86.  Global Warming (GW)
PLAZA MARG, BUDDHA MARG, PATNA; PH: 0612- 60.  Wasteland 89.  Ecology and Global Policy
2226540 60.  Types of Wastelands 90.  UNCED, Earth Summit
RAHUL KUMAR: 35-56-6 LANGDI KI CHOWKI, 60.  Coastal Area Ecosystem 91.  Global Environment Facility (GEF)
AGRA, PH: 9219766675 60.  Initiatives for sustainability 91.  Kyoto Protocol
POCKET BOOK DISTRIBUTOR: RAFTMALI 60.  Coral Reefs 91.  Montreal Protocol
DHAL, KHANPUR, AHEMDABAD 61.  Management of Coastal Zones 92.  Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)
RANJAN MISHRA: SHOP NO.32, KACHEREY BUS 61.  ENVIS Network 92.  Carbon Market
STAND, GORAKHPUR; PH: 09839612129 62.  Waste Water Management 93.  IPCC Report 2008
R.K. NEWS AGENCY: PATIALA, M: 09872807517 62.  Biological clean-up methods 96.  Bali Roadmap 2007
R.P. PRASAD: KUMAR NEWS AGENCY (C/O P.C. 62.  Rain-Water Harvesting 97.  Copenhagen Accord 2009
JAIN); KRISHNA NAGAR, CHATRIBATI 62.  Techniques Used 98.  Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting
GUWAHATI (ASSAM) 63.  Eco-tourism 99.  India and Climate Change
CHOWK, SRINAGAR, PH. 09419074859 ECOLOGY 101.  Classification of Resources
SHEILA BOOK CENTRE: KACHHI CHHAWANI, 65.  Ecology and Ecosystem 102.  Azo dyes
JAMMU TAWI PH 09419146803. 65.  Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) 102.  Element 117
LIBERTY BOOK DEPOT: AHMEDABAD, 66.  Ministry of Environment & Forests 104.  GEI
PH 09825060848
GARG BOOK DEPOT: 158, BARKATNAGAR, Civil Services Launching Year Book 2011

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Obama’s visit to India sanctions imposed on Iran. The

relative economic weaknesses of UK

Shifting fr om ‘P’ and ‘T’

from and France have made them virtually
insignifi-cant in the
realm of global dip-
to ‘C’ and ‘E’ ffactor
actor lomacy. They follow
what China and US
decides. Conside-

bama’s visit to India is historic and also inspiring. India must
ring this insourmo-
understand the degree of flexibility in US foreign policy and overall
untable fact, USA
approach towards their economic imperatives. The superpower has
knows that without economic power
shown exemplary approach towards improvisation of traditional policies in
and targeted market the dominance
dealing with developing countries like India. USA has given a straight message
cannot be maintained for a longer
that nothing succeeds economic necessities and this necessity is equally
period of time. China has shown that
important for the developed, developing and under-development economies.
how economic policy can make them
The details of the visit are deeply analysed in the next article clause by clause
globally significant. Therefore, India
but in my page I want to send message to the media persons, opposition parties,
must outrightly use this opportunity
ruling parties, diplomats, strategists and analysts that only a mere
to analyse its policies from economic
understanding of international relations is not enough to arrive at the specific
point of view and nothing else.
conclusion to analyse the factors behind the changing India-US relations. For
Further, the issue of Pakistan and
this, one has to go out of annals of diplomacy and try to trace the history, geo-
terrorism cannot be solved by USA
politics, psychology, sociology and politics.
alone. In fact, USA knows that if
To me, for the first time in the annals of India-US relations, we witnessed a
Pakistan has gone out of control, then
complete divorce between political expediencies and economic imperatives.
China will have asymmetric
Unlike his predecessors, Obama, did not pay visit to Pakistan after the visit of
advantages. US also knows that they
India. This signifies that a new tradition has started and India must understand
can control Indian markets till the
that instead of focusing on Pakistan and terrorism factors, it should try to build
problems of Pakistan and terrorism
relations purely on economic factors to undermine and neutralize the growing
remains. Today the issue of Pakistan
is more guided by US economic
interest than the political one.
Therefore, demanding an
abandonment of the US’s Pakistan
policy would be uncalled for and
highly utopian. Only in one case, the
traditional policy of USA towards
Pakistan can be changed when US
economic interests are so much
intertwined with Indian economic
interest so that India can demand
more and only then we see a real and
true statement otherwise only
diplomatic deference could be
I use to see in my colony, in the GBM
of the Residents Welfare Association,
cheque book diplomacy of China. In this context, it is pertinent to refer that the
an agenda is made for discussion, then
history tells that war took place for capturing markets. This happened during
during the meeting the other issues
the feudalism, absolutism, mercantilism and even liberalism. The form and
like sanitation, security of the colony,
the mode were different but the motives were the same.
problems of drainage, irregular
The history also tells that without solid economic base, the political power
supply of water, etc. are raised one by
cannot be sustained for a longer period of time. This happened with France,
one and ultimately the meeting is
Manchu China, and today Russia. No doubt, the issue of permanent
called off without any decisions on
membership in the United Nations is an important issue for India but to me
any specific issue. Therefore, raise the
without solid economics, the membership is nebulous and insignificant. For
issue one by one and not all
understanding this, I feel that for this we are not required to go into history;
simultaneously and right now time
the present is enough. There are 15 members of the Security Council, consisting
has come to raise only the economic
of 5 veto-wielding permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United
Kingdom, and the United States) and 10 elected non-permanent members with
two-year terms. But what happened with the status of UK, Russia and France.
Russia is economically not that powerful and as a result of this despite its geo-
politic interests and economic interests with Iran, it failed to prevent the UN (Vivek S. Raj)
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 6 Civil Services
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TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com
21 century’. This statement is an countries. At present the UN charter undoubtedly expects is a greater
expression of intent which is being does not allow the world body to alignment of India’s foreign policy
substantiated by concrete agreements, interfere in internal matters of member with that of the US while falling short
dialogues etc many of which have countries rendering it toothless of expecting India to toe its line on
been outlined in the joint statement. against despotic regimes. The US every matter. This is more so with
The two countries highlighted their believes that the UN must reorient respect to Iran and Myanmar. Even
shared culture of pluralism wherein itself to play an effective role in such during his address to the joint session
their multi-cultural societies are held situations so as to provide relief to the of Parliament, President Obama after
together by the values of democracy; people whereas India without supporting India’s permanent
education which provides disputing the urgent need for the UN membership in the UNSC followed it
opportunities for interactions between to become effective has cautioned up by saying that with more power
their citizens; enterprise which brings against it being interventionist. The comes more responsibility and that
about greater collaboration between credibility and legitimacy of the UN India has at times shied away from its
businesses in an open economic can be increased only when a few international responsibility especially
environment; and innovation which is countries are unable to stifle the in case of Myanmar where democracy
the fulcrum of a knowledge economy opinion of the majority of nations on is being subjected to systematic
stimulated by cooperation between global issues and the different UN murder. He added that speaking up
universities and scientific institutions. resolutions of the UN are adhered to for human rights does not amount to
The joint statement spoke about
building on the ‘transformation in
relations over the past decade’. Indeed
India- US relations from 2000 to 2010
have undergone a near about 180
degrees u-turn, from sanctions being
imposed by the Clinton
administration on India post Pokhran
II nuclear tests in 1998 to the Indo- US
civil nuclear agreement in 2005; from
attempts by the US to arm- twist India
into stripping its nuclear arsenal by
forcing it to sign the NPT and CTBT
to the building up of a strategic
partnership which is geared towards
promoting a secure and stable world;
advancing technology and innovation;
expanding mutual prosperity and
global economic growth; supporting
sustainable development; and
exercising global leadership in
support of economic development, by member- states. interfering in the internal matters of
open government and democratic India has welcomed President another country. In other words the
values. Obama’s affirmation that in the years US administration has virtually
Global strategic partnership ahead, US looks forward to a reformed tagged India’s permanent
India and USA called for an efficient, UN Security Council that includes membership in the UNSC with its
effective, credible and legitimate India as a permanent member. Along stand on Iran and Myanmar. No
United Nations to ensure a just and with this it was also affirmed in the wonder its support to India is general,
sustainable international order. There joint statement that those who seek to and no time period has been fixed for
have been debates of late regarding lead the UN in the 21st century ‘bear India’s membership. The US has given
the manner in which the UN’s budget responsibility to ensure that the UN a clear signal that it would see how
which is built out of contributions fulfills its founding ideals of India votes on matters pertaining to
from its member- countries has been preserving peace and security, Iran and Myanmar as it begins its two
used. Many countries have called for promoting global cooperation, and year stint in the UNSC as a non-
the streamlining of the UN’s advancing human rights’. These two permanent member. US support for its
administrative machinery so as to affirmations have to be read together permanent membership would
make it more efficient. An effective to understand the US stand on India’s depend on its stands on various
UN will be one which can provide a quest for a permanent UNSC berth. international issues as a non-
solution to all types of humanitarian While the US broadly recognizes permanent member in the coming two
crises, many of which are a result of India’s aspirations, it is unlikely to years. Thus the joint statement said
tyrannical political regimes ruthlessly give an unconditional support to India that the two leaders reiterated that
suppressing rights within their own in this matter. What the US their countries, as global leaders, will

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partner for global security as India two countries of each other’s strategic same time India would like to tread
serves on the Security Council as a interests and aspirations in those parts cautiously so as to avoid giving the
non- permanent member for the of the world’s largest continent where impression that it is toeing the US line
coming two years. It is significant to their strategic reach is less than on Iran, Israel- Palestinian conflict etc.
note however that the US satisfactory in their own eyes. As far A good foothold in the region has to
administration is completely silent on as the US is concerned, it aspires for a be ensured without sacrificing the
whether it supports veto power for leadership role in Asia, something that much- cherished independence of its
India if the latter were to become a President Obama referred to in his foreign policy.
permanent member of the UNSC at a speech to Parliament. Though the US More specifically the one country in
later date. It was also underscored that is a major player in West and more Central Asia where India would want
‘all states have an obligation to comply recently in Central Asia, its position US support is Afghanistan, a country
with and implement UNSC as the dominant player in East Asia in whose peace and stability is intricately
Resolutions, including UN sanctions the wake of an economically and related to the fight against terrorism.
regime.’ This was a tacit reference to militarily rising China is still not Terrorism poses one of the most
Iran against whose clandestine beyond doubt. There are enough important security related problems
nuclear program, sanctions have been intelligence reports and think-tank for India. In Afghanistan where India
imposed by the UN. The two nations assessments in
also agreed to carry on regular USA that it will
discussions on the long- term have to compete
sustainability of UN peacekeeping quite hard with a
operations. They also reiterated their belligerent China
commitment to the UN Democracy for strategic space
Fund, a concept which is a brainchild in East Asia, a
of the US and one about which non- region which is
democratic countries like China are truly China’s
wary. backyard. In this
Almost as if to put to rest Chinese competition for
doubts about the possibility of the strategic space,
world’s two largest democracies USA needs the
ganging up strategically against it, support of India to
what with concepts like the contain the Chinese
Democracy Fund, the joint statement influence because
next focused on the two countries’ apart from China,
shared vision for ‘peace, stability and India is the other
prosperity in Asia, the Indian Ocean rising power in the
region and the Pacific region and region. By increasing its ‘strategic is committed towards humanitarian
committed to work together, and with consultations on developments in East support, infrastructure and capacity
others in the region, for evolution of Asia’ the US no doubt wants to building, it is facing increasing
an open, balanced and inclusive increase its say in matters relating to hostility from pro- Pakistan elements,
architecture.’ The words ‘others in the the region. Japan and Australia, two a proof of which is the attack on the
region’ is nothing but a reference to other important players in the region Indian embassy in Kabul which was
China which has quite vociferously are anyway US allies. What it needs is orchestrated by the ISI, as per Indian
opposed Indo- US strategic the Indian support now. In return for intelligence reports. Diplomatically as
engagements in the Indian Ocean its support in East Asia, India has well Pakistan has left no stone
region especially military exercises bargained for more political and unturned in limiting the Indian role
along with countries like Japan, with economic space for itself in Central in Afghanistan citing fanciful reasons.
which China shares an uneasy and West Asia. Though this region has The Obama administration has
relation, in the Malacca Straits. The long cultural ties with India its however given a thumbs up to the
two leaders expressed their support strategic reach remains limited. With Indian engagements in Afghanistan
for the East Asia Summit and agreed its growing economic and political with the joint statement reiterating
to deepen their existing regular strate- clout in the world, the expansion and that the two countries were committed
gic consultations on developments in intensification of India’s strategic towards intensification of consulta-
East Asia, and also decided to expand engagements in the region should tion, cooperation and coordination to
and intensify their strategic come as quite natural. It is time for promote a stable, democratic,
consultations to cover regional and India to not only ‘look west’ but also prosperous and independent
global issues of mutual interests ‘go west’ especially given the region’s Afghanistan. The word ‘independent’
including Central Asia and West Asia. rich oil and gas resources, so critical is significant given that the ISI has
The references to East, Central and for India’s energy security. India traditionally tried to influence policy-
West Asia assumes importance in that would like US help to spread its wings making in Afghanistan in its own
it is a sort of acknowledgement of the on strategic matters here though at the favor something which was at its peak

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during the reign of the Taliban. The terrorists, the increasing menace of unable to resolve their disputes on Sir
US also welcomed enhanced Indian piracy, the possibility of militarization Creek within a stipulated timeframe,
assistance to help Afghanistan achieve of space and the emerging threat of then neither will get any part or whole
self- sufficiency. Both countries cyber- terrorism. The countries of the island. Hence it is in the interest
expressed their desire to pursue joint launched a dialogue to work together of the countries to come to a
development projects with the Afghan and develop a shared vision for these negotiated agreement at the earliest.
government in capacity building, domains to promote peace, security The one sector which has probably
agriculture and women and development. With maritime been the biggest indirect beneficiary
empowerment. piracy on the rise in the Caribbean of the Indo- US civil nuclear
It was appreciated that success in coast, the Malacca Strait, that is crucial agreement is the defence sector. The
Afghanistan as well as regional and for global maritime trade, both India joint statement spoke of the
global security requires the and the US have their own interests ‘transformation in India- US defence
‘elimination of safe havens and in securing the global seas. So they cooperation in recent years’. This
infrastructure for terrorism and reaffirmed the importance of transformation of cooperation was
violent extremism in Afghanistan and ‘maritime security, unimpeded made possible to a great extent by the
Pakistan’. The inclusion of the word commerce and freedom of navigation’ civil nuclear agreement because one
Pakistan will come as a relief more a euphemism for putting a check on of the major spill offs of the agreement
than anything for Indian diplomats, maritime piracy, in accordance with was the removal by the US of the
especially given that the word was relevant universally agreed principles restrictions hi- technology. Cutting
missing from the President’s of international law, including the UN edge hi- technology in defence
references on terrorism in the first half
of his visit. The joint statement
condemned terrorism in ‘all its forms’.
The term ‘all its forms’ means not only
terrorism faced by the West and of late
Pakistan from Al Qaeda and its
affiliates but also the terrorism
sponsored by Pakistan across the
border towards India. It was agreed
that terrorist networks, including the
Lashkar-e- Toiba must be defeated.
The statement called for Pakistan to
bring to justice the perpetrators of the
November 2008 Mumbai terror
attacks, thus making it clear that the
attack was planned and executed from
Pakistani soil. It stopped short of
directly implicating the Pakistani
establishment in the attack. The Convention on Law of the Sea products is one of the hallmarks of
Counter Terrorism Initiative which (UNCLOS). They also called for the USA and to a great extent the basis on
was signed between the two countries peaceful settlement of maritime which the US has built up the most
in July 2010 was hailed. The new disputes. This reference to the powerful military machinery in the
Homeland Security Dialogue which UNCLOS and peaceful maritime world. However being a non-
has been launched between the Indian dispute settlement can also be signatory of the Nuclear Non-
Ministry of Home Affairs and the US considered as a prod to India and Proliferation Treaty meant that there
Department of Homeland Security is Pakistan to resolve their disputes on was no legal binding on India from
expected to deepen operational the Sir Creek issue through putting to use US defence technology
cooperation, counter- terrorism negotiations. Sir Creek, a small island in building up a nuclear arsenal. This
technology transfers and capacity on India’s western coast, which is rich had for years hugely limited defence
building. The importance of in fishes, is claimed both by India and cooperation between the countries.
cooperation in fighting terrorist Pakistan. The competing claims by India was denied US defence
financing and thereby protecting the both countries and absence of a technology and US was denied the
international financial system was also maritime boundary which both vast, burgeoning Indian defence
appreciated. countries agree often result in market. Now all that is past. The civil
The two leaders agreed that in an fishermen from one country nuclear agreement has in principle
inter- dependent world, stability and inadvertently crossing over to the recognized that India is a responsible
access to air, sea, space and cyberspace other and subsequently being arrested nuclear power which has a stated
domains is essential for security and by law enforcement authorities of the nuclear policy of maintaining only a
economic prosperity more so in the concerned country. According to minimum nuclear deterrent and no
wake of hijacking of aircrafts by UNCLOS, if the two neighbours are more, despite it not having signed the

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NPT. Hence the trust of the US that argument that the NPT is inherently its chemical weapons stockpile in
its defence hi- technology will not be faulty. The failure of the NPT in accordance with the Chemical
used for stockpiling nuclear weapons. preventing countries like North Korea Weapons Convention. Regret was
This in turn has opened up defence and Iran from going nuclear or however expresses at the delay in
trade between the countries. In this secretively preparing to go nuclear can starting negotiations in the Conference
context President Obama welcomed no longer be overlooked as it has on Disarmament for a multi- lateral,
India’s decision to purchase US hi- implications for global security. It was non- discriminatory, internationally
technology defence items which in agreed that there is need for and effectively verifiable treaty
turn will give a fillip to the US defence international cooperation to reduce banning the future production of
industry and help create jobs in the the risk of nuclear terrorism, illicit fissile materials for nuclear weapons
USA. The joint statement reiterated nuclear trafficking and smuggling or other nuclear explosive devices. The
that greater defence cooperation will through the IAEA, Interpol and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
help regional peace and stability and Action Plan of the April 2010 Nuclear (CTBT) has always been a sticky issue
facilitate a better tackling of the Security Summit. At the same time it between India and the US. It has also
challenges of terrorism and piracy was emphasized that the right of been something quite close to the
through the means of security nations that ‘obey rules to harness hearts of Democrat Presidents of USA.
dialogue, exercises, trade and nuclear energy to improve energy The Clinton administration spent
collaboration in defence equipment security’ must not be reduced. This much of its energies in making various
and technology. was India’s way of reminding the US countries sign the treaty before failing
India and USA, according to the joint led West that in their zealousness to to do the same at home where the
statement, have ‘common ideals, punish Iran over its possible nuclear treaty was voted out by a Republican
complementary strengths and shared
commitment’ to a nuclear free world.
However what was left unstated were
the differences the two countries have
as to the ways in which those ideals
can be achieved. Though the statement
said that the countries intended to
forge strong partnership to lead global
efforts for non- proliferation and
‘universal and non- discriminatory’
global nuclear disarmament, what it
did not say was that giving shape to
such partnership is require
tremendous diplomatic expertise from
both sides. For instance, India
considers the NPT discriminatory and
status-quoist and tilted heavily in
favor of the so- called Nuclear weapons program they must not majority Senate. With Obama, another
Weapons States (NWS) or the P-5 in infringe that nation’s right to develop Democratic President back in the helm
the UN. Universal disarmament civil nuclear energy as a signatory of after a span of eight years, the US has
according to India is only possible the NPT. There was mention in the once again committed itself to
when the NWS do away with their statement that diplomacy (and not ratifying the CTBT and enforcing it at
nuclear stockpile. The US, itself a NWS military force) was needed to resolve an early date. India remains strictly
quite obviously does not adhere to this the Iran nuclear issue while at the opposed to the CTBT and maintains
viewpoint despite having taken steps same time it was necessary for Iran to that it is committed to its own
to shed its nuclear arsenal meet its IAEA and UNSC obligations. unilateral and voluntary moratorium
substantially through treaties like The leaders welcomed the MoU for on nuclear explosive testing.
START. In fact the Proliferation cooperation in the Global Centre for Technology, Innovation and Energy
Security Initiative (PSI) of the US is Nuclear Energy Partnership being set With Indo- US civil nuclear agreement
also something to which India has up in India. in place, the US agreed to work
reservations. Both countries however The joint statement stressed the together with India to strengthen the
agree that there is need for dialogue importance of full implementation of global export control framework and
regarding disarmament among all the Biological and Toxin Weapons ‘transform bilateral export control
states possessing nuclear weapons. Convention in order to combat regulations and policies to realize the
They also agreed that the ‘six- decade biological terrorism and ensure the full potential of the bilateral strategic
old international norm of non- use of safety and security of biological agents partnership’. This essentially means
nuclear weapons’, a reference to the and toxins and prevent them from the removal of restrictions on trade in
NPT needs strengthening. This indeed falling in the wrong hands. The US dual- use technologies as well as
is a tacit acceptance of the old Indian welcomed the destruction by India of nuclear technologies and raw

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conditions and viable tariff regime for to US companies as a means not only is not too wide, and sustainable
electricity generated’. The US has to reduce the trade deficit between the growth means one that can be
made it clear that it wants a level countries which at present is tilted continued in the long run without
playing field in the Indian market against the US but also to create jobs hampering the environment and
along with Indian companies to which in USA. In reply to a question from a utilizing unsustainable amounts of
India is agreeable and has made student in St. Xavier’s Mumbai, energy resources. It was agreed that
known its intentions to ratify the Obama had in fact said that the best the international financial system
Convention on Supplementary shield to protectionism is indeed regulation needed strengthening so as
Compensation. balanced and more open trade. to prevent financial crises like the one
Keeping in mind the problems of It was perhaps his way of suggesting the world has recently faced and
pollution, climate change and global to the Indian government that part of preferably provide a sort of early
warming the two nations expressed the debate in the US over job losses warning to impending crises. Reforms
their resolve in building up a due to outsourcing was because not in the international financial insti-
partnership geared towards the enough jobs were being created due tutions so as to project the actual
creation of a green economy. A green to increased market access in large strength of rising economies are also
economy is an economy driven as economies like India. In the joint very much desirable as is the need to
much as possible by clean energy statement the countries agreed to enhance energy security. Many of
sources. To create such an economy reduce trade barriers, fight protectio- these issues are likely to be raised in
would necessitate a major shift from nism, encourage research and the G20 meeting.
the traditional reliance on oil and gas innovation for job creation and The joint statement touched upon
resources to clean sources of energy. improvement of livelihood. The need other issues such as the signing of a
Hence the countries have undertaken for increased investments
joint research and development of in infrastructure, clean
clean energy like solar cells, advanced energy, energy efficiency,
biofuels, shale gas and smart grids. In aviation and transpor-
addition, the bilateral Partnership to tation, healthcare, food
Advance Clean Energy (PACE) is processing and education
intended to promote clean and was elaborated.
efficient energy technologies, a new It is significant that during
MoU on the assessment and the joint press briefing PM
exploration of shale gas has been Singh mentioned that
signed, and an agreement has been India requires investment
reached to establish the Joint Clean inflows of the tune of $1
Energy Research Centre in India. The trillion in the infras-
two leaders acknowledged the need to tructure sector alone and there was MoU for creating a Global Disease
work within the framework of the UN much opportunity for US companies Detection Regional Centre in New
Framework Convention on Climate to contribute a sizeable amount of that Delhi to advance the fight against
Change (UNFCCC) in order to tackle investment. pandemic influenza and other
the challenge of climate change. They The relations between the private dangerous diseases. On education, the
declared their support to the sectors of the two countries drew two sides agreed to convene the India-
Copenhagen Accord. praise and the work done by the US- US Higher Education Summit, expand
Inclusive Growth, Mutual Prosperity India CEO Forum was hailed. The the Nehru- Fulbright Program for
and Economic Cooperation statement also called for greater scholars, and take forward the Singh-
The joint statement agreed that engagement between the small and Obama Knowledge Initiative.
bilateral trade and investment medium sectors of the countries. Such The Obama visit may not have gene-
between the two countries has grown engage-ment is also likely to reduce rated the same kind of excitement that
over the past few years in leaps and fears regarding job losses in these the Clinton visit did, nor produce a
bounds. An indicator of this is that the sectors due to the participation of historic agreement as during the Bush
US has become India’s largest trading larger players. visit. But what it did was to take the
partner in goods and services and The need for an ambitious and ‘Next Steps in Strategic Partnership’
India has become one of the fastest balanced conclusion of the WTO Doha in Indo- US relations to its conclusions
growing sources of FDI entering USA. Development Agenda was high- and for this the Obama visit will be
However the untapped potential for lighted. Both nations also agreed to remembered for years to come. So
trade and commerce continues to work within the framework of the G20 after Air Force One left the Indira
remain high. This was highlighted by to achieve ‘strong, balanced and Gandhi International airport on 9th
Obama when he said that he saw no sustainable’ growth. Strong growth November 2010, one can say, to
reason why India should not be the relates to increase in the global GDP, borrow a phrase from the President
USA’s largest trading partner. He also balanced growth means one where the himself, that Indo-US relations are no
advocated the reduction of trade disparity between the growth rate of longer emerging, rather they have
barriers and increased market access developed and developing countries emerged.

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question papers of the past few years
CSAT: Beginning of a new chapter we can easily notice that UPSC is
giving less importance to conventional
Only change is permanent stuff and laying more stress on general
By Nitesh Khabrani awareness, applied science, maps,

FTER years of dithering, the Government of India has finally agreed mental ability, and of course, current
to change the format of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) affairs.
Civil Services Examination. The examination system of the Union Now first let us look at the degree of
Public Service Commission (UPSC) is updated from time to time difference between the old scheme of
to keep it in harmony with the changing environment. The present format had the examination and the new scheme.
come under severe criticism from both members of the public as well as from
parliamentary committees, and there had been tremendous pressure on the
government to review it. To begin with, the Preliminary examination, which
consists of general studies and optional papers, may be replaced with an
A fter having given the broad
outline of the proposed changes
in the pattern of the prestigious ICS
aptitude test, to be called the Civil Services Aptitude Test. The test will examination we should better analyse
comprise two objective-type papers, which will be common for all candidates the need or the reason which
appearing for the examination. propelled the UPSC for bringing this
As per the press release of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievance & drastic change.
Pension dated 18.10.2010; from the year 2011, Preliminary Examination (now The reasons behind the changes: -The
CSAT) would consist of two papers- Paper I and Paper II. The syllabus and proposed changes in the scheme of the
pattern of the Preliminary Examination would be as under: of Personnel, ICS examination are not the result of
Public Grievances & Pensions over the night deliberations. Various
(Paper 1) (200 marks) - Duration: Two hrs. committees including the second
1. Current events of national and international importance Administrative Reforms Commission,
2. History of India and Indian national movement in their reports submitted over the
3. Indian and World Geography- physical, social, economic geography of years suggested the changes and laid
India and the world greater emphasis on the ‘aptitude’ of
4. Indian Polity and governance – constitution, political system, candidates than their knowledge of a
Panchayati raj, public policy, Rights issues, etc. subject. The committees have argued
5. Economic and social development – sustainable development, poverty, that specialists or experts in any
inclusion, demographics, social sector initiatives etc. particular subject might not
6. General issues on environmental ecology, bio-diversity and climate necessarily be good civil servants and
change-that do not require subject specialization it was thus found be necessary that a
7. General science. level playing field must be created for
(Paper II) (200 marks) – Duration: Two hrs. the candidates of varied backgrounds
1. Comprehension to compete for the ICS. The prelim-
2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills inary exam has always been criticized
3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability for not disclosing the marks, (Cut off)
4. Decision making and problem solving to select the candidates for main
5. General mental ability exams or the method which is adopted
6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc. by the UPSC to compare various
(Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data optional subjects is repugnant to the
sufficiency etc. –Class X level) Right to Information Act 2005. The
7. English language comprehension skills (Class X level). current scheme of the examination is
The news of any change is an unnerving moment for any long term serious criticized by various quarters that is
aspirant. Any amount of change has a psychological impact on the human doesn’t promote transparency. To
mind. To some it is threatening because it means that things may get worse. To overhaul the current process and
some it is encouraging because things may get better. To some it is inspiring create more transparency in the
because the challenge exists to make things better. However, if one is mentally selection process, the General
prepared, the transition becomes easier. Currently the candidates appearing Aptitude paper is introduced in the
at the ICSP have to attempt two papers with a General Studies Paper (it has place of the Optional Paper.
the weightage of 150 marks) and the other one is the Optional paper in which What does Aptitude Test stands for:
the candidate will have to select one subject among the 23 subjects listed by -An aptitude is an innate, acquired or
UPSC( this paper carries the weightage of 300 marks). After giving effect to learned or developed component of a
the proposed change in the Preliminary examination in 2011, candidates will competency to do a certain kind of
have to appear in two objective-type papers, which will be a General Studies work at a certain level. Aptitude tests
Paper and the other one will be the General Aptitude Paper. The Aptitude are designed to assess the logical
paper will replace the previously existing Optional subject paper. On affecting reasoning or thinking performance of
this model, Civil Services Preliminary Examination will be called as Civil the candidates. The major Aptitude
Services Aptitude Test (CSAT). If we go the UPSC civil services preliminary Test patterns are 1. Verbal Aptitude

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 19 Civil Services

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2.Quantitative Aptitude 3.Abstract However it should be expected that Subhas C Kashyap’s Our
Reasoning 4.Spatial Reasoning there will be less emphasis on data Constitution and Our Parliament
5.Mechanical Reasoning 6.Data based questions such as 5. Economic and social development:
Checking 7. Fault Diagnosis. These personalities, books, years, - The economy portion can emerge as
are the general type of aptitude test institution etc. Candidate should the most prominent section under the
patterns being followed in the major look a little deeper like root cause, CSAT. Earlier candidates were tend to
examinations but what the UPSC has impacts and associated details of neglect economy altogether as there
decided for its Civil Service important current issues. were few questions have been asked
examination will be made known once Suggested Links: in exam. On seeing the new syllabus
the notification for the examination is One national newspaper, it can be said that besides economic
out. The only hint received from the Manorama Year Book, India Year development, questions related to
Government about the content of Book of Publication Division, CST National policies and social issues can
General Aptitude test is “Greater Year Book (forthcoming) also be asked. Also its scope is not
emphasis will be given to test the 2. History of India and Indian restricted within Indian economy; one
aptitude for civil services on the national movement: -The nature of may expect questions from India’s
ethical and moral dimension of questions from Indian History is economic relation with world (Bilate-
decision-making”. The Aptitude test expected to remain more or less the ral trade and International Institutions
ensures to create a uniform ethical same. Questions from History section such as WTO IMF etc.). However
standard for the future generation of may include Ancient, Medieval and emphasis would be Indian Economy.
Civil Servants. General Aptitude test Modern History of India. Analysing Suggested Links
will check the candidates on the from the current trend Modern India NCERT: Evolution of Indian
grounds of integrity and social (1957 uprising to 1947 Independence) Economy (I C Dhingra)
responsibility. should be given priority and Mishra and Puri or Dutt and
Getting ready to face the challenge especially the Indian national Sundaram—Indian Economy or
No 1:- The CSAT movement. However one must be even Uma Kapila’s Indian Economy
The Indian Civil Services Examination ready to face questions from Economic Survey
is still a three stage dream for anyone. contemporary history (till 1960 or The Economic Times
Though, the Government proposes to 1990) as well. Yojna and Kurukshetra
bring changes in the first stage of the Suggested Links 6. General issues on environmental
examination by bringing a Civil NCERT (class IX to XII), Bipan ecology Regarding the General issues
Services Aptitude Test in place of the Chandra and others— India’s on environmental ecology, bio-
erstwhile Civil Services Preliminary Struggle for Independence; Grover diversity and climate change,
Examination, the other two stages and Mehta - Modern India; for questions have been asked in previous
namely the Mains and the Interview movements and mass movements year exams under topics of geography
remain unchanged for the time being. consult Sumit Sarkar’s Modern and Current affairs. However special
It’s the right time that all the India. mention made in the new syllabus
candidates start the process of 3. Indian and World Geography: - illustrates its importance in current
appearing in the ICS exam 2011. The Under the chapter of Geography same global politics and policies. So
CSAT will take place for the first time question pattern may remain however candidates must go into the current
and a new and novel strategy has to more emphasis may be on Indian issues related to environment,
be adopted by the candidates to get geography (Human) and geographical Ecology, Bio-diversity and climate
through to the next level of the issues related to current affairs. change.
prestigious ICS. The following pages Suggested Links 7. General science Questions under
give a bird’s eye view of the strategy NCERT: Physical Geography of General Science are expected to
to be adopted that can prove to be a India for X - XII Std remain in the same format as in the
master guide for the success. A Good School Atlas, Khullar: previous year trend. General Science
India - A Comprehensive includes Physics, Chemistry and
PAPER I Geography, R. C . Tewari’s Indian Biology. Non science background
If we give a glimpse at the Paper I of Geography; G. C Leong Physical candidates should put greater
the proposed CSAT then a careful Geography emphasis on Biology especially like
study will reveal that there is no major 4. Indian Polity and governance; - Human physiology, Nutrition and
change in the table of contents if Under Indian Polity, constitutional, Diseases.
compared with the GS Paper of the legal, administrative and other issues Suggested Links NCERT: (10 level):
erstwhile Preliminary examination. emerging from the politico- Science, (+2 level)
The list of topics to be covered under administrative system prevalent in
the Paper I includes; - the country can be asked. PAPER II
1. Current Affairs of National and Suggested Links If we carefully analyse the format of
international importance:- Under this D.D. Basu—Indian Constitution, the proposed CSAT, as released in the
section the focus of the issues will be Kashyap—Constitution of India, press, it becomes clear that the mental
more or less same as previous years. P.M. Bakshi—Indian Constitution; ability portion of the old format is

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 20 Civil Services

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TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com
separated into a full Aptitude Test 5.A Communicative Grammar of time should be allotted to solve the
paper and this replaces the optional English By: Geoffrey Leech previous year’s papers as this section
subject. In this paper besides Logical 6. How to Prepare for Verbal Ability can prove to be quite marks fetching
reasoning & analytical ability, the and Reading Comprehension by in the coming exams. For GMA there
scope has been widened to include Arun Sharma and Meenakshi are various guides available and
Interpersonal skills, English Upadhyay. candidates can choose any one from
comprehension, Logical reasoning B. Interpersonal skills including them and the basic mantra to get good
and analytical ability to check the communication skills: - Inter- marks in this section is regular practice
decision making and problem solving personal skills are the skills that a which is expected from the candidates.
abilities of the candidates. Thus now person uses to interact with other Suggest Links: -1.Course in General
the UPSC will give greater emphasis people. Good communication skills Mental Ability and Quantitative
on testing the aptitude for civil are skills that facilitate people to Aptitude by Thorpe and Edgar.
services as well as on ethical and communicate effectively with one E. Basic numeracy: In this section it is
moral dimension of decision-making. another. This topic in the syllabus is expected that the questions will be
A. Comprehension:Comprehension purely related to the psychology asked regarding the numbers and
skills are the ability to use context and aspect and it requires continuous their relations from the level of Class
prior knowledge to aid reading and communication and interaction and X NCERT and an in-depth knowledge
to make sense of what one reads and then a candidate can learn the traits of data interpretation like charts,
hears. of this segment of the syllabus. tables graphs etc. up to the level of
Comprehension is based on: C. Logical reasoning and analytical Class X Statistics portion is also
Knowledge that reading makes ability: -Reasoning, both mathem- expected from the candidates.
sense atical and analytical, probes deep into Suggested Links
Readers’ prior knowledge our logical mind and our ability to 1. How To Prepare For The Data
Information presented in the text, comprehend and synthesize the given Interpretation And Logical
and information. Evaluating various Reasoning For The CAT 3rd Edition
 The use of context to assist possibilities out of the given by Arun Sharma.
recognition of words and meaning. information is also essential to derive 2. The Trachtenberg speed system of
Here are some suggestions to necessary conclusions. For this part of Basic Maths by Ann Cutler and
improve the Comprehension power:- the Paper II following books can prove Mcshane.
1. Develop a broad background: to be useful. Candidates should be The above guidelines make it clear
Broaden your background knowledge ready to face some psycho-analytical that the aptitude test is going to be
by reading newspapers, magazines questions from 2011 IAS CSAT. UPSC heavily leaned towards the
and books. Become interested in can ask some situational questions Psychometric Testing pattern. This
world events. that tests the overall personality and kind of Aptitude test will help in
2. Know the structure of paragraphs: decision making ability of the creating a uniform ethical standard for
Good writers construct paragraphs candidates. the Civil Servants. General Aptitude
that have a beginning, middle and Suggested Links test aims to check that the candidate
end. Often, the first sentence will give 1. A Modern Approach To Logical is having integrity and a strong sense
an overview that helps provide a Reasoning by R. S. Aggarwal of social responsibility also willing to
framework for adding details. Also, 2. How To Prepare For Data Interpre- reflect on and learn from their actions.
look for transitional words, phrases or tation And Logical Reasoning by The above given aptitude test pattern
paragraphs that change the topic. Arun Sharma can act as a guiding principles till
3. Identify the type of reasoning 3. Handbook of Reasoning by P.K. UPSC gives any details about the
4. Anticipate and predict: - Try to Aggarwal content of the aptitude test. Hence we
anticipate the author and predict 4. Quantitative Aptitude by Arun cannot conclude that the General
future ideas and questions. If you’re Sharma (TMH) Aptitude paper may contain the
right, this reinforces your 5. Quantitative Aptitude For above-mentioned format. The only
understanding. If you’re wrong, you Competitive Exams by Abhijit Guha hint received from the Government
make adjustments quicker. 6. Tips and Techniques and short cut about the content of General Aptitude
5. Build a good vocabulary: - The best methods by Abhijit Guha test is “Greater emphasis will give to
way to improve your vocabulary is to 7. Quantitative Aptitude by Thorpes test the aptitude for civil services as
use a dictionary regularly. You might 8. ‘Analytical and Logical Reasoning’ well as on ethical and moral
carry around a pocket dictionary and by B.S. Sijwali dimension of decision-making”. Till
use it to look up new words. D. General mental ability: This the notification of the UPSC comes out
Suggested Links section of the Paper II was also all the Civil Services aspirant
1.Wren and Martin English Grammar mentioned in the erstwhile GS paper fraternity should concentrate on the
2.Word Power Made Easy by Norman of the Preliminary Examination. The preparation on the general guidelines
Lewis candidates are expected to be well issues by the government and which
3.Verbal Ability by Arun Sharma versed with this section and it is has been worked upon for your help
4.English Proficiency IMS India highly advisable that a fair amount of in this bulletin.

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 21 Civil Services

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TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com
2. The law establishes an institutional
Organ Trafficking structure to authorize and regulate
human organ transplants.
Lacunas in the Law and Respective Solutions 3. It recognizes for the first time in
By Dr. Kirti Singh India, the concept of brain stem death
paving the way for a cadaver –based

he organ trafficking of the human being is not new to the world. kidney transplant programme.
India is considered to be one of biggest centres of illegal trafficking. 4.The Act details the action that
Illegal transplantation is on the rise in spite of a special legislation amount to direct participation in or
being in place to deal with the menace. A recently unearthed abetment of the organ trade; these
controversy in Kerala regarding kidney racket has brought to fore, offences are punishable under section
many uncomfortable cross -currents in health sector where state government 19 of the Act.
seems to be sustaining the interest of the culprits. This controversy assumed a 5. The Act provides two types of
sensitive character because most of the victims are tribals who are apparently donors. The first category includes
cheated by the hospital authorities. Local media hounded the government after near relatives and second category
which the government sought to offset it by instituting an inquiry under a that donates out of love and affection.
DIG. The report submitted by the DIG states that among 23 organ 6. The Act makes offence of trading
transplantation were taken place in which 18 were illegal transplantation.1Yet human organ non -cognizable.
the government seems to be fluster for the culprits. 7.The Act sensibly provides for
According to a report, 500 illegal transplantations were carried out across U.P, registration of hospitals claiming to
Delhi and Haryana by Dr. Amit Kumar with more than fifty accomplices have the necessary competence and
including doctors and nurses.2These reports show how this menace is gaining facilities to perform particular organ
momentum. In the present day society, the system of acquiring human organs transplantation.
for their transplantation to disease stricken individuals has become a matter of Lacunas in the
considerable importance. In India for a long time, there was no specific Act and their respective solution.
legislation regulating organ transplantation due to which number of illegal The present Act needs urgent
transaction and kidney scams were reported which led to initiation of action to amendments in the large number of
enact the law relating to the organ transplantation. The law enacted on this clauses. In this respect some important
subject some fifteen years ago is still in force. But it has miserably failed to events has happened in the recent
control illegal transplantation and corrupt practices of unscrupulous elements past. As a result of Delhi High Court’s
who are indulging in Kidney Racket and other illegal activities related to organ decision in the case of Balbeer Singh
transplantation. The issues arise from lacunas in the law and the remedies v. Authorization Committee and
needed to be adopted. Others.5, committee was constituted
This article focuses on the two themes- firstly what are the lacunas in law and by the Government of India to review
secondly, what could be possible solutions of that problem. the existing provision and given
Organ transplantation certain amendments but still there is
According to the Section 2(p) of Transplantation of Human Organ Act, need of other amendments which are
1994, transplantation means grafting any human organ from the deceased given as below:
or living person to other living person. By and large two methods have 1. Definition of the near relative given
become very common for obtaining the human organs: one is ex vivo and in the section 2(i) is very restrictive. It
other ex morto. includes parents, spouse, siblings, and
Under the ex vivo method, living donar donates to the other living person children, to donate their organ. At the
and under ex morto method it’s the cadaver which is donated after the death. same time, the door is kept widely
Medical tourism of organ transplantation. open for illegal transplantation by
The blatant illegal demand created by the rich recipients, profiteering using “love and affection” clause, the
doctors, hospitals, illegal donors involved in ‘live’ kidney racket has had consequence of which is that the donor
many further serious consequences. can donate even though he is not a
The medical faculty in India in collaboration with the tourism industry has relative, of course with the rider that
worked together to give cost effective treatment to the people all over the the transplantation shall be conducted
world. With the privatization of medical care in India evolved the recent with the prior approval of the
and popular trend of treatment along with fun of the vacation, better known authorization committee.
as medical tourism in India 3 wherein the international kidney bazaar These authorization committees are
penetrated its tentacles and got highly evolved with the extensive cross not working satisfactorily most of the
border transaction and a hierarchy of preferences and prices. The victims time as it tries to oblige the rich. So to
are always desperately poor people who have lost everything including save the innocent persons from the
hope. So there is dire need to control the health tourism industry in the clutches of the rich people, it is
guise of which these scams are given an even more lucrative impetus4. required that love and affection clause
Salient features of the Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994 be removed and definition of the near
1. This Act provides for the regulation of removal, storage and transplantation relative be widened enough as it was
of the human organ for therapeutic purposes. held in case of Balbeer Singh v.

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 22 Civil Services

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Authorization Committee and Others Kerala one woman named Rajni was that offence under the Act should be
It should be extended to “relatives by not only forcibly made to undergo made cognizable and the quantum
blood three degrees downwards and abortion but her kidney was also punishment to be increased.
three degree up words in the line of removed without her consent and to 10. Then there is the concept of
ascent and descent” and for relatives comply with the procedural ‘Required Request’ which makes
by marriage one degree up and one requirements, the culprits had taken mandatory obligation on ICUs staff to
degree downwards and only to those her written consent under coercion. request the family member of the brain
denied in the section 2(i) of THOA, Now question arises as to how to curb dead patients for organ donation. This
1994. this kind of situation. For this, consent concept is not given any place in the
2. The definition of the human organ of the person concerned should be Act, which can be very much
given in the Act is not exhaustive. This taken by the Video Conferencing successful to prevent illegal
definition says that any part of human technology. trafficking. It’s suggested that this
body which cannot be replicated is 6. The Act mandated the concept be recognized under the Act.
called as organ. It mainly considers the authorization committee to ensure 11. There should be a National
internal organ of the body like kidney, that the donor donated out of “love Organ Retrieval, Banking and
liver but many times external organs and affection” but this authorization Transplantation Network. It can
like skin can be used for the burnt committee did not share the be said that the system of the
patients. So this definition needs to be information with the public and no organ transplantation has yet to
widened enough to include external one knows as to how many gain momentum. It is a very good
organs as well. permissions have been granted and mechanism indeed in relation to
3. Section 3 of the Act says that only how many have been rejected in this needy persons but corrupt
registered medical practitioner can regard . practices compel us to think twice
remove the organ for transplantation. So there is a dire need for systematic before embarking on techniques
But in cases of eye donation progra- research on the data like how many of organ transplantation. The
mme it is generally difficult to keep legal live related kidney donors, legal problem highlighted above need
available an eye surgeon for removal live unrelated kidney donors and to be addressed urgently. The act
of corneas. While a trained eye illegal live unrelated kidney has to be made more amenable to
technician can remove corneas easily. transplantations have taken place. the present situations.
So it is suggested that proviso to be 7. There is no centralized mechanism
Now question comes that if any
added in the section regarding to regulate and supervise the activities
decision which can be taken for
removal of the corneas related to organ retrievals all over the
the interest of the patient and
4. THO Act , 1994 provides that country. So it is high time that we
which is morally and ethically
in case of removal of the organ of should have a centralized mechanism
right but not legally so be
the patient who has been to regulate and supervise the cases
allowed or not. This question is
declared as brain dead A related to organ retrievals.
very much connected with the
certificate to such death is 8. Now question comes that if any
concept of swapping which is
required which can only be decision which can be taken for the
not recognized under the Act.
issued by the committee interest of the patient and which is
comprised of among others by morally and ethically right but not Lastly I want to say that “at present
the Neurologist and Neuro- legally so be allowed or not. This as well as any other time the center of
surgeon. But we know in India question is very much connected with gravity of legal development lies
there is scarcity of Neurologists the concept of swapping which is not neither in Judiciary nor in legislation
and Neurosurgeon so it will be recognized under the Act. It has been but in society itself”. Therefore
very difficult to certify brain recently reported that India’s first amendment in the existing law is need
death. Even if the deceased were patient to successfully undergo a swap by the society.
willing to donate before his death, lever transplantation. But the team of By Dr. Kirti Singh, RMLNLU, Lucknow
he or she cannot donate due to Gangaram hospital took approval (Footnotes)
procedural complexity. Recently from an in-house regulatory body http://www.jstor.org/pss/4412926
in Andhra Pradesh, a boy named before going ahead as the concept of (accessed on 25th Aug, 2010)
Shanker was willing to donate his swapping is not recognized in India. “ Dr. Kidneys anesthetist surrenders”
organ but his death could not be So concept of swapping should get , Express News Service, Retrieved on
certified due to non-availability of legal recognition in the Act. 12-12- 2008 from the website http//
a neurologist. So there should be 9. The Act makes the offence of organ www.expressindia.com/ latestnews/
increment in the number of trading non cognizable. Police cannot dr-kidney-anaesthetist-surrender/
neurologists and neurosurgeons. look into complaints of Organ 271955
5. Section 3(2) of Act provides that Trafficking independently but must Santhy K.V.K, How to Stop Organ
written consent of the donor is wait for complaint to be made by the Trafficking, The Practical Lawyers,
required. But still there are cases in appropriate authority set up under the Eastern Book Company Edition Jan
which written consent of the donor Act. Due to this, illegal trafficking is ,2010
was taken under coercion. Recently in going on in full swing It is suggested ibid; 5 ( Manu /DE/1262/2004); 6 ibid

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 23 Civil Services

Current NEWS Covered up to NOVEMBER 01, 2010
TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com
working to enable it to be the watch-
Role of the Union Public Service dog of the merit system of recruiting.
India is a multilingual and multicultural
Commission in ensuring nation and this augments the impor-
tance and need of the UPSC. If we al-
Good Governance low political considerations, nepotism
By Nitesh Khabrani and casteism to dominate the recruit-

overnment is a body of people that sets and administers public policy, ment to the civil services then the in-
and exercises executive, political, and sovereign power through cus jury to the democratic fabric of our na-
toms, institutions, and laws within a state. On the other hand, gov tion will be incalculable. This is where
ernance is defined as the dynamic interaction between people, struc- the true meaning and function of the
tures, processes and traditions that support the exercise of legitimate authority, UPSC can be understood. It ensures that
in order to ensure that its purpose is achieved, and that there is proper account- the efficiency, integrity and morale of
ing for the conduct of its affairs, the use of its resources, and the results of its the civil service is maintained at all lev-
activities. Thus governance is more encompassing phenomenon than govern- els and in all conditions.
ment. The concept of governance is as old as human civilization. In recent past The concept of Good Governance
the issue of governance has received serious attention from the researchers, policy emerged with a 1989 World Bank docu-
makers and international development community. If we view the concept in ment which mentioned four key di-
the simplest of the terms then "governance" means the process of decision-mak- mensions of good governance as
ing and their implementation. Analysing the concept of Good governance gives a) Public Sector Management b) Ac-
8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, trans- countability c) Legal Framework d)
parent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows Transparency. In another document of
the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities 1992 WB defined Good Governance as
are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are central to creating an environment,
heard in decision-making. The concept of Good Governance demands a com- which fosters strong and equitable de-
plete overall in the recruitment process which the countries across the globe are velopment and it is an essential
following today. The welfare state today demands a new set of personnel with a complement to sound economic poli-
different set of orientation in their working style. The administration needs to cies. Thus the goal of Good Governance
be responsive, people centric and should follow 3 E's i.e. Efficiency, Economy can be achieved when the state insti-
and Effectiveness. Especially the era of LPG demands from our Public adminis- tutions are represented by all sections,
tration and Public institutions to evolve suitable interventions and responsive judiciary is independent and the civil
administrative machinery that has high legitimacy. We need to move from red services are recruited on merit, the citi-
tapism to green tapism, from the era of opaqueness to the generation of trans- zens are provided with right to infor-
parency and citizen rights. Good governance thus promises purposive and de- mation. Our government has taken
velopment oriented administration which is committed to improvement in qual- many initiatives to change the concept
ity of life. All these changes in the functioning of our administrative system and of governance to the concept of Good
the outlook of our administrators requires that the recruiting agency is commit- Governance. We have now the RTI in
ted to the said goals and is proactive in devising policies which prove beneficial place, we have citizen charters, we
in the achievement of the goals of welfare state. In India these functions are have a national E governance plan and
being performed well by the UPSC, the central recruiting agency of our nation, more recently launched the Unique ID
through its innovative and proactive approach. Number scheme. All these are the ma-
Union Public Service Commission:- It's duty towards nation jor initiatives of the government to
Reform of the public services is critical to change the lives of people of the na- bring good governance in the realm of
tion. The administrators must be responsive to the needs of the people. Their public service delivery systems but the
work is a public service-commitment, dedication and honesty should be the success of all these depends of the well
hallmarks of their work. The role of the UPSC in ensuring good governance manned administrative machinery,
assumes contemporary relevance in the larger context of the rising expectations which is honest, has morals and ethics
of the people for an effective delivery of programmes, benefits and services that and is well versed with the changing
are critical for people's welfare. As one of the original constitutional structures to demands of the times. This can thus be
translate the vision of our founding fathers to create an independent civil service, achieved by our civil servants; hence
UPSC was entrusted with the task of conducting examinations for appointment to the role of the UPSC is like laying the
services of the Union. The constitution enjoins the Government that the Commis- foundations of the Good Governance
sion shall be consulted on all matters relating to recruitment, promotions and on in our country. The responsibility for
all disciplinary matters affecting civil servants. A healthy, efficient and honest recruiting the finest talent for manning
public service is the very backbone of the Government and the UPSC endeavours the civil services and protecting their
to provide the same to our nation. The Union Public Service Commission is thus just interests so that they may act im-
regarded as one of the pillars of our Constitutional arrangement. The founding partially and fearlessly are some of the
fathers of our Republic have envisaged a pivotal role for the UPSC as the keystone tasks given to the Commission under
in the vital machinery of governance. They, therefore, armed it with a constitu- the Constitution. UPSC is also respon-
tional status and also provided it with necessary safeguards for its independent sible for advising the Government on

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 24 Civil Services

Current NEWS Covered up to NOVEMBER 01, 2010
TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com
related matters of service that actually ment of India in a civil capacity, includ- people. Social welfare schemes occupy
cover personnel policy and human re- ing memorials or petitions relating to a central position in the endeavour to
source management. The structure and such matters. empower the disadvantaged sections
process of governance are crucially af- 5. Advising the President: UPSC ren- of society so that they can join the na-
fected by the nature and quality of ders valuable advice to the President of tional mainstream. These are some is-
public officials in its service. It is be- India whenever such advice is sought sues which require perspectives. Some
cause of the recruiting policies of the by the office. This advice is valuable in of the pertinent questions are whether
UPSC that an impartial and apolitical reforming the recruitment process and the selection procedure adequately
bureaucracy in India has strengthened making it attune with the times. looks for qualities and skills required
governance in the country, and has These are the generalised list of func- in a changing environment in which
contributed to its development and sta- tions which the UPSC is supposed to the civil services work. The answers or
bility. Enlisted below are few points perform. The major task or function of more aptly to say the solutions to these
that highlight the functions of UPSC the UPSC is recruiting and acting as an question lie with the UPSC, which has
through which it aims to change the advisory body to the government. This a mandate to prepare our bureaucrats
governance prospects in India. is appropriate to applaud the com- with a proper mind set and a vision to
1. The system of recruitment: The sys- mendable task which the UPSC is per- face the welfare challenges of the fu-
tem of recruitment to public services forming in an era when there is a repo- ture. UPSC need to make effective ar-
has been a subject of reform and inno- sitioning of the concept of good gover- rangements for the training process
vation and the UPSC has constantly nance as the role of the government which can prepare the individual to
strived to develop a recruitment sys- evolves to meet the challenges of the take on the responsibilities of public
tem that tests the aptitude and compe- 21st century. Good governance implies service. Regular in-service training for
tency required of an increasingly spe- people's participation, rule of law, trans- bringing about better performance
cialized public administration. At the parency, responsiveness, consensus ori- should be made mandatory. Perfor-
same time, it has pursued the goal of entation in decision making, equity and mance assessment parameters should
ensuring adequate representation and inclusion, effectiveness and account- be made clear by the UPSC for the civil
social justice for the people, thereby ability. De-centralization is very impor- servants so that the work undertaken
making the government more inclusive tant for it is a participatory form of gov- by them may be judged fairly. Public
and participatory. ernance that empowers people, particu- servants must have firm moorings to
2. The system of consultations: The larly the underprivileged, the women moral values and principles. Our nation
UPSC is consulted by the government and other disadvantaged sections of has been founded on human values and
on matters related to the recruitment, society. A people-centric administration progressive ideas. If public servants are
promotions and transfers and on the with local institutions playing a lead- disciplined and hardworking it would
suitability of the candidates for such ing role has the advantage of being clos- have a multiplier effect on society itself
appointments. But the function of the est to the people. The 73rd and the 74th as they can by their own conduct and
UPSC is to advise and not to decide. Amendments to the Constitution have example, spur others in the same direc-
3. Reforming the selection process: taken democracy to the grassroots. For tion. While dealing with issues that
The tremendous growth and wide the successful functioning Panchayti Raj have a human dimension, it is impor-
spread of knowledge today places a re- bodies there should be proper training tant that public authorities must be sen-
sponsibility on the civil servant to keep and capacity building at various levels sitive. Building a caring administration
abreast of latest developments so that - Gram Sabhas, Zila Parishads, Zonal is important.
these can be put to effective use in the levels. This function is performed by the Thus we can say that the Union Public
country's development. For this very UPSC through its proper recruitment. Service Commission plays an impor-
reason the UPSC has set up commit- UPSC is thus building the foundation tant role in the governance process of
tees from time to time to bring neces- of Good Governance in our country. the country. As a constitutional body,
sary changes in the process of selection
of the candidates. The Kothari commit-
tee (1979) and the Satish Chandra Com-
O ur administrative machinery is
passing through a tough phase.
The challenges before the 21st century
it is has provided a strong institutional
mechanism for the recruitment, ap-
pointment and career related matters
mittee (1988), Hota Committee etc gave administration are many. It has to en- of the members of India's civil services.
some valuable recommendations in the sure transparency, honesty, morals eth- It has set high standards for itself and
selection procedures of the civil ser- ics, and on the same hand deliver the has been recruiting persons of merit
vants. The very recent change by the result with utmost efficiency and effec- and ability, in an open and impartial
UPSC is to bring a Civil Service Apti- tiveness and the focus would need to manner. It has also shown a remark-
tude Test in place of the erstwhile Pre- be centred on propelling economic able ability to respond to changing re-
liminary examination of the ICS is an- growth, following a growth trajectory quirements by taking recourse to inno-
other major initiative of the UPSC to that is inclusive and providing basic vative and transparent reform initia-
select the candidates on the basis of amenities to all its citizens. Governance tives. Better systems of selection (the
their aptitude for the service. will be judged by the manner in which current change in the selection of the
4. Disciplinary Matters: UPSC is deals policies of economic growth are imple- ICS with the introduction of the CSAT)
with all the disciplinary matters affect- mented and the extent to which ben- will in the long run have a positive ef-
ing a person serving under the govern- eficial outcomes can be delivered to the fect on the quality of governance.

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 25 Civil Services

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Solved Mains General Studies 2010


General Studies
Tracing trendless Paper I to use 700 billion cubic feet of water, Andhra
trends 1. Answer the following in 250 words for each Pradesh 800 billion cubic feet and Maharashtra
We are presenting the answer = 20×2 = 40 560 billion cubic feet. But defying the tribunal's
model (a) "Disputes between the- riparian states on award, Andhra Pradesh began work on the
answer for General sharing of river waters in post- Independence Telugu Ganga Project requiring additional
Studies India are becoming increasingly complex." Krishna waters. The height of the Almatti dam
(Mains examination Objectively analyse the major disputes in this is another contentious issue relating to Krishna
2010). The paper has connection, with special reference to the waters.
indicated a changing
Southern States. Source: CST July 2004, Page No 42 and (CST
trend of answer writing.
The UPSC has tried to Answer: Article 262 (1) does not itself lay down December 2007, Page No 64)
delink the textbooks any specific machinery for adjudication of See details in Indian Polity about Cauvery
and prepared materials. water disputes. It only lays down that Dispute on Page No. 218 and Col.3
Now, the examination Parliament may by law provide for the
checks your ability to adjudication of any disputes or complaints with (b) Critically examine the differing estimates
link the things im- respect to use, distribution or control of the for (i) poverty figures, and (ii) GDP growth data
promptu, i.e., at spot waters of, or in, any inter-state river or river for April-June 2010, that have been in the news
orientation of facts and valley. This is a major reason for growing recently. In your view, what estimates are more
concepts in relation to
complexity amidst undefined provisions. reflective of the ground reality, and why?
the given scope of the
answer. In this regard, it Source: CST Indian Polity 2010, Page 196 and Answer: The RBI has revised upwards the GDP
becomes necessary for Column I growth rate. “Taking into account the progress
the examinee to Though the irrigation projects were under the of monsoon so far and the prevailing global
understand the scope, control of the central government during the macroeconomic scenario, for policy purposes,
context and dimensions British time, but the republic of India after the baseline projection of real GDP growth for
of the question. independence made irrigation a state subject. 2010-11 is revised to 8.5 per cent, up from 8 per
Further, now answers As a result, state governments at present cent with an upside bias as indicated in April
cannot be done without
virtually exercise full control on planning, 2010 policy statement,” the policy statement
knowing the proper
context of the answer.
development, regulation, distribution and emphasised.
For this, a thorough control of water flowing through their Source: CST September 2010, Page No. 94,
study is needed and territories. This has ushered lack of uniformity Column No. 1
traditional notes cannot in the policy making. The all-India rural headcount ratio and all-India
be enough to meet Cauvery dispute: Tamil Nadu, in its suit filed combined headcount ratio using the
such challenges. You in 2001, opines that, though the final award has recommended procedure is 41.8 per cent and
have to not only keep been given by the tribunal, since the Centre is 37.2 per cent in comparison with official
these facts into you yet to notify it in the gazette, the interim award estimates of 28.3 per cent and 27.5 per cent
mind but also should
continues to remain in operation and Karnataka respectively. Poverty at all-India level in 1993-
have the ability to link
two different contexts in should implement it. The interim order was 94 was 50.1 per cent in rural areas, 31.8 per cent
a concrete manner. In given in June 1991 directing Karnataka to in urban areas and 45.3 per cent in the country
such a situation, there release 205tmcft water. as a whole as compared to the 1993-94 official
is a need to practice Narmada Dispute: The Centre set up a estimates of 37.2 per cent rural, 32.6 per cent
writing and formulation Narmada water dispute tribunal under section urban and 36.0 per cent combined.
of the answers. 4 of the Inter-state Water Dispute Act, 1956. The Infact, the new basis of deciding poverty is
Considering these award of the tribunal, which came which came more real because:
necessities, we are in 1979 allowed Gujarat to utilise 90 lakh acre There is a need to move away from anchoring
focusing contextual
feet of water, while Madhya Pradesh and the poverty lines to a calorie intake norm.
requirement of the
answer within the Maharashtra were allowed 182.5 lakh acre feet Since for canvassing household expenditure on
stipulated words limit. and 2.5 lakh acre feet respectively. Apart from a recall basis, the NSSO has decided to shift to
this the construction of Sardar Sarovar dam on an MRP-based estimates for all its consumption
Narmada has also been in controversy. surveys in future, there is need to adopt the
Instead of 3,000 words Krishna water dispute: After independence MRP-based estimates of consumption
of answer in the Karnataka due to its developmental needs expenditure as the basis for future poverty lines
previous year, this time, started utilising more and more of Krishna as against the previous practice of using URP
UPSC has asked
water. This led to discontent in the lower estimates. This change
answers in 3,520
words. It means almost
riparian state, Andhra Pradesh. Therefore in captures the household consumption
20 per cent increase in 1969, the Bachawat tribunal was set up to find expenditure of poor households on low-
the writing speed can a solution to the dispute of sharing Krishna frequency items of purchase more satisfactorily.
enable to complete the waters. The award of the tribunal came in 1976 MRP equivalent of the urban poverty line
paper. and according to which Karnataka was allowed basket (PLB) corresponding to 25.7 per cent
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 26 Civil Services
Current NEWS Covered up to NOVEMBER 01, 2010
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Solved Mains General Studies 2010

urban headcount ratio as the new reference PLB are the salient features of the 106th and 111th
to be provided to rural as well as urban constitutional amendment bills as at present?
The UPSC has population in all the states after suitable Answer: The Union Government has proposed
widened the scope of adjustments. a Constitutional Amendment “to ensure
the historical personali- The proposed reference PLB takes into account democratic, autonomous, and professional
ties and now they have all items of consumption (except transport and functioning of cooperatives”. The Union
included the regional conveyance) for construction of price indices. Minister for Agriculture and Cooperation
leaders of the India’s
Separate allowance for private expenditure on introduced this Bill on 22nd May 2006 in the
struggle for freedom
and even included the
transport and conveyance has been made in the Lok Sabha.
personalities before recommended poverty lines. Source: CST Indian Polity 2010, Page No. 213
1857. The new poverty lines seek to enable the rural and Column 3
as well as urban population in all the States to The 111th constitutional amendment adds a
afford the recommended all-India urban PLB new Directive Principles of State Policy stating
after taking due account of within-State rural- that the “State shall endeavour to promote
urban and inter-State differentials (rural and voluntary formation, autonomous functioning,
urban) incorporating observed consumer democratic control and professional
behaviour both at the all-India and State levels. management of co-operative societies.” It
Source: CST April 2010, Page No. 61 and see further inserts a new part IX B in the
the Box Constitution (adding Articles 243ZH through
Economy needed 243ZT), which outlines certain guidelines for
CST: 100 per cent of the questions
better control over running co-operative societies.
in this section were directly asked
facts, current data and Source: CST Indian Polity 2010, Page No. 234
from the various issues of the CST
its interrelationship with and Box
other contemporary magazine, i.e 40/40
issues. 2. Answer any two of the following in about (c) "Small-holder farms need to be strengthened
For this CST recom- 150 words each: 12×2 = 24 to achieve national food security." Do you agree
mends a comprehen-
(a) "Dalhousie's predecessors had acted on the with this assessment? Substantiate.
sive study of the
Economic Survey of general principles of avoiding annexations, if Answer: Small-holders consist of holdings in
India of the last two these could be avoided. Dalhousie acted on the the range of 1 to 4 hectares. In 1970-71, there
years along with a principles of annexation, if lie could do so were 24 million holdings and they accounted
newspaper like legitimately. His annexations were both of war for 49 million hectares or 30 per cent of the total
Financial Express. The and peace." Analyse. area operated.
traditional books like Answer: The treaties concluded with the Source: CST Indian Economy 2010, Page 215
Dutta and Sundaram Princely States were not on the basis of and Col. 3
and Mishra and Puri
reciprocity and mutual amity, but imposed the As per the Report of the Committee on Financial
should be also
considered as a basic
obligation on the part of Princely States to act Inclusion (January 2008), more than 73 per cent
textbook. in subordinate cooperation with the British of farmer households have no access to formal
Government and acknowledge its supremacy. sources of credit. Innovative institutional
This change took place under the policy of mechanisms that provide credit and financial
The relevance of subordinate isolation. The founder of this products (including insurance products)
Modern India is on a policy were Lord Hastings and Lord Dalhousie. specifically designed to meet the needs of the
declining trend but it In the theory of Paramountcy included the farm sector keeping their risk - bearing ability
should not be treated provision of subordinate co-operation; in view is the need of the hour.
as a benchmark and a
supremacy of East India Company; no external The rural economy needs to be viewed as
deep and wide study of
the material should be
sovereignty of Princely States, they have only comprising a continuum of interrelated
needed and for this internal sovereignty, presence of British economic activities. Farming needs to be
along with NCERT residents in all states; and the British residents dovetailed with viable off-farm and non-farm
Class XI and XII, one would be the organ of communication between activities. Farmers need to be facilitated to take
should also refer British India and Princely States and a Princely up value addition such as processing of
Grover and Mehta States and other state. agricultural produce, horticulture, pisciculture,
alongwith Tara Chand Source: CST Mains 1, Modern India, Page No. poultry, development of non-farm rural
Vol 3 and 4. 60 and Col 1 enterprises.
Bipan Chandra’s
Dalhousie realised that these Princely States On the distribution side, there is need to ensure
India’s struggle for
independence is still have been already crippled by the policies of that benefits accrue to the targeted population.
the basic text. The area his predecessors and therefore, this is golden A mission approach for promotion of smart
wise spread of mass opportunity to extend the direct rule in the cards and its cross reference with ration cards
movement, along with name of peace i.e, ensuring stability in the and voter ID cards would help better targeting,
tribal, caste, civil princely states by elimination of lesser leakages and easier administration.
rebellion should be maladministration and seldom in the name of An area that requires focused attention is the
done from Sumit war. issue of sustainability of agriculture with due
Sarkar. (b) With respect to cooperative societies what emphasis on environmental concerns. Soil
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 27 Civil Services
Current NEWS Covered up to NOVEMBER 01, 2010
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Solved Mains General Studies 2010

erosion, water logging, reduction in State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and
groundwater table and the decline in the Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) of Union
Considering the surface irrigation are the problems faced by Territories.
analysis of both
agriculture. Source: CST Science and Technology 2010,
Prelims and Mains
2010, one can safely
Source: CST Contemporary Issues, Page Page No. 364
conclude that there is No. 92 (b) Assess the contributions made by the Indian
specific emphasis on Council of Agriculture Research in agriculture
CST: 100 per cent of the questions
environment related development
in this section were directly asked
questions in both the Answer: During the year, 33 explorations were
from the various issues of the CST
papers and therefore, a undertaken and 2,203 accessions including 784
thorough revision of magazine i.e 24/24
of wild species were collected. In the National
environment and 3. Answer any two of the following in about Herbarium of Cultivated Plants, 371 harbarium
ecology is a must. 150 words: 12×2 = 24 specimens, 121 seed samples and 21 economic
(a) Comment on the spatial components in products were added.
urban solid waste management in the country. A total of 25,456 diverse crop accessions were
Answer: Chemical Safety: The Manufacture, introduced from various countries, and 15,000
Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical accessions, including germplasm from the
(MSIHC) Rules, 1989 and the Chemical ICRISAT, were exported to 19 countries. About
Accident (Emergency Planning, Preparedness 13,850 accessions of orthodox and species were
and Response) Rules, 1996 are the main added to the National Genebank.
instruments for ensuring chemical safety in the Under the germ-plasm evaluation and
In the Geography country. There are one thousand eight hundred conservation programme 8,413 lines of 5,847
section, the questions
forty one MAH units in the country, located in accessions of agricultural crops were evaluated
have been not only
confined to Indian two hundred ninety two districts in twenty six and preserved for the long-term storage in the
Geography but also States/UTs (twenty three States & three UT’s) National Gene Bank. National Facility for Plant
Physical Geography of of the country. A “GIS based Emergency Tissue Culture Repository has maintained a
the World and Planning and Response System” for chemical total of 862 accessions for intro conservation.
therefore besides accidents in Major Accident Hazard (MAH) Improved lines identified in Indian been
NCERT VI to XII one units has been developed. (AHDB-16) bottle gourd, line AHLS-II, AHLS-
should also study Management of Plastic Wastes: These are lit- 24 and AHG-13 cluster bean. PGR
Khullar for Indian tered around and if not collected systematically management; development of high yielding
Geography and G C
may find their way into the drainage system varieties/hybrids; development of RILs for
Leong for Physical
Geography resulting in choking of drains, creating unhy- important traits in tomato, brinjal, chilli and
gienic environment and causing health prob- pumpkin; development of transgenic lines in
lems. The Ministry has notified the Recycled tomato using Cry 1 Ac, DREB, ZAT-12 and T-
Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999 rep gene construct pyramiding; expression
under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 profiling of gene in tomato for early blight,
and amended them in 2003 for regulating and draught and heat and development of organic
managing plastic carry bags and containers. farming protocols developed. Conserved 1,400
After extensive consultations with stakehold- cultivated potatoes in vitro under slow growth.
ers, the Ministry has now notified the draft Plas- Hybrid MP/98-71 was released as a French fry
tics (Manufacture, Usage & Waste Manage- variety, while hybrid MP/98-916 was
NOTE ment) Rules, 2009 and invited objections/ sug- introduced in AICPIP as chipping hybrid. 3
Only a detailed gestions to the proposals contained in the draft lines with resistance to bacterial wilt were
compilation of Indian notification to finalize the notification. The new identified. Data base for the use of INFOCROP
physiographic division Rules will supersede the existing Recycled Plas- potato model has been developed.
is the most important tics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999 (as Source: CST India 2010, Page 32, Col 2 and 3,
chapter in this context. amended in 2003). 33 and col. 1
Besides that questions
Bio-Medical Waste Management: The Minis- (c) List the significance local storms of the hot
related to multipurpose
projects, sanctuaries, try has notified the Bio-Medical Waste (Man- – weather season in the country and bring out
infrastructure - agement & Handling) Rules, 1998 (BMW Rules) their socio-economic impact.
especially roads, under the provisions of Environment (Protec- Answer: It is characterised by low-pressure
Greenfield airports, tion) Act, 1986 for proper management and han- system high temperature, unstable pressure
commercial ports, dling of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) generated and wind circulation. The dust storms of Punjab
census, tribals, in the country. Under these Rules, the wastes and Haryana, the Loo of UP, the Norwesters
urbanization, urban generated by Health Care Establishments (Kalbaisakhis) of W. Bengal and cyclonic
planning, crop pattern, (HCEs) have been categorized into 10 catego- depressions of the eastern coast produce a
different revolution in
ries and treatment & disposal methods for each stormy and turbulent weather. The rains caused
production needs
special treatment. of these categories of wastes have been speci- by thunderstorm in Karnataka are called
fied. The status of implementation of these rules ‘Cherry Blossoms’. These are beneficial for
is being regularly monitored by the respective coffee plantation. Elsewhere in South India they
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 28 Civil Services
Current NEWS Covered up to NOVEMBER 01, 2010
TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com
Solved Mains General Studies 2010

are known as ‘Mango Showers’. Dry and dusty Whereas Navodaya Vidyalayas are fully
westerly winds flow in the northern western residential co-educational institutions
In the Indian Polity parts of the country which make the outdoor providing education up to senior secondary
section, both traditional life difficult are known as Loo. stage. The provision for establishment of such
and contemporary Source: CST Indian Geography 2010, Page No. schools was mentioned in the National Policy
issues are important 201 and Col 2 on Education, 1986. These schools emphasise
and for each and every on quality education of children especially from
topic a personal CST: 100 per cent of the questions rural areas. The scheme, which started with
opinion is needed and
in this section were directly asked only two schools on experimental basis in 1985-
for this best source is
TMH’s Laxmikanth’s from the various issues of the CST 86, has grown to 565 schools (as on 31 March
Indian Polity alongwith magazine, i.e 24/24 2007) covering as many districts in 34 States/
Subhas C Kashyap’s UTs, with over 1.93 lakh students on rolls as
Current Perspective on 4. Answer any two of the following in 150 on 31 March 2007.
Indian Polity and PM words: 12×2 = 24 Source: CST India 2010, Page No. 98 and Col 1
Baskshi’s Indian (a) What are the grounds of disqualifications
Constitution. of a member of parliament from either House? (c) Bring out the salient features of evolution
Through writing Quote relevant provisions in your answer. and the current status of the ‘Bharat Stage’
practice, one has to
Answer: The growing defection is a massive vehicle emission norms in the country.
interrelate constitu-
tional issues with violation of the people’s mandate. The 52nd Answer: Currently, emissions of Nitrogen
general issues and Amendment, 1985 introduced the 10th schedule oxides (NOx), Total hydrocarbon (THC), Non-
current issues. in the constitution. It also amended the Articles methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), Carbon
101, 102, 190 and 191. If a member voluntarily monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) are
resigns from or votes in the House against the regulated for most vehicle types. In the area of
directives of the party on whose symbol he has fuels, the 2001 Biofuels Directive requires that
entered the house, he/she would be liable to 5.75% of all transport fossil fuels (petrol and
be disqualified from membership; diesel) should be replaced by biofuels by 31
The strategy to deal
Before the 91st amendment the Para 3 recog- December 2010, with an intermediate target of
with opinion-based nized a ‘split’ if the legislators, defying the 2% by the end of 2005. However, MEPS have
questions is to weigh party whip, form a third of the total strength of since voted to lower this target in the wake of
both positive and a legislature party. new scientific evidence about the sustainability
negative facets of the In the case of a merger, the decision should of biofuels and the impact on food prices. In a
concerned topic and have the support of not less than 2/3rd of the vote in Strasbourg, the European parliament’s
then point out your party members. The jurisdiction of courts is environment committee supported a plan to
conclusion by bringing barred in this respect of matters connected with curb the EU target for renewable sources in
out the real state of the
the qualification of members. The anti-defection transport to 4% by 2015. They also said that a
concerned topic and
this shows your ability law does not provide for the expulsion of a thorough review would be required in 2015
to analyse and member from his party for his activities outside before the EU could progress to an 8-10% mark
understand by the House, nor do they provide for anything by 2020.
interlinking relevant like an attached member. Exhaust gasses whilst highly harmful, are far
points in arriving at a Source CST: Indian Polity 2010, Page No. 166 less toxic than they were years ago. Emission
particular point. and Col 1 and 3 standards for passenger cars and light
commercial vehicles are summarised in the
(b) Distinguishes between the objectives, following tables. Since the Euro 2 stage, EU
structure and functioning of the ‘Kendriya regulations introduce different emission limits
Vidyalaya Sangathan’ and the ‘Navodaya for diesel and gasoline vehicles. Diesels have
Vidyalaya Samiti’. more stringent CO standards but are allowed
Answer: Kendriya higher NOx emissions. Gasoline-powered
Vidyalaya Sangathan is an autonomous body vehicles are exempted from particulate matter
established in 1965 with the objective of setting (PM) standards through to the Euro 4 stage, but
NOTE up and monitoring of Kendriya Vidyalayas. vehicles with direct injection engines will be
For institutions and The main purpose of these schools were to cater subject to a limit of 0.005 g/km for Euro 5 and
organisations of
to the educational needs of the children of Euro 6.
national importance,
consult the India Year
transferable Central Government Employees Source: CST May 2010, Page No. 39; Col 2 in
Book published by including Defence Personnel and Para Military Box
Publications Divisions forces. At present, there are 931 Kendriya CST: 100 per cent of the questions
of India. Vidyalayas (as on 17 June 2005) out of which in this section were directly asked
three Kendriya Vidyalayas are based abroad from the various issues of the CST
i.e., one each in Kathmandu, Moscow and magazine, i.e 24/24
Tehran. All Kendriya Vidyalayas follow a 5. Write brief out precise notes on any six of
uniform syllabus. the following your answer should not exceed
Source: CST India 2010, Page No. 98 and Col 3 50 words in each case. 5×6 = 30
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 29 Civil Services
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(a) Transhumance in India is a fall of just one metre for every 6 km.
There is no specific The seasonal pattern of movement of Nomads Therefore, the river develops large meanders.
trend of asking along with their herds between mountains and The dendritic pattern develops where the river
questions related to lowland pastures is known as Transhumance. channel follows the slope of the terrain. The
geography, polity and Source: CST Indian Geography, Page No. 107 stream with its tributaries resembles the
history and the best and Col 2 branches of a tree, thus the name dendritic.
way is to prepare them In India such movement is seen in tribal areas, (g) ‘Break-of-bulk’ towns.
thoroughly irrespective north east and Uttarakhand and MP region. A break-in-bulk point is a place where goods
of the trends of the
(b) Frontogenesis and Frontolysis are transferred from one mode of transport to
question and their
weightage in the paper.
Frontogenesis: another, for example the docks where goods
CST believes in text It is a process of regeneration of the old and transfer from ship to truck.
book reading because the decaying fronts or it means the creation of CST: 60 per cent of the questions
without this one cannot altogether new fronts. in this section were directly asked
build specific opinion Frontolysis: from the various issues of the CST
about the subject The process means the dying of a front. Fronts magazine, i.e 18/30
matter. do not come into existence out of a sudden; 6. Answer any three about 150 words each.
rather they appear only after the process of 12×3 = 36
frontogenesis has been in operation for quite (a) While bringing out their salient features,
some time. distinguish between either Madhubari art and
Source: CST Indian Geography, Page No. 52 Manjusha art or Rajasthani schools of painting
and Col 1 and the Pahari School of painting.
For the Arts and (c) Golden revolution Answer: Rajasthani Group: The origin of
Culture section, you India has emerged as the second largest Rajasthani painting dates back to the Sultanate
have to rely on the producer of fresh fruits and vegetables in the period in the early 16th century. A few dated or
Gazetteer of India, world. India is presently the largest exporter undated examples of the second quarter of that
Volume II, published by of spices and cashew. A total of 460 high- Century in the characteristic Rajasthani style
Publications Division.
yielding varieties and hybrids of horticultural are known, showing the Rajasthani style in a
The matters are
exhaustive and crops have been developed. rather developed form, although the
comprehensive and (d) Sea-floor spreading illustrations are still simple and unostentatious.
make diagrammatic Hess’s seafloor-spreading model: On the other hand, the Chaurapan-chashika
notes of the various In this paper Hess, drawing on Holmes’s model group of illustrations of the second half of the
patterns and architec- of convective flow in the mantle, suggested that same century shows a refined quality in the
tural designs. The the mid-ocean ridges were the surface same style. The rise of regional sub-schools in
architectural terms and expressions of rising and diverging convective the Rajasthani group seems to have taken place
concepts must be
flow while trenches and Benioff zones with in the same period. However, the earliest
properly understood.
There should be
their associated island arcs marked descending documents from centres like Mewar, Amber,
special emphasis to limbs. At the ridge crests new oceanic crust Bundi, Gujarat, Jodhpur, and Malwa appear
paintings, sculpture, would be generated and then carried away only from the beginning of the 17th century.
temples, architectural laterally to cool, subside, and finally be They appear in their most exuberant forms of
style, literature and destroyed in the nearest trenches. expression, each differing in quality and
epics. Source: CST Indian Geography, Page No. 21 representing and independent sub-school,
and Col 2 although all the sub-styles possess certain
(e) Legislative powers assigned to the Rajya common factors due to their common origin.
Sabha under art 249 and art 312 of the All these paintings are decorative in their
Constitution composition and colour-scheme.
Article 312, the RS has the power to create an Since its inception the style was wedded to an
All India Services. Article 249 provides that if unrivalled attachment to Nature; the illustra-
RS has declared by resolution supported by not tions are almost at the level of landscape paint-
less than two-thirds of the members present ings in which human figures play insignificant
NOTE and voting that it is necessary or expedient in roles. The tree types with their never-ending
For Arts and Culture, the national interest that Parliament should variety, dense foliage, and richly decorative
CST 2 and 5 Marker make laws with respect to any matter forms were associated with the singing birds
may be sufficient but
enumerated in the State List specified in the and frolicking animals which similarly appear
prefer Gazetteer of
India, Volume II, if you resolution. in the depiction of the amorous sentiment (
have enough time. Source: CST Indian Polity, Page No. 122 and sringara rasa) in Indian poetry or music. Rivers
Col 1 full of lotus blossoms and drops of rain falling
(f) Causes for dominant dendritic pattern of from deep blue clouds, and streaks of gold
drainage in the Gangetic plains. showing flashes of lightning flank the colourful
The plains from Ambala to the Sunderban landscape. aDuring the 18th century, two dif-
stretch over nearly 1800 km, but the fall in its ferent groups appear in the Pahari area. Except
slope is hardly 300 metres. In other words, there that both are fundamentally lyrical in feeling
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 30 Civil Services
Current NEWS Covered up to NOVEMBER 01, 2010
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and have almost the same themes as common (iv) Saraswati Samman: Saraswati Samman is
sources of inspiration, they are basically op- given every year to an outstanding literary
In the section of topics
of national importance,
posed to one another. One is rapresented by work written in any Indian language and
you have maintain a the traditionalists-Basohli, Bilaspur, Mandi, published in the last ten years.
regular register to etc., while the other by the Mughal-influenced Source: CST June 2010; Page No. 40, Col 3
mention the develop- Kangra, Guler and Garhwal group which is (d) After September 1st changes, do you think
ments and any sophisticated, sweet and lyrical. Pahari paint- the ULIPS and mutual funds are on a level
incomplete and without ing is more human in feeling, more sympathetic playing field? Substantiate your answer from
updated information, in its outlook and more subtle. Thus, the dying the perspective of an ordinary investor.
the preparation is Mughal School founded a great art-style, which Answer: (a) The ULIPS will become more
incomplete and
blossomed into several notable sub-styles in the investor-friendly.
therefore maintain
topic wise register and
Punjab Hills, representing the last great epoch (b) After DTC comes into effect from April
with the passage of in the traditional Indian art. Source: CST 2 2011, ULIPS could prove a little less tax-
time you update them MARKER Page No. 213, Col 3 and 215, Col: 3 efficient. However, if one were to buy it before
through newspapers (b) Bring out the powers and responsibilities DTC becomes operational; it is likely that the
and newsmagazines. attached to the office of the speaker of Lok maturity amount will not be taxable.
Sabha. (c) The single premium policy cover now has
Answer: 1. Ex-officio President of the Indian to be based on the age of the policyholder rather
Parliamentary Group; than the tenure of the policy. The new
2. Lok Sabha Secretariat functions under his guidelines explicitly mention the maximum
direction and under the control and Secretary limit of health insurance cover provided by
For the rural-develop- General assists him in his functioning. insurers.
ment and poverty 3. Nominates, in consultation with the (d) Perhaps the most significant change that
alleviation schemes, Chairman of Rajya Sabha, personnel for various will benefit investors is the change in the load
consult the Economic parliamentary delegation to foreign countries. structure. The front loading or the commission
Survey of India, 4. No arrest without his cognizance. structure that used to be heavily levied on such
chapter 10, i.e. Social 5. Regulatory Powers: to adjourn the House in products over the first two years will now have
Sector; India Year the absence of quorum; power to allocate the to be spread evenly over the first five years of
Book 2011 and if you
timings; power to admit motions and the tenure of the policy tenure.
have enough time then
Yojana and resolutions; interpretation of institution and the (e) However, as an investor the cost could still
Kurukshetra maga- rules of procedure. be very high during the course of the policy.
zines 6. Certifies the Money Bill (Art.110) at the time So, if he surrenders in the 6th or 7th year, the
of transfer to Rajya Sabha. impact on yield could be around 6-7 . To
7. Emolument from CFI. prevent this, IRDA has prescribed a difference
8. He is the sole authority in the anti-defection of 400 bps (4 ), which gradually reduces to 300
law. bps (3 ) in the tenth year in the last couple of
9. The Speaker shall preside over a joint sitting decades, SEBI has done well to regulate the
of the two Houses of the Parliament. Article Indian capital market sensibly and
118 (4). methodically, through difficult times,
Source: CST Indian Polity 2010, Page No. 123 notwithstanding the periodic hiccups in the
NOTE and Col. 2; Words: 130 market, with a scam here or a fraud there. On
Time-management has the whole, SEBI has adopted an approach of
become very crucial in (c) Distinguish between the following four sensible gradualism, rather than go for drastic
these exams not only literary awards: changes.
at the preparation level (i) Jnanpith Award: crowning glory continues Source: CST November 2010, Page No. 96 and
but also at the writing
to be the annual 'Jnanpith Award' (of Rs. 5 Col. 1 and 2; Words: 261
of answers in the
lakhs), given for the best creative literary
examination hall. CST: 100 per cent of the questions
Therefore, don't kill writing by any Indian citizen in any of the
in this section were directly asked
your time and first languages included in the VIII Schedule of the from the various issues of the CST
prepare and then Indian Constitution. Source: Bhartiya
magazine, i.e 36/36
appear. In other words, Jnanpith.net.
first prepare Mains and (ii) Sathiya Akademi Award: Every year since 7. Answer any five in about 150 words. 12×5=
then go for CSAT its inception in 1954, the Sahitya Akademi 60
because the amount of Award prizes to the most outstanding books (a) What do you understand by ‘repo rate’ and
information cannot be ‘reverse repo rate’? What are the implications
of literary merit published in any of the major
tackled in a few
Indian languages recognised by the Akademy. in raising these rates?
Source: www.sahitya-akademi.gov.in Answer: Repo contract is a contract whereby
(iii) Vyas samman: The Vyas Samman, which one contractual party transfers financial assets
is awarded for an outstanding Hindi literary (e.g., securities) in favour of the other
work published during the last ten years since contractual party in exchange for a sum of
1991, carries a cash prize of Rs. 2.5 lakh. money.
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 31 Civil Services
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> repo transactions – receipt of deposits and (Punjab), (vi) Sambar (Rajasthan)
sale of securities with a commitment to Point Calimere (Tamil Nadu) and ten others
At the preparation
level, the important
repurchase these on a specific date. have been recently included in the international
aspect is the review of > reverse repo transactions – making deposits Ramsar Convention list.
the previous question and buying securities with a commitment to Source: CST Science and Technology 2010,
papers of the last resell them on a specific date. Page No 351
twenty years. This In other words, when RBI lends money to The Montreux Record is a register of wetland
gives a lot of ideas bankers against approved securities for sites on the List of Wetlands of International
about the changing meeting their day to day requirements or to fill Importance where changes in ecological
trends of the paper and short term gap. It takes approved securities as character have occurred, are occurring, or are
also your requirement
security and lends money. These types of likely to occur as a result of technological
of the material and its
quality to meet the
operations are generally for overnight developments, pollution or other human
standards of the operations. interference. It is maintained as part of the
question. This will Source: CST April 2010, Page No 31 and see Ramsar List. Keoladeo National Park,
enable you to assess Box designated 01/10/81, Rajasthan, 2,873 ha,
your preparation level In order to control to rising inflation rate, the Montreux Record 04/07/90; Loktak Lake,
will discourage a 'touch central bank has tightened the liquidity flow designated 23/03/90, Manipur, 26,600 ha,
and go approach' of by raising the repo rate from 5.5 per cent to 5.75 Montreux Record 16/06/93.
the candidates and per cent and the reverse repo rate from 4 per
their coaching
cent to 4.50 per cent. (d) Are the ‘Dedicated Freight Corridor’
Source: CST September 2010, Page No 94 and railway project and the ‘Golden Quadrilateral’
column 1 road project mutually complementary or
competitive? Assess.
(b) "Cost - benefit analysis should not be the Answer: Dedicated Freight Corridor
sole consideration, while deciding to host Corporation of India (DFCCIL) is a Special
events like the Commonwealth Games." Purpose Vehicle set up under the
Critically comment on this perspective. administrative control of Ministry of Railways
Answer: The cost-benefit analysis is an to monitor DFC. The plan to construct
important component of trading and dedicated freight corridors across the country
investment but there are certain specific areas marks a strategic inflexion point in the history
where the entire edifice of the trade and of Indian Railways that has essentially run
investment depends and that is to whom you mixed traffic across its network. Once
are trading and where you are investing. This completed, the dedicated freight corridors will
is called the goodwill and reputation of the enable Indian Railways to improve its customer
place and the people. orientation and meet market needs more
NOTE Considering this indispensible component, the effectively. Creation of rail infrastructure on
The coaching institutes
cost-benefit analysis should not be the basis in such a scale - unprecedented in independent
have an instrumental
role to play in shaping
certain areas where cultural, managerial and India – is also expected to drive the
your preparation but administrative skills has to be shown to the establishment of industrial corridors and
their role is limited and world. The holding of these games send a direct logistic parks along its alignment.
don't listen them if they massage to the world that the country is capable In the first phase, DFCCIL will be constructing
overstretch their role to of holding big events and has a capacity to two corridors – the Western DFC and Eastern
confuse you. In this protect the investments of the people in its DFC- spanning a total length of about 2800
realm you must clarify country. route km. The Eastern Corridor, starting from
the requirements of the In fact, investments in these events may pave Ludhiana in Punjab will pass through the states
examination and a
the way for the future investments and business of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and terminate at Son
specific source and
material to tackle them. and in a world of globalization without proper Nagar in Bihar. The Western Corridor will
Ask them to match the investment no business can be sustained. traverse the distance from Dadri to Mumbai,
required level of the Therefore, these events have multi-dimensional passing through the states of Delhi, Haryana,
material and mind it in impact over the future prospectus of the Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
UPSC nothing country in the world market. Source: DFCCIL
guaranteed and Whereas Golden Quadrilateral (GQ)
nobody can claim (c) List any eight ‘Ramsar’ wetland sites located comprising, National Highways connecting
one's mastery and in India. What is the ‘Montreux Record’ and four metro cities-Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and
UPSC gives every time
what Indian sites are included in this Record? Chennai- having total length of 5846 km.
a lot of lessons to learn
and act Answer: Twenty five sites have already been Golden Quadrilateral was targeted for
designated as Ramsar sites in India till date. substantial completion by December 2005.
India has designated 6 wetlands under Ramsar North-South and East-West Corridors
Convention: (i) Keoladeo National Park comprising the National Highways connecting
(Bharat-pur), (ii) Chilka (Orissa), (iii) Loktak Srinagar to Kanyakumari including Kochi-
(Manipur), (iv) Wullar (J&K), (v) Harike Salem spur and Silchar to Porbandar. The total
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 32 Civil Services
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length of the corridors is about 7300 km. The and responsibilities of the Promoter.
North-South and East-West Corridors was In order to ensure transparency in the
For the last two-three
years, UPSC has
targeted for completion by Dec.2007. functioning there would be a regulatory
emphasized on various Source: CST Indian Geography, Page No. 220 Authority to ensure compliance of the
Acts and amendment and Box obligations cast upon the Promoters and
bills and even those Therefore, the areas of operation and the allottees.
bills which were purpose of the projects are complimentary to The Model Act provides for establishment of a
enacted before three- each other and considering the growing India Real Estate Appellate Tribunal to adjudicate
four years back and needs more projects like them. any dispute and hear and dispose of appeal
are pending in different (e) “Upliftment of the neglected sections of against any direction, decision or order of the
Houses. This is a big
society will be best served with many more Regulatory Authority.
challenge for us. Even
CST has decided to list
centres of the Indira Gandhi National Tribal
and give details of the Universities. Expand on the assertion made. CST: 40 per cent of the questions in
various acts and bills Answer: The Indira Gandhi National Tribal this section were directly asked
of the last five years. University, Amarkantak has been established from the various issues of the CST
by an Act of the Parliament of India. It came magazine, i.e 24/60
into existence by the Indira Gandhi National
Tribal University Act, 2007. 8. Answer each of the following briefly but
The university would provide avenues of precisely. Each answer should be less than 50
education, especially higher education and words. 5×6 = 30
research facilities primarily for the tribal (a) How is disagreement between the Legis-
population of India. At the same time it will lative Council and Legislative Assembly of a
disseminate and advance knowledge by State in passing of an ordinary Bill, resolved?
providing instructional and research facilities Answer: An ordinary bill is introduced in both
in tribal art, tradition, culture, language, the Houses, but in the case of deadlock, the will
medicinal systems, customs, forest based of the assembly would prevail over the will of
economic activities, flora, fauna and the Council. Even in the passing of an ordinary
advancement in technologies relating to the bills, the council has only advisory type of
natural resources of the tribal areas. powers. The Council can only detain or delay
The recent trend of Further, it will collaborate with national and the bill for the period of four months-three
UPSC paper indicates international universities and organizations, months in the first instance and one month in
that days of classroom especially for undertaking cultural studies and the second instance. When the ordinary bill
teaching is over. The research on tribal communities. originated in the council is sent to assembly,
roles of prepared It will formulate tribal centric development and if it is rejected by the assembly, there will
materials are limited. models, publish reports and monographs and be death or end of the Bill.
Besides, them one has to organize conferences and seminars on issues Source: CST Indian Polity, Page No. 143
to go for broad-based
relating to tribes and to provide inputs to policy and Box
opinion on any subject-
matter. There should
matters in different spheres. (b) Comment on the recent HFC-23 emissions
not be any inconsisten- In view of the aims and objectives of the controversy that includes in its ambit some
cies or discrepancies university the major thrust will be on providing Indian companies.
at the perception level. more opportunity for the tribes. Answer: HFC-23 is a potent greenhouse gas
A very clear and (f) Comment on the salient features of the recent which is an unwanted by product of
relevant perception draft model real estate (Regulation of manufacturing the refrigerant gas HCFC-22. At
has to be evolved in Development) Act of the Ministry of Housing the same time, HFC-23 emissions from
course of time. The and Urban Poverty Alleviation of the Central developing countries are still increasing, since
UPSC believes that the
Government. about half of their HFC-23 production is not
candidates must have
a sense of proper Answer: The Model Act proposes to establish covered by CDM projects and is released into
awareness and a regulatory authority to control and promote the atmosphere. HFC-23 destruction projects
originality. construction, sale, transfer and management of mostly profit Chinese and Indian chemical
. colonies, residential buildings, apartments and companies.
other similar properties. The Model Act (c) Comment on the recommendations of the
provides for establishment of a Real Estate Wadhwa Commission on Public Distribution
Regulatory Authority ("Regulatory Authority"), System.
to comprise of a Chairperson and two members Answer: Correctly, it has emphasised that it
to be appointed from amongst persons having may be useful to introduce food stamps/
special knowledge and professional experience coupons, which may be valid outside the PDS
in the field of public administration. outlets once the markets get better integrated.
The Act provides for compulsory registration Food coupons will allow the consumers a wider
of all real estate projects. The Model Act defines choice. Multiapplication smart cards will also
rather exhaustively who can be termed a enhance the efficiency of administering various
"Promoter" and goes on to detail the obligations schemes. In PDS system, the smart card will
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 33 Civil Services
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reduce the incidence of bogus ration cards or about 20 words. 2×8 = 16

diversion of foodgrains. Leakages can also be (a) Contributions of Latika Ghosh to the
UPSC has introduced
situational questions in
restricted by redirecting subsidies currently freedom struggle
which they ask for your under PDS to better funding of other schemes S C Bose encouraged the formation of the first
opinion and action over like Mid-Day Meal scheme or the ICDS. political organisation for women; the Mahila
a given situation. CST Source: CST August 2010, Page No. 71 and Rashtriya Sangha was formed in 1928 and
suggests that bring out Column no. 2 Latika Ghosh was appointed as its Secretary.
practical suggestion (d) What are the salient features of the National She helped in recruiting members and set up a
and always maintain Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan? network of Shakti Mandirs.
relations with existing Answer: The National Oil Spill Disaster (b) Bhai Maharaj Singh as a freedom fighter
resources and any
Contingency Plan (NOSDCP), which was He was a saintly person turned revolutionary
suggestion beyond the
level available
prepared by the Coast Guard and approved by who led an anti-British movement in the Punjab
resources should be the Committee of Secretaries on 04 Nov 1993, after the first Anglo-Sikh war and involved in
discouraged. At the delineates the roles and responsibilities of Prema conspiracy case involving him in a plot
same time, your various Ministries, Departments, Ports, oil to murder the British resident, Henly Lawrence,
answer should be companies and other resource agencies. and other pro-British officers of the Lahore
based on both The National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Darbar.
preventive and curative Plan (NOSDCP), which was prepared by the (c) Chandrayaan-II
level. Coast Guard and approved by the Committee The spacecraft is to be launched by ISRO's
of Secretaries on 04 Nov 1993, delineates the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle. The
roles and responsibilities of various Ministries, second Indian space mission to the moon,
Departments, Ports, oil companies and other Chandrayaan 2, scheduled for 2013, will have
resource agencies. three new Indian payloads and will repeat two
(e) You arrive first at the scene where a bus instruments from the 2008 Chandrayaan 1
accident has just occurred. What emergency mission.
measures should you immediately and safely Source: CST November 2010, Page No. 50 and
adopt? Column no. 2
Answer: I will try to bail out those people who (d) Agni-V
are trapped inside the bus to avoid further According to the DRDO, India is likely to
casualties. Then I will try to involve as many launch Agni-V ballistic missile, having a strike
as persons possible at that time on road and range of 5,000 km by 2010. After the success of
try to take use the available first aid box for the Agni III in May last year, defence scientists are
treatment of the local injuries and in the now working to club the first and second stage
NOTE meantime through my mobile I would try to of the missile to increase its strike range from
For current personality communicate the message to district 3,500 km to 5,000 km.
and short news, one administration, hospital and highway Source: CST Science and Technology 2010,
can rely on newspa-
authorities. Page No. 488
pers and news
channels. For this
(f) Bring out the sectoral and state-wise (e) Babli project
maintain a regular note distribution pattern of Foreign Direct The Babli project is a barrage being built by
to mention the Investment (FDI) inflows into the country. Maharashtra across the Godavari River in the
newsmakers and their Answer: More than two-fifth of the market Pochampad dam area. Political parties in AP
details. Unlike common capitalisation originates in small cities. FDI- allege that it will deprive water for irrigation
view, this time UPSC enabled service facilities have a relatively high to 18 lakh acres in six districts of Telangana.
has covered till 30th concentration in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, (f) ‘Swavalamban’ scheme
September 2010. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The proportion Previously known as NORAD/ Women’s
Therefore, span of
of service facilities located in small cities is Economic Programme was launched in 1982-
current news has
further widened. CST relatively less significant vis-à-vis manufact- 1983 to provide training and skills to women
advises all candidates uring plants. The sectors with strong backward for facilitating them to obtain employment and
to continue to buy the linkages include electrical equipment; drugs self employment on a sustainable basis.
magazine till 1st and pharmaceuticals; food processing; and Source: CST 2 Marker 2010, Page No. 324 and
October of every year textiles, among others. Service sectors, Column no. 2
and read them telecommunications, and consultancy services (g) National Investment Fund
carefully because a lot have strong forward linkages. The National Investment Fund (NIF) has been
of questions could be Source: CST Indian Economy 2010, Page No. officially launched. All proceeds from
asked from them.
202 and Column no. 2 and 3 disinvestment of Central Public Sector
Enterprises will be channelised into NIF. NIF
CST: 50 per cent of the questions in
will be maintained outside the Consolidated
this section were directly asked
Fund of India and is to be professionally
from the various issues of the CST
managed to provide sustainable returns to the
magazine, i.e 15/30
Government, without depleting the Corpus.
9. Write brief note on each of the following Source: CST Indian Economy 2010, Page No.
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 34 Civil Services
Current NEWS Covered up to NOVEMBER 01, 2010
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201 and Box CST: 50 per cent of the questions in

(h) ‘Aerostat’ balloon this section were directly asked
A 70 crore Aerostat helium gas Balloon was the from the various issues of the CST
most important attraction of commonwealth magazine, i.e 8/16
Games Delhi 2010. An aerostat is a system that OVERALL PERFORMANCE FIRST
remains aloft primarily through the use of PAPER
buoyant lighter than air gases to give a vehicle 221/300
with nearly the same overall density as air. Note: In this calculation, we have
not covered old issues of the
CST: 50 per cent of the questions in magazine and opinion-based
this section were directly asked questions
from the various issues of the CST
magazine, i.e 8/16 General Studies
10. Who are the following why have they been
in news recently 20 words. 2×8 = 16
Paper II
(a) Divya Ajithkumar 1. Answer the following in not more than 250
A 21-year-old has become first woman in words each. 20×2 = 40
Indian history to be conferred by the Army with (a) Critically examine the implications of the
the coveted 'Sword of Honour'. (Note a news disintegration of the Soviet Union on India’s
of 20th September 2010) security and strategic perspectives. What
(b) N.C. Saxena further responses would you suggest in India’s
The Forest Advisory Committee (FAC) foreign policy to accommodate these
recommendation was based on the N.C. Saxena implications?
Committee report that detailed the violations Answer: During the cold-war period, the
and the adverse impact of the project on the foreign policy was guided by three factors: (a)
local Dongria Kondh tribal community and political ideologies of communism and
biodiversity in the region. capitalism; (b) the balance of power; and (c)
Source: CST November 2010, Page 92, Col 3s showing loyalties towards the super powers.
(c) Islam A. Siddiqui After fall of Soviet Russia, India had to face
Islam A. Siddiqui, a prominent Indian security and strategic threat from Afghanistan
American agricultural scientist, has been FATA. The NAM became irrelevant and India
nominated for the post of the Chief Agricultural had to diversify its relations by going for look-
Negotiator in the Office of the U.S. Trade east and look-west policy and finally
Representative by the US President Barack intensifying the south-south cooperation. And
Obama. today, the foreign policy of a country is directed
General Studies (d) Swarnalatha Cherukutty by three harsh realities: (a) the imperatives of
Paper II represents a South Indian singer Swarnalatha died at the age global market economy; (b) the menace of
classical combination of 37. She had won the National Film Award terrorism; and (c) the wrath of fundamentalism.
of facts and concepts. for best female playback singer for her rendition It is very much different from the pre-cold war
It requires the ability of the famous song Porale Ponnuthayi from the period.
to formulate, film Karuthamma. (Note news of 12th Source: CST Foreign Policy of India, Preface
coordinate and September 2010) India must lobby hard to get a berth of
articulate the facts (e) Nithin Nohria: An alumnus of the Indian permanent seat at the UN Security Council
within word limit. The Institute of Technology (IIT) in Mumbai, has (UNSC). India must try to get membership of
basic requirement is been named the first Indian-American dean of ASEAN + 3 and APEC. India is not a member
the time management. the prestigious Harvard Business School. of any big trading bloc. This is one of the
In addition, for this, a Source: CST July 2010, Page 94, Col 2 limitations of Indian Foreign Policy. The
lot of practice is (f) Deepak Mondal relevance of NAM is gradually dwindling and
needed. This year The Arjuna Award winner for football in 2010. under these circumstances India must take the
some questions on Source: CST November 2010, Page 68, Box initiative to revive and reinvent NAM in the
science and (g) Gaurav Singh Saini similar manner as NATO is doing.
technology were The winner of coveted Bharat Award 13-year- Source: CST November 2010, Page No. 75 and
unpredictable. A line old Gaurav Singh Saini from Haryana, who Col. 3 and take inputs from Sept 2010, Page 9
by line and word by saved 50-60 people during a stampede at the (b) Evaluate India’s approach towards meeting
word study is needed Naina Devi temple. the country’s growing energy demands.
to deal with the new (h) Upendra Limaye Compare the success of this approach with that
questions. The Best Actor Award goes to Upendra Limaye of another Asian giant which has perhaps the
for his performance in Marathi feature film fastest growing energy demands.
Jogva. Answer: In 2000-2001, the Government has
Source: CST March 2010, Page 93, Col 2 initiated a new Plan Scheme namely the
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 35 Civil Services
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Accelerated Power Development Programme time taking on signing of civil nuclear

(APDP), Restructured Accelerated Power cooperation, the bilateral ties are not affected
CST has been told by
some people that we
Development Reforms Programme (RAPDRP), as the two nations have decided to conclude a
give too much the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Comprehensive Economic Partnership
emphasis on interna- Yojana (RGGVY) and Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Agreement (CEPA) by the end of 2007. They
tional developments LPG Vitrak Yojana (RGGLVY). Also private have decided to triple the bilateral trade target
and international sector participation K G Basin, etc. to $20 billion by 2010. Japan has contributed
relations. Launched Ultra Mega Power Projects and Mega to infrastructure development in India. Japan
In an era of globaliza- Power Policy. has also contributed to India's development
tion and economic Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, through aid. It is the largest economic assistance
driven world, the
Page No. 180-184 provider to India through the ODA. India and
politics and policies are
deeply governed by
Signed civil nuclear cooperation with 8 Japan have signed a bilateral agreement on
imperatives of countries, 19 reactors have become operational currency swap. In order to further strengthen
economic relations. and established nuclear energy parks. strategic partnership, India and Japan have
For this, Foreign Policy Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, come up with a 'Roadmap for New Dimensions
of India of CST may Page No. 212-213 to Strategic and Global Partnership' which
provide a strategic Also Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission seeks to strengthen ties in civilian nuclear
base to your knowl- (JNNSM) and encouraged new and renewable energy, political, security, defence, economic,
edge level from where energy and alternate energy like alternate fuel. high technology, trade, higher education, IT,
you can develop your
Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, science and technology, and disarmament.
own understanding and
start co-relating with Page No. 231 Source; CST Foreign Policy of India, Page 163
the contemporary and In recent years India has established a presence (b) Assess the contributions of India’s diaspora
current developments. in E&P projects in 14 countries, including in the Caribbean.
In this section special Sakhalin-I in the Russian Federation, and is in Answer:
emphasis should be discussion or negotiation for hydrocarbon Samuel Insanally
made on neighbouring properties in some 50 countries around the The foreign minister of Guyana. He re-
countries and shifting globe. mains the permanent representative (ambassa-
Indian foreign policy Source: CST Foreign Policy of India 2010, dor) of Guyana to the United Nations.
especially 'Look East
Page No. 72 Samuel Selvon
Policy', Look West
Policy' and South- India’s Africa Policy” slightly lagged behind He is known for novels such as The Lonely
south cooperation. the “China’s Africa Policy”. Even state-run Londoners and Moses Ascending.
firms like the Oil and Natural Gas Corp In many ways, his books are the precursors
(ONGC) bought a 25-percent stake in Sudan’s to works such as White Teeth by Zadie Smith
Greater Nile Project seven years ago in a bid to and The Buddha of Suburbia by Hanif Kureishi.
improve the country’s energy security, raising Winston Dookeran
quite an eyebrow. But crude supplies to India A Trinidad and Tobago politician and econo-
have already begun and ONGC maintains its mist.
entire investment of nearly $1 billion had been He currently as serves Political Leader of the
paid off in three years. Unfortunately, ONGC United National Congress and as Member of
has been less than successful in recent years in Parliament for the St. Augustine constituency.
acquiring oilfields in less controversial parts of V. S. Naipaul
Africa like Uganda and Algeria, where it has A Trinidadian-born British novelist of Hindu
NOTE been outbid in some cases by China. heritage and Indo-Trinidadian ethnicity.
For international Source: CST October 2010, Page No. 33 and Naipaul lives in Wiltshire, England.
relations Hindu Col No. 33 He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Litera-
newspaper is may be
CST: 100 per cent of the questions ture in 2001 and knighted by Queen Elizabeth
regarded as a very
authentic source to in this section were directly asked II in 1990.
keep pace with the from the various issues of the CST Simbhoonath Capildeo
current development of magazine, i.e 40/40 A Trinidad and Tobago politician and law-
the events. The 2. Answer any four of the following in not yer, born in Chaguanas.
editorials of the more than 150 words. 12×4 = 48 Capildeo was one of the founding members of
newspaper must be (a) How far have Japan’s principles of Hikaku the Democratic Labour Party and a Member of
read and summary San Gensoku impacted bilateral ties with India? Parliament from 1956-1966.
should be written in Answer: Japan's Three Non-Nuclear Principles He served as the Leader of the Opposition in
200 words. This will
are a parliamentary resolution (never adopted 1956.
enhance your power of
comprehension. into law) that have guided Japanese nuclear Capildeo was also an important Hindu leader
policy since their inception in the late 1960s, and played in role in the foundation of the
and reflect general public sentiment and Sanatan Dharma Maha Sabha.
national policy since the end of World War II. Shridath Ramphal
Source: Wikipedia The second Commonwealth Secretary-Gen-
Despite their insistence on signing NPT and eral (1975–1990). Ramphal served as Foreign
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 36 Civil Services
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Minister of Guyana from 1972-1975. are

Source: CST 2 Marker, Page No 327-348 found to be the heaviest in consultancy services,
In the international
section, a diary of all
(c) Do you agree with the view that Israel is a financial and non-financial services, Hotel and
the major issues ‘natural ally’ of India? Tourism and Telecommunications and trading.
should be maintained Answer: India and Israel are both ancient Consultancy services records a highest growth
continent wise and civilizations, held in high esteem for their of 119.0 percent per annum during study
every month the status contributions to humanism, philosophy and period. FDI in Financial and non-financial
should be checked by human progress. The links between Indians and services, hotel and tourism and telecommun-
the Internet because in Jews go back to the times of the First Temple, ications and trade record a growth rate of 60.5,
this context magazines when the earliest Jewish communities settled 46.8, 43,9 and 32.0 percent per annum
and newspapers
in India and flourished over the years. respectively.
sometimes fail to
maintain the follow up
Both Israel and India are victims of terrorism, (e) Have the Uruguay Round negotiations and
events. This has much of which originates form their the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
happened with CST as neighbourhood. (TRIPS) agreement helped in resolving trade
we have covered the The one area where cooperation is tremendous conflicts arising out of variations in different
developments of between India and Israel is that of defence. nations’ IPR regions? Also list the steps taken
Sudan till February but India is one of the largest importers of defence by India to conform to TRIPS.
we have failed to carry hardware in the world and Israel is one of the Answer: Trade Related Intellectual Property
out follow up till major exporters of the same. Rights is in formation with commercial value
October and we feel a
Source: CST Foreign Policy of India, Page 170 is a composite of ideas, inventions and creative
mistake on our part.
The various interna- India is interested in absorbing Israel’s expressions plus the public willingness to
tional reports, summits, technological prowess in areas such as bio-tech, bestow the status of property on them and give
joint statements, nano-technology, healthcare, security services, their owness the right to exclude others from
should be reviewed to water management and agriculture, whereas access to or use of protected subject matter. And
refer in your opinion Israel would like to focus on the India’s this has certainly resolved the trade conflicts.
and perception to manufacturing potential to overcome its Source: CST Indian Economy 2010, Page No.
substantiate your point limitations on this front. Israel brings great 135 and column no. 2
of view. learning through research in the field of Besides making patent law for 20 years, they
agriculture and specializes in cultivation using involve an inventive state and are capable of
scarce resources that could be useful to about industrial application. The Patent is not only
700 million farmers in India. The expertise in applicable to product but also to plant varieties
computerized drip irrigation and water and also ‘sui generis’ product varieties.
management could be very helpful in India — India has Design’s Act of 1911. In this
along with untapped potential in dairy sector. technological and functional aspects are
Source: CST October 2010, Page No. 80 and included out of designs whereas the
Column one beautification and the outer design are part of
(d) Bring out the FDI and employment industrial design. In India the TM law is guided
implications of China being a manufacturing by Trade and Merchandise Marks Act 1958
hub and India a service hub. (TMMA). In 1993 an amendment was sought
Answer: China.s proactive policies toward FDI in this field to protect the trade mark, but it
resulted in increasing inflow of foreign capital was not passed. Finally in Dec 1995 the
in the late 1980s and, in particular, early 1990s. parliament passed the amendment and now
NOTE Since 1993, China has gone for 90 per cent FDI even provisions of protection of TM is there.
The trend of Mains in greenfield investment. The FDI got invested In India there is no specific law on G.I. In 1999
questions have also into the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) at a new law has been made which has following
indicated that not only
unique locations like Shenshen, Shantou and provisions: (i) Marketing and production of
bilateral relations are
important but also Zhuhai are in Guangdong Province adjoining anything outside its originating place will be
trilateral relations are Hong Kong. prohibited. (ii) Marketing of the same product
important, especially The foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) have in the same name will be prohibited.
those countries which contributed over 26 per cent of the total value- In India a bill related to copyright was
are important to us like added of the entire manufacturing industry and introduced in 1993 by amending Trade and
Myanmmar and more than 17 per cent of the people is employed Merchant Marks Act of 1958.
Bangladesh or any in this sector. Source: CST Indian Economy 2010, Page No.
other neighbouring Relatively speaking China get 60 billion dollars 138-139 and column no. 2 and 3
and India gets 6 billion doallars and this is (f) Examine the recent developments towards
region why India remains benefited as a service the solution of the Bangladesh-Myanmar
provider and not as manufacturing hub. maritime boundary dispute. What implications
Although Foreign direct investment in the do these have for India.
services sector dropped by 33.5 per cent to $4.39 Answer: Bangladesh and Myanmar have
billion during 2009-10, mainly on account of agreed to resolve a maritime boundary dispute
the global credit squeeze, Growths in FDI flows that brought their forces face to face in the Bay
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 37 Civil Services
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of Bengal in 2008. Bangladesh sent a naval provision of electricity to the residents of Kabul.
patrol to the disputed area in October 2008 after Construction of Afghanistan’s new Parliament
In the IBRD, IMF and
Myanmar began oil and gas exploration. Both building, seen as a symbol of the common
section, only superficial countries also concentrated troops at strategic commitment of both countries to pluralism and
informations will not do points along their 320-km (200-mile) border, democracy, is also progressing. Other Indian
and for this you have to partly demarcated by the river Naf. Myanmar projects in a range of areas such as agriculture,
do each and every withdrew its exploration teams and agreed to rural development, education, health,
component and their resolve the issue through talks. vocational training, capacity building and
relations with India. The following portion is from CST Page No. humanitarian assistance are all progressing
The Indian economy 17 September 2010, that this would enhance satisfactorily.
has basically become
tri-lateral cooperation between Myanmar- Source: CST September 2010, Page No. 10 and
the India's economic
interaction with the
China-Bangladesh and may aid to Chinese Col 1
world. For this section policy of ‘string of pearls’ and it is palapable (c) Bring out the significance of GDI and GEM
all the micro and from the fact that the China has agreed to as components of UN’s Human Development
macro informations implement a Bangladeshi proposal for a road Report (HRD). Comment on India’s relative
and developments link via Myanmar. The proposed road project rankings with regard to HDI and GDI.
must be taken into will be implemented in two phases. In the first Answer: The Gender Empowerment Measure
considerations. All the phase, two kilometres of road will be (GEM) is a measure of inequalities between
follow ups related to constructed from Ramu to Gundum inside men's and women's opportunities in a country.
Bangladesh and 23 kilometres will be It combines inequalities in three areas: political
must be fully analyzed
with an eye over future constructed between Taungbro and Bolibazar participation and decision making, economic
prospectus. inside Myanmar. In the second phase, the participation and decision making, and power
Myanmar authorities will construct 110 over economic resources. The Gender-related
kilometres of road link between Bolibazar and Development Index (GDI) is an indication of
Kyanktow in Myanmar. There is a road link the standard of living in a country. Both indicate
between Kyanktow and Kunming. In other the overall pattern of growth at wider level.
words, Bangladesh is trying to establish equal This following portion has been referred in
relations with China and India and this would CST December 2009 Page No. 46 and Coumn
provide undue advantage to China at the geo- 3
strategic level. Overall, however, India has made steady
CST: 95 per cent of the questions in progress on the Human Development Index
this section were directly asked (HDI). Its value has gone up from 0.556 in 2000
from the various issues of the CST to 0.612 in 2007.
magazine, i.e 45/48 (d) What is ‘Round Tripping’ in the context of
3. Answer any eight of the following not more FDI inflow and why has it been in the news
than 50 words each: 5×8 = 40 recently in the case of India?
(a) Compare and contrast the role of IMF with Answer: ``Round tripping'' of FDI is where
Again for this Under-
standing Foreign Policy
that of the World Bank. domestic funds come back into India as FDI
of India is an effective Answer: The World Bank is a vital source of money without any incremental flow of funds
compilation but all the financial and technical assistance to developing into the country. Round tripping is a common
informations must be countries around the world. The World Bank system of tax evasion where an investor using
connected with the is like a cooperative, where its 186 member the tax holiday advantage in Mauritius or some
current developments countries are shareholders. A Board of other country-with which India has a double
and without proper Governors, who is the ultimate policy makers taxation avoidance agreement-to take money
update these informa- at the World Bank, represents the shareholders. out of India only to bring it back disguised as
tions may be nebulous.
CST Indian Economy, Page no. 105 and Col 3 foreign investment. The Government has asked
A coherent material
only provides basis on IMF has all the three functions. i.e.: Regulatory- the revenue authorities to examine whether
which you have to as a guardian of code; Financial- by giving short ``round tripping'' of domestic funds into India.
update and develop term to medium term loans to meet BOP defi- G-20 nations agreed to crack down on tax
your own perception to cit; Consultative- by giving them technical as- havens where nearly $11 trillion is parked, the
defend your individual sistance. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and
opinion. CST Indian Economy, Page no. 104 and Col 2 Development (OECD) has begun a review of
and 3 India's foreign direct investment (FDI) policy
(b) What are the major capacity-building and to suggest measures that will ease sector-
reconstruction projects being undertaken by specific ceilings as well as look into issues of
India in Afghanistan? round tripping.
Answer: Despite daunting logistical and (e) Comment on the reasons for the recent hike
security challenges, the construction of a 220 in visa processing fees for certain categories of
KV Transmission Line from Pul-e-Khumri to US visas. What is the likely impact of this hike
Kabul together with sub-station in Chimtala on India?
was completed, a project of importance for the Answer: The recent proposed legislation to
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 38 Civil Services
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raise the fees on H-1B visas for companies who and size of their economies.
have more than 50 percent of their employees Source: CST July 2010, Page No. 35 and Box
In the Science and
Technology section, a
on such visas for highly skilled professionals (i) Comment on the reasons for the recent
vast information level is likely to hit the Indo-US trade relations. The economic crisis in the so-called ‘PIGS’ countries
has to be developed fees for these visas have been hiked from $320 of Europe.
and facts should be to $2,320. Similarly, the fee on L visas given to Answer: The Greek Government has admitted
carried out till the multi-national transferees is hiked from $320 that it had cooked up its books to show less
coming out of to $2,570. India has expressed concern over the than 3 per cent fiscal deficit to enter the
examination hall and bill saying the new legislation will have an European Union despite the fact that Greece
therefore, it is (estimated) additional cost implication of over had more than 12 per cent fiscal deficit.
necessary to revise the
USD 200 million annually and an adverse The trouble surfaced when it was learnt that
notes at least 10 times
before writing the
impact on the competitiveness and commercial Greece owes foreign banks •220 billion (£190
examinations. interests of Indian companies. billion), equal to 115 per cent of its GDP. The
The important topic Source: CST October 2010, Page No. 46 and fiscal deficit has been found around 13 per cent
may be enumerated as Column 1 of GDP. Although Greece is relatively small
Information Technol- (f) In the context of UNFCCC, distinguish economy, about 3 per cent of the eurozone. But
ogy, Energy Conven- between ‘Annex-I’ and ‘Annex-II’ countries? European banks have large holdings of Greek
tional and Non- Answer: Annex I Parties commit to implement sovereign bonds on their balance sheets. This
Conventional, Nuclear individually or jointly the quantified economy- created panic amongst the countries of
wide emissions targets for 2020, to be submitted European Union.
Alternate Source of
Energy, in the format given in Appendix I by Annex I Source:CST July 2010, Page No. 6 and Col. 1
Health and Family Parties to the secretariat by 31 January 2010 for CST: 95 per cent of the questions in
Welfare, compilation in an INF document. Annex I this section were directly asked
Environment, Ecology Parties that are Party to the Kyoto Protocol will from the various issues of the CST
and National Heritage, thereby further strengthen the emissions magazine, i.e 38/40
Space Technology, reductions initiated by the Kyoto Protocol. 4. Answer any two of the following in 150
Defence and Allied Non-Annex I Parties to the Convention will words. 12×2 = 24
Services, Robotics and implement mitigation actions, including those (a) Examine the opportunities for a lasting West
Artificial Intelligence
to be submitted to the secretariat by non-Annex Asia peace solution in the context of the
Super Conductivity,
Laser and Maser, I Parties in the format given in Appendix II by ‘historic’ talks started in September 2010.
Nanotechnology, Fiber 31 January 2010, for compilation in an INF Answer: Israel’s Prime Minister says peace will
Optics document, consistent with Article 4.1 and be possible only if the Palestinian leadership
Biotechnology and Article 4.7 and in the context of sustainable agrees to recognise Israel as a Jewish state-a
Genetic Engineering, development. demand the Palestinians have long rejected.
Contributions of Nobel Source: CST February 2010, Page No. 9 and At least, the direct talks started because the
Award Winners Col. 1 direct peace talks that have been suspended
(g) Highlight the role of the Indian peace- since December 2008. But the prospects seem
keeping contingent as a part of MONUSCO. to be very remote as Palestine talks with Israel
Answer: Recalling India’s significant but does not recognize it as a nations; Israel
contribution to international peace-keeping talks but does not talk with those people who
efforts in general and in the Democratic are people’s representatives. In the ultimate
Republic of the Congo in particular since the analysis one can say that without the dilution
early sixties, the DRC Foreign Minister lauded of this contradiction nothing substantial can
the services of the 5000-strong Indian take place. The US which had tried earlier and
contingent in MONUC, which has not only is still trying today has no control over both
engaged in peace-keeping but also carried out the parties. Under such a situation, until or
significant humanitarian work for the unless, the people of both the sides realize and
Congolese people. prepare to sacrifice and relinquish their
Source: CST Foreign Policy of India 2010, Page interests, nothing positive can happen. After
No. 524 all, both the countries have democracy and the
(h) List the salient features of the Riyadh internal compulsion is more powerful than the
declaration & the bilateral agreement between international pressure.
India & Saudi Arabia signed earlier this year. (Words 160 and Marks 12)
Answer: The two countries stressed on Source: CST November 2010, Page No. 75 and
continuing to work towards strengthening their Column no. III
strategic partnership by meeting the two (b) Has the February agreement between the
countries’ vast requirements relating to Sudanese government and the Justice and
infrastructure, energy and development, by Equality Movement (JEM) been more
augmenting the flow of their investments into successful in ending the strife in Darfur than
each other’s countries, and enhancing the the Abuja peace agreement of 2006? Evaluate.
bilateral trade in accordance with the potential Answer: No significant change has taken place
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 39 Civil Services
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Al-Qa’ida and since February 2010. JEM suspended its special reference to Community Earth System
associated extremist participation in the talks in Doha after accusing Model (CESM).
groups have a wide the Sudanese army of breaching a cessation of Answer: The Community Earth System Model
variety of potential hostility signed in February this year. They also (CESM) will be one of the primary climate
agents and delivery accused the host country, Qatar, of favoring models used for the next assessment by the
means to choose Khartoum government and disputed its Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
from for chemical, neutrality. In fact, it has been claimed that (IPCC). The Community Earth System Model
biological, partial agreements with groups that have no (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model
radiological, or
real existence on the ground will not achieve that provides state-of-the-art computer
nuclear (CBRN)
attacks. peace" but rather will give the justification for simulations of the Earth's past, present, and
the government to implement is "bloody future climate states. CESM is sponsored by the
Al-Qa’ida is scheme falsely called new strategy for peace" National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S.
interested in
in Darfur. Department of Energy (DOE). Administration
dispersal devices
The following inputs taken from CST March of the CESM is maintained by the Climate and
(RDDs) or “dirty 2010, Page No. 59 and Column 3 Global Dynamics Division (CGD) at the
bombs.” The inherent problems lie with the the United National Center for Atmospheric Research
I. Chemical Agents: Nations Security Council (UNSC) approved (NCAR).
(a) Cyanides: (i) Resolution 1706 which authorized the raising The model’s advanced capabilities will help
Sodium or potassium of a 26,000 strong UN peacekeeping force to be scientists shed light on some of the critical
cyanides are white- called the UNAMID, whose objective would be mysteries of global warming, including issues
to-pale yellow salts to supplant or supplement the poorly funded such as how will patterns in the ocean and
that can be easily
and ill- equipped 7,000 strong African Union atmosphere affect regional climate and to assess
used to poison food
or drinks. (ii)
Mission in Sudan peacekeeping force. Sudan the effects of tiny airborne particles, known as
Hydrogen cyanide vehemently opposed the resolution declaring aerosols, on clouds and temperatures. The
(HCN) and that UN forces would be treated as nothing CESM is one of about a dozen climate models
cyanogen chloride more than invaders in the country. worldwide that can be used to simulate the
(ClCN) are colorless- (c) Comment on the present status of the many components of Earth’s climate system,
to-paleyellow liquids . Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). What including the oceans, atmosphere, sea ice, and
(b) Mustard Agent: important issues, do you think, need to be taken land cover.
Mustard is a blister up at the 7th review conference of the BWC (b) What is phytoremediation? Discuss its
agent that poses a scheduled for 2011? applications.
contact and vapor Answer: The Convention on the Prohibition of Answer: Phytoremediation is a bioremediation
hazard. Inhalation of the Development, Production and Stockpiling process that uses various types of plants to
mustard damages of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy
the lungs, causes
Weapons and on their Destruction was the first contaminants in the soil and groundwater.
difficulty breathing,
and death by
multilateral disarmament treaty banning the Bioremediation is usually employed as a
suffocation in severe production of an entire category of weapons. secondary treatment after mechanical collection
cases due to water in The BWC was opened for signature on April of oil waste using different types of equipment.
the lungs. 10, 1972 and entered into force March 26, 1975 That first phase can mean the recovery of up to
when twenty-two governments had deposited 60 percent of the spilt hydrocarbon. It is the use
(c) Nerve Agents: their instruments of ratification. of living green plants for in situ risk reduction
Source: Wikipedia and/or removal of contaminants from
Sarin, tabun, and VX BWC should not be seen in isolation. It should contaminated soil, water, sediments, and air.
are highly toxic be regarded as an integrated part with the key Under this technology, specially selected or
military agents that
nuclear agreements like START follow-on engineered plants are used in the process. It is
disrupt a victim’s
nervous system by agreement, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test basically energy efficient, cheaper and
blocking the Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Fissile Material Cut-Off remediates sites with low to moderate levels
transmission of nerve Treaty (FMCT), the Convention for the of contamination and it can be used in
signals. Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and conjunction with other more traditional
the Convention on the Physical Protection of remedial methods as a finishing step to the
(d) Toxic Nuclear Materials and its 2005 Amendment. remedial process and it offers a permanent in
Source: CST December 2009, Page No. 14 and situ remediation rather than simply
Industrial Column 3 translocating the problem.
CST: 60 per cent of the questions in Applications:
this section were directly asked 1. Plants may break down or degrade organic
(i) Chlorine and
phosgene are from the various issues of the CST pollutants, or remove and stabilize metal
industrial chemicals magazine, i.e 16/24 contaminants.
and 5. Answer any four of the following in 150 2. Phytoremediation uses plants to clean up
Organophosphate words. 12×4 = 48 pollution in the environment.
pesticides such as (a) Bring out the applications of computer 3. Plants can help clean up many kinds of
parathion are similar models in studying climate changes, with pollution including metals, pesticides,
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 40 Civil Services
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explosives, and oil. 3. Time sharing-style approach are low barri-

to those of mustard
agent. Herbicides, 4. The plants also help prevent wind, rain, and ers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low
such as Agent groundwater from carrying pollution away management overhead, and immediate access
Orange, are from sites to other areas. to a broad range of applications.
chemicals that kill Source and inputs from Biological clean-up 4. It is user friendly as users can terminate the
vegetation. Agent methods of CST Science and Technology 2010, contract at any time and the services are often
Orange was used Page 384 covered by service level agreements (SLAs)
during the Vietnam (c) Explain and differentiate among ‘Plasma’ with financial penalties.
War. ‘LCD’ and ‘LED’ television technologies? 5. Device and location independence enable
II. Biological Agents Answer: Plasma Display : It is basically a users to access systems using a web browser
(a) Anthrax computer display in which each pixel is regardless of their location or what device they
Bacillus anthracis, the illuminated on the screen by tiny bit of plasma are using (e.g., PC, mobile).
bacterium that or charged gas. 6. Basically, the centralization of data makes it
causes anthrax, is Source: CST 2 Marker 2010, Page No. 32 more safer and less fragile.
capable of causing A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat 7. The maintenance cloud computing applica-
mass casualties. display device made up of any number of color tions are easier for the purposes of operations,
Anthrax can be or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light since they donot have to be installed on each
disseminated in an source or reflector. It is prized by engineers user's computer. They are easier to support and
aerosol or used to because it uses very small amounts of electric to improve since the changes reach the clients
contaminate food and power, and is therefore suitable for use in bat- instantly.
water. tery-powered electronic devices. 8. The services are cheaper as the minute or the
Cutaneous anthrax Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, hour sells it on demand, typically; therefore,
can be caused by
Page No. 118 there is fair amount of flexibility at the choice
skin contact with B.
anthracis. This form
Each pixel consists of a column of liquid crys- level.
of the disease, which tal molecules suspended between two transpar- Disadvantages
is easily treated with ent electrodes, and two polarizing filters, the 1. Despite safety of data, there are concerns
antibiotics, is rarely axes of polarity of which are perpendicular to about loss of control over certain sensitive data,
fatal. each other. Without the liquid crystals between and the lack of security for stored kernels and
(b) Botulinum toxin them, light passing through one would be at the same time, the complexity of security is
Botulinum toxin is blocked by the other. The liquid crystal twists greatly increased when data is distributed over
produced by the the polarization of light entering one filter to a wider area and / or number of devices.
bacterium Clostridium allow it to pass through the other. 2. There is a growing concerns about losing
botulinum, which The most commonly-used optical transmitters control when moving data and services into the
occurs naturally in the are semiconductor devices such as light-emit- cloud continue to make organizations wary of
soil. The toxin ting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes. The dif- cloud computing.
molecule is likely too ference between LEDs and laser diodes is that Source: CST Science and Technology 2010,
large to penetrate
LEDs produce incoherent light, while laser di- Page No. 119-120
intact skin.
odes produce coherent light. (e) Discuss the applications of nanotechnology
(c) Ricin Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, in healthcare sector?
Ricin is a plant toxin Page No. 88 Answer: India has already patented the
that is 30 times more Liquid Crystal Display (LCD): It is a technol- development of drug delivery system using
potent than the nerve ogy that is used for displays in smaller com- nano-technology. Stem cell research in India is
agent VX by weight puters. It works on the principle of blocking advancing in the field of cardiology,
and is readily rather than emitting light. As a result it is less ophthalmology, diabetic research,
obtainable by power consuming than LED and gas displays. endocrinology, oncology and immunology. It
extraction from
Source: CST 2 Marker 2010, Page No. 27 is essential to develop drug delivery system for
common castor
beans. (d) What is ‘cloud computing’? Bring out its stem cell implantation into the specific organs
essential features and list its advantages and of the body related to the ailment using nano
(d) Microorganisms limitations? technology.
Answer: It is an Internet-based computing The companies like Dabur Pharma, Biocon and
The microorganisms system. Under this the shared resources, Cromoz were developing nano medicines in
that cause tularemia, software and information are provided to India. In healthcare nano forms can be
Q fever, and yellow computers and other devices on-demand, like developed as suspensions, encapsulations and
fever. the electricity grid. aggregates. Aggregates can be two-dimensional
The bacteria that Advantages: tubes or three-dimensional fibres. Nano
cause bubonic 1. The customers are not required to their own materials for healthcare can be sourced from
plague and the virus the physical infrastructure. For this, there is no synthetics like oxides, sulphides, carbon,
that causes smallpox need to go for capital expenditure. They can metals, polymers or from naturals like proteins,
can kill large numbers have services on rent from a third party. carbohydrates, lipids, fibrin, chitin. Toxicity
of untreated people.
2. The cloud computing has high-speed band- problem can emerge from materials sourced
width which saves times. from synthetics. The xicity of the material
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 41 Civil Services
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depends upon the size and the shape. Smaller new States Parties to opt for excluding from
III. Radiological
and Nuclear Devices the size, lesser the toxicity and more its the Court's jurisdiction war crimes allegedly
(a) Radiological effectiveness. committed by its nationals or on its territory
Dispersal Devices Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, for a period of seven years. They agreed to
(RDD) Page No. 530 review the article in five years' time.
An RDD is a
CST: 90 per cent of the questions in (d) Trial chamber of the Extraordinary Chamber
conventional bomb this section were directly asked in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) and its
not a yield-producing from the various issues of the CST recent verdict.
nuclear device. They magazine, i.e 20/24 Answer: In 2001 the Cambodian National
are designed to 6. Comment on any three of the following in Assembly passed a law to create a court to try
disperse radioactive 50 words. 5×3 = 15 serious crimes committed during the Khmer
material to cause (a) Rotterdam convention Rouge regime 1975-1979. This court is called
destruction, The text of the Convention was adopted on 10 the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of
contamination, and
September 1998 by a Conference of Cambodia for the Prosecution of Crimes
injury from the
radiation produced by
Plenipotentiaries in Rotterdam, the Committed during the Period of Democratic
the material. A variety Netherlands. The Convention entered into Kampuchea (Extraordinary Chambers or
of radio-active force on 24 February 2004 to promote shared ECCC).
materials like responsibility and cooperative efforts among Kaing Guek Eav
Cesium-137, Stron- Parties in the international trade of certain Also known as Duch, a former official of the
tium-90, and Cobalt- hazardous chemicals in order to protect human Cambodia’s Khmer Rouge in the 1970s was
60 are easily health and the environment from potential pronounced guilty of crimes against humanity
available in Hospitals, harm. and sentenced to 35 years of imprisonment for
(b) The Mavi Marmara incident his role in the mass execution of the “enemies”
(a) Improvised Answer: The tension once again marred the of Khmer Rouge at S-21, a security centre which
Nuclear Device (IND) peace in the region when Israeli, code named was used as a prison and a killing field between
It is intended to cause Operation Sea Breeze or Operation Sky Winds, 1975 and 1979.
a yield-producing intercepted the six ships Gaza Freedom Flotilla Source: CST November 2010, Page No. 62 and
nuclear explosion. An carrying some 10,000 tons of aid for the isolated Column No. 1
IND could consist of seaside territory. Activists aboard the flotilla’s CST: 55 per cent of the questions in
diverted nuclear largest ship, the MV Mavi Marmara, clashed this section were directly asked
weapon components, with Israeli Shayetet 13 Special Forces as the from the various issues of the CST
a modified nuclear
commandos abseiled onto the deck of the magazine, i.e 8/15
weapon, or
indigenous-designed vessel. Nine IHH activists were killed by the 7. Comment on any six in 50 words each. 5×6
device. Israeli troops and seized 682 persons. = 30.
Source: CST August 2010, Page 22 and column (a) MRSA infection
INDs can be no. 1 The bacteria that pick up this resistance are
categorized into two (c) Significance of the Kampala declaration of resistant to virtually all the good antibiotics,
types: implosion and the International Criminal Court (ICC) including the most powerful class called
gun assembled. Answer: The Conference adopted the Kampala carbapenems, and experts say there are no new
Unlike RDDs that can Declaration which deals mainly with the drugs on the horizon to tackle it. They have
be made with almost
reaffirmation of the commitment of States to given the name of the new gene New Delhi
any radioactive
material, INDs require the Rome Statute and its full implementation, metallo-beta-lactamase, or NDM-1. The
fissile material— as well as its universality and integrity. The overuse and misuse have helped fuel the rise
highly enriched States parties agreed upon a resolution defining of drug-resistant "superbug" infections like
uranium or pluto- the crime of aggression and setting out the methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus
nium—to produce mechanism by which a prosecution would be (MRSA).
nuclear yield. brought before the ICC. Source: CST November 2010, Page No. 52 and
Importance: Col no. 2
1. The importance of complementarity was (b) HRP-2M Choromet
highlighted and measures on strengthening Japan's National Institute of Advanced
national jurisdictions to prosecute international Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and
crimes were welcomed. There was also a three other firms to build a smaller, cheaper
general call for universal ratification of the version of the HRP-2m called the Choromet. It
Rome Statute. is powered by Linux.
2. The agreement will theoretically give the ICC (c) Maglev vehicles
the power to prosecute political and military The term "maglev" refers specifically designed
leaders who initiate or execute illegal wars and for magnetic levitation and propulsion. The
also hold them criminally responsible for the Maglev technology is based on three concepts:
international crime. (a) electromagnetic suspension (EMS), (b)
3. The Conference also decided not to amend electrodynamic suspension dynamic
article 124 of the Rome Statute, which allows suspension (EDS) and (c) Stabilized permanent
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 42 Civil Services
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Solved Mains General Studies 2010

magnet suspension. thousands of topics, anywhere, anytime.

For Statistics, the best Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, (d) ‘Dreamliner’ aircraft
available book is S.P Page No. 518 It is 20 per cent more fuel-efficient than other
Gupta’s Statistical
(d) Super absorbent polymers (SAP) comparable aircraft, which means it will reduce
Methods, published
by S Chand Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) are dry costs and offer potential to increase revenues.
Publications and granular materials that have the unique ability Also, the 787 can carry 40 per cent more cargo.
Chapter 5 to 12 is to absorb and retain large volumes of water and It is a 250-seater than can fly 12-14 hours non-
important. other aqueous solutions. stop.
The time- (e) Ginkgo biloba Source: CST February 2010, Page No. 52 and
management is a big Ginkgo Biloba has an oxygenation function in Col no. 2
challenge and it the brain level by increasing the use of the (e) Blue gene project
needs to be
glucose and the production of ATP and 1. USA - BlueGene/L - eServer Blue Gene
maintained through
incessant practice.
reducing this way the tendency to form clots Solution; supercomputer project and it is the
The ideal time is and thrombosis in the veins and arteries, being fastest supercomputer project.
around 30-35 minutes of help in the recuperation from brain vascular Source: CST Science and Technology 2010,
and anything above accidents and cardiac crisis. Page 81
that may be fatal for (f) CARTOSAT-2B (f) ‘Predator’ drones
the candidate In its sixteenth consecutive successful flight Armed Predators were first used in late 2001
because it may affect India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV- from bases in Pakistan and Uzbekistan, mostly
the subsequent C15), was launched on July 12, 2010 and for targeted assassinations inside Afghanistan.
successfully launched CARTOSAT - 2B from The Indian government is considering buying
Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, an unspecified number of such drones from
Sriharikota. European aerospace and defence equipment
Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, company EADS.
Page No. 425 Source: CST Science and Technology 2010,
(g) Various generations of mobile phone Page 496
technology (g) ‘Deepwater Horizon’ incident
2G: Second generation provides voice and The Mexico oil spill disaster has closed fisheries
limited data services and its uses digital in the Gulf of Mexico, sidelining workers and
modulation which enhances the audio quality. dealing a heavy blow to the seafood industry
3G: A mobile phone technology that can beam and beach towns from Louisiana to Florida.
data at 144 kilobits per second. 3G is very Source: CST November 2010, Page No. 86 and
compatible for music and video. Column 3
4G: Better video, audio and data addition. 2,000 (h) ACTN 3 gene
NOTE times faster than mobile data rates and 10 times More than a billion humans worldwide are
In the ultimate faster than other top transmission rates; predicted to be completely deficient in the fast
analysis, one can Source: CST Science and Technology 2010, skeletal muscle fiber protein -actinin-3 owing
safely conclude that a
Page No. 112 to homozygosity for a premature stop codon
very effective and
authentic way of the
CST: 66 per cent of the questions in polymorphism, R577X, in the ACTN3 gene. The
preparation lies with this section were directly asked R577X polymorphism is associated with elite
the fact that be a part from the various issues of the CST athlete status and human muscle performance,
of it and make it a magazine, i.e 20/30 suggesting that -actinin-3 deficiency influences
daily routine after all 8. Who/What are the following & why have the function of fast muscle fibers.
the logic is to serve they been in the news recently. (Your answers
the society and CST: 75 per cent of the questions in
should be in a sentence or two only) 3×8 = 24
therefore, one has to this section were directly asked
(a) Craig Venter
look beyond oneself from the various issues of the CST
The first synthetic cell has been developed at a
in terms of magazine, i.e 12/16
cost of $30 million by the researchers at J Craig
Venter Institute; the experimental one-cell
organism opens the way to manipulation of life
on a previously unattainable scale.
Note: In this calculation, we have
Source: CST August 2010, Page No. 90 and
not covered old issues of the
Column No. 1
magazine and opinion-based
(b) Shahran Amiri: Iranian nuclear scientist
Shahram Amiri has resurfaced after vanished
221 + 223 = 444/560
during a pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia more than
i.e almost 80 per cent and this is
a year ago.
being 10th consecutive time in CST
Source: CST November 2010, Page 66, Col. 1
(c) Wolfram alpha
Thanking you for encouraging and
The Wolfram|Alpha App for Android lets you
believing in us.
compute accurate answers to questions across
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 43 Civil Services
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ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

globally threatened faunal species, which is

Biodiversity Biodiversity approximately 4.9 per cent of the world’s total

ndia is an identified megadiverse country, number of threatened faunal species. The glo-
Biodiversity rich in biodiversity and associated tradi bal estimates as per IUCN Red List, 2008 sug-
comprises all the tional knowledge. The country also has a gest that 10 per cent (5,966 species) of verte-
diversity observed tradition of conservation and sustainable use brate and 0.20 per cent (2,496 species) of inver-
among species, their of its biodiversity, which has now come under tebrate described fauna is threatened. In 2004,
populations and also pressure on account of various factors includ- one species, Megaptera novaeangliae, showed
the vast ecosystems. ing development imperatives, habitat fragmen- an upward trend of population while eleven
tation, and introduction of invasive alien spe- species showed stable populations. Further, of
cies. the total 447 threatened species, for which
Biodiversity comprises all the diversity ob- trends are available, 218 are showing decreas-
served among species, their populations and ing trend of population as per the 2004 status.
also the vast ecosystems. The 2008 report, however, indicates upward
In other words Biological diversity, or population trend of one-horned rhinoceros in
biodiversity, encompasses the variety of all life the country, as a result, the threat category has
Of the 34 globally on earth. Biodiversity manifests itself at three improved from endangered to vulnerable.
identified biodiversity levels: species diversity which refers to the India, through its strong initiatives for survey
hotspots, India
numbers and kinds of living organisms; genetic and monitoring of biodiversity, is contributing
harbours four hotspots,
i.e., Himalaya, Indo- diversity which refers to genetic variation towards new discoveries. For example, ZSI has
Burma, Western Ghats within species; and ecosystem diversity which discovered 65 faunal species in 2007 and Na-
and Sri Lanka and denotes the variety of habitats. To date, about tional Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources
Sundaland. 1.7 million species have been described while (NBFGR) reported 36 new fin fish species from
many more await discovery. India, a diverse biogeographic zones of India.
megadiversity country with only 2.4 per cent II. Floral diversity
of the land area, accounts for 7-8 per cent of the In terms of plant diversity, India ranks tenth in
recorded species of the world spread over the world and fourth in Asia. With over 45,500
45,500 species of plants and 91,000 species of plant species, India represents nearly 11 per
animals that have been documented so far. cent of the world’s known floral diversity. As
In terms of species richness, India ranks sev- elsewhere in the world, many organisms espe-
enth in mammals, ninth in birds and fifth in cially in lower groups such as bacteria, fungi,
In terms of plant reptiles. In terms of endemism of vertebrate algae, lichens and bryophytes are yet to be de-
diversity, India ranks groups, India’s position is tenth in birds with scribed and remote geographical areas are to
tenth in the world and 69 species, fifth in reptiles with 156 species and be comprehensively explored.
fourth in Asia. With
seventh in amphibians with 110 species. India’s Angiosperms: India has about 17,527 species
over 45,500 plant
species, India share of crops is 44 per cent as compared to the of flowering plants (more than 7 per cent of the
represents nearly 11 world average of 11 per cent. India also has world’s known flowering plants) in 247 fami-
per cent of the world’s 23.39 per cent of its geographical area under lies and 2984 genera. The dominant families
known floral diversity. forest and tree cover. with more than 500 species are Poaceae-1291;
Of the 34 globally identified biodiversity Orchidaceae-1229; Leguminosae-1225;
hotspots, India harbours four hotspots, i.e., Asteraceae-892; Rubiaceae-616; Cyperaceae-
Himalaya, Indo-Burma, Western Ghats and Sri 545; Euphorbiaceae-527; and Acanthaceae-510.
Lanka and Sundaland. Gymnosperms are represented by about 67
I. Faunal diversity species. Pinaceae (6 genera and 15 species) is
So far, nearly 91,212 faunal species (7.43 per the largest family, followed by Cupressaceae
cent of the world’s faunal species) have been (13 genera and 13 species), Ephedraceae (1 ge-
recorded in the country. Whereas inventories nus, 7 species) and Gnetaceae (1 genus and 5
So far, nearly 91,212 of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and species). The species of Gnetum and Cycas are
faunal species (7.43 fishes are fairly complete, a large number of mostly confined to North Eastern region, East-
per cent of the world’s other life forms are yet to be described. ern and Western Ghats, and Andaman &
faunal species) have
The Indian faunal groups show diverse range Nicobar Islands.
been recorded in the
country. Whereas of endemism across groups. Some of the lower Pteridophytes: India has about 1200 species
inventories of groups such as Mesozoa (100 per cent), Acan- under 204 genera. While species of Marsilea,
mammals, birds, thocephala (88.6 per cent), Oligochaeta (77.8 per Azolla and Salvinia grow in aquatic habitats,
reptiles, amphibians cent), Platyhelminthes (71.9 per cent), those of Acrostichum occur in mangrove eco-
and fishes are fairly Kinorhyncha (70 per cent) show high degree systems. The north-eastern region (including
complete, a large of endemism. Among higher groups, Amphibia Eastern Himalaya) is rich in pteridophytic di-
number of other life (61.2 per cent) and Reptilia (47 per cent) de- versity with about 845 species, followed by
forms are yet to be
serve special mention. south India (including Eastern and Western
As per the IUCN Red List (2008), India has 413 Ghats) with 345 species and north India (includ-

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ing Western Himalaya) with 340 species. About tats ranging from aquatic (both fresh water and
Biodiversity 17 per cent of the species are endemic to India. marine) to terrestrial. Chlorophyceae with 4,495
The families such as Polypodiaceae (137 spe- species is the largest family followed by Cy-
Eighteen families of cies), Dryopteridaceae (125 species), anophyceae (1,453 species) and Bacillari-
flowering plants Athyriaceae (97 species), Thelypteridaceae (83 ophyceae (516 species).
occurring in India such species), Selaginellaceae (62 species), and gen- Eighteen families of flowering plants occurring
as Ancistrocladaceae, era like Selaginella (62 species), Asplenium (45 in India such as Ancistrocladaceae, Biebe-
Biebe-rsteiniaceae, species) and Polystichum (45 species) are some rsteiniaceae, Martyniaceae, Tetra-centraceae
Martyniaceae, Tetra- of the dominant families and genera of the and Trichopodaceae, etc., are monogeneric.
centraceae and
pteridophytic flora of Indian region. About 2,863 (16.4 per cent) are trees, which
Trichopodaceae, etc.,
are monogeneric.
Bryophytes represented by 2500 species are the include some of the highly valued timber spe-
second largest group of green plants in India cies of the world. India is also a storehouse of
distributed largely in Eastern Himalaya, North- primitive flowering plants, confined mainly in
eastern India, Western Himalaya and the West- North Eastern region of the country. Diversity
ern Ghats. Mosses constitute the major compo- of such plants led Takhtajan (1969) to desig-
nent of Indian bryoflora with 1576 species fol- nate this region as the ‘‘Cradle of Flowering
lowed by liverworts and hornworts (924 spe- Plants’. The Indian flora also shows a rich di-
cies). Lejeuneaceae (155 species) is the largest versity in aquatic flowering plants. Some
 In the case of
fauna, new plant
family followed by Pottiaceae (129), important families of aquatic plants include
species are continually Dicranaceae (119), Bryaceae (98) and Hydrocharitaceae (13 species), Pontederiaceae
being discovered in the Sematophyllaceae (92 species). Fissidens (67 (13 species), Alismataceae (8 species),
country. For example, species) is the largest genus followed by Aponogetonaceae (6 species), Potamogeton-
41 plant taxa were Plagiochila (65) and Frullania (63). Nineteen aceae (6 species), Typhaceae (4 species),
discovered by BSI and genera and 629 species are endemic to India. Salviniaceae (3 species), etc. The insectivorous
other researchers from Lichens representing symbiotic association of plant families, yet another group of unique
diverse bio-geographic
fungi and algae, constitute a dominant compo- plants, are represented by Lentibulariaceae (36
zones of India during
nent of epiphytic and saxicolous vegetation, species), Droseraceae (3 species), and
and comprise 2,223 species in 283 genera and Nepenthaceae (1 species).
72 families. Western Ghats are the richest re- About 11,058 species are endemic to Indian re-
gion with 800 species (38 per cent) followed by gion, 6,200 of which belong to flowering plants
Eastern Himalaya with 759 species (37 per cent) alone. Eastern Himalaya and north-eastern re-
and Western Himalaya with 550 species (27 per gion (about 2,500 species), peninsular India in-
cent). Families such as Parmeliaceae, cluding western and Eastern Ghats (about 2,600
Graphidaceae, Physciaceae, Usneaceae, species), north-western Himalaya (about 800
India has 14,500
Cladoniaceae, and genera like Parmelia, species) and Andaman & Nicobar Islands
species of fungi in Graphina, Usnea, Graphis and Lecanora are (about 250 species) are the areas rich in endemic
2,300 genera and 250 among the dominant families and genera of plants.
families with maximum Indian lichens. About 23 per cent species, As in the case of fauna, new plant species are
diversity in the mainly belonging to genera Graphina, continually being discovered in the country. For
Western Ghats Trypethelium, Graphis and Porina, are endemic example, 41 plant taxa were discovered by BSI
followed by the eastern to India. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (24 per and other researchers from diverse bio-geo-
Himalaya and the
cent), Western Ghats (20 per cent) and Eastern graphic zones of India during 2007. Similarly
western Himalaya
Himalaya (18 per cent) show high percentage in cryptogams (Lichens and Bryophytes), the
of endemic species. National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI),
Fungi: India has 14,500 species of fungi in 2,300 Lucknow described 11 new species during
genera and 250 families with maximum diver- 2007-08. Under the AICOPTAX, 493 taxa new
sity in the Western Ghats followed by the east- to science have been discovered.
ern Himalaya and the western Himalaya. III. Crop genetic diversity
Deuteromycetes with 900 genera and 6000 spe- India stands seventh in the world in terms of
cies (40 per cent) is the largest group of Indian contribution of species to agriculture and ani-
Lichens representing
symbiotic association
mycoflora, followed by Ascomycetes [680 gen- mal husbandry. In qualitative terms too, the
of fungi and algae, era / 3500 species (25 per cent)] and Basidi- contribution has been significant. The National
constitute a dominant omycetes [520 genera/3400 species (23 per Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning
component of epiphytic cent)]. Cercospora with distinguished 20 broad agro ecological zones,
and saxicolous 707 species is the largest genus of Indian fungi based on natural features and crop growing
vegetation, and followed by Puccinia (328 species) and periods. India has over 800 crop species and
comprise 2,223 Phyllosticta (280 species). About 3500 species 320 wild relatives: millets (51); legumes (31);
species in 283 genera
are endemic to the country. fruits (109); spices and condiments (27); veg-
and 72 families.
Algae are represented by over 7,175 species in etables (54); fiber crops (24); oil seeds, tea, cof-
666 genera. They are found in a variety of habi- fee, tobacco and sugarcane (12); and, medici-

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

Biodiversity Major multilateral environment agreements (MEAs)

Area Initiative / Event ratified by India
1. Indian Network for MEAs Year Issues covered
Climate Change
Assessment (INCCA):
Convention on Wetlands of 1971 Conservation and wise use of wetlands,
Network of 120 research International Importance primarily as habitat for the water-birds
institutions and 250
scientists launched; major Convention for the Protection 1972 Protection and conservation of cultural
conferences planned in of World Cultural and Natural Heritage and natural heritage
May and November 2010
2. Himalayan Glaciers
Monitoring Programme: Convention on International 1973 International trade in endangered species
Comprehensive Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora
programme to scientifi-
cally monitor the Bonn Convention on Migratory 1979 Conservation, management and wise use
Himalayan glaciers – Species of Wild Animals of migratory species of wild animals and
Phase I completed;
Phase II launched;
their habitats
Discussion Paper on State
of Himalayan Glaciers Vienna Convention for 1985 Protection of atmospheric ozone layer
released Protection of the Ozone Layer above the planetary boundary layer
3. Launch of Indian
Satellite to Monitor
Greenhouse Gases: ISRO
Montreal Protocol on Substances 1987 Protection of atmospheric ozone layer
to launch a micro-satellite that Deplete the Ozone Layer above the planetary boundary layer
in 2010 to study aerosols
(soot particles), followed Basel Convention on Trans- 1989 Regulation of transboundary movements
by a comprehensive boundary Movements of of hazardous wastes and their disposal
satellite in 2011 to Hazardous Wastes and
monitor GHG gases;
their Disposal
India to join elite club of
countries to do so
4. India’s Forest and Tree United Nations Framework 1992 Changes in the earth’s climate system due
Cover as a Carbon Sink: Convention on Climate Change to anthropogenic interference
Research estimates the (UNFCCC)
value of India’s forests as
a carbon sink –
assessment shows that Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC 1997 Quantified emission limitation and
they reduction commitments for Annex I Parties
neutralise 11% of India’s
annual GHG emissions Convention on Biological 1992 Biological diversity and biological resources
Science & Research Diversity (CBD)
5. India’s GHG
Emissions Profile: India’s
GHG Emission Pathways Cartagena Protocol on 2000 Regulation of transboundary movement,
until 2030 under different Biosafety to the CBD transit, handling and use of living
assumptions made public; modified organisms (LMOs)
India will remain a minor
United Nations Convention 1994 Combating desertification and mitigate the
per capita emitter even in
2030 to Combat Desertification effects of drought, particularly in Africa
6. Expert Group on Low
Carbon Economy: Rotterdam Convention on the 1998 Promote shared responsibility and cooperative
Planning Commission-led Prior Informed Consent efforts among the Parties in the international
Group set up to develop Procedure for Certain trade of certain hazardous chemicals, in
strategy for India as a low
Hazardous Chemicals and order to protect human health and the
carbon economy; to
feed into twelfth plan Pesticides in International environment from potential harm and to
process. Trade contribute to their environmentally sound
7. State Action Plans on use
Climate Change Delhi
becomes first State to Stockholm Convention on 2001 Protect human health and the environment
release Climate Change
Persistent Organic Pollutants from persistent organic pollutants
Action Plan; other States

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 46 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

nal plants (3,000). The National Gene Bank at water fishes of aquatic hotspot – the Western
Biodiversity NBPGR is primarily responsible for conserva- Ghats which include 192 endemic species.
finalising their Plans tion of unique accessions on long-term basis, Identification of 47 potentially cultivable te-
Policy Development as base collections for posterity, predominantly leosts and 106 ornamental species endemic to
8. National Policy on in the form of seeds. Western Ghats.
Biofuels: National Policy IV. Livestock genetic diversity Assessment of 327 freshwater fish species for
on Bio-fuels approved by India, endowed with varied forms of animal IUCN threat categories and listing of 79 threat-
Cabinet to promote
genetic resources, is traditionally considered as ened species.
cultivation, production
and use of
an important rearing centre for domesticated Preparation of a macro level fish occurrence
Bio-fuels for transport animals. India has vast resources of livestock map of entire India (1:1000000).
and in other applications (485 million) and poultry (489 million), which Genetic characterization of 33 species using
9. National Missions play a vital role in rural livelihood security. In different markers and development of DNA
under National Action terms of population, India ranks first in buffa- barcodes for 100 Indian marine fish species.
Plan on Climate Change: loes, second in cattle and goats, third in sheep, Ex-situ conservation of prioritized endan-
National Missions on fourth in ducks, fifth in chicken and sixth in gered species undertaken through successful
Solar Energy, Energy
camels in the world. The genetic resources of captive breeding techniques for Horabagrus
Efficiency and Strategic
Knowledge approved;
farm animals in India are represented by a brachysoma, Labeo dussumieri, L. dyocheilus,
other Missions in final broad spectrum of native breeds of cattle, buf- Chitala chitala, Ompok pabda, Puntius sarana,
stages of preparation faloes, goats, sheep, swine, equines, camel and Anabas testudineus, Nandus nandus, Clarias
10. First National poultry. There are around 140 listed breeds of btrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis; sperm
Conference on Green livestock and poultry in India, with 30 breeds cryopreservation protocols for 16 threatened
Building- Materials and of cattle, 10 of buffalo, 42 of sheep, 20 of goat, 3 and commercial fish species; and, tissue cul-
Technologies: Confer- of pig, 6 of horse and pony, 8 of camel and 18 ture bank for housing 11,600 accessions of 273
ence to stimulate green
of poultry. Besides, there are breeds of yak, species.
building sector; to set an
example the Govt
mithun, ducks, quails and several nondescript Publication of a bibliography on ‘Fish Patho-
proposes that all its new populations. gens and Diseases in India’, which contains
buildings will be GRIHA Over the years, animal husbandry has intensi- 2,610 references of 1451 Indian research in dif-
4* compliant subject to fied in India with widespread introduction of ferent fields of fish pathology, quarantine and
site conditions exotic breeds. There is a perceptible increase in related topics across 104 years (1898-2001).
11. 30 “Solar Cities”: In- the population of limited specialized breeds. Also, developed an information system ‘Fish
principle approval given This has led to the reduction in total genetic Diseases and Quarantine Information System’.
to 30 ‘Solar Cities’ with
variability and population size of many local Development of a new database on Indian
aim of 10% deduction in
projected demand of
breeds. The majority (85 per cent) of the do- fish diversity comprising information on 2,243
conventional energy mestic livestock in India is reared under low indigenous and 291 exotic fin fishes (globally
through a combination of input production systems. Of the indigenous recognized number of fin fishes is 29,300).
energy efficiency and breeds, 14 of cattle, 3 of buffalo, 9 of sheep, 4 of VI. Genetic diversity of agriculturally impor-
renewables goat and almost all breeds of horse and poul- tant microorganisms (AIMs)
12. Energy Efficiency try are showing declining trends in the coun- India has initiated isolation and identification
Standards for Appli- try. Estimates indicate that 50 per cent of in- of AIMs mainly through the efforts of NBAIM.
ances: Energy efficiency
digenous goat, 30 per cent of sheep, 20 per cent Important initiatives inter alia include the
ratings made mandatory
for 4 key appliances —
of cattle and almost all poultry breeds are following:
refrigerators, air threatened. NBAIM has a repository of 2,517 cultures
conditioners, In this context, the National Bureau of Animal which includes filamentous fungi (2,077), bac-
tubelights and transform- Genetic Resources (NBAGR) undertakes suit- teria (394), Actinomycetes (36) and yeasts (10).
ers from January 7, 2010; able programmes for identification, evaluation, The sources of fungi collections include
more to follow through characterization, conservation and sustainable plants (1,212), soil insects (641), air flora (39)
2010 utilization of animal genetic resources. and others (185).
13. Fuel Efficiency
V. Fish genetic diversity The special collections of microorganisms
Norms Plan for fuel
economy norms for
India is endowed with vast inland and marine having importance in agriculture and industry
vehicles announced; to bio-resources. It is the third largest producer include: bio-control agents (Trichoderma
be made operational in of fish in the world and the second largest pro- viride, T. harzianum, T. aurioviride,
two years ducer of inland fish. As such, fisheries and Glocladium virens, Bacillus subtilis,
Policy Implementation aquaculture play an important role in social Pseudomonas flurescens); bio-pesticides
14. CDM Program India development, economic upliftment of farmers (Beauvaria bassiana, Bacillus thrungenensis);
assessed as Best CDM and fisherfolks, apart from contributing to the biofertilizers (Rhizobium spp., Azotobacter
Country; Indian projects
nutritional security of the country. The NBFGR chrococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus
to neutralise 10% of
emissions by 2012
has taken up various research programmes and subtilis, fluorescent Pseudomonas); bio-
15. India to host major achievements which are as under: remedation (Pseudomonas putida, P.
‘Rio+20’ India to host Development of a database on 2,182 fishes flourescens, Alcligens); industrial importance
11th COP of Convention found in Indian waters; total listing of 287 fresh- (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis).

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 47 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
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The Vision 2025 envisages that the NBAIM bacteria to higher to higher plants and animals,
Biodiversity act as a nodal agency, responsible for taking stores an immense amount of genetic informa-
on Biodiversity (CBD) appropriate measures for system-wide man- tion. Genetic diversity refers to the variation of
in 2012, mark 20th agement of AIMs by various means, such as, genes within species; the differences could be
anniversary of Rio (i) constituting microbial genetic resource ad- in alleles (different variants of same genes), in
16. UN Climate visory committee, (ii) preparing national explo- entire genes (the traits determining particularly
Technology Conference ration maps, developing and widely dissemi- characteristics) or in chromosomal structures.
India successfully hosts nating guidelines for handling and storage of The genetic diversity enables a population to
global Conference on
microbial isolates, registration and notification adapt to its environment and to respond to the
technology, Delhi
Statement adopted of microbial deposits, (iv) developing/imple- natural selection. If specie has more genetic di-
17. SAARC Environ- menting coordination, linkages and coopera- versity, it can adapt better to the changed envi-
ment Ministers tion mechanisms, (v) technical backstopping by ronmental conditions.
Conference: India development of national policy and its imple- The amount of genetic variation is the basis of
successfully hosts mentation, and (vi) handling matters/concerns speciation (evolution of new species). It has a
SAARC Ministers related to biosafety, biopiracy and IPR issues, key role in the maintenance of diversity at spe-
Conference and agrees etc. cies and community levels.
joint actions on Climate
VII. Mountain diversity Species Diversity: Species are distinct units of
2010 SAARC Summit to The Himalayan flora represents 71 endemic diversity, each playing a specific role in an eco-
be on the theme of genera and 32 per cent endemic species. Also, system.
Climate Change five families are endemic to the region (i.e. Community and Ecosystem Diversity: Diver-
International Coopera- Tetracentraceae, Hamamelidaceae, Circaeas- sity at the level of community and ecosystem
tion teraceae, Butomaceae, and Stachyuraceae), has three perspectives:
18. India’s Submissions while over 90 per cent of the species in Alpha diversity (within-community diversity)
to UNFCCC Report Berberidaceae and Saxifragaceae are endemic refers to the diversity organisms sharing the
documenting India’s 12
to the Himalaya. A large number of orchids, same community/habitat.
proactive submissions to
UNFCCC released many representing neo endemic taxa, have been Beta diversity (between-community diversity)
19. State of Forests reported from Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. refers to the rate of replacement of species along
Report 2009 Latest State Out of the five natural World Heritage Sites a gradient of habitats or communities.
of Forest Report (WHS) recognized by United Nations Educa- Gamma diversity (overall) refers to the diver-
released; shows tional, Scientific, and Cultural Organization sity of the habitats over the total landscape or
continued rise in India’s (UNESCO) in India, three are located in the geographical area.
forest cover Himalayan region viz, Nanda Devi NP, Gradient of Biodiversity: Biodiversity varies
20. Launch of CAMPA
Kaziranga NP and Manas NP. Further, the Val- with the change in latitude or altitude. As we
Ambitious Rs
11,700crore (USD2.5Bn) ley of Flowers NP has been included in the list move from high to low latitudes, broadly
Programme for forest of WHS as an extension to Nanda Devi NP. In speaking, the biological diversity increases.
conservation launched addition, Kangchendzonga NP and Namdapha Similarly, we generally notice a decrease in spe-
21. Green India Mission NP are included in the tentative list of WHS. cies diversity from lower to higher altitudes on
New mission under Considering the importance of natural sites, an a mountain.
NAPCC to fast-track re- externally aided project titled 'World Heritage Problems of Biodiversity
forestation being Biodiversity Programme for India: Building A global scientific analysis of current trends and
Partnerships to Support UNESCO’s WHS plausible future scenarios project that
22. Capacity Building in
Forestry Scheme New programme’ is being undertaken. biodiversity loss is likely to continue in the fore-
Rs 369 crore (USD Magnitude of Biodiversity: The known and de- seeable time largely because the direct drivers
80Mn) scheme for HRD scribed number of species of all organisms on of biodiversity loss are projected to either re-
for forest personnel the earth is between 1.7 to 1.8 million, which is main constant or to increase in the near future.
23. Intensification of fewer than 15 per cent of the actual number. This global concern about loss of biodiversity
Forest Management New The predicted number of total species varies is sought to be addressed in the international
Rs 600 crore (USD from 5 to 50 million and averages at 14 million. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to
125Mn) scheme to
About 61 per cent of the known species are in- which India is a Party.
improve forest
management, infrastruc- sects. Only 4650 species are known to science. The growing population, industrialization and
ture, fires, etc. Biological diversity includes three hierarchical urbanization and excessive use of chemical fer-
Forestry levels: tilizers and pesticides has completely perturbed
24. Inclusion of Forestry (i) Genetic diversity, the existing ecological balance of the country.
within NREGA: Forestry (ii) Specific diversity, and As a result of this about 1,336 plant species are
related activities (iii) Community and ecosystem diversity. considered vulnerable and endangered; about
included as part of These levels are interrelated, yet distinct 20 species of higher plants are categorised as
India’s flagship
enough to be studied separately to understand possibly extinct because these have not been
employment guarantee
scheme to fast-track the interconnections that support life on the sighted during the last 6-10 decades.
reforestation; Pilots earth. More than 33 species of mammals, 72 species
being implemented Genetic Diversity: Each species, varying from of birds, 17 species of reptiles, three species of

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amphibious, two species of fish and a large ket is only 0.3 per cent and there exists immense
Biodiversity number of butterflies, moth and beetles are con- scope for expanding its share in the 62 billion
sidered vulnerable and endangered. US$ world market from the present level of Rs.
The loss of diversity Habitat destruction is identified as the main 5,000 crores (approximately 1.2 billion US$).
is not only an ethical threat to biodiversity. The major impact of de- But, it is a sad reflection that while it has the
tragedy but also a velopmental activities involves diversion of knowledge, skills and resources, India has not
great social, economic forest land. Since the enactment of Forest (Con- yet seized opportunities in the global market.
and cultural one. In servation) Act in 1980, 11.40 lakh hectares of Even its 0.3 per cent share is largely (70 per cent)
fact, official conserva- forest area, for about 14,997 development through export of raw materials and only in a
tion policies and
projects, has been approved for diversion. limited way (30 per cent) through value addi-
programmes, planned
and controlled by a
Against this diversion, compensatory affores- tion and sale of finished products. Indian ex-
centralized bureau- tation has been stipulated for over 12.10 lakh ports are thus guided by what may be termed
cracy in collaboration hectares of land. as a trader’s vision rather than by a knowledge-
with urban environ- The loss of diversity is not only an ethical trag- products vision.
ment, is responsible to edy but also a great social, economic and cul- Why to conserve Bio-diversity?
a greater extent for this tural one. In fact, official conservation policies Each genetic resource has a certain specific char-
state of nature. and programmes, planned and controlled by a acter of its own. The genetic material can be
centralized bureaucracy in collaboration with exploited by the man in the form of food, medi-
urban environment, is responsible to a greater cines and specimens. For example, plant bio-
extent for this state of nature. It is only an alli- diversity can be used to develop transgenic
ance between local communities, government plants that can yield more production and are
agencies and concerned NGOs and individu- resistant to diseases, drought, and pests. Grains
als that can save natural habitats and wildlife with higher percentage of protein and
from the clutches of destructive forces. biofertilizer can also be produced by these ge-
Declining natural resource base and over-ex- netic resources.
ploitation of resources: Problems related to
 Even though
forestry is the second
Construction of roads and canals, quarrying, the underground biodiversity:
largest land shifting cultivation and encroachments are The underground biodiversity, particularly soil
use in India after other threats. Degradation of forests results microbes, are poorly understood. The degra-
agriculture, covering from illicit felling, excess removal of forest dation of land has led to the loss of under-
approximately 23.57 products, fodder, fuel wood, forest floor litter, ground biodiversity. Similarly, the microbial
percent (recorded overgrazing and forest fires. As a result, some diversity of fresh water and marine ecosystems
forest area) of the total of the floristic and faunal components, includ- is less known and may yield novel compounds
geographical area, the
ing many keystone and endemic forest species of therapeutic and industrial value. For sustain-
contribution to the
Gross Domestic
are now left with narrow eroding populations able agriculture, microorganisms play a deci-
Product from forestry is which need to be urgently conserved. sive role. The information on biodiversity of
minimal (it was barely Even though forestry is the second largest land freshwater, coastal and marine areas of the
1.1 percent in 2001). use in India after agriculture, covering approxi- country is highly fragmentary, although it has
mately 23.57 percent (recorded forest area) of vast economic potential.
the total geographical area, the contribution to Nearly 50 per cent of the aquatic plants of the
the Gross Domestic Product from forestry is world are recorded from the Indian sub-conti-
minimal (it was barely 1.1 percent in 2001). An nent but only a few have been studied in de-
estimated 41 percent of the country’s forest tail. In order to address some of these concerns,
cover has been degraded to some degree. As a National Institute on Mangroves and Coastal
much as 78 percent of forest area is subject to Bioresources is being set up by the MoEF in
heavy grazing and about 50 percent of the for- Sunderbans.
Nearly 50 per cent of est area is prone to forest fires. Domestic de- GMOs and Biodiversity:
the aquatic plants of mand for timber and fuelwood is well above The application of Genetic Use Restriction Tech-
the world are recorded the sustainable level. nologies (GURTs) or terminator technologies
from the Indian sub-
The rich diversity of medicinal plants (over is prohibited and import of GURTs based prod-
continent but only a
few have been studied
6,500 species) in the country needs conserva- ucts is also banned in the country. Hence, there
in detail. In order to tion and sustainable utilization, as their habi- is a need to further develop state-of-the-art con-
address some of these tats are either degraded or the species are be- tainment facilities and diagnostic tools for
concerns, a National ing over-exploited. In fact, nearly 90 per cent GURTs in the country. GURT, also called ter-
Institute on Mangroves of the medicinal plants in trade are harvested minator technology, is a biotech-based strategy
and Coastal from the wild. The medicinal plants constitute that prevents seeds from germinating in the
Bioresources is being critical resource for health care of rural com- next growing season unless treated chemically
set up by the MoEF in
munities and for the growth of Indian herbal by the seed company prior to planting. When
industry. Currently, India’s share in the seeds of crop varieties (containing this kind of
complementary medicine related global mar- genetic manipulation) are purchased from the

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company and planted, they germinate and Environment protection is enshrined in the
Biodiversity grow normally but produce seeds that do not Constitution of India [Article 48A and Article
germinate when saved by the farmers for sow- 51A (g)]. Wide-ranging policies, programmes
Government ing during the following season. Thus, healthy and projects are in place, which directly or in-
initiated a scheme on and high yielding plants are genetically com- directly serve to protect, conserve and
bio-diversity conserva- manded to produce ‘sterile’ seeds preventing sustainably use the country’s biological re-
tion to ensure the farmers to use them for the next season’s sources. These include the Forest (Conserva-
coordination among
planting. tion) Act, Wildlife (Protection) Act, Biological
various agencies
dealing with the issues The technology was first developed by the Diversity Act, National Green Tribunal Act,
related to conservation Delta & Pine Land, a multinational seed com- National Biodiversity Action Plan, National
of biodiversity and to pany, and the US Department of Agriculture. Forest Policy, National Wildlife Action Plan,
review, monitor and If commercialized, ‘terminator’ would compel National Forestry Action Programme, National
evolve adequate polity farmers to purchase fresh seeds from the com- Environment Policy and National Action Plan
instruments for the pany every year. It is bad for agricultural on Climate Change.
same. biodiversity and worse for the small and mar- Government initiated a scheme on bio-diver-
ginal farmers. sity conservation to ensure coordination among
Farmers have to purchase seeds of high yield- various agencies dealing with the issues related
ing hybrid varieties because seeds produced by to conservation of biodiversity and to review,
the hybrid plants are not uniform and their monitor and evolve adequate polity instru-
production capacity decreases in successive ments for the same. Important steps taken are:
seasons. Hybrid varieties are not yet popular (i) A comprehensive project National
in self-fertilised crop plants like wheat and rice Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP)
whose seeds are normally replaced after five has been launched for preparation of planning
years or so and that too on exchange among documents relating ecological security and live-
the farmers. lihood of people depending on natural re-
Multinational seed companies intend to pre- sources. The ultimate aim is to develop a Na-
 A draft National vent this traditional practice through GURTs. tional Plan for conservation of biodiversity and
Action Plan (NAP) has It is noteworthy that India opted to enact its to sustainable use.
been prepared based sui generis system (PPVFR Act 2001) for pro- A draft National Action Plan (NAP) has been
on 71 mega tection of crop varieties as required under the prepared based on 71 mega Biodiversity Strat-
Biodiversity Strategy WTO-TRIPS provisions. The Indian system is egy and Action Plan (BSAPs) at local (sub-state)
and Action Plan
largely compliant to an accepted international state, eco-regional and thematic levels. Thereby
(BSAPs) at local (sub-
state) state, eco- system for variety protection, called UPOV are draft and thematic review, large number of
regional and thematic 1978, that permits farmers to use saved-seeds secondary sources and so on.
levels. and also exempts researchers in using seeds of The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) set
protected varieties. These two exemptions dis- up at Chennai on October 1, 2003 as per the
tinguish this system from its more recent ver- provisions of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002
sion called UPOV 1991 which does not permit is mandated to facilitate implementation of the
them and operates more like the patenting sys- Act. Progress/Achievements made during the
tem. GURTs can be employed to achieve this year.
objective without the need to seek protection The Authority has held two meetings dur-
or patenting of new seed varieties. ing the year and taken a number of important
The International Agricultural Research Cen- decisions including prescribing format for
tre, operating under CGIAR, decided in 2000 “agreements” to be signed between NBA and
against the use of this technology and India was other parties seeking access to Genetic Re-
the first country to block its entry. The Gov- sources and Associated Knowledge and Noti-
The International ernment of India has further strengthened this fication of guidelines on collaborative research.
Agricultural Research
action through Protection of Plant Varieties and The Authority organized a number of semi-
Centre, operating
under CGIAR, decided Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001. Its section 29 (3) nars, symposia involving various stake hold-
in 2000 against the states that “Notwithstanding anything con- ers to educate and create awareness in regard
use of this technology tained in sub-section (2) and sub-sections (1) to provisions of the Act. The NBA has also con-
and India was the first and (3) of section 15, no variety of any genus or sidered 38 applications relating to access of Bio-
country to block its species which involves ‘any technology’ inju- logical Resource and related matters and an-
entry. The Government rious to the life or health of human beings, ani- other 62 applications are under consideration
of India has further mals or plants shall be registered under this Act. and examination by the Authority.
strengthened this
For the purposes of this subsection, the expres- NCDMA: India has established National Clean
action through
Protection of Plant sion “any technology” includes genetic use re- Development Mechanism Authority (NCDMA)
Varieties and Farmers’ striction technology and terminator technol- for according host country approval to CDM
Rights Act, 2001. ogy.” projects as mandated under the Kyoto Proto-
Government Efforts for Conservation col to the UN Framework Convention on Cli-

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mate Change (UNFCCC). One of the criteria biodiversity have been an integral part of In-
Biodiversity used for approval of CDM projects is impact dian ethos. Sacred groves are thick patches of
on biodiversity. Host country approvals have natural Forests conserved by the local commu-
Several species so far been accorded to 404 CDM projects fa- nities as part of sociocultural practices. The
specific projects are cilitating investment of more than Rs, 22,000 Sacred Grove Information System holds infor-
being implemented for crores. mation on 3000 such groves in the country out
flagship animal Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional For- of an estimated 100,000 to 150,000.
species such as Tiger
est Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, Several species specific projects are being
(National Animal),
Elephant (National enacted in 2006, is a tool to provide occupa- implemented for flagship animal species such
Heritage Animal), tional and habitational rights to the people, as Tiger (National Animal), Elephant (National
Rhinoceros, Gharial, thus, incentivising conservation and sustain- Heritage Animal), Rhinoceros, Gharial, Hangul
Hangul and snow able use of biological resources by providing and snow leopard, birds such as Vulture, Great
leopard, birds such as access to livelihood enhancing resources to Indian Bustard, and plants such as Orchids,
Vulture, Great Indian people. Rhododendron and citrus.
Bustard, and plants National Biotechnology Development Strat- India has put in place a number of initiatives
such as Orchids,
egy, 2007 calls for promotion of mass use of for promoting conservation of biodiversity,
Rhododendron and
citrus. technologies for sustainable utilisation of such as, provision of national gene fund, na-
bioresources. tional biodiversity fund, awards etc. Pressure
National Biodiversity Action Plan of 2008 de- from habitat loss and degradation has been re-
veloped in consultation with various stakehold- duced by the system of environment clearances
ers and by taking cognizance of legislative and based on Environmental Impact Assessment
policy framework is a dynamic matrix for (EIA), Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ), National
mainstreaming biodiversity concerns in the Afforestation and Eco-development Board
country. (NAEB), National Action Programme to Com-
India has a National Wildlife Action Plan, bat Desertification and Green India Mission.
which envisages 10 per cent of the geographi- The Guidelines for International Collabora-
cal area of the country under PA coverage. This tion Research Project involving transfer or ex-
is significant, keeping in view that India holds change of biological resources or information
18 per cent of world’s human population and relating thereto between institutions including
 India has a National also 18 per cent of the world’s livestock popu- government sponsored institutions and such in-
Wildlife Action Plan, lation in an area, which is only 2.4 per cent of stitutions in other countries were issued
which envisages 10
the world’s geographical area. through Gazette. These guidelines are appli-
per cent of the
geographical area of Under the Man and Biosphere (MAB) cable in all the Departments/Ministries of Gov-
the country under PA Programme out of 16 biospheres in India ernment of India. The methodology for prepa-
coverage. This is (70,000 sq. km.), seven are already in UNESCO ration of Peoples Biodiversity Register was also
significant, keeping in World Network of Biosphere Reserves (World finalized during the year.
view that India holds total 503). India has a National Wetland Con- Seventeen countries-Bolivia, Brazil, China, Co-
18 per cent of world’s servation Programme covering 125 wetlands lombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of
human population and including 25 Ramsar sites under the Ramsar Congo, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Kenya,
also 18 per cent of the
Convention. India accounts for about 5 per cent Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Philip-
world’s livestock
population in an area, of the world’s mangroves (including pines, South Africa and Venezuela rich in bio-
which is only 2.4 per Sunderbans delta the largest mangrove forest logical diversity and associated traditional
cent of the world’s in the world) and partners with IUCN’s Man- knowledge have formed the Group of Like
geographical area. groves for Future programme and has estab- Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC). The
lished a National Institute of the Mangrove LMMC Group holds nearly 70 per cent of the
Research at Kolkata. global biodiversity and is duly recognised ne-
Coral reefs in India occupy an extent of 2375 gotiating block in the UN and other interna-
sq. km. (including the Andaman Islands, which tional forum India has taken over Presidency
have rich coral diversity and a National Coral of the LMMC on February 2004. Indian in its
Reef Research Centre at Port Blair). capacity as the Chair of the LMMC had
India has a National Lake Conservation Plan organised an Expert and Ministerial level Meet-
covering 42 lakes, which aims at rejuvenation ing of the LMMCs in New Delhi at January 2004
in terms of improvement on water quality and and this meeting has adopted the New Delhi
biodiversity. Ministerial Declaration of Like Minded
India has a National River Conservation Plan Megadiverse Countries on Access and Benefit
India has a National
under implementation in 160 cities covering 34 Sharing.
River Conservation
Plan under implemen- rivers. National Ganga River Basin Authority The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, the first
tation in 160 cities (NGRBA) is responsible for conserving and sus- international regulatory framework for safe
covering 34 rivers. tainable use of the biodiversity of the river transfer, handling and use of Living Modified
Ganges. Conservation and sustainable use of Organism (LMOs) was negotiated under the

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aegis of the convention on Biological Diversity. National Biodiversity Authority (NBA)

Biodiversity The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a supple- The NBA established in October 2003 pursu-
mentary treaty to the Convention, seeks to pro- ant to Section 8 of the BDA. It focuses and ad-
The CBD is the first tect biological diversity from the potential risks vises GOI on conservation of biodiversity, sus-
comprehensive global posed by living modified organisms resulting tainable use of its components and securing
agreement addressing
from modern biotechnology. To date, 159 coun- equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the
all aspects relating to
biodiversity. The tries and the European Union have ratified the utilization of biological resources. It regulates
institutional framework Protocol. The Secretariat of the Convention and access to biological resources and associated
for CBD’s implementa- its Cartagena Protocol is located in Montreal. traditional knowledge for research and/or
tion is provided by the Biological Diversity Act- 2002 commercial purposes, bio-survey and bio-uti-
Conference of the India has been a signatory to the Convention lization as well as transfer of research results,
Parties (COP). since 18th February 1994, and is one of the first seeking IPR and third party transfer of bio-re-
countries to have enacted an appropriate com- sources.
prehensive legislation to achieve the objectives It advises the State Governments in the selec-
of the convention. As of now, 193 countries are tion of areas of importance as biodiversity heri-
party to the CBD. The Union Ministry of Envi- tage sites and measures for the management of
ronment and Forests (MoEF), the nodal agency such sites. It h as constituted expert commit-
for implementing provisions of CBD in India, tees to perform functions such as laying down
developed a strategy for biodiversity conser- the procedure and guidelines to govern the
vation at macro-level in 1999 and enacted the activities such as Access and Benefit Sharing
Biological Diversity Act in 2002 followed by the (ABS), Prior Informed Consent (PIC), Mutually
Rules thereunder in 2004. In pursuance to Ar- Agreed Terms (MAT), Intellectual Property
ticle 6 of the CBD, India within five years of Rights (IPR), list of normally traded commodi-
ratifying the Convention, had developed a ties, establishment of heritage sites and their
National Policy and Macrolevel Action Strat- management, national designated repositories
 COP 10 was held egy on Biodiversity in 1999. Thereafter, an ex- and safeguarding of traditional knowledge re-
from 18 to 29 October ternally-aided project on National Biodiversity specting the Article 8 (j) of the CBD.
2010 at the Nagoya Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) was also CBD and CoP
Conference Centre, in implemented in the country during 2000-2004, The CBD is the first comprehensive global
Nagoya, Aichi
adopting a highly participatory process involv- agreement addressing all aspects relating to
Prefecture, Japan. The
high-level segment of ing various stakeholders. Meanwhile, India also biodiversity. The institutional framework for
the Nagoya Summit enacted the Biological Diversity Act in 2002, CBD’s implementation is provided by the Con-
was held with the Section 36 of which empowers the Central Gov- ference of the Parties (COP). The COP is the
participation of 122 ernment to develop national biodiversity action governing body of CBD which keeps under
ministers and five plan. The Central Government has brought Bio- review implementation of the Convention, and
Heads of State and logical Diversity Act 2002, with the following steers its development COP is the supreme
Government salient features: decision making body which has the authority
(i) to regulate access to biological resources of to adopt protocols under the Convention. It also
the country with the purpose of securing equi- has the authority to amend the Convention it-
table share in benefits arising out of the use of self. To date, ten ordinary meetings of the COP
biological resources; and associated knowledge have been held, the first three annually (Nassau,
relating to biological resources; Bahamas in 1994; Jakarta, Indonesia in 1995;
(ii) to conserve and sustainable use biological and Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1996), and
diversity; thereafter biennially (Bratislava, Slovak Repub-
(iii) to respect and protect knowledge of local lic in 1998; Nairobi, Kenya in 2000; Hague, the
communities related to biodiversity; Netherlands in 2002; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
(iv) to secure sharing of benefits with local in 2004, Curitiba, Brazil in 2006, Bonn, Germany
people as conservers of biological resources and in May, 2008).
holders of knowledge and information relat- Nagoya Biodiversity Summit
India has been a ing to the use of biological resources; COP 10 was held from 18 to 29 October 2010 at
signatory to the (v) conservation and development of areas of the Nagoya Conference Centre, in Nagoya,
Convention since 18th important from the standpoint of biological di- Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The high-level segment
February 1994, and is versity by declaring them as biological diver- of the Nagoya Summit was held with the par-
one of the first
sity heritage sites; ticipation of 122 ministers and five Heads of
countries to have
enacted an appropriate (vi) protection and rehabilitation for threatened State and Government, including the President
comprehensive species; and of Gabon, the President of Guinea-Bissau, the
legislation to achieve (vii) involvement of institutions of state gov- Prime Minister of Yemen representing the
the objectives of the ernment in the broad scheme of the implemen- Group of 77 and China, as well as Prince Albert
convention. tation of the Biological Diversity Act through of Monaco. The President of the tenth meeting
constitution of committees. of the Conference of the Parties to the Conven-

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 52 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

tion on Biological Diversity (COP-10) was Ryu The importance of acting to conserve
Biodiversity Matsumoto, the Minister of the Environment biodiversity also received support by the do-
of Japan. The Nagoya Protocol is expected to nor community. Representatives of 34 bilateral
The Multi-Year Plan enter into force by 2012, with support from the and multilateral donor agencies agreed to trans-
of Action on South- Global Environment Facility of one million late the plan into their respective development
South Cooperation on United States dollars to support early entry into cooperation priorities.
Biodiversity for force. The Multi-Year Plan of Action on South-South
Development adopted
The summit achieved its three inter-linked Cooperation on Biodiversity for Development
by the 131 members of
the Group of 77 and goals: (a) adoption of a new ten year Strategic adopted by the 131 members of the Group of
China was welcomed Plan to guide international and national efforts 77 and China was welcomed as an important
as an important to save biodiversity through enhanced action instrument at the service of the new vision.
instrument at the to meet the objectives of the Convention on Bio- Finance in support of implementation of the
service of the new logical Diversity; (b) a resource mobilization Convention was announced. The Prime Minis-
vision. strategy that provides the way forward to a sub- ter of Japan, Mr Naoto Kan, announced 2 bil-
stantial increase to current levels of official de- lion United States dollars in financing, the Min-
velopment assistance in support of ister of Environment of Japan announced the
biodiversity; and (c) a new international pro- establishment of a Japan Biodiversity Fund.
tocol on access to and sharing of the benefits Additional financial resources were announced
from the use of the genetic resources of the by France, the European Union and Norway.
planet. Some 110 million United States dollars were
The Strategic Plan of the Convention on Bio- mobilized in support of projects under the CBD
logical Diversity or the “Aichi Target”, adopted LifeWeb Initiative aimed at enhancing the pro-
by the meeting includes 20 headline targets, tected-area agenda.
organized under five strategic goals that ad- Financial support for the Strategic Plan will be
dress the underlying causes of biodiversity loss, provided under the framework of the resource
reduce the pressures on biodiversity, safeguard mobilization strategy. Parties will work to de-
 The Economics biodiversity at all levels, enhance the benefits fine in time for the eleventh meeting of the
of Ecosystems and provided by biodiversity, and provide for ca- Conference of the Parties in 2012, the targets
Biodiversity (TEEB) pacity-building. Among the targets, it is impor- and mechanisms through which financial re-
Local and Regional tant to note that Parties: sources can be identified, unleashed and chan-
Policy Makers report Agreed to at least halve and where feasible nelled.
launched at national
bring close to zero the rate of loss of natural Parties adopted the Nagoya Protocol on Access
workshop in New
Delhi. habitats including forests; to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable
Established a target of 17 per cent of terres- Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utiliza-
trial and inland water areas and 10 per cent of tion. The historic agreement creates a frame-
marine and coastal areas; work that balances access to genetic resources
Through conservation and restoration, Gov- on the basis of prior informed consent and
ernments will restore at least 15 percent of de- mutually agreed terms with the fair and equi-
graded areas; and table sharing of benefits while taking into ac-
Will make special efforts to reduce the pres- count the important role of traditional knowl-
sures faced by coral reefs. edge. The Protocol also proposes the creation
Parties also agreed to a substantial increase in of a global multilateral mechanism that will
the level of financial resources in support of operate in transboundary areas or situations
implementation of the Convention. where prior informed consent cannot be ob-
The “Aichi Target” will be the overarching tained. India is going to host the 11th Confer-
The “Aichi Target” framework on biodiversity not only for the ence of Parties of CBD in 2012.
will be the overarching biodiversity-related conventions, but for the TEEB 2010
framework on
entire United Nations system. Parties agreed The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
biodiversity not only for
the biodiversity-related to translate this overarching international (TEEB) Local and Regional Policy Makers re-
conventions, but for framework into national biodiversity strategy port launched at national workshop in New
the entire United and action plans within two years. Delhi. Factoring the planet’s multi-trillion dol-
Nations system. Actions in support will also take place at lar ecosystem services into policy-making can
Parties agreed to subnational and local levels. Parties endorsed help save cities and regional authorities money
translate this a plan of action on cities and biodiversity while boosting the local economy, enhancing
overarching interna- adopted by the Nagoya Biodiversity City sum- quality of life, securing livelihoods and gener-
tional framework into
mit attended by more 200 mayors. 122 legisla- ating employment.
national biodiversity
strategy and action tors from around the world attending the This is the finding from a major international
plans within two years. GLOBE meeting on parliamentarians and study, launched in a report by TEEB for Local
biodiversity agreed to support the implemen- and Regional Policy Makers, being released in
tation of the new Strategic Plan. India, Brazil, Belgium, Japan and South Africa

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 53 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

on September 9. Various representatives from The second and third amendments to the
Biodiversity national governments, state bodies, mun- Patent Act, 1970 provide for mandatory disclo-
cipalities, corporations, NGOs, biodiversity sure in the patent application, of the source and
The CBD recognises boards, environmental organisations, forest geographical origin of the biological material
the sovereign rights of departments, academics etc. from across India used in the invention.
States over their participated in the New Delhi launch. The event The Geographical Indications of Goods Act,
natural resources in provided the platform for the launch of this sig- 1999 has been enacted to provide for protec-
areas within their
nificant report, and a workshop for local au- tion of geographical indications of goods re-
jurisdiction. Parties to
the Convention thorities from across the region to explore find- ferring to a place of origin of that product and
therefore have the ings of the report within an Indian context. The the exclusion of unauthorized persons from
authority to determine event was organized by the TEEB Study, Min- misusing geographical indications.
access to genetic istry of Environment and Forests, Indian Insti-
resources in areas tute of Technology Bombay, Green India States
within their jurisdiction. Trust (GIST) and ICLEI South Asia. Biodiversity in 2010

Negotiation on Access and Benefit Sharing ndia has taken a wide range of measures
(ABS): The CBD recognises the sovereign rights to achieve 2010 target. Some examples
of States over their natural resources in areas include: (i) holistic community-based
within their jurisdiction. Parties to the Conven- sustainable forestry programmes such as
tion therefore have the authority to determine JFM is now operational on more than 17
access to genetic resources in areas within their million ha of land spread all over the country;
jurisdiction. Parties also have the obligation to (ii) National Bureau of Plant Genetic
take appropriate measures with the aim of shar- Resources (NBPGR) that has been engaged
ing the benefits derived from their use. Ben- in documenting a large number of varieties
efits derived from genetic resources may in- of crop plants in the country, and National
clude the result of research and development Bureau of Agriculturally Important
carried out on genetic resources, the transfer Microorganisms (NBAIM) which is acting as
of technologies which make use of those re- a nodal centre for the acquisition and
 The Protection of
Plant Varieties and sources, participation in biotechnological re- management of indigenous and exotic
Farmer’s Rights Act, search activities, or monetary benefits arising microbial genetic resources for improved
2001 and Rules 2003 from the commercialisation of products based utilization in food and agriculture; (iii) the
deal primarily with the on genetic resources. Further to the call for ac- Tiger Project that now incorporates 37 tiger
protection of plant reserves in seventeen states; (iv) 38 mangrove
tion by Governments at the World Summit on
breeders rights over areas identified for intensive conservation
the new varieties Sustainable Development in 2002, the COP-7
established the Working Group on ABS to ne- and management; (v) Project Elephant which
gotiate protocol for an international regime on helps in ensuring long-term survival of
access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. identified viable elephant populations in
Legislative Measures their natural habitats and presently India has
Strategies and plans for conservation and sus- 26 such reserves; (vi) development of TKDL,
tainable use of biological resources based on an easily navigable computerized database
local knowledge systems and practices are in- of documented information available in
grained in Indian ethos and are enshrined in published texts of Indian systems of
the Constitution of India [Article 48A and Ar- medicine, with the objective of preventing
ticle 51 A(g)] in the form of environment pro- the grant of patents on non-original
tection. In recent times, the major building invention; and vii) the National Policy on
blocks of policy frameworks, legislations and Farmers (2007) which contributes to protect
action plans that drive the country in achiev- and improve land, water, biodiversity and
ing all the three objectives of the CBD include, genetic resources essential for sustained
The Geographical increase in productivity, profitability and
among others, Biological Diversity Act (BDA),
Indications of Goods stability of major farming systems by
Act, 1999 has been 2002, National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP)
(2002-2016), National Environment Policy creating an economic stake in conservation.
enacted to provide for
(NEP) 2006, National Biodiversity Action Plan Likewise, initiatives in PAs include an
protection of geo-
graphical indications of (NBAP), 2008 and National Action Plan on Cli- innovative strategy, as envisaged in NEP,
goods referring to a mate Change (NAPCC), 2008. 2006, to increase forest cover from 23 per cent
place of origin of that The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s to 33 per cent of the national territory by
product and the Rights Act, 2001 and Rules 2003 deal prima- 2012 and the goal to establish 163 NPs and
exclusion of unautho- 707 WLs ensuring appropriate represe-
rily with the protection of plant breeders rights
rized persons from ntation across all ecosystems. The monitoring
misusing geographical over the new varieties developed. The Act also
provides for protection of farmer’s varieties and committee of the NWAP periodically
creation of national gene fund for promoting monitors the status of establishment and
conservation of local varieties. management of PAs.

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 54 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

There is a provision for benefit sharing for ac- Lakh (0.22 million) medicinal formulations is
Biodiversity cess to biological and or associated knowledge available to Patent Offices under TKDL Access
(ABS) in the Biological Diversity Act. Under this Agreement. As of September 2010, 3 patents
The Biological
Diversity Act provides
Act, 87 benefit sharing agreements have been have been set aside and 23 patents have been
for documentation of entered by NBA with applicants in consulta- withdrawn based on TKDL database by the
coded and oral tion with the stakeholders. EPO.
traditional knowledge There are seven main statutory Acts that regu- A recent study has revealed a sharp decline (44
associated with late environmental impacts per cent) on filing of patent applications con-
bioresources in the from mining activity as given below: cerning Indian systems of medicine at EPO.
form of People’s (a) Mines and Mineral (Development and Regu- TKDL is proving to be an effective deterrent
Biodiversity Register,
lations) Act, 1957 against bio-piracy. India has also set up a glo-
to ensure effective
(b) The Water (Prevention and Control of Pol- bal bio-piracy watch system under TKDL in
promotion and lution) Act, 1974 respect of patent applications related to Indian
sustainable uses. (c) The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollu- System of Medicines. Misappropriation and
tion) Act, 1981 biopiracy are the issues of great concern for the
(d) The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 developing countries and this agenda is being
(e) The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, and pursued at multilateral fora such as CBD, TRIPS
(f) The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 Council and WIPO, and we hope, a global Tra-
(g) The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional ditional Knowledge protection system is estab-
Forest Dwellers lished soon.
(Recognition of Forest Rights Act), 2006 The Biological Diversity Act provides for docu-
National Innovation Foundation (NIF), an au- mentation of coded and oral traditional knowl-
tonomous society established in 2000 for edge associated with bioresources in the form
recognising, respecting and rewarding innova- of People’s Biodiversity Register, to ensure ef-
 National Innovation tions and outstanding traditional knowledge fective management, promotion and sustain-
Foundation (NIF), an at grassroots, has developed a model for facili- able uses. So far, 419 such registers have been
autonomous society
tating prior informed consent for local innova- documented in 6 states. These documents will
established in 2000 for
recognising, respecting
tors and traditional knowledge holders which be of great value in protecting the biodiversity.
and rewarding provides for NIF mediation. Agriculture and Bio-diversity
innovations and Protection of Traditional Knowledge: India India has made significant strides in agricul-
outstanding traditional has strived hard to protect its traditional knowl- ture to integrate and mainstream biodiversity
knowledge at edge and resources. India fought successfully considerations through a strong back-up of
grassroots, has for the revocation of turmeric and basmati pat- policies (e.g. National Policy for Farmers, 2007),
developed a model for ents granted by United States Patent and Trade- institutions including four National Bureaus
facilitating prior
mark Office (USPTO) and neem patent granted and agricultural universities, missions (e.g.
informed consent for
local innovators and
by European Patent Office (EPO). As a sequel National Bamboo Mission), and projects, espe-
traditional knowledge to this, in 1999, the Department of Ayurveda, cially the ones that follow ecosystem approach
holders which provides Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and (such as National Agriculture Innovation
for NIF mediation. Homoeopathy (AYUSH) and Council of Scien- Project and Conservation and Management of
tific and Industrial Research (CSIR) constituted Pollinators for Sustainable Development). Ma-
an inter-disciplinary Task Force, for creating an jor achievements include:
approach paper on establishing a Traditional i) creation of a National Gene Fund for conser-
Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) vation and development of plant genetic re-
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library sources; ii) establishment of Protection of Plant
(TKDL) is an effective deterrent to bio-piracy: Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Authority
TKDL is a maiden Indian effort and is a pro- (PPV&FR Authority) and granting incentives
prietary and original database. TKDL is avail- to farmers in the form of “ Plant Genome Sav-
able in English, Japanese, French, German and ior Community Recognition”; iii) establishment
Spanish. Today, India through TKDL is capable of a multilateral system to facilitate access to
Traditional Knowl- of protecting about 0.224 million medical for- plant genetic resources for food and agricul-
edge Digital Library
mulations. On an average, it takes five to seven ture (PGRFA) through International Treaty on
(TKDL) is an effective
deterrent to bio-piracy:
years for opposing a granted patent at interna- Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agricul-
TKDL is a maiden tional level which may cost 0.2-0.6 million US$. ture (ITPGRFA); iv) integration of pest man-
Indian effort and is a India has signed TKDL Access Agreements agement programmes, and v) promotion of
proprietary and original with European, US, Canadian, German, and organic farming; and vi) identification of agro-
database. TKDL is UK Patent Offices. These agreements are biodiversity heritage sites.
available in English, unique in nature and have inbuilt safeguards Research and Development
Japanese, French, on non-disclosure to protect India’s interest. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research
German and
Significant impact has already been realised at has set up a number of gene banks for ex situ
EPO during the last one year. The access to 2.24 conservation under the National Bureau of

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 55 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi, of the main objectives of forest management.
Biodiversity National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources NTFPs contribute to over 75 per cent of total
(NBAGR), Karnal, National Bureau of Fish forest export revenue, and add significantly to
The Department of
Biotechnology (DBT)
Genetic Resources (NBFGR), Lucknow, and the income of about 30 per cent of rural people.
has been implement- National Bureau of Agriculturally Important NTFPs
ing focused Microorganisms (NBAIM), Mau. A large num- play an important role in the social and tradi-
programmes on ber of microorganisms of agricultural impor- tional life of forest dependent populations.
biodiversity conserva- tance also form a vital part of the diversified According to a study, about 67 per cent of all
tion through biotechno- Indian agricultural ecosystem. gatherers are women and 13 per cent are chil-
logical interventions The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has dren.
since 1991, inter alia
been implementing focused programmes on Trade in some items such as tendu leaves, sal
by developing
techniques, tools and
biodiversity conservation through biotechno- seeds, myrobolans, gums and resins is nation-
technologies for ex situ logical interventions since 1991, inter alia by alized in some States. In Madhya Pradesh and
conservation. developing techniques, tools and technologies Chhattisgarh, the major share of net revenue
for ex situ conservation. Many tissue culture goes back to NTFP gatherers.
protocols have been developed for regenera- Sustainability of the management of NTFPs is
tion of endangered and threatened species. The one of the major concerns which is being en-
DBT has established a national facility “Labo- sured through development and application of
ratory for conservation of species” – LaCONES, non-destructive methods of NTFP collection.
at Hyderabad jointly with the help of Central Despite very high potential of NTFPs, their
Zoo Authority (MoEF), CSIR and Andhra sustainable management is a major issue requir-
Pradesh Government for the conservation of ing urgent action. NTFP gatherers are highly
endangered animal species like tiger, lion, black unorganized with little market access. Because
buck, vulture, etc. of lack of inventory data or value addition, and
India has all along shown deep commitment resultant non-remunerative prices, the gather-
for biodiversity conservation and sustainable ers often resort to unsustainable and destruc-
India has all along
development and has responded effectively to tive harvesting to maximize their collection.
shown deep commit-
ment for biodiversity
relevant international treaties and conventions. Further, in the forestry sector, the local organi-
conservation and Partnerships and cooperation in different sec- zations such as cooperatives are either still rare
sustainable develop- tors have further strengthened and consoli- or in infancy. There is a need to strengthen the
ment and has dated India’s efforts in cross-sectoral integra- useful link between NTFP management and
responded effectively tion of biodiversity considerations. Among oth- JFM so that the benefits accruing from NTFPs
to relevant interna- ers, the sectors and programmes include: i) can be profitably channelised for the well-be-
tional treaties and plant, animal, human and microbial genomics ing of the forest dependent communities, en-
(joint centres in biotechnology with France, suring sustainable forest management.
Germany, Indo-ASEAN Institute of Biotechnol- The high potential of NTFPs is to be rationally
ogy, Indo-ASEAN Biotechnology Network); ii) and optimally utilized through scientific ap-
International Centre for Genetic Engineering proaches, research, acquisition of appropriate
and Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi (an technology and greater people’s participation.
autonomous UN organization); iii) cooperation The constraints in forestry sector, among oth-
with Consultative Group on International Ag- ers, include: (i) lack of adequate awareness
ricultural Research (CGIAR) centres for devel- about the multiple roles and benefits of forests
opment of high quality seed material of some and their relevance to poverty alleviation and
crops; iv) partnership building through FDAs sustainable development; (ii) low priority for
and JFMCs, partnerships with industries; v) forestry in national planning process; (iii) slow
CSIR Strategic Alliances; vi) new initiatives in pace of policy reforms and inadequate imple-
Indian forests are agriculture sector to promote agriculture re- mentation of regulatory mechanisms; (iv) over-
rich in several types of search and education through collaboration emphasis on government control and involve-
Non-Timber Forest with a large number of countries; vii) promot- ment, and difficult administrative procedures;
Products (NTFPs) ing investment in coastal ecosystem conserva- (v) weak forestry information system render-
such as honey,
tion with IUCN; viii) wildlife protection and ing decision-making difficult; (vi) inadequate
bamboo, cane, gums
and resins, leaves
care with USA; and ix) collaboration with GEF investment in forestry, not-commensurate with
used for country through wide ranging twelve on-going projects. its role in sustainable development; (vii) inad-
smoke and plate- NTFPs equate space for private participation; (viii) lack
making, several types Indian forests are rich in several types of Non- of full realization of people’s participation; (ix)
of flowers, dye plants, Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) such as honey, inadequate targeted research and extension
fruits, nuts, seeds and bamboo, cane, gums and resins, leaves used for studies; (x) inadequate frontline staff and that
roots. country smoke and plate- making, several types too of older age group; (xi) less emphasis on
of flowers, dye plants, fruits, nuts, seeds and forestry research; (xii) lack of on-job training
roots. Sustainable management of NTFPs is one and capacity building for forest officers espe-

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 56 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

cially for the frontline staff; (xiii) general ne- through two-tier decentralized mechanism of
Biodiversity glect of full potential of NTFPs; and (xiv) lack Forest Development Agency (FDA) at Forest
of supportive land use policy. Division Level and Joint Forest Management
Remedial actions for
restoration of
Remedial actions for restoration of degraded Committees (JFMCs) at the village level.
degraded areas have areas have been undertaken through eco-res- National Afforestation and Eco Development
been undertaken toration programmes by involving local people. Board (NAEB), Ministry of Environment and
through eco-restora- Special attention has been given to coastal zones Forests, Government of India, is currently
tion programmes by through Coastal Zone Regulation Rules, 1991 implementing a National Afforestation
involving local people. under the Environment (Protection) Act. This Programme (NAP) with the help of FDA-JFMC
Special attention has notification is under reformulation based on mechanism in over 700 FDAs involving over
been given to coastal
scientific principles as recommended by twenty thousand JFMCs. The scheme, since the
zones through Coastal
Zone Regulation
Swaminathan Committee (2005), and a draft inception has invested over Rs.1500 crore to
Rules, 1991 under the notification on Coastal Management Zone 2008 bring afforestation in about one million hect-
Environment (Protec- has been issued. are forest land and led to infrastructure devel-
tion) Act. Invasive alien species opment in over twenty thousand villages. The
Invasive alien species (obnoxious weeds, fish, National Afforestation and Eco-development
pathogens and pests, etc.) pose a serious threat Board (NAEB) was set up in August 1992 for
to native species, their habitats and function- promoting afforestation, tree planting, ecologi-
ing of different ecosystems. In India, a multi- cal restoration and eco-development activities
agency and multi-programme approach, in- in the country. Special attention is being given
volving several Ministries and agencies, is be- to the regeneration of degraded forest areas and
ing followed for regulating introductions and lands adjoining forest areas, national parks,
managing invasive alien species. Major activi- sanctuaries and other protected areas as well
ties include regulation of introduction of exotic as the ecologically fragile areas like the West-
living materials, their quarantine clearance and ern Himalayas, Aravallis, Western Ghats etc.
release for research and direct use. Regulatory Mechanisms
India follows international quarantine regu- Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is
lations. one of the management tolls for incorporating
Invasive alien Presently, there is no exclusive legislation or environmental concerns in development pro-
species (obnoxious policy in India to deal with the invasive alien cess and also in improved decision making.
weeds, fish, species. To give legislative status to the procedure of
pathogens and pests, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine impact assessment, EIA was made mandatory
etc.) pose a serious and Storage, Faridabad, Ministry of Agricul- since January 1994 for thirty categories of de-
threat to native ture is the nodal agency to enforce the regula- velopment activities.
species, their habitats
tions. In 1999, in order to ensure safeguards, the
and functioning of
different ecosystems.
Latest regulations are ‘Plant Quarantine Or- Ministry has established six regional offices at
der 2003’. Shillong, Bhubaneshwar, Chandigarh, Banga-
On preliminary assessment, 61 species of lore, Lucknow and Bhopal.
plants (including 12 species of fungi) and 14 The interim operational guidelines provid-
species of insects have been identified as inva- ing inter-link between EIA Notification 1994
sive having national distribution and 36 spe- and 2006 have been issued by the Ministry and
cies having regional distribution. are available on the website of the Ministry.
About 28 species native to India have been The Ministry has recently fostered a scheme
found to be invasive to other biogeographical for accreditation/registration of EIA Consult-
zones. ants with an objective of improving the quality
ICFRE has established a ‘FIS Cell’ in FRI to of EIA studies and making it more authentic.
deal with various aspects of management of FIS The scheme will be operated by Quality Coun-
in the country. cil of India (QCI).
FDAs-JFMC and NAEB Amended EIA Notification 2009: With a view
The concept of Forest Development Agencies to further simplify the procedure for obtaining
(FDAs) was initially developed as an institu- the environmental clearance without compro-
Impact Assessment
(EIA) is one of the
tional mechanism to develop forest range vil- mising or diluting the regulatory framework,
management tolls for lages where communities are substantially de- the EIA notification has been amended in De-
incorporating environ- pendent on local forest resources. The FDAs in cember, 2009. The amended EIA Notification
mental concerns in collaboration with village-level forest commit- of December, 2009 provides for exemption of
development process tees (JFMCs) are working as a two-tier mecha- biomass based power plants up to fifteen MW,
and also in improved nism in which forest communities at village power plants
decision making. level are supported and guided by forest divi- based on non hazardous municipal solid wastes
sion level FDAs. and power plants based on waste heat recov-
The NAP Scheme is being implemented ery boilers without using auxiliary fuel.

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For the purpose of protecting and conserv- concerning the prevention and control of envi-
Biodiversity ing the coastal environment the Ministry has ronmental pollution.
issued the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Seventeen categories of heavily polluting in-
Seventeen catego-
ries of heavily polluting
Notification in 1991, declaring coastal stretches dustries have been identified.
industries have been of seas, bays, estuaries, creeks, rivers and back They are: cement, thermal power plant, distill-
identified. They are: waters which are influenced by tidal action, up eries, sugar, fertilizer, integrated iron and steel,
cement, thermal power to 500 metres from the high tide line and the oil refineries, pulp and paper, petrochemicals,
plant, distilleries, inter-tidal zone as the Coastal Regulation Zone. pesticides, tanneries, basic drugs and pharma-
sugar, fertilizer, The Ministry constituted a four member ceuticals, dye and dye intermediates, caustic
integrated iron and Committee under the chairmanship of Prof. soda, zinc smelter, copper smelter and alu-
steel, oil refineries,
M.S. Swaminathan on 15th June, 2009. The minium smelter.
pulp and paper,
Committee submitted its report on 15th July, The National River Conservation Director-
pesticides, tanneries, 2009 after holding detailed discussions with the ate (NRCD) functioning under the Ministry, is
basic drugs and concerned stakeholders. The major recommen- enagaged in implementing the River Action
pharmaceuticals, dye dations of the Committee included, (i) to let the Plans under the National River Conservation
and dye intermediates, draft Coastal Management Zone Notification, Plan (NRCP). It has 31 rivers under this
caustic soda, zinc 2008 lapse, (ii) stringent implementation of the programme in action.
smelter, copper Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 and The National Afforestation and Eco-Devel-
smelter and aluminium
use of space technology –enabled enforcement opment Board (NAEB) was set up in August
of the provisions of the notification, (iii) en- 1992 for promoting afforestation, tree planting,
hance protection of fishermen communities, (iv) ecological restoration and eco-development ac-
introduce regulations to manage the prolifera- tivities in the country.
tion of ports along the coasts, (v) tighter stan- The institution of Forest Development Agency
dards for disposal of effluents in to coastal wa- (FDA), which is a forest division-level federa-
ters, (vi) new management regimes for tion of village forest committees, has been
Andaman, Nicobar and lakshdweep Islands, formalised and supported under the National
(vii) include the seaward side to insure protec- Afforestation Programme of NAEB in the Tenth
tion from current and future threats, (viii) mea- Plan.
sures to strengthen research and regulatory Integrated Coastal Management Zone (ICMZ)
The National River capacity, (ix) introduce policies keeping in view project of World Bank: An Integrated Coastal
Conservation the future dangers from sea level rise and in- Zone Management (ICZM) project of World
Directorate (NRCD) creased vulnerability of the coasts. Bank has been initiated with financial assis-
functioning under the An ECOMARK label has been introduced tance from the World Bank which has follow-
Ministry, is enagaged to label consumer products that are environ- ing three major components: (i) Vulnerability
in implementing the
ment-friendly. and Ecologically Sensitive Area Mapping; (ii)
River Action Plans
under the National
A Network of 295 Ambient Air Quality National Institute Building and Capacity
River Conservation Monitoring Stations covering towns/cities all Strengthening; (iii) Development and Imple-
Plan (NRCP). It has 31 over the country has been set up by Central mentation of State Level approaches to Inte-
rivers under this Pollution Control Board in coordination with grated Coastal Zone Management on pilot scale
programme in action. State Pollution Control Boards. in the States of Gujarat, West Bengal and Orissa.
Under National Air Quality Monitoring Ecologically Sensitive Areas: Environmentally
Programme (NAMP), four air pollutants viz, Sensitive Zones may be defined as areas with
Sulphur Dioxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, Sus- identified environmental resources having “In-
pended Particulate Matter and Respirable Sus- comparable Values” which require special at-
pended Particulate Matter have been identified tention for their conservation. The Ministry has
for regular monitoring at all the locations. already notified ecologically-sensitive areas in
Besides this, additional parameters such as respect of Matheran, Mahableshwar-
Respirable Lead and other toxic trace metals Panchgani, Doon Valley, Taj Trapezium,
and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are also Numaligarh, Aravalli and Dhanu Taluka un-
being monitored in seven metro-cities of the der the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
The Central
country. Zonal Master Plan / Area Development Plan
Pollution Control Board
(CPCB), an autono-
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), for all notified / to be notified environmentally
mous body of the an autonomous body of the Ministry, was set sensitive areas would be prepared by the con-
Ministry, was set up in up in September 1974, under the provisions of cerned State Governments as per the provisions
September 1974, the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) of the said respective draft notifications involv-
under the provisions of Act, 1974. ing local communities / experts and got ap-
the Water (Prevention The CPCB coordinates the activities of the proved by the Ministry for regulating devel-
and Control of State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and Pol- opment activities and protection and conser-
Pollution) Act, 1974.
lution Control Committees (PCCs) and also ad- vation of Entities of Incomparable Values.
vises the Central Government on all matters Monitoring Committees with representatives

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 58 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

of Government, Experts and local representa- 3. Nokrek (820) 1.9.88 Part of Garo Hills
Biodiversity tives as per the notifications would be consti- (Meghalaya)
tuted to ensure compliance of approved Zonal 4.Manas (2837) 14.3.89 Part of Kokrajhar,
Reserves are a
Master Plans/Area Development Plan. Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamprup and
special category of Bio-sphere Reserves Darang Districts (Assam)
protected areas of They are a special category of protected areas 5. Sunderbans*(9630) 29.3.89 Part of delta of
land and/or coastal of land and/or coastal environments, wherein Ganges & Brahamaputra river system (West
environments, wherein people are an integral component of the sys- Bengal)
people are an integral tem. These are representative examples of natu- 6. Gulf of Mannar*(10500) 18.2.89 Indian part
component of the ral biomes and contain unique biological com- of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka
system. These are
munities. Biosphere reserve is basically a multi- (Tamil Nadu)
examples of natural
purpose protected area with the basic objective 7. Great Nicobar(885) 6.1.89 Southern most is-
biomes and contain to preserve the genetic diversity in representa- lands of Andaman and Nicobar (A&N Islands)
unique biological tive eco-systems. 8. Similipal (4374) 21.6.94 Part of Mayurbhanj
communities. The idea was launched in 1975 as a part of district (Orissa)
the UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Programme. 9. Dibru-Saikhowa(765) 28.7.97 Part of
Till May 2002, there were 408 biosphere re- Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts (Assam)
serves located in 94 countries. 10. Dehang Debang(5111.5) 02.09.98 Part of
The Ministry has provided financial assis- Siang and Debang valley in Arunachal Pradesh.
tance to the respective State Governments for 11. Kanchanjunga ( 2619.92 ) 07.02.2000 Parts
conservation and management of fourteen Bio- of North and West Sikkim.
sphere Reserves designated so far. In addition, 12. Pachmari (4926.28) 03.03.99 Parts of Betur,
a number of potential sites are under consider- Hoshangabad and Chhindwara District of
ation out of which Rann of Kutchch in Gujarat Madhya Pradesh
and Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve in Jammu 13. Agasthyamalai (3500.36) 12.11.2001 Parts
& Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are at an of Thirunelveli and Kanya Kumari (area Dis-
A Biosphere
advanced stage. Research and development tricts in Tamil Nadu and expanded on
Reserve consists of
core, buffer and
projects are also supported in these designated Thiruvanthapuram, Kollam and Pathanmthitta
transition zones. The Reserves and potential sites. 30.3.2005) of Kerala
natural or core zone  Out of the sixteen Biosphere Reserves des- 14. Achanakmar-Amarkantak 30.3. 2005 Parts
comprises an ignated nationally, seven Biosphere Reserves of Anuppur and Dindori (3835.51) districts of
undistributed and namely Sunderbans (West Bengal), Gulf of Madhya Pradesh and Parts of Bilaspur district
legally protected Mannar (Tamil Nadu) , Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu, of Chhattisgarh State.
ecosystem. The buffer Kerala and Karnataka), Nanda Devi, 15. Kachchh (12,454) notified on 29th January,
zone surrounds the
(Uttarakhand), Pachmarhi (Madhya Pradesh), 2008 and it includes parts of Kachchh, Rajkot,
core area and is
managed to accommo-
Simlipal (Orissa) and Nokrek (Meghalaya) have Sunderanagar and Patan Civil Districts of
date a greater variety been included in the World Network of Bio- Gujarat state.
of resource use sphere Reserves so far. The proposals in respect 16. Cold Desert (7770) notified on 28.08.09 and
strategies, and of Khangchandzonga (Sikkim), Manas (Assam) includes parts of Pin Valley National Park and
research and and Great Nicobar (Andaman & Nicobar Is- surroundings; Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber
educational activities. lands) are under active consideration of the Wildlife Sancturary in Himachal Pradesh.
UNESCO for inclusion in the world Network. In India, Biosphere Reserves are also noti-
Efforts are on for getting remaining Biosphere fied as National Parks.
Reserves included in the World Network of A Biosphere Reserve consists of core, buffer and
Biosphere Reserves. transition zones. The natural or core zone com-
While the Core areas of the Biosphere Re- prises an undistributed and legally protected
serves will continue to be protected under the ecosystem. The buffer zone surrounds the core
Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 and Indian area and is managed to accommodate a greater
Forest Act, 1927 and Forest Conservation Act, variety of resource use strategies, and research
1980, a separate Regulation within the frame- and educational activities. The transition zone,
work of existing Environment (Protection) Act, the outermost part of the Biosphere Reserve, is
Kachchh (12,454)
1986 is being firmed up to regulate activities an area of active cooperation between reserve
notified on 29th within Buffer Zone of the Biosphere Reserves. management and local people, wherein activi-
January, 2008 and it 1. Nilgiri*(5520 ) 1.8.86 Part of Wynad, ties like settlements, cropping and other eco-
includes parts of Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, nomic uses continue in harmony with conser-
Kachchh, Rajkot, Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani hills vation goals.
Sunderanagar and (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka) Hot Spots of Biodiversity
Patan Civil Districts of 2. Nanda Devi*(6497.03) 18.1.88 Part of Twenty-five terrestrial hot spots for conser-
Gujarat state.
Chamoli, Pithoragarh & Almora Districts and vation of biodiversity have been identified
Valley of Flowers (Uttarakhand) world-wide. Among the 25 hot spots, two are

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

in India, they are: (i) Western Ghats; and (ii) masses and the ocean basins.
Biodiversity Eastern Ghats. Coastal features are varied and display a sharp
contrast between the western and the eastern
Coastal Area Wasteland segments. Wide variations in coastal features
Ecosystem (CAE), The National Wasteland Development are conditioned by geological factors such as
particularly a sensitive Board (NWDB) was set up in 1985. the rock type, and their composition, structure/
eco-zone is an  In 1989 out of 120 million hectares: (a) 40 tectonics and the dominant process of degra-
“interface zone” where million hectares has been identified as forest- dation or aggradations, besides wave and wind
land meets the sea. It lands and (b) Nearly 80 million hectares has action, and vegetation.
is there fore, dynamic
been identified as is non-forest wastelands. Initiatives for sustainability
and non-static in its
geo-physical and
Government has taken a number of steps to On the landward side, there is need for a set-
chemical parameters. promote wastewater management. back area of at- least 500 meters from the high
Submerged Aerated Fixed Film Reactor tide line that should be deemed as “non-devel-
(SAFF) has been introduced by the wastewater opment green zone” which should be envis-
management division of Thermax in place of aged as a playground for the sea.
what is termed as the activated sludge process. The no development green zone can be suit-
SAFF has various advantages: (a) lower power ably transformed into a bio-shield using veg-
requirement; (b) less maintenance; (c) low op- etation or tree cover that is appropriate for the
erating cost; and (d) reduction in the overall specific site mangrove, beach grass, casuarines.
volume of the plant. The sea gives and takes in the natural course
Reverse Osmosis is a highly advanced recy- of her being. It is in human interest that we learn
cling system. Common Effluent Treatment to respect her vicissitudinous nature. In this
Plants (CEPTs) have a number of problems: light the rationale of Coastal Regulation Zone
(a) There is significant variation in the compo- (CRZ), should be seen and should not be con-
sition of the effluent discharged by the indus- sidered as a restriction on development activ-
trial units; ity.
(b) The problem is compounded because many There should be a Littoral Regulation Zone
As per the recom- of the users do not give the primary treatment (LRZ), an area of the sea about five kilometers
mendation of the that is required before charging wastes into the from the shoreline, for exclusive access rights
National Committee on common discharge line; of fisher folk who use conventional fishing
Mangroves and Coral (c) This pre-treatment is technically necessary; boats and within this a two kilometer belt from
Reefs, the four major (d) Improper planning at the design stage; the shoreline should be exclusively reserved for
coral reefs areas (e) No adequate training and it is a long drawn those using non-mechanized fishing means.
identified for intensive
process; and In this LRZ the sedentary marine resources
conservation and
management are: i)
(f) For SSIs, it is very costly. such as sea grass, sea weeds, corals and ma-
Gulf of Mannar, ii) Gulf Types of Wastelands: rine fauna should be nurtured preferably with
of Kutchch, iii) (a) Cultivable Wasteland: Surface water logged, community participation.
Lakshadweep and iv) laterite and saline lands; (b) Uncultivable The possibility of setting up Marine Protected
Andaman and Nicobar Wasteland: Land Rocky lands, snow capped Areas (MPAs) and Marine Extractive Reserves
Islands. mountains. (MERs), where controlled harvesting of the re-
There are over 87 million hectares of agricul- sources is undertaken under community super-
tural land prone to degradation by severe ero- vision may be envisaged.
sion. coral reefs
Coastal Area Ecosystem As per the recommendation of the National
Coastal Area Ecosystem (CAE), particularly a Committee on Mangroves and Coral Reefs, the
sensitive eco-zone is an “interface zone” where four major coral reefs areas identified for in-
land meets the sea. It is there fore, dynamic and tensive conservation and management are: i)
non-static in its geo-physical and chemical pa- Gulf of Mannar, ii) Gulf of Kutchch, iii)
rameters. It has the highest primary produc- Lakshadweep and iv) Andaman and Nicobar
tivity on the planet. Being the tail-end ecosys- Islands. The Ministry provides financial assis-
tem, it receives all the negative externalities of tance to the State Forest Departments of all the
the terrestrial pollution. four identified coral reefs areas in the country
The importance of the coast can be gauged more for activities like monitoring, surveillance, edu-
precisely if we look at its place in the overall cation and awareness. Besides, the Ministry
Coastal features are classification of the physical divisions and re- also supports R&D activities with emphasis on
varied and display a lief features of the Earth. The principal divi- targeted research on coral biodiversity, its man-
sharp contrast sions of the earth are air, water and land. Tech- agement including various aspects of pollution
between the western
nically, we can recall them as atmosphere, hy- in these areas.
and the eastern
drosphere, and lithosphere. The major relief The Indian reef area is estimated to be 2,375
features of the earth comprise continental sq. km. For encouraging targeted research on

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both hard and soft corals in the country, the Centre, Ahemdabad and Centre for Earth Sci-
Biodiversity Ministry has established a National Coral Reef ence Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Research Centre at Port Blair. The Ministry has 3. Seeking technical and financial assistance
The Ministry has a a National Committee and a Research Sub- from multilateral agencies for implementing
National Committee Committee on Mangroves and Coral Reefs. In the recommendations pertaining to mapping
and a Research Sub- order to further focus attention on all aspects/ of ecologically sensitive areas along the coast-
Committee on issues related to corals in India, a Working line, control of pollution in the coastal waters
Mangroves and Coral Group of expert scientists on Strategy for Con- from land based activities and capacity build-
Reefs. In order to servation and Management of Coral Reefs has ing and institutional development.
further focus attention
also been constituted. ENVIS Network
on all aspects/issues
related to corals in
Detailed Guidelines for the preparation of An Environment Information System (ENVIS)
India, a Working Group comprehensive Management Action Plans for was set up by the Ministry of Environment and
of expert scientists on identified coral reefs have also been formulated Forests in 1982 as a decentralised information
Strategy for Conserva- by way of augmentation of existing guidelines. network for collection, collation, storage, re-
tion and Management Thirty two research projects have been sanc- trieval and dissemination of environmental in-
of Coral Reefs has tioned and implemented to supplement the formation. The ENVIS has been designated as
also been constituted. management action plans on mangroves & National Focal Point (NFP) and Regional Ser-
coral reefs. vice Centre (RSC) for South Asia Sub-regional
During the year, over 100 researchers and countries by INFO-TERRA of UNDP. The
officers of the Coastal States have been trained World Bank under the Environmental Manage-
in the taxonomy of marine flora & fauna, snor- ment Capacity Building Technical Assistance
keling, scuba diving and coral biomonitoring Project (EMC-BTP), which is basically geared
methodologies. to improve the functioning of ENVIS.
Management of Coastal Zones ENVIS has maintained a close liaison with vari-
The MoEF had constituted an expert commit- ous national information systems like Bio-Tech-
tee under the chairmanship of Prof. M.S. nological Information System (BTIS), Delhi Li-
An Environment
Swaminathan in July, 2004, to review and make brary Network (DELNET), etc., for exchange
Information System recommendations with regard to implementa- of environmental information and to avoid du-
(ENVIS) was set up by tion and amendments if necessary, of Coastal plication of efforts in the field of environment
the Ministry of Regulation Zone Notification, 1991. The Expert and related areas. ENVIS network at present
Environment and Committee submitted its report alongwith rec- consists of a chain of 76 network partners out
Forests in 1982 as a ommendations, which were accepted by the of which 46 are on subject-specific and 30 are
decentralised MoEF in April, 2005. The major recommenda- on State related issues.
information network for
tions include: All the ENVIS network partners both in the-
collection, collation,
storage, retrieval and
1. Implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone matic areas as well as State subject-areas con-
dissemination of Management Plan rather than uniform regula- tinued their activities in information collection,
environmental tory approach. collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination
information. 2. Development along the coastal stretches to all concerned. All the ENVIS network part-
based on the vulnerability of the coast, taking ners continued to publish information packages
into account the natural and manmade hazards. in the print form like newsletters, monographs
3. Inclusion of the ocean zone for regulation. state-of-art, etc., in their specific subject-areas
4. Setting up of an Institute for Coastal Zone for dissemination of information to the users
Management to address the policy and legal concerned. These publications have also been
issues. uploaded in their respective websites to access
5. Abatement of the pollution of coastal areas electronically by the concerned users. Each net-
and marine waters in a time-bound manner. work partner also published the newsletter in
6. Identification and mapping of the coastal their concerned subject-area in a regional lan-
The MoEF had eco-sensitive areas such as mangroves, corals, guage in order to create awareness among the
constituted an expert and turtle breeding people of the region regarding availability of
committee under the
areas. environmental information in the concerned
chairmanship of Prof.
M.S. Swaminathan in
7. Development of coastal bio-shield. subject-area among the users, develop forest re-
July, 2004, to review The MoEF has initiated steps for implement- sources based, to promote forest resources
and make recommen- ing the above recommendations which include: based Industries, to arrange marketing of tim-
dations with regard to 1. Preparation of a national action plan for con- ber and other forest resources on the mainland
implementation and trol of pollution of coastal waters from land and abroad.
amendments if based activities. The ENVIS Focal Point, in association with
necessary, of Coastal 2. Pilot scale studies for demarcation of vul- NIC, developed a database, namely, India State
Regulation Zone
nerability line along identified coastal stretches Level Basic Environmental Information Data-
Notification, 1991.
through scientific organizations namely, Sur- base (ISBEID) with 23 modules and GIS inter-
vey of India, Dehradun, Space Application face, to assist the State Government ENVIS

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Centres to collect, collate and disseminate en- 3. It is least polluting and doesn’t affect the eco-
Biodiversity vironmental information concerning their system.
States. The database with six modules was 4. It can be effectively used in cold areas like
The collected water implemented on pilot basis for the States of Antarctica.
can be stored for direct Madhya Pradesh and Orissa and with seven 5. It has ability to be used in cleaning up the
use or can be used to more modules in the North-Eastern States and acid drainage produced from abandoned coal
recharge the ground- the State of Maharashtra for the implementa- mines.
water. Artificial tion of ISBEID. The remaining States have been 6. Unlike chemical and physical pollution, the
recharge of groundwa- planned to be taken in a phased manner. biological, or “passive” control. This technol-
ter is a process by
Waste Water Management ogy involves the construction of a treatment
which the ground
water reservoir is
Government has made a number of steps to system that is permanent and requires little or
augmented at a rate for waste water management. no maintenance. Passive control measures in-
exceeding that under Submerged Aerated Fixed Film Reactor volve the use of anoxic drains, limestone rock
natural conditions of (SAFF) has been introduced by the waste wa- channels, alkaline recharge of ground water,
replenishments. ter management division of Thermax in place and diversion of drainage through man-made
of what is termed as the activated sludge pro- wetlands or other settling structures.
cess. SAFF reactor has various advantages: Disadvantages:
(a)lower power requirement; (b) less mainte- (a) Bioil-FC is that it acts only at temperatures
nance; (c) low operating cost; (d) reduction in above five degrees (Celsius). Maximum effec-
the overall volume of the plant. tiveness is achieved between 25 and 35 degrees.
Reverse Osmosis - is a highly advanced re- (b) Biological pollution removal, which on the
cycling system. face of it is relatively simple, nevertheless re-
Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) quires case by case investigations”.
this has a number of problems: Rain-Water Harvesting
(a) There is significant variation in the compo- The collected water can be stored for direct use
sition of the effluents discharged by the indus- or can be used to recharge the groundwater.
Bioil-FC has proven
effective in changing
trial units; Artificial recharge of groundwater is a process
toxic compounds in (b) The problem is compounded because many by which the ground water reservoir is aug-
hydrocarbons into of the users do not give the primary treatment mented at a rate exceeding that under natural
biodegradable that is required before it is discharged into the conditions of replenishments.
substances, up to common discharge line; Water harvesting is aimed at understanding the
complete conversion (c) This pre-treatment is technically necessary; value of rain and improvising optimum use of
into carbon dioxide (d) Improper planning at the design stage; rainwater at a place where it falls. Most of the
and water.
(e) No adequate training and it is a long drawn rain that occurs in India is short in duration
Bioremediation is
usually employed as a
process; and and heavy in intensity.
secondary treatment (f) For SSIs, it is very costly. Techniques Used
after mechanical Some of the industries that constitute the There are two main techniques of rain water
collection of oil waste sources of the most toxic effluents, such as sugar harvesting. They are:
using different types of industries, distillery units, etc, bypass waste First, the storage of rain water on surface for
equipment. water management norms using their political future use. It is a traditional technique and
lobbies. structures used are underground tanks, ponds,
Biological clean-up methods check dams, weirs, etc.
Bioil-FC has proven effective in changing toxic Second, the recharge to ground water is a new
compounds in hydrocarbons into biodegrad- concept of rain water harvesting. The structures
able substances, up to complete conversion into they employ are: pits, trenches, dug wells, hand
carbon dioxide and water. Bioremediation is pumps, recharge wells, etc.
usually employed as a secondary treatment Recharge wells are generally constructed for re-
after mechanical collection of oil waste using charging the deeper aquifers and water is
different types of equipment. That first phase passed through filter media to avoid choking
can mean the recovery of up to 60 percent of of recharge wells.
the spilt hydrocarbon. Spreading technique is also very effective.
“Bioremediation” Advantages: When permeable strata starts from top then this
is a technique for 1. The applications in Cuba and Caribbean Is- technique is used. Water is spread in streams/
environmental lands have shown effective results. It is more nalas by making check dams, cement plugs,
detoxification through cost-effective than other chemical and physi- Nala Bunds, gabion structures or a percola-
microorganisms that cal process. tion pond, Recharge Shaft, Dugwell Recharge,
break down dangerous 2. “Bioremediation” is a technique for environ- Ground water dams or sub-surface Dykes may
organic waste and turn
mental detoxification through microorganisms be constructed in rural areas. In the urban ar-
it into less harmful
that break down dangerous organic waste and eas, the technology of rooftop rainwater har-
turn it into less harmful compounds. vesting through Recharge Pit/Recharge

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Trench/existing Tubewells can be adopted. concentrates on marketing of processed foods

Biodiversity It has many advantages: (a) it enhances the un- in value added form;
derground water table; (b) it can be effectively Also introduces effective quality control mea-
To provide the employed to combat drought situations; (c) it sures.
necessary infrastruc- reduces flooding of roads and improves the Marine Product Export Development Author-
ture to harvest and quality of water; (d) it saves energy in lifting of ity, Cochin:
develop forest water; and (e) the application of rain water har- It is a statutory body set up in August 1972;
resources based, to vesting reduces the runoff which chokes the It is responsible for the development of ma-
promote forest storm water drains. rine products industry with special reference
resources based
Wide water-harvesting scheme, NABARD will to exports.
Industries, to arrange
marketing of timber
lend the money on easy terms and no margin National Action Programme to Combat De-
and other forest money will be charged from the borrower. sertification and MoEF is the National Coor-
resources on the Andaman & Nicobar Islands dinating Agency for the implementation of the
mainland and abroad. Forest and Plantation Dev. Corp. Ltd. United Nations Convention to Combat Deser-
To provide the necessary infrastructure to har- tification (UNCCD) in the country.
vest and develop forest resources based, to pro-  Under UNCCD, a Regional Action
mote forest resources based Industries, to ar- Programme for Asian countries has been for-
range marketing of timber and other forest re- mulated to strengthen the existing capacity of
sources on the mainland and abroad. the member country parties and to network
To plant, grow, cultivate, produce, and raise with each other for effective measures to com-
plantations of various forest species of proven
utility and other agricultural, plantation, hor-
ticultural crops, medicinal and aromatic plants
and to buy, sell, export, import, process, dis-
tribute, or otherwise deal with all kinds of for-
est crops, natural products agricultural, plan-
tation and horticultural crops, medicinal
and aromatic plants.
A Mexican To carry on the business of planters, cul-
architect, Hector tivators, producers, sellers and deal-
Ceballos-Lascurian, ers in timber, processed or not and
first conceptualised such other products of every descrip-
the concept of tion and to manufacture, dispose of
eco-tourism in
sell and deal in products of natural
forest and forest plantations, agricul-
tural, plantation and horticultural
crops and medicinal and aromatic
To establish, administer, own and run
industries for manufacturing forest
products, agricultural, plantation and
horticultural products, medicinal and aro-
matic plants.
To conduct and contract for training and re-
search connected with the integrated devel-
opment of forest resources of the islands and bat desertification. Six Thematic Programme
cultivation as well as processing of agricultural, Network (TPN) has been identified for this pur-
plantation and horticultural crops, medicinal pose.
and aromatic plants. India is member-country of TPN - 2 “Agro-
India is member-
To maintain and improve Wild Life and other Forest and Soil Conservation in Arid, Semi-
country of TPN - 2
“Agro-Forest and Soil
natural Resources. Arid and Dry Sub-humid Areas”. The Central
Conservation in Arid, Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jodh-
Semi-Arid and Dry Eco-tourism pur has been identified as National Task Man-
Sub-humid Areas”. A Mexican architect, Hector Ceballos- ager.
The Central Arid Lascurian, first conceptualised the concept of G B Pant Institute of Himalayan Environ-
Zone Research eco-tourism in 1983. ment and Development was established in
Institute (CAZRI), Agricultural and Processed Food Products August 1988, at Kosi-Katarmal, Almora
Jodhpur has been
Export Development Authority (APEDA): (Uttaranchal) as an autonomous Institute of the
identified as National
Task Manager.
It came into existence in 1986; MoEF.
It acts as focal point for agricultural exports; Indian Council of Forestry Research and

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 63 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

No. Name of PTR State Year Total Area

Biodiversity (sq.km.)
1 Achanakmar Chhattishgarh 2009 553.286
Indian Council of
Forestry Research 2 Annamalai-Parambikulam Tamil Nadu 2007 1410
and Education and Kerala
(ICFRE), Dehradun 3 Bandhavgarh Madhya Pradesh 1993-94 1161.471
is the premier 4 Bandipur Karnataka 1973-74 880
foresty research
Nagarhole Extension Karnataka 1999-00 643.39
5 Bhadra Karnataka 1998-99 451.69
6 Bori-Satpura Madhya Pradesh 1999-00 1486
7 Buxa West Bengal 1982-83 760.92
8 Corbett Uttarakhand 1973-74 1318.54
9 Dampa Mizoram 1994-95 500
10 Dandeli-Anshi Karnataka 2007 875
11 Dudhwa Uttar Pradesh 1987-88 883.739
Katerniaghat Extension Uttar Pradesh 1999-00 551
12 Indravati Chhattishgarh 1982-83 2799.086
13 Kalakad-Mundathurai Tamil Nadu 1988-89 895
14 Kanha Madhya Pradesh 1973-74 1945
15 Kaziranga Assam 2006 859
16 Manas Assam 1973-74 2837
17 Melghat Maharashtra 1973-74 1676.49
The following 18 Mudumalai Tamil Nadu 2007 321
forestry research 19 Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Andhra Pradesh 1982-83 3568.09
institutes and centres 20 Namdapha Arunachal Pradesh 1982-83 1985.245
under the Council are 21 Pakhui-Nameri Arunachal Pradesh 1999-00 1206
responsible for
and Assam
undertaking research
in their respective eco- 22 Palamau Jharkhand 1973-74 1026
climatic zones: (i) 23 Panna Madhya Pradesh 1994-95 542.67
Forest Research 24 Pilibhit * Uttar Pradesh 2008 1079
Institute, Dehradun, (ii) 25 Pench (Maharashtra) Maharashtra 1992-93 664.3
Arid Forest Research
Institute, Jodhpur, (iii)
26 Pench (M.P.) Madhya Pradesh 1992-93 757.86
Rain Forest Research 27 Periyar Kerala 1978-79 777
Institute, Jorhat; (iv) 28 Ranthambhore Rajasthan 1973-74 1334.64
Institute of Wood 29 Ratapani * Madhya Pradesh 2008-09 674
Science and Technol- 30 Shahyadri * Maharashtra 2008-09 741.22
ogy, Bangalore, (v)
Tropical Forestry
31 Sanjay-Sanjay Dubri Madhya Pradesh 2008 831
Research Institute, 32 Sariska Rajasthan 1978-79 866
Jabalpur; (vi) Institute 33 Satkosia Orissa 2007 964
of Forest Genetics and 34 Simlipal Orissa 1973-74 2750
Tree Breeding, 35 Sitanadi-Udanti Chhattishgarh 2008 1580
Coimbatore; (vii)
Himalayan Forest 36 Sunabeda * Orissa 2008 956.17
Research Institute, 37 Sunderbans West Bengal 1973-74 2585
Shimla; (viii) Institute 38 Tadoba-Andhari Maharashtra 1993-94 575.78
for Forest Productivity, 39 Valmiki Bihar 1989-90 840.26
Ranchi, (ix) Centre of Total - 49,112
Social Forestry and
Allahabad, and (x) Education (ICFRE), Dehradun is the premier Technology, Bangalore, (v) Tropical Forestry
Institute of Forestry foresty research organisation. Research Institute, Jabalpur; (vi) Institute of
Research and Human The following forestry research institutes and Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding,
Resources Develop- centres under the Council are responsible for Coimbatore; (vii) Himalayan Forest Research
ment, Chhindwara.
undertaking research in their respective eco- Institute, Shimla; (viii) Institute for Forest Pro-
climatic zones: (i) Forest Research Institute, ductivity, Ranchi, (ix) Centre of Social For-
Dehradun, (ii) Arid Forest Research Institute, estry and Eco-rehabilitation, Allahabad, and
Jodhpur, (iii) Rain Forest Research Institute, (x) Institute of Forestry Research and Human
Jorhat; (iv) Institute of Wood Science and Resources Development, Chhindwara.
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 64 Civil Services
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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

Environmental penditure. For areas located in mountainous,

Ecology coastal, deserts and with identified endangered
Ecology species, 100 per cent financial support is pro-
India is the first Ecology and Ecosystem vided for both recurring and non-recurring

country that has ndia is the first country that has made con items of work. An amount of Rs 80.00 crore was
made constitutional stitutional provisions for protection and allocated during the year 2009-10 under the
provisions for improvement of the environment. In the Scheme. A total of nine extensive surveys were
protection and Directive Principles of State Policy of the Con- undertaken during this year viz. Gulf of
improvement of the Mannar, Sunderbans, Nokrek (Biosphere Re-
stitution, Article 48-A of Chapter IV enjoins the
environment. In the
state to make endeavor for protection and im- serve), Kumbhalgarh, Dalma, Radhanagiri,
Directive Principles of
State Policy of the provement of the environment and for safe- Kanyakumary (Wildlife Sanctuary), Mahatma
Constitution, Article guarding the forest and wild life of the Coun- Gandhi Marine National Park and Keibul
48-A of Chapter IV try. In Article 51 A (g) of the Constitution, one Lamjao (National Park).
enjoins the state to of the fundamental duties of every citizen of – Status Survey of Endangered Species Status
make endeavor for India is to protect and improve the natural en- survey on the six species were undertaken viz.,
protection and vironment including forests, lakes, rivers and Swamp Deer, Mouse Deer, Goral, Chinkara,
improvement of the Desert Cat, Gangetic Dolphin, Blackbuck and
wild life and to have compassion for living crea-
environment and for
tures. Four horned antelope.
safeguarding the
forest and wild life Ecology is derived from the word “Eco”. It cer-
of the Country. tainly isn’t a new word. In Greek “oikos”, it Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)
means the home, the place where we live. Ecol- The Zoological Survey of India, the only taxo-
ogy is the science to study how all living crea- nomic organization in the country involved in
tures interact within our home - our environ- the study of all kinds of animals from Protozoa
ment on this fascinating, complex Spaceship to Mammalia, occurring in all possible habitats
Earth. from deepest depth of the ocean to the peaks
In ecology, an ecosystem is a naturally occur- of Himalaya, was established on 1st July, 1916
ring assemblage of organisms (plant, animal to promote survey, exploration and research
and other living organisms—also referred to as leading to the advancement in our knowledge
Ecology is derived a biotic community or biocoenosis) living to- of the various aspects of the exceptionally rich
from the word “Eco”. It gether with their environment (or biotope), animal life.
certainly isn’t a new functioning as a unit of sorts. Responsible for carrying out survey to list
word. In Greek “oikos”, The term “ecosystem” first appeared in a 1935 all endangered species.
it means the home, the It has its headquarters at Kolkata and also
publication by the British ecologist Arthur
place where we live.
Tansely. However, the term had been coined has sixteen other regional stations.
Ecology is the science
to study how all living already in 1930 by Tansley’s colleague Roy Four status surveys one for Tibetan Wild Ass
creatures interact Clap- ham. as earlier surveys. Ecological studies including
within our home - our India’s major strength in in-situ conservation status survey of endangered animals were also
environment on this lies in its impressive Protected Area (PA) net- continued.
fascinating, complex work, which currently comprises 661 PAs The National Zoological Collection was fur-
Spaceship Earth. which includes ninety nine National Parks and ther enriched by the addition of 9532 Identi-
five hundred fifteen Wildlife Sanctuaries, forty fied specimens belonging to 487 species.
three Conservation Reserves and four Commu- Several faunal exploration and surveys in-
nity Reserves. established under the Wildlife cluding various eco-systems, Biosphere Re-
(Protection) Act (WPA), 1972] covering ap- serves, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuar-
proximately 4.80 per cent of the total geographi- ies, Tiger Reserves, were undertaken by the ZSI
cal area of the country. India also has special and its various Regional Stations.
India’s major flagship programmes for the conservation of Research work regarding Identification of
strength in in-situ tiger and elephant. India’s PAs grew by 15 per new taxa, and fauna from various States were
conservation lies in its also continued during the year.
cent since the adoption of the Programme of
impressive Protected
Work on PAs in 2002. The top five states in Several studies on Butterflies and Moths of
Area (PA) network,
which currently terms of PA coverage are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Amphibions of North-East
comprises 661 PAs Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh and India, Mammals of Kerala, etc., were under-
which includes ninety Madhya Pradesh. The PA network covers about taken by the ZSI and its various Regional Sta-
nine National Parks 24.2 per cent of the forest area of the country, tions.
and five hundred mainly with relatively larger populations of The ZSI published several records, occasional
fifteen Wildlife target species and associated ecological com- papers, bibliographies of Indian Zoology and
Sanctuaries, forty other special publications during the year.
ponents. Under this Scheme, 100 per cent grant
three Conservation
is provided for identified items of non-recur- Participation in Antarctica Expedition: ZSI is
Reserves and four
Community Reserves. ring expenditure. Also, 50 per cent assistance providing monthly e-News since January 2009,
is provided in respect of recurring items of ex- highlighting new discoveries, new records,

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 65 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

Conservation Reserves
State S.No. Name Area District(s)
Ministry of Environ-
(sq km)
ment & Forests
Role of the Ministry Tamil Nadu 1 Tiruppadaimarathur 0.03 Tirunelveli
Implementation of poli-
cies and programmes re- Uttarakhand 2 Asan Barrage 4.444 Dehradun
lating to conservation of 3 Jhilmi Jheel 37.84 Haridwar
the country’s natural re-
sources including lakes Karnataka 4 Bankapur Peacock 0.56 Haveri
and rivers, its biodiversity, 5 Jayamangali Blackbuck 3.23 Tumkur
forests and wildlife, ensur-
ing the welfare of animals Haryana 6 Bir Bara Ban 4.19 Jind
and prevention and
7 Saraswati 44.53 Kurukshetra
abatement of pollution are
the primary concern of the & Kaithal
Ministry of Environment &
Maharashtra 8 Bhorkada (Bhorgad) 3.49 Nashik
Forests under the Gov-
ernment structure. While Gujarat 9 Chharidhandh Wetland 227.00 Kachchh
implementing these poli-
Jammu & Kashmir 10 Ajas (WL) 1.00 Bandipora
cies and programmes, the
Ministry is guided by the 11 Ajas 48.00 Bandipora
principle of sustainable
development and en-
12 Bahu 19.75 Jammu
hancement of human 13 Boodh Karbu 12.00 Kargil
well-being. The Ministry
also serves as the nodal
14 Brain-Nishat 15.75 Srinagar
agency in the country for 15 Chatlam, Pampore (WL) 0.25 Pulwama
the United Nations Envi-
ronment Programme 16 Gharana (WL) 0.75 Jammu
(UNEP), South Asia Co- 17 Hokera (Ramsar Site) (WL) 13.75 Srinagar
operative Environment
Programme (SACEP), In- 18 Hygam (WL) 7.25 Baramula
ternational Centre for In- 19 Jawahar Tunnel 18.00 Doda
tegrated Mountain Devel-
opment (ICIMOD) and for 20 Khanagund 15.00 Pulwama
the follow-up of the United 21 Khimber/Dara/Sharazbal 34.00 Srinagar
Nations Conference on
Environment and Devel- 22 Khiram 15.75 Anantnag
opment (UNCED). The 23 Khonmoh 67.00 Pulwama
Ministry is also entrusted
with the issues relating to 24 Khrew 50.25 Pulwama
multilateral bodies such 25 Kukarian (WL) 24.25 Jammu
as the Commission on
Sustainable Development 26 Malgam (WL) 4.50 Baramula
(CSD), Global Environ- 27 Manibugh (WL) 4.50 Pulwama
ment Facility (GEF) and of
regional bodies like Eco- 28 Mirgund (WL) 4.00 Budgam
nomic and Social Council 29 Naganari 22.25 Baramula
for Asia and Pacific
(ESCAP) and South 30 Nanga (WL) 15.25 Jammu
Asian Association for Re- 31 Narkara (WL) 3.25 Budgam
gional Co-operation
(SAARC) on matters per- 32 Norrichain (WL) 2.00 Leh
taining to environment. 33 Panyar 10.00 Pulwama
The broad objectives of
the Ministry are: 34 Pargwal (WL) 49.25 Jammu
(a) Conservation and sur- 35 Sabu 15.00 Leh
vey of flora, fauna, forests
and wildlife, (b) Preven- 36 Sangral-Asa Chak (WL) 7.00 Jammu
tion and control of pollu-
37 Shallabugh (WL) 16.00 Srinagar
tion, (c) Afforestation and
regeneration of degraded 38 Shikargah 15.5 Pulwama
areas, (d) Protection of
39 Sudhmahadev 142.25 Udhampur
the environment, and (e)
Ensuring the welfare of 40 Thein 19.00 Kathua
These objectives are well
41 Tsomoiri (Ramsar Site) (WL) 120.00 Leh
supported by a set of leg- 42 Wangat/Chatergul 12.00 Srinagar
islative and regulatory
measures, aimed at the
43 Zaloora, Harwan 25.25 Srinagar

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 66 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
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preservation, conserva- State /Union Territory State Area No. of Area Per cent of
tion and protection of the
km² WLS km² State Area
environment. Besides the
legislative measures, a Andhra Pradesh 275069 21 11618.12 4.22
National Conservation
Strategy and Policy State- Arunachal Pradesh 83743 11 7487.75 8.94
ment on Environment and
Development, 1992, Na- Assam 78438 18 1932.01 2.46
tional Forest Policy, 1988,
Bihar 94163 12 2851.67 3.03
a Policy Statement on
Abatement of Pollution, Chhattisgarh 135191 11 3583.19 2.65
1992 and a National En-
vironment Policy, 2006 Goa 3702 6 647.91 17.50
have also been evolved.
Botanical Survey of Gujarat 196022 23 16619.81 8.48
India (BSI)
Haryana 44212 8 233.21 0.53
The Botanical Survey of
India (BSI) was estab- Himachal Pradesh 55673 33 6171.11 11.08
lished on February 13,
1890 with its headquarter Jammu & Kashmir 222236 15 10243.11 4.61
at Kolkata and its 10 circle
offices throughout the Jharkhand 79714 11 1955.82 2.45
country with the basic ob- Karnataka 191791 21 3871.75 2.02
jective to explore the plant
resources of the country Kerala 38863 15 1819.33 4.68
and to identify the plants
species with economic vir- Madhya Pradesh 308245 25 7158.41 2.32
tues. As a part of scien-
tific development of the
Maharashtra 307713 35 14152.70 4.60
country it was reorganised Manipur 22327 1 184.40 0.83
and during the successive
plan periods, the func- Meghalaya 22429 3 34.20 0.15
tional base of BSI was fur-
ther expanded to include Mizoram 21081 8 1090.75 5.17
various new areas in this
Nagaland 16579 3 20.34 0.12
During the field/ explo- Orissa 155707 18 6969.15 4.48
ration/collection tours,
more than 5,500 speci- Punjab 50362 12 323.79 0.64
mens were collected in-
cluding lower groups of Rajasthan 342239 25 5379.26 1.57
plants viz. Algae, Fungi,
Sikkim 7096 7 399.10 5.62
Lichens, Bryophytes and
Pteridophytes. About Tamil Nadu 130058 21 3521.95 2.71
3,000 specimens belong-
ing to 900 species were Tripura 10486 4 566.93 5.41
identified by different
circles and units of Botani- Uttar Pradesh 240928 23 5221.88 2.17
cal Survey of India. Uttarakhand 53483 6 2418.61 4.52
Seven herbarium con-
sultation tours/study tours West Bengal 88752 15 1203.28 1.36
were also undertaken in
connection with the revi- Andaman & Nicobar 8249 96 389.39 4.72
sionary and floristic stud-
ies under National/State/
Chandigarh 114 2 26.01 22.82
Regional/District flora. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 491 1 92.16 18.77
Twenty three new spe-
cies/variety were discov- Daman & Diu 112 1 2.18 1.95
ered and 25 new records
for India and 41 new Delhi1483 1 8.77 0.59
records for States were
created by the BSI during
Lakshadweep 32 1 0.01 0.03
the year. Pondicherry 480 1 3.90 0.81
 The following nine
plants were collected af- India 3287263 514 118150 3.59
ter 50 years or more by
the BSI and its various
circle offices: There are 514 existing wildlife sanctuaries in India covering an area of 118,150 km2, which is
Begonia tessaricarpa 3.59% of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, April, 2010).
C. B. Clarke [Begoniaceae] Another 219 sanctuaries are proposed in the Protected Area Network Report covering an
 Cistachne tubulosa area of 16,669 km2.
(Schrenk) Weight.

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 67 Civil Services

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published paper articles on its role in environ- data and publishes the results in a biennial re-
Ecology mental protection, visit of the dignitaries, pub- port called ‘State of Forest Report’ (SFR).
lication of checklists etc. Beginning in 1987, nine SFRs have been
The FSI celebrated Faunal Exploration and Surveys: Ecosystems: brought out so far, and the 10th SFR is under
the year 2006 as its A total of thirty eight extensive surveys were publication. In the current 10th cycle (i.e. for
Silver Jubilee Year on undertaken during 2009-10 viz. Mountain Himalayan Monal Pheasant (Lopophorus
September 28-29, (nineteen), Forests (two), Marine (two), Estua- impejanus) (Kiang) in Ladakh, one for Hima-
2006. Workshops, film rine (nine), Desert (four), Manmade ecosystems layan Marmot in Ladakh, one for Snow Trout
shows were organized (two). in Himachal Pradesh and another for Hima-
and a number of
Geological Survey of India (GSI) layan Salamander in West Bengal were carried
publications were also
brought out by the FSI
GSI is a premier earth science organisation, out.
on this occasion. meets the geosciences information requirement Several short duration intensive surveys for
in diverse fields; ecological studies were also undertaken and
Established in 1851 with the main aim of lo- detailed taxonomic studies were carried out on
cating coal resources. the material collected during these as well.
Has strength of about 2,900 scientists and The FSI celebrated the year 2006 as its Silver
technical professionals. Jubilee Year on September 28-29, 2006. Work-
Its functions are to encompass wide spectrum shops, film shows were organized and a num-
of earth science activities e.g. geological, geo- ber of publications were also brought out by
physical and geo-chemical surveys, marine sur- the FSI on this occasion.
India is a producer- veys, geoenvironmental studies and various During the year data collection and data pro-
member of the laboratory studies. cessing work in respect of forest inventory, TOF
International Tropical It has opened full-fledged seism-otectonic (R & U) for 60 districts pertaining to period
Timber Organizations divisions at Lucknow, Jaipur, Shillong, 2004-06 has been completed. Data collection
(ITTO) which was Calcutta, Nagpur and Hyderabad. work in respect of additional 30 districts per-
established by the
Has also opened technical consultancy divi- taining to 2006-07 is being done. The inventory
International Tropical
Timber Agreement
sions at many of its regional centres to collabo- provides information on growing stock of
(ITTA), 1983. At rate and cooperate with the potential investors wood, diameter and species distribution of
present, there are 59 in mineral fuel and other developmental sec- trees, regeneration status of forests and
Member-Countries in tors. biodiversity to some extent and the soil carbon.
ITTO out of which, 33 New activities initiated during Ninth Plan FSI has further taken up the inventory of Tree
are Producer-Member period are development of village economy by Outside Forest (TOF) in the current year of se-
countries and 26 are Mineral Resource Appraisal Programme and lected five districts of Uttarakhand State
Geochemical Mapping. namely Dehradun, Haridwar, Nainital, Pauri
Forest Survey of India (FSI) Garhwal and Udhamsingh Nagar, based on the
Established in 1981. request of the State government. The inventory,
Has its headquarters at Dehradun and four data processing and final report is about to be
regional offices at (1) Bangalore, (2) Kolkata, completed which will provide the available tim-
(3) Nagpur and (4) Shimla. ber resource outside the forests in the state. This
It was a successor to “Pre-investment Sur- is mainly to help the state government to de-
vey of Forest Resources” (PISFR), a project ini- cide issue of license to the wood based indus-
tiated in 1965 by Government of India and tries to run them.
A study in forest
cover in 28 Tiger
sponsored by FAO and UNDP. A study in forest cover in 28 Tiger Reserves
Reserves of India has It prepares thematic maps on 1:50,000-scale of India has revealed that there was increase in
revealed that there and forest vegetation map of the country. forest cover of five Tiger reserves, a decrease
was increase in forest Vegetation maps are prepared after every in 11 Tiger reserves and no change in 12 Tiger
cover of five Tiger two years. Reserves with over slight decrease in forest
reserves, a decrease The activities of FSI include: (i) Forest Cover cover and the major loss in forest cover oc-
in 11 Tiger reserves Mapping; (ii) Inventory Data Processing; (iii) curred in Nameri, Buxa, Manas, Indravati and
and no change in 12
Training; (iv) Creation of National Basic Forest Dampa Tiger reserves due to socioeconomic
Tiger Reserves with
over slight decrease in
Inventory System (NBFIS); (v) Special Studies; reasons and natural disasters.
forest cover and the and (vi) Consultancy. India is a producer-member of the Interna-
major loss in forest A part from the above, the FSI is also in the tional Tropical Timber Organizations (ITTO)
cover occurred in process of carrying out assessment of Trees out which was established by the International
Nameri, Buxa, Manas, side forest (TOF), both rural and urban for Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA), 1983. At
Indravati and Dampa which necessary statistical techniques have present, there are 59 Member-Countries in
Tiger reserves due to been evolved by FSI. ITTO out of which, 33 are Producer-Member
Forest Survey of India (FSI) assesses forest countries and 26 are Consumer-Member coun-
reasons and natural
cover of the country every two years by digi- tries.
tally interpretation of remote sensing satellite India State of Forest Report 2009 is the elev-

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enth such report. Forest cover mapping in this have basic forestry statutes which are modeled
Ecology report has been done by digital interpretation after the Indian Forest Act of 1927.
of satellite images of LISS III sensor of Under these Acts, state governments assume
 India’s forest cover Resourcesat-1. The scale is 1:50,000 and the the power (exercised by their forest depart-
in 2007 is 69.09 million minimum mappable area is 1 ha. ments) to declare any land (including public
ha which is 21.02 per Forest Cover: India’s forest cover in 2007 is and common lands) as Government forest
cent of the geographi- 69.09 million ha which is 21.02 per cent of the lands. These acts also typically provide for the
cal area. Of this, 8.35 geographical area. Of this, 8.35 million ha (2.54 establishment of usufruct rights in forest lands
million ha (2.54 per per cent) is very dense forest, 31.90 million ha based on customary usage.
cent) is very dense
(9.71 per cent) is moderately dense forest, and Although, the situation differs from state-to-
forest, 31.90 million ha
(9.71 per cent) is
the rest 28.84 million ha (8.77 per cent) is open state, States' Forest Acts typically are comple-
moderately dense forest; including 0.46 million ha mangroves. mented by a number of other laws that govern,
forest, and the rest A comparison of the forest cover of the coun- for example, royalties payable to the state for
28.84 million ha (8.77 try between the present and the preceding as- harvest of timber and non-timber forest prod-
per cent) is open sessments (2005) shows that there is a net gain ucts, harvest and marketing of forest products,
forest; including 0.46 of 728 km2 during the period. . grazing on forest lands, regularization of en-
million ha mangroves. Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover croachment on forest lands, rights to trees on
(7.77 million ha) amongst States/UTs consti- private holdings and transit of timber.
tuting 11.25 per cent of the country’s forest Objectives of 1988 Forest Policy: (a) Mainte-
cover followed by Arunachal Pradesh (9.75 per nance of environmental stability through pres-
cent), Chhattisgarh (8.09 per cent), Maharashtra ervation and restoration of ecological balance;
(7.33 per cent) and Orissa (7.07 per cent). The (b) Conservation of natural heritage; (c) Check
Madhya Pradesh seven North-East States together account for on soil erosion and denudation of sand dunes
has the largest forest about one fourth of the total forest cover of the in desert areas of Rajasthan and along the
cover (7.77 million ha) country. The North-East region of the country coastal tracts; (d) Substantial increase in forest
amongst States/UTs
comprising seven States namely, Arunachal tree cover through massive afforestation and
constituting 11.25 per
cent of the country’s
Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, social forestry programmes; (e) Steps to meet
forest cover followed Mizoram, Nagaland & Tripura is only 7.76 per requirements of fuelwood, fodder, minor for-
by Arunachal Pradesh cent of the geographic area of the country, but est produce and soil timber of rural and tribal
(9.75 per cent), accounts for nearly one fourth of its forest cover. populations; (f) Increase in productivity of for-
Chhattisgarh (8.09 per The total forest cover in the region is 170,423 est to meet the national needs; (g) Encourage-
cent), Maharashtra km2, which is 66.81 per cent of the geographic ment of efficient utilization of forest produce
(7.33 per cent) and area as against the national average of 21.02 per and optimum substitution of wood; and (h)
Orissa (7.07 per cent).
cent. Compared with the previous assessment, Steps to create massive peoples movement with
The seven North-East
States together
there is a net gain of 598 km2. involvement of women to achieve the objectives
account for about one The forest cover in 188 tribal districts is 412,625 and minimize pressure on existing forests.
fourth of the total forest km2, which is 37.32 per cent of the total geo- Forest Policy
cover of the country. graphic area of these districts, showing a net Pursuant upon the recommendation made by
gain of 690 km2 which is mainly due to re- the Indian Board of Wildlife in its 21st Meeting
growth in shifting cultivation area and protec- held on January 21, 2002 under the Chairman-
tion. ship of Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, the
Forests diversity National Forest Commission, with Justice B.N.
Pursuant upon the
India has the target of increasing forest to one- Kirpal ex-Chief Justice of India with six other
recommendation made third of its territory by 2012. members was constituted vide resolution dated
by the Indian Board of Forests are managed concurrently by the cen- February 7, 2003 of the Ministry. After inter-
Wildlife in its 21st tral government and the state governments. At acting with various stakeholders and State/UT
Meeting held on the central level, the MoEF set policy, coordi- Governments, the Commission submitted its
January 21, 2002 nates activities with State Forest Departments, report on March 28, 2006.
under the Chairman- and Overseas National Forestry Research, Edu- There are 360 recommendations. Action on
ship of Hon’ble Prime
cation and Training. these recommendations is to be taken by Gov-
Minister of India, the
National Forest
The Forest Conservation Act of 1980, as ernment of India as well as by State Govern-
Commission, with amended in 1988, is its most powerful tool. This ments.
Justice B.N. Kirpal ex- Act empowers it to regulate use of forest lands National Forest Action Programme (NFAP),
Chief Justice of India for non-forest purposes in the states. The Act 1999: It is a long-term plan for the next twenty
with six other members requires consultation between the MoEF and years to achieve the target of 33 per cent forest
was constituted vide the relevant state before forest lands can not be cover.
resolution dated reserved for other uses. According to the provisions of the Forest
February 7, 2003 of
Frontline forest management responsibility (Conservation) Act, 1980, prior approval of the
the Ministry.
and responsibility for the implementation of Central Government is required for diversion
forestry policies lies with the states. Most states of forest lands for non-forest purposes.

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Regional Chief Conservator of forests are Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), a statu-
Ecology responsible for decisions relating to diversion tory body under ministry of environment and
of forestland for non-forestry purposes up to forests (MoEF) monitoring all 39 tiger reserves
The tiger reserves the extent of five hectares except mining and in India, will examine 15 mining and power
are constituted for the regularisation of encroachments. project proposals impacting tiger conservation
purpose of manage- Forest (Conservation) Rules, 2003 have been mostly in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
ment on a ‘core’, notified to supersede the Rules made in 1981. The Project has been successfully implemented,
‘buffer’ strategy. In the  The concept of Joint Forest Management and at present 38 (besides,1 is waiting to be no-
core area, forestry (JFM) along with village communities was tified) tiger reserves covering about 49,112 sq
operations, collection
started in 1990. The JFM Programme was pur- kms area (approximate) are established in In-
of non-timber forest
produce, grazing
sued vigorously and as a result JFM resolution dia in different parts of the India housing
human settlement and has now been adopted in all 28 states. 84,632 around 1,141.
other biotic distur- JFM Committees have been formed and 17.33 According to preliminary estimates, the
bances are not million hectares forest area have been brought Kaziranga National Park had shown the high-
allowed, and is under the JFM Programme. About 85.28 lakh est known tiger density so far. He said tiger
singularly oriented families are involved in the Programme all over presence had been recently reported in Buxa.
towards conservation. the country. In several areas like Nagarjunasagar, Bandipur,
 A new Scheme called ‘Integrated Forest Pro- Satyamangalam, Mudumalai, Sahyadri and
tection Scheme’ has been formulated by merg- Radhanagiri, tiger sightings have been re-
ing the two schemes, ‘Forest Fire Control and ported, including presence of cubs. In buffer
Management’ and ‘Bridging of Infrastructure areas of Indravati, too, evidence has come to
Gaps in the Forestry Sector in the North East- light of tiger.
ern Region and Sikkim’. The tiger reserves are constituted for the pur-
National Forest pose of management on a ‘core’, ‘buffer’ strat-
A new Scheme Academy (IGNFA), Dehradun. egy. In the core area, forestry operations, col-
called ‘Integrated
Fifty State Forest Service officers under IFS lection of non-timber forest produce, grazing
Forest Protection
Scheme’ has been
(Appointment by Promotion) Regulations were human settlement and other biotic disturbances
formulated by merging inducted into the Service during the year. are not allowed, and is singularly oriented to-
the two schemes, About 18 IFS officers joined at various levels wards conservation. The buffer zone is man-
‘Forest Fire Control under the Central Staffing Scheme of the Min- aged as a ‘multiple use area’, with conserva-
and Management’ and istry and about twenty IFS officers joined un- tion oriented land use, having the twin objec-
‘Bridging of Infrastruc- der the Central Staffing Scheme of the DoPT. tives of ensuring habitat supplement to the
ture Gaps in the The IFS Civil List for 2006 was published. For spill-over population of wild animals from the
Forestry Sector in the
the first time, e-mail IDs for all 2763 officers core, apart from providing site specific eco-de-
North Eastern Region
and Sikkim’.
have been created and made operational. velopmental inputs to stakeholder communi-
13th Finance Commission Recommendations: ties.
The Thirteenth Finance Commission has rec- “In principle” approval has been given for
ommended the grant of Rs. 5000 crores to the eight new tiger reserves in the country.
States for conserving forests. Evaluation of management practices in 28
The Government has accepted the recommen- Tiger Reserves by a panel of Indian experts se-
dation. The formula for deciding the State- wise lected on the basis of their qualifications, expe-
allocation of grant takes into consideration rience, independence, and absence of conflict
The National Tiger
Conservation Authority
three factors viz. the share of the total forest of interest is undertaken. The evaluation was
(NTCA), previously area in the country falling in a particular State, based on a framework of the World Commis-
known as Project Tiger whether or not the share of forested area in a sion on Protected Areas (IUCN) as adapted to
was launched in 1973 total area of the State is greater than the na- Indian conditions, and the assessment reports
with an objective “to tional average and the quality of the forest in were peer reviewed by international experts
ensure maintenance of each State, as measured by density. nominated by the IUCN and placed before Par-
a viable population of National Tiger liament.
Tigers in India for
Conservation Authority (NTCA) The Wildlife Protection Society of India re-
scientific, economic,
aesthetic, cultural and
Project Tiger corded the death of 719 tigers and 2474 leop-
ecological values, and The National Tiger Conservation Authority ards between 1994 and 2004. The best national
to preserve for all (NTCA), previously known as Project Tiger parks are in their most miserable state in India.
times, areas of was launched in 1973 with an objective “to en- Even high-profile Ranthambore has had to face
biological importance sure maintenance of a viable population of Ti- a spate of illegal woodcutting in the last two
as a national heritage gers in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, months.
for the benefit, cultural and ecological values, and to preserve In Panna, where 31 tigers were counted in the
education and
for all times, areas of biological importance as last census, sightings have become increasingly
enjoyment of the
a national heritage for the benefit, education rare and it’s feared that most of the big cats have
and enjoyment of the people”. The National been killed. In Bandhavgarh, tigers are hardly

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S.N. Name Year of Estd. Area (km2) Location
Interpol says that the
illegal wildlife trade is 1. Keshopur Chhamb 2007 3.40 Gurdaspur, Punjab
worth $12 billion a 2. Lalwan 2007 12.67 Hoshiarpur, Punjab
year. A dead tiger is 3. Kadalundi 2007 1.50 Malappuram, Kerala
worth at least Rs 3 4. Kokkare Bellur 2007 3.12 Mandya, Karnataka
lakh in the international
market. Poachers, who
are often impoverished
Sl.No. Name Location
tribals, make as little 1. Wadvana Wetland Vadodara, Gujarat
as Rs 600 for killing a 2. Pariyej and Kaneval Lakes Kheda & Anand, Gujarat
seen – some have been electrocuted by naked vention and Control Bureau while ordering a
wire, when not being hunted down by poach- special task force to report on the status of ti-
ers. gers. This will effective monitoring.
Unauthorised road construction through many The campaign to save the country’s tigers has
of the parks remains a concern. Despite the al- been led by successive Prime Ministers start-
ready-existing 400 km of road in Ranthambore, ing with Indira Gandhi who was personally
another road has just been constructed through concerned about the fate of Panthera tigris.
Chandhali – a prime tiger breeding area – and A Task force on status of ti-gers has been con-
hundreds of Dhonk trees have been cut during stituted. The Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan
the construction. Singh, chaired the second meeting of the Na-
Interpol says that the illegal wildlife trade is tional Board for Wild Life here. The Prime Min-
worth $12 billion a year. A dead tiger is worth ister approved the following decisions of the
The Indian Forest at least Rs 3 lakh in the international market. Board taken at the meeting:
Service (IFS) has been Poachers, who are often impoverished tribals, 1. To constitute a Task Force on the status of
greatly weakened by a make as little as Rs 600 for killing a tiger. tigers in wildlife parks across the country. In
shortage of trained There is a need to create a new Ministry of For- response to alarming reports of the disappear-
manpower to protect ests and Wildlife. Splitting up of the present ance of Tigers, the Prime Minister had already
forests; it has in non-functioning ministry in two would be ordered a CBI enquiry.
addition unwisely helpful. Reform of the Indian Forest Service is The proposed Task Force will include forest
diversified into forest-
also needed. officials, representatives of civil society and
based economic
activities that go The Indian Forest Service (IFS) has been greatly wild life experts.
against the grain of weakened by a shortage of trained manpower The Task Force will be asked to give a report
conservation. to protect forests; it has in addition unwisely on the current status of Project Tiger and the
diversified into forest-based economic activi- status of tigers in wild life parks.
ties that go against the grain of conservation. 2. The Prime Minister also accepted the Board’s
A strong focus on wildlife science is absent in suggestion to establish a National Wild life
most State forest bureaucracies. Crime Prevention and Control Bureau.
Creation of tiger intelligent teams to act, ad- 3. The Prime Minister also informed the Board
vice and be empowered for monitoring and in- that the Government will ban any gift of ani-
dependent assessments could help improve ti- mals by the Head of State / Government to
ger protection. The priority focus of the Forest other Heads of State/ Government or foreign
Department should be protection. zoos.
It is being alleged that the sanctity of the Wild- 4. The Board also gave its approval to allow
life Protection Act, 1972 and the Forest Con- access into protected forest areas for profes-
servation Act, 1980 has been devastated. sional researchers for purposes of carrying out
Creation of tiger
A draft resolution entitled ‘The Scheduled scientific research.
intelligent teams to act,
advice and be Tribes and Forest Dwellers (Recognition of For- 5. The Board also decided to commission a spe-
empowered for est Rights) Act, 2005 is also being seen as po- cial study on the status of vultures, in the light
monitoring and tential threat to every bit of wilderness in the of reports of the threat of extinction of vultures.
independent assess- country. Recent: Revised the Special Tiger Protection
ments could help It may further be added that Indian tiger re- Force (STPF) guidelines to involve local people
improve tiger protec- serves still have no anti-poaching squad, a fact like Van Gujjars and others in field protection
tion. The priority focus that CITES – the Convention on International – Rapid assessment of tiger reserves done
of the Forest Depart-
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna twelve good, nine satisfactory and sixteen poor.
ment should be
protection. and Flora – has been bemoaning for over a de- – Special crack teams sent to tiger reserves af-
cade now. The Prime Minister has cleared the fected by left wing extremism and low popula-
setting up of a National Wildlife Crime Pre- tion status of tiger and its prey.

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– All India meeting of Field Directors convened conservation and Project Tiger, illegal mining
Ecology on 25 and 26 July, 2009 under the Chairman- activity is back in full gear in the protected area
ship of the Minister of State (Independent of Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary.
The ministry, after a Charge) for Environment and Forests for re- 3. The 39 Tiger Reserves have been divided into
survey by the Wildlife viewing the status of field protection and re- five clusters on the basis of region and state and
Trust of India, had lated issues in tiger reserves. the Naxal infested Tiger Reserves belong to
choosen Kuno-Palpur The status of tiger continues to be endangered, cluster three.
and Nauradehi in and the Government of India, in an ongoing Project Cheetah: The ministry, after a survey
Madhya Pradesh and manner, is providing assistance to the 17 tiger by the Wildlife Trust of India, had choosen
the Shahgarh Bulge in
States under the Centrally sponsored scheme Kuno-Palpur and Nauradehi in Madhya
Jaisalmer district for
introducing cheetah,
of Project Tiger 8 new tiger 8 New tiger reserves Pradesh and the Shahgarh Bulge in Jaisalmer
which is now extinct in have been declared. Revision of project tiger district for introducing cheetah, which is now
the country. scheme with new components including an extinct in the country. The Shahgarh Bulge in
enhanced village relocation package of Rs.10 Jaisalmer is along the international border and
lakhs per family from the earlier Rs.1 lakh, is a grassland with sparse population and a
Constitution of the National Tiger Conservation good presence of chinkara as the prey base.
Authority and the Wildlife Crime Control Plans for the proposed project included addi-
Bureau, declaration of 8 new tiger reserves, tional fencing of 140 km to encompass a 4,000
providing enhanced financial support to States sq km of xerophytic habitat.
for tiger conservation with eco-development for
fringe people, taking steps for international Project Elephant
cooperation to conserve tigers, reintroduction Project Elephant was launched in February,
of tigers in Sariska and Panna and providing 1992 to assist States having free ranging popu-
100 per cent central assistance for raising, lations of wild elephants to ensure long term
arming and deploying the Special Tiger survival of identified viable populations of el-
Project Elephant
Protection Force in 13 sensitive tiger reserves ephants in their natural habitats. The Project is
was launched in
February, 1992 to
are some of the steps to save the tiger. being implemented in States, viz Andhra
assist States having After a gap of about four years, tigers are back Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam,
free ranging popula- in Sariska. Two tigers-a male and a female-were Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya,
tions of wild elephants airlifted from Ranthambhore. Nagaland, Orissa, Tamilnadu, Uttaranchal,
to ensure long term The Cabinet has approved a tripartite Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. States are be-
survival of identified Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) ing given financial as well as technical assis-
viable populations of between the Ministry of Environment and tance in achieving the objectives of the Project.
elephants in their
Forests, State Governments and Tiger Reserve Help is also provided to other States with small
natural habitats.
Management to ensure effective tiger populations of elephants for the purpose of cen-
conservation. It also has commitments like sus, training of field staff and mitigation of
establishment of Tiger Conservation human- elephant conflict.
Foundation which would promote innovative Financial assistance was provided to the el-
practices for involving the local stakeholders ephant range states including North-Eastern
in tiger conservation. states for the purpose of habitat management,
World Bank and Project Tiger mitigation of man-elephant conflict, payment
India has refused the offer of World Bank to of ex-gratia relief for loss of life human and
manage and monitor its efforts to conserve the crop caused by wild elephants, strengthening
Indian tiger under the Global Tiger Initiative of anti-poaching measures, capacity building
(GTI). The Indian government has informed the of the field staff, registration of domesticated
India has refused GTI that conservation of tiger is a sovereign elephants using microchips etc.
the offer of World Bank issue, and it would not accept that the WB 32 Elephant Reserves were notified by vari-
to manage and monitor dictate terms to it. ous state governments.
its efforts to conserve Problems with TP Permission was given for creation of three
the Indian tiger under
1. The involvement of State Governments is more Elephant reserves – ton in Chattisgarh
the Global Tiger
Initiative (GTI). The
crucial, for instance, in creating buffer zones to namely – Lemru and Badalkhod and; Deomali
Indian government has protect wildlife from human conflicts and ac- in Arunachal Pradesh.
informed the GTI that tivities that endanger the reserves. Bur unfor- Recent: India's Environment Ministry has de-
conservation of tiger is tunately, according to a report, more than 25 of clared the elephant a National Heritage Ani-
a sovereign issue, and the 37 reserves do not have the buffer areas, mal in order to increase protective measures
it would not accept that simply because State Governments have not no- for the country's nearly 29,000 elephants. Sixty
the WB dictate terms tified them for fear of losing out on various du- percent of elephants in Asia live in India, where
to it.
bious ‘developmental’ activities that could fetch 18 states host elephant populations making up
them revenue from those regions. an estimated national total of 26,000 in the wild
2. Despite crores being spent in the name of plus about 3,500 in captivity. The Government

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will soon set up a National Elephant Conser- • 2. Dhang Patki (Assam)

Ecology vation Authority, on the lines of National Ti- • 3. Eastern Dooars (WB )
ger Conservation Authority. • 4. Deomali (Arunachal Pradesh)
A Task Force on A Task Force on Project Elephant under the • 5. Garo Hills (Meghalaya)
Project Elephant under Chairmanship of Dr. Mahesh Rangarajan, Pro- • 6. Mayurbhanj (Orissa)
the Chairmanship of fessor, Department of History, University of • 7. Mysore (Karnataka)
Dr. Mahesh Delhi constituted on Project Elephant to pro- • 8. Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)
Rangarajan, Professor, vide detailed recommendations to upgrade the • 9. Shivalik (Uttarakhand)
Department of History, project to bring about more effective conserva- • 10. Wayanad (Kerala)
University of Delhi
tion and management regime for the species in Difference between TR and ER
constituted on Project
Elephant to provide
India. Elephants, being long ranging animals, render
detailed recommenda- – Consultation held with affected states and the concept of Elephant Reserves (ER) much
tions to upgrade the Ministry of Railways in September 2009 to beyond the boundaries of a PA. Only about 27
project to bring about minimize death of elephants in train accidents. percent of the area of ER is legally protected
more effective Needful initiatives have been taken by the Rail- under the PA network. Almost 30 percent of
conservation and way Board. the ER is outside the purview and control of
management regime – Consultation held with all Elephant Range the MoEF and State Forest Departments. In
for the species in India.
states in November 2009 to mitigate elephant – such a scenario, unlike Project Tiger, the con-
human conflict. States advised to take several servation of elephants requires better coordi-
short term and long term actions including nation and support of other ministries and a
preparation of Action Plan. much higher financial support.
With the notification of Uttar Pradesh Elephant Therefore, Elephant Reserves should be the
reserve in the year 2009, the total number of basic management unit for focussed elephant
Elephant Reserves (ERs) in the country has be- conservation in the country. The limits of an
come twenty seven where as permission for five Elephant Reserve should lie within state bound-
more Elephant Reserves-Baitarini ER & South aries. If interstate reserves exist, these unified
Orissa ER in Orissa, Lemru & Badalkhod in boundaries need to be re-aligned. The 32 El-
Chattisgarh and Khasi ER in Meghalaya has ephant Reserves already declared or proposed
Elephants, being been accorded by the Ministry. The area under be continued should be continued with.
long ranging animals, these would be extending over about 69582 sq km. In addition to the National Parks and Wildlife
render the concept of Monitoring of Illegal Killing Sanctuaries and other Protected Area catego-
Elephant Reserves of Elephants (MIKE ) Programme ries existing in the Elephant Reserves, other
(ER) much beyond the Mandated by COP resolution of CITES , MIKE critical elephant habitat and corridors be
boundaries of a PA.
program started in South Asia in the year 2003 brought under the PA network. Elephant Re-
Only about 27
percent of the area of
with following purpose – serves encompass National Parks, Wildlife
ER is legally protected To provide information needed for elephant Sanctuaries, and other Protected Areas and for-
under the PA network. range States to make appropriate management ests under various legal categories within their
Almost 30 percent of and enforcement decisions, and to build insti- boundaries. These should be continued with.
the ER is outside the tutional capacity within the range States for the Other critical elephant habitat and corridors
purview and control of long-term management of their elephant popu- should come under protection. If this is to be
the MoEF and State lations within the PA network, categories other than
Forest Departments.
The main objectives of the MIKE are sanctuary or national park may be also in-
• to measure levels and trends in the illegal cluded.
hunting of elephants; Elephant Landscapes
• to determine changes in these trends over Contiguous reserves in adjacent states that form
time; and part of a unified landscape e.g., Nilgiri-East-
• to determine the factors causing or associ- ern Ghats shall be declared as newly created
ated with such changes, and to try and assess Elephant Landscapes (EL). The new Elephant
in particular to what extent observed trends are Landscapes that are recommended are as fol-
a result of any decisions taken by the Confer- lows:
Contiguous reserves
ence of the Parties to CITES. 1. Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki
in adjacent states that Under the programme data are being collected 2. Kameng-Sonitpur
form part of a unified from all sites on monthly basis in specified 3. East Central
landscape e.g., Nilgiri- MIKE patrol form and submitted to Sub Re- 4. North Western
Eastern Ghats shall be gional Support Office for South Asia 5. Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats
declared as newly Programme located in Delhi who are assisting 6. Eastern South Bank
created Ministry in the implementation of the 7. North Bengal-Greater Manas
Elephant Landscapes
programme. 8. Meghalaya
MIKE sites in India 9. Anamalai-Nelliampathy-High Range
• 1. Chirang Ripu (Assam) 10. Periyar-Agasthyamalai

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Of these ten Elephant Landscapes the Task with stress on hands-on participatory approach
Ecology Force recommends that the first five be taken are still continuing.
up on priority basis and re dedicated to the Nine Centre of Excellence have been set up
The Indian Board nation at the earliest. by the Ministry to strengthen awareness, re-
of Wildlife, headed Wildlife search and training in priority area of Environ-
by the Prime Minister, The first National Wildlife Action Plan mental Science and Management.
is the apex advisory (NWAP) of 1983 has been revised and the new The National Museum of National History
body overseeing and Wildlife Action Plan (2002-16) has been (NMNH) set up in New Delhi in 1978, is con-
guiding the implemen- adopted. cerned with the promotion of non-formal edu-
tation of various
The Indian Board of Wildlife, headed by the cation. Three Regional Museums of Natural
schemes for wildlife
Prime Minister, is the apex advisory body over- History have been established at Mysore,
seeing and guiding the implementation of vari- Bhopal and Bhuban-eswar.
ous schemes for wildlife conservation. The Indian Council for Forestry Research and
At present, the protected area network com- Education is the focal point of forestry educa-
prises 92 national parks and 500 sanctuaries tion and extension development in the coun-
covering an area of 15.67 million hectares. try. The Indira Gandhi National Forest Acad-
The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, provides emy, Dehradun, imparts in-service training to
for restrictions or prohibitions on hunting, cut- the Indian Forest Service (IFS) professionals.
ting, and other forms of exploitation of noti- Indian Plywood Industries Research and
fied species, the establishment of protected ar- Training Institute, Bangalore, organises short-
eas, control of trade in wildlife products, and term courses in the area of wood science. The
the protection of plant life. Indian Institute of Forest Management,
The Act authorises the constitution of Wildlife Bhopal, also provides training in forest and
Advisory Boards, appointment of wildlife pres- management and allied subjects to persons
ervation staff, and the establishment of national from the Indian Forest Service.
parks, sanctuaries, and closed areas. The Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun,
New Wildlife Action PLAN (2002-16) provides in-service training to forest officers,
programmes in It points out the strategy for the conservation wildlife ecologists and other professionals for
wildlife are carried of wild fauna and flora in the country. It conservation and management of the wildlife
out by the Wildlife strengthens and increases the Protected Area resources of the country.
Institute of India, Network and works for the effective manage- Fellowships and Awards
Dehradun, and the ment of protected areas, conservation of endan- Instituted in 1987, the Indira Gandhi
Salim Ali Centre for gered species, control of poaching, taxidermy Paryavaran Puraskar (IGPP), consisting of a
Ornithology and
and illegal trade in wild animals and plant spe- cash prize of rupees five lakh, a stroll and a
Natural History,
cies, ensures people’s participation in wildlife citation, is awarded every year to an organiza-
conservation; enhances financial allocation for tion and to an individual for significant contri-
ensuring sustained fund flow to the wildlife butions in the field of environment.
sector, and also works for the Integration of Na- The Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshmitra
tional Wildlife Action Plan with other sectoral Award (IPVM) was constituted by the Minis-
programmes. try in 1986 to recognise outstanding contribu-
Wildlife Research tion of individuals and organization in the field
Research programmes in wildlife are carried of afforestation and wasteland development.
out by the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, The Mahavriksha Puraskar, instituted by the
and the Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and National Afforestation and Eco-Development
Natural History, Coimbatore. Board (NAEB) during 1993-94, is given every
National Natural Resource Management year to individuals/ organizations for trees of
System (NNRMS) is the utilisation of Remote notified species having the largest girth and
Sensing Technology with the conventional height and in good vigour. The award consists
The Indira methods for optimal use of management of the of a cash prize of Rs. 25,000 a plaque and a cita-
natural resources of the country. tion.
Vrikshmitra Award
(IPVM) was constituted
To create environmental awareness among With the objective of encouraging original and
by the Ministry in 1986 various age groups and to disseminate infor- applied research among Group ‘A’ scientists in
to recognise outstand- mation through Environmental Information the Ministry and its associated offices and au-
ing contribution of System (ENVIS) network to all concerned. tonomous bodies, Paryavaran Evam Van
individuals and A National Environmental Awareness Cam- Mantralaya Vishist Vaigyaik Puraskar was in-
organization in the field paign (NEAC) is organised very year. Water- stituted in 1992-93.
of afforestation and Elixir of Life was the theme for the year 2002- The Pitambar Pant National Environment
wasteland develop-
03. The Global Learning and Observation to Fellowship Award instituted in 1978, is
Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), an Inter- awarded annually to recognize, encourage and
national Scheme and Education Progra-mme support excellence in any branch of research

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related to environmental science. Ganga at an Sanctioned cost of Rs. 635.66 crore.

Ecology Instituted in 1995, the B.P. Pal National En- The GAP has a number of limitations:
vironmental Fellowship Award for bio-diver- (a) the implementation is worst as six states
The Ministry has sity is in recognition of significantly important namely Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Rajasthan,
approved institution research development contributions. Goa and Kerala out of the 18 states under
of Amritadevi Wildlife The Ministry has approved institution of NRCP have failed to complete even a single
Protection Award, Amritadevi Wildlife Protection Award, in the sanctioned plan;
in the name of name of Amritadevi Bishnoi, to be given to (b) the agencies are more concerned in the cre-
Amritadevi Bishnoi, Village Communities for showing valour and ation of the pumping stations and sewage treat-
to be given to Village
courage for protection of wildlife. ment plants (STPs);
Communities for
showing valour and
To encourage work of excellence in taxonomy (c) even GAG has criticised the poor function-
courage for protection and appreciate achievements, the Ministry has ing of GAP;
of wildlife. instituted the Janaki Ammal National Award (d) the corruption is on rampant;
in Taxonomy. The award carries a cash prize (e) it suffers from ad hocism; (f) some of the
of Rs. 50,000 and a citation. states have blamed that the liquidity crisis is
The National Awards for Prevention of Pol- the main reason of the delay of the project; (g)
lution and Rajiv Gandhi Environment even MoEF has now sought to review the allo-
Awards for Clean Technology 2002-03 were cations of Tenth Finance Commission. (TFC)
given to five categories of highly polluting in- despite the increase of gross budgetary support
dustries in the large scale sector. from Rs 1417 crore to Rs 1826 crore; (h) never-
National River Conservation Plan theless, most of the states have failed to even
To oversee the implementation of the GAP and spend the money and fair amount of money is
to lay down policies and programmes, Govern- left unutilized; (i) though Delhi has spent 99
ment of India constituted the Central Ganga per cent of the allocated fund but nothing sub-
Authority (CGA) in February 1985, renamed stantial has come out; and (j) the stipulated
The Central
as the National River Conservation Author- fund for NRCP schemes is very often diverted
Government has
given Ganga the
ity (NRCA) in September 1995, under the chair- to other schemes; and finally the scheme also
status of a ‘National manship of the Prime Minister. The Govern- fails to treat the river ecosystem entirely.
River’ and has ment also established the GPD Ganga Project Finally, there should be a provision of the cre-
constituted a ‘National Directorate (GPD) in June 1985 as a wing of De- ation of river regulation zone under an inde-
Ganga River Basin partment of Environment, to execute the pendent autonomous body. The plans should
Authority’ (NGRBA) projects under the guidance and supervision executed by the NGOs and the panchayats. The
on February 20, 2009. of the CGA. schemes should be target based. The flood plain
The Government renamed the GPD as the conservation is also very important.
NRCD (National River Conservation Director- National Ganga River Basin Authority: The
ate) in June 1994.The Central Ganga Authority Central Government has given Ganga the sta-
(CGA) established in 1985, lays down the poli- tus of a ‘National River’ and has constituted a
cies for works to be taken under the Ganga Ac- ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority’
tion Plan (GAP)-I. On 31st March 2000, the GAP (NGRBA) on February 20, 2009. The NGRBA
phase I was over. All the 261 schemes have been has been set up as an empowered planning, fi-
completed by 30th September 2001. nancing, monitoring and coordinating author-
The main component of the Ganga Action Plan ity for the conservation of Ganga River with a
is diversion of sewage flowing into the river to holistic approach under the Environment (Pro-
other locations for treatment and conversion tection) Act, 1986.
into valuable energy sources. Under Gomati Action Plan, pollution abate-
Under Gomati Action The GAP, Phase II has been merged with the ment works are being taken up along the
Plan, pollution National River Conservation Plan (NRCP). So Gomati river in Lucknow, Sultanpur and
abatement works are far a total of 38 rivers have been covered under Jaunpur in UP. The sanctioned cost of Gomti
being taken up along the programme. Besides other pollution abate- Action Plan Phase-II at Lucknow is Rs.263.04
the Gomati river in
ment works, a sewage treatment capacity of 869 crore. The project cost is to be shared in the ra-
Lucknow, Sultanpur
and Jaunpur in UP.
mld. (million litres per day) was created under tio of 70:30 between Government of India and
The sanctioned cost of Phase-I and an amount of about Rs. 452 crore State Government. The works in this phase will
Gomti Action Plan was spent under the Plan. This phase was de- include two sewage treatment plants of a total
Phase-II at Lucknow is clared completed in March 2000. Since GAP capacity of 375 MLD (over and above the 47
Rs.263.04 crore. The Phase-I did not cover the pollution load of MLD capacity being set up in the first phase),
project cost is to be Ganga fully, GAP Phase-II was taken up which interception & diversion works of sewage of
shared in the ratio of included, Ganga and its four tributaries i.e. the remaining drains and other miscellaneous
70:30 between
Damodar, Gomti, Mahananda and Yamuna. items such as river front development, toilets,
Government of India
and State Government.
Works under Ganga Action Plan Phase-II cov- plantation, public awareness and participation,
ers sixty towns along the main stem of river and acquisition of land. Out of thirty schemes,

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works on seven schemes have been completed. dominantly hydrophytes.

Ecology Damodar Action Plan (DAP): The scheme of 2. The substrate is predominantly undrained
Damodar Action Plan was approved in Octo- hydric soil.
The scheme of ber 1996 on 100 per cent funding pattern with 3. The substrate is non-soil and is saturated
Damodar Action Plan stipulated period of implementation up to De- with water or covered by shallow water some-
was approved in cember 2005 covering eight towns namely, time during the growing season of each year.
October 1996 on 100 Bokaro-Kargali, Chirkunda, Digdha, Jharia, This definition emphasizes three key attributes
per cent funding Ramgarh, Telmachu, Sindri and Sudamdih in of wetlands: (1) hydrology which is a degree of
pattern with stipulated the State of Jharkhand and Andal, Asansol, flooding of soil saturation, (2) wetland vegeta-
period of implementa-
Durgapur and Raniganj in the State of West tion (hydrophytes), and (3) hydric soils. This
tion up to December
2005 covering eight
Bengal. definition has been broadly followed as it speci-
towns namely, Bokaro- National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP): The fies various attributes of wetlands. This defini-
Kargali, Chirkunda, Ministry is implementing a Centrally Spon- tion does not contradict Ramsar’s definition but
Digdha, Jharia, sored Scheme of National Lake Conservation only specifies the parameters to be used for
Ramgarh, Telmachu, Plan (NLCP) for conservation and management identification.
Sindri and Sudamdih of polluted and degraded lakes in urban and India is rich in fresh water wetland resources
in the State of semi-urban areas of the country on 70:30 cost which exhibit great ecological diversity. The
Jharkhand and Andal,
sharing basis between the Central Government wetlands of our country are of great economic,
Asansol, Durgapur and
Raniganj in the State
and the respective State Governments. Based aesthetic and scientific importance.
of West Bengal. on the proposals received from different states, India has a variety of wetland ecosystems rang-
the Ministry has so far, sanctioned projects for ing from high altitude cold desert wetlands to
conservation of 59 lakes in 14 States, at a total hot and humid wetlands in coastal zones with
cost of Rs.1008.26 crore. The scheme of National its diverse flora and fauna.
Lake Conservation Plan was initiated with the Distribution:
approval of conservation and management It has spread from the cold arid zone of
plans of three lakes namely, Powai Ladakh in the north to the wet humid climate
(Maharashtra), Ooty and Kodaikanal (Tamil of Imphal in the East; from the warm arid zone
Nadu), in June, 2001 at a cost of Rs. 14.90 crore. of Rajasthan in the west to the wet and humid
Under Yamuna Four more lakes namely, Kundawada Lake zone of Southern Peninsula. In Central India it
Action Plan Phase-I, (Karnataka), Rani Talab (Madhya Pradesh), is found in the tropical monsoon area. Over the
assisted by the Japan Kote Tavarekere (Karnataka), Rankala Lake years, based on the recommendations of Na-
Bank for International (Maharashtra), with an approved cost of tional Wetlands Committee, one hundred fif-
Cooperation (JBIC), a Rs.19.02 crore have been included in the teen Wetlands have been identified so far for
total of 753 mld.
programme for conservation and management conservation under the National Wetland Con-
sewage treatment
capacity was created
of polluted lakes under National Lake Conser- servation Programme.
and this Phase was vation Plan. Wetlands in India are distributed in different
declared completed in Yamuna Action Plan (YAP): Under Yamuna geographical regions ranging from Himalayas
March, 2003. Action Plan Phase-I, assisted by the Japan Bank to Deccan plateau. The variability in climatic
for International Cooperation (JBIC), a total of conditions and changing topography is respon-
753 mld. sewage treatment capacity was cre- sible for significant diversity. They are classi-
ated and this Phase was declared completed in fied into different types based on their origin,
March, 2003. vegetation, nutrient status, thermal character-
A loan assistance of Yen 13.33 billion has been istics, like Glaciatic Wetlands (e.g., Tsomoriri
extended by the Japan International Coopera- in Jammu and Kashmir, Chandertal in
tion Agency (JICA) which has been merged Himachal Pradesh), Tectonic Wetlands (e.g.,
with JBIC for implementation of Yamuna Ac- Nilnag in Jammu and Kashmir, Khajjiar in
The Ramsar tion Plan (YAP) Phase II, which is part of the Himachal Pradesh, and Nainital and Bhimtal
Convention defines National River Conservation Plan (NRCP). in Uttaranchal), Oxbow Wetlands (e.g., Dal
wetlands as ‘Wetlands Wetlands Lake, Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir and
are area of marsh, fen,
The Ramsar Convention defines wetlands as Loktak Lake in Manipur and some of the wet-
peatland or water,
whether natural or
‘Wetlands are area of marsh, fen, peatland or lands in the river plains of Brahmaputra and
artificial, permanent or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent Indo-Gangetic region.
temporary, with water or temporary, with water that is static or flow- Deepor Beel in Assam, Kabar in Bihar, Surahtal
that is static or flowing, ing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of in Uttar Pradesh), Lagoons (e.g., Chilika in
fresh, brackish or salt, marine water, the depth of which at low tide Orissa), Crater Wetlands (Lonar lake in
including areas of does not exceed six metres.’ Maharashtra), Salt water Wetlands (e.g.,
marine water, the For the purpose of this classification, wetlands Pangong Tso in Jammu and Kashmir and
depth of which at low
must have one or more of the following at- Sambhar in Rajasthan), Urban Wetlands (e.g.,
tide does not exceed
six metres.’
tributes. Dal Lake in Jammu and Kashmir, Nainital in
1. At least periodically the land supports pre- Uttaranchal and Bhoj in Madhya Pradesh),

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Ponds/Tanks, man-made Wetlands (e.g., tat destruction and loss of biodiversity.

Ecology Harike in Punjab and Pong Dam in Himachal 4. Uncontrolled dredging resulting in succes-
Pradesh), Reservoirs (e.g., Idukki, Hirakund sional changes.
At present, 115 dam, Bhakra-Nangal dam), Mangroves (e.g., 5. Hydrological intervention resulting in loss
wetlands have been Bhitarkanika in Orissa), Coral reefs (e.g., of aquifers.
identified under the Lakshadweep), Creeks (Thane Creek in Some of the threatened wetland bird species
National Wetland Maharashtra), seagrasses, estuaries, thermal such as Finns’ Weaver (Ploceus megarhy-
Conservation springs are some kinds of wetlands in the coun- nchus); Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliacal); Indian
Programme (NWCP) try. Skimmer (Rynchops albicollis); Lesser Kestrel
and 25 wetlands of
At present, 115 wetlands have been identified (Falco naumanni); Sociable Lapwing (Vanellus
international impor-
tance under Ramsar
under the National Wetland Conservation gregarious); Bristled Grass Warbler (Chaetornis
Convention. About Programme (NWCP) and 25 wetlands of inter- striatus); Masked Finfoot (Helipais personata)
4,445 sq.km area of national importance under Ramsar Convention. etc., have very small populations restricted to
the country is under About 4,445 sq.km area of the country is under one or two sites.
mangroves. mangroves. The major threats to wetland eco- The Research projects to supplement Manage-
systems include uncontrolled siltation, weed ment Action Plans (MAPs) for intensive con-
infestation, discharge of waste effluents, sur- servation on thrust areas of research are con-
face run-off, habitat destruction, encroachment sidered by the Thematic Group for conserva-
and hydrological perturbations. tion of Wetlands and Mangroves constituted
Importance of wetlands: by RE Division in the Ministry.
It plays an important role in flood control, Wetlands derive some protection from the
treatment of waste water, reduction of sediment Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act,
loads and pollution abatement. 1974; the Water (Prevention and Control of Pol-
It is a habitat of endangered and rare species lution) Cess Act, 1977 and the Environment
of birds, animals, plants and insects (Protection) Act, 1986. The scheme on conser-
It influences the micro-climate of the locality vation and management of wetlands was initi-
Under the National
in addition to checking of underground salt wa- ated in 1987.
Wetland Conservation ter intrusion on an adjacent brackish water en- Under the National Wetland Conservation
Programme, 68 sites vironment through interface pressure. Programme, 68 sites have been identified for
have been identified As an ecosystem they are useful for nutrient conservation in the country, 41 being recently
for conservation in the recovery and cycling, releasing excess nitrogen, added to the conservation List including 35
country, 41 being deactivating phosphates, removing toxins, mangroves, 4 coral areas and 10 urban lakes.
recently added to the chemicals and heavy metals through absorp- It is spread from the cold arid zone of Ladakh
conservation List
tion by plants and also in the treatment of waste in the north to the wet humid climate of Imphal
including 35 man-
groves, 4 coral areas
water. in the East; from the warm arid zone of
and 10 urban lakes. Valuable for their educational and scientific Rajasthan in the west to the wet and humid
interest (especially their high diversity or spe- zone of Southern Peninsula. In Central India it
cies richness). Recreational benefits (swimming, is found in the tropical monsoon area.
diving, tourism).  The National Level Committee has identi-
Wetlands are threatened due to reclamation for fied 21 wetlands for intensive conservation and
developmental activities, pollution, increasing management purposes on priority basis. They
water demand, change in hydrological regime, are: (1) Keoladeo National Park (Bharatpur,
over exploitation of resources, etc. Rajasthan), (2) Chilka (Orissa) (3) Loktak
Biotic Threat: (Manipur), (4) Wullar and Tso Morari (J&K),
1. Uncontrolled siltation and weed infestation. (5) Harike (Punjab), (6) Sambar (Rajasthan), (7)
2. Uncontrolled discharge of waste water, in- Kolleru (A.P) (8) Bhoj (MP), (9) Ashtamudi,
dustrial effluents, surface run-off, etc. result- Vembanad and Sasthamkotta (Kerala), (10)
India is a signatory ing in proliferation of aquatic weeds, which ad- Kanjli (Punjab) (11) Ujni (Maharashtra), (12)
to the convention on versely affect the flora and fauna. Renuka (H.P), (13) Kabar (Bihar) (14)
wetlands of interna-
3. Tree felling for fuel wood and wood prod- Nalsarovar (Gujarat), (15) Sukhna
tional importance, the
Ramsar Convention of
ucts causes soil loss affecting rainfall pattern, (Chandigarh) and Pichola (Rajasthan) and (16)
1971. Ramsar is in loss of various aquatic species due to water- East Calcutta Wetland (WB).
Iran. India also level fluctuation. India is a signatory to the convention on
participated in the 4. Habitat destruction leading to loss of fish wetlands of international importance, the
panel discussions of and decrease in number of migratory birds. Ramsar Convention of 1971. Ramsar is in Iran.
CoP-9 meeting, jointly Abiotic Threat: India also participated in the panel discus-
organized by Wetland 1. Weed infestation in Harike Lake, district sions of CoP-9 meeting, jointly organized by
International, IUCN,
Ferozepur, Punjab Wetland International, IUCN, Bird Interna-
Bird International,
WWF, etc.
2. Encroachment resulting in shrinkage of area. tional, WWF, etc.
3. Anthropogenic pressures resulting in habi- India also chaired a session on Himalayan

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Ecology Agro-ecological regions harbouring

rich crop diversity in India
Montreux Record: Agro-ecological regions Crops
Montreux Record is a
list of such wetland Western Himalaya  Barley, wheat, maize, buckwheat, amaranth, prosomillet, finger millet
sites maintained by  French bean, soyabean, lentil, black gram, peas
Ramsar Convention  Pumpkin, cucumber, Alliums pp., ginger, Brassicae
Secretariat  Pome, stone, soft and nut fruits
where changes in
ecological character Eastern Himalaya  Barley, maize, buckwheat, amaranth, finger millet, foxtail millet
have occurred or are  French bean, soyabean, cowpea, black gram, peas, scarlet bean
likely to occur as a  Pumpkin, cucumber, Alliums pp. ginger, chayote, tree tomato, Brassicae
result of pollution and  Pome and stone fruits
other anthropogenic
North-Eastern Region  Rice, maize, sorghum, finger millet, foxtail millet, job’s tears
activities. It is
 French bean, soyabean, pigeonpea (perennial), black gram, rice bean,
maintained as a part of
Dolichos bean, winged bean
Ramsar database.
Inclusion of a wetland  Pumpkin, chayote, cucumber, okra, eggplant, chilli/capsicum spp.,
within Montreux record Pointed gourd, ash gourd
does not mean red  Taros,yams
listing or black listing a  Citrus-Lime/lemon/orange/grape fruit, banana
wetland site. It  Tea, tree cotton, jute, kenaf and mesta, large cardamom, ginger, long
highlights the action to pepper, sugarcan
be taken for manage-
Gangetic Plains  Rice, sorghum, barnyard millet, little millet/Panicum
ment of these wetlands
on priority basis.  Chickpea, cowpea, mung bean
It is maintained as part  Okra, eggplant, bitterground, cucumis spp., Luffa spp.
of the Ramsar List.  Jackfruit, mango, lemon/lime, orange, jujube, Indian gooseberry
Keoladeo National Emblica, jumun/Syzygium, melons
Park, designated 01/  Linseed, niger, sesame, Brassicae
10/81, Rajasthan,  Sugarcane, mulberry
2,873 ha, Montreux
Indus Plains  Durum wheat, pearl millet
Record 04/07/90;
Loktak Lake, desig-  Moth bean, cluster bean, chickpea, black gram
nated 23/03/90,  Okra, Cucumis spp.
Manipur, 26,600 ha,  Jujube, Khirni/Mimusops, Phalsa/Grewia
Montreux Record 16/  Sesame, Taramira/Eruca,Cotton
Eastern Peninsular  Rice, sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, foxtail millet, little millet,
Region/E.Ghats/ prosomillet, kodo millet
Deccan  Black gram, green gram, cowpea, horse gram, Mucuna, pigeonpea,
Dolichos bean, rice bean
 Taros, yams, elephant-food yam
 Banana, mango, lemon/lime, jackfruit
 Niger, Brassicae, sesame
 Ginger, turmeric, chilli, kenaf, sugarcane, coconut, cotton
Western Peninsular  Rice, sorghum, finger millet, small millet/Panicum
Region/Western  Black gram, green gram, cowpea, pigeonpea, Dolichos bean, horse gram,
Ghats/Malabar sword bean
February 2 of every  Okra, eggplant, cucumber, chilli/Capsicum
year is observed as  Taros, yams, elephant-foot yam
World Wetlands Day. It  Jackfruit, banana, lime/lemon, orange, jumun/Syzygium
marks the date of the  Sugarcane, black pepper, turmeric, ginger, coconut, arecanut, cotton
signing of the
Convention on The Islands Regions  Coconut, breadfruit, chilli, taros, yams, Xanthosoma
Wetlands on 2
February 1971, in the initiative jointly organized by Ramsar Secre- mous for Olive Ridley turtle) are wetlands in
Iranian city of Ramsar tariat and other Asian countries. The national Orissa.
on the shores of the level celebrations of the World Wetlands Day, Ramsar Convention: February 2 of every year
Caspian Sea. 2008 were held at Fatehpur, near Pong Dam in is observed as World Wetlands Day. It marks
Therefore, this Himachal Pradesh. By June 2008, 25 sites have the date of the signing of the Convention on
Convention came to be already been designated as Ramsar sites in In- Wetlands on 2 February 1971, in the Iranian city
known as the Ramsar
dia. of Ramsar on the shores of the Caspian Sea.
Convention (1971).
Bhitarkanika and Gahir-matha Beaches (fa- Therefore, this Convention came to be known

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as the Ramsar Convention (1971). India is also in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, due to the
Ecology a Party to the United Nations Framework Con- effect of tsunami in December 2004. This loss
vention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Con- stood reduced by 1 sq. km as compared to the
Mangroves are very vention on Biological Diversity, Convention on previous assessment in 2005.
naturally vegetated Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Based on an average of an annual target of
estuaries serve to Animals, Convention on World Heritage, Su- 3,000 hectares on a country wide basis, the ar-
preserve both coast pervisory Council of Wetland International, etc. eas supported under the scheme are among the
and coastal inhabitants Interlinkages among these Conventions are fre- 38 areas as already identified by Ministry for
in times of cyclones, quently discussed in the inter-Ministerial and intensive conservation. New areas are added
tidal waves and the
intra-Ministerial meetings to develop compre- to the existing list of the 38 ones on the basis of
rare tsunamis.
Mangrove ecosystem
hensive plans on actions for their implementa- recommendation by the National Mangrove
has a very vital role in tion. Committee.
protecting the coastline – Twenty five sites have already been desig- Mangroves in India account for about five
during natural nated as Ramsar sites in India till date. India percent of the World’s mangrove vegetation
disasters. has designated 6 wetlands under Ramsar Con- and are spread over an area of about 4500
vention: (i) Keoladeo National Park (Bharat- square kilometres along the coastal States/UTs
pur), (ii) Chilka (Orissa), (iii) Loktak (Manipur), of the country. Sunderbans in West Bengal ac-
(iv) Wullar (J&K), (v) Harike (Punjab), (vi) Sam- count for a little less than half of the total area
bar (Rajasthan) under mangroves in India. The Forest Survey
Point Calimere (Tamil Nadu) and ten others of India is assessing the vegetation cover of the
have been recently included in the international country including mangroves using remote
Ramsar Convention list. The addition of these sensing since 1987. West Bengal has maximum
sites to the Ramsar List brings the total area of of mangrove cover in the country followed by
Wetlands of International Importance in India Gujarat and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. In-
India is home to to 677,131 hectares in 25 Ramsar Sites. dia is home to some of the best mangroves in
some of the best
Mangroves the world. The Ministry has established a Na-
mangrove species in
the world, comprising
The Ministry accords high priority to the con- tional Mangrove Genetic Resources Centre in
69 species under 42 servation and management of mangroves and Orissa.
genera and 28 coral reefs in the country. The Coastal Regula- Mangroves are very naturally vegetated es-
families. Sunderbans, tion Zone Notification (1991) under the Envi- tuaries serve to preserve both coast and coastal
West Bengal have ronmental Protection Act (1986) recognizes the inhabitants in times of cyclones, tidal waves
been included in the mangrove and coral reefs areas as ecologically and the rare tsunamis. Mangrove ecosystem has
World List of Bio- sensitive and categorizes them as CRZ-I (i) a very vital role in protecting the coastline dur-
sphere Reserves by
which implies that these areas are afforded pro- ing natural disasters.
UNESCO. It repre-
sents the largest
tection of the highest order. The National India is home to some of the best mangrove
stretch of mangroves Policy, 2006 recognizes that mangroves and species in the world, comprising 69 species
in India. coral reefs are important coastal environmen- under 42 genera and 28 families. Sunderbans,
tal resources. They provide habitats for marine West Bengal have been included in the World
species, protection from extreme weather List of Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO. It rep-
events; and a resource base for sustainable tour- resents the largest stretch of mangroves in In-
ism. dia.
Mangroves in India cover 4,639 km2 showing Features
a net increase of 58 km2 over the previous as- Mangroves actually constitute a heteroge-
sessment figures. West Bengal has nearly half neous group of plants with similar adaptations
of the country’s mangroves. As per the State of to a particular environment.
Forest Report 2009, published by Forest Sur- They colonise tidal shores and brackish wa-
Mangroves in India vey of India the mangrove cover in the country ters in the tropics and subtropics and in doing
account for about five is 4,639 sq km which is 0.14 per cent of the so not only stabilize shorelines but also create
percent of the World’s country’s total geographical area. Compared new land by trapping debris, silt and mud
mangrove vegetation
with 2005 assessment, there has been an in- along their interlacing roots.
and are spread over
an area of about 4500
crease of fifty eight sq km in mangrove cover Mangroves spread out to the water by send-
square kilometres mainly because of the plantations and protec- ing their branches roots that reach into the mud
along the coastal tion measures in the States of Gujarat, Orissa, and develop into sturdy supporting props.
States/UTs of the Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Decrease in A distinctive feature of mangroves is their
country. Sunderbans in mangrove cover in Andamans & Nicobar Is- large fruit, the seeds of which germinate and
West Bengal account lands is attributed to after effects of tsunami. grow into sturdy seedlings before they leave
for a little less than half In nutshell, there was an increase of 55 sq. km the parent plant.
of the total area under
in mangrove cover of Gujarat, 16 sq. km in West Mangroves are salt tolerant forest ecosys-
mangroves in India.
Bengal, 4 sq. km in Orissa and 3 sq. km in Tamil tems, found mainly in the tropical and subtropi-
Nadu. However, there was a loss of 20 sq. km cal incidal regions of the world.

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Mangroves plants can survive high salinity, form an effective bio-shield that protects the
Ecology tidal extremes, strong wind velocity, high tem- shoreline from the tidal damage.
perature and muddy anaerobic soil. Mangroves not only protect the coastal life
Mangroves are self- All these conditions are hostile for other plants. from the fury of cyclones and coastal storm but
propagating plants and Saline inter-tidal zone at the interface between also promote sustainable fisheries and prevent
if it is undisturbed, can the land and the sea along the deltas, shallow sea erosion.
grow quite easily in lagoons, mud flats, bays and backwaters in the Mangrove forests serve as the home for a
conducive soil and tropical and subtropical sheltered coastlines are wide range of flora and fauna; they provide
locations. These are most favourable inhabitant for the colonization medicine and fuel wood.
the plants that grow in
of mangrove forests. Inspite of all such gifts they confer, many
the inter-tidal zone
along the coastline of
Role and Importance: Mangroves are self- mangrove ecosystems have been cleared for
India. They are very propagating plants and if it is undisturbed, can aquaculture ponds and other alternative uses.
hardy plants that have grow quite easily in conducive soil and loca- Others have been exploited unsustainably,
adapted over millennia tions. These are the plants that grow in the in- leading to their degradation.
to grow in difficult ter-tidal zone along the coastline of India. They Mangrove under threats
conditions. are very hardy plants that have adapted over Mangrove ecosystems have been subjected
millennia to grow in difficult conditions. to various anthropogenic and biotic pressures
Gujarat has increased its mangrove cover by resulting in habitat destruction, loss of
almost 10 times which acts as protection from biodiversity, affecting avifauna and their mi-
tsunami. Similar is the case with West Bengal. gration paths.
Mangroves are plants that survive high salin- Unsustainable aquaculture, siltation, weed
ity, tidal regimes, strong wind velocity, high infestation, uncontrolled discharge of waste
temperature and muddy anaerobic soil – a com- water, industrial effluents, surface run off, en-
bination of conditions hostile for other plants. croachment around these water bodies, etc. is
Mangrove wetlands and forests act as a shelter resulting in shrinkage of mangrove area.
belt against cyclones. (In Orissa a few years ago, Two mangrove species are endemic to India,
Gujarat has
increased its man-
villages surrounded by mangrove forests sur- namely Rhizophora annamalayana occurring in
grove cover by almost vived the fury of cyclones, unlike other vil- Pitchavaram, Tamil Nadu and Heritira
10 times which acts as lages). benikensis which exists only in Bhitarkanika of
protection from As they have their existence on mudflats and Orissa.
tsunami. Similar is the survive the daily tidal cycles, most species of Bangladesh and India share the 26,000sqkm
case with West mangroves either have prop roots or pneumato- mangrove kingdom, which is vulnerable to cli-
Bengal. Mangroves phores, i.e. additional roots, underground root mate change.
are plants that survive
system and grow erect out of the mud. This If that airport comes up in the proposed area,
high salinity, tidal
regimes, strong wind
underground root system can obtain oxygen in 400 acres of mangroves would be destroyed.
velocity, high tempera- an anaerobic substrate. The oil spill from MSC Chitra has caused
ture and muddy Mangrove trees develop aerial or air- breath- massive damage to the 25-km mangroves
anaerobic soil – a ing roots to avoid suffocation in the oxygen- stretch in and around 10-12 km coastline be-
combination of poor mud. tween Revas and Mandwa and 5-6 km coast-
conditions hostile for All aerial tree roots have special tiny pores line at Elephanta and Vashi have been found
other plants. on their surface to take in air keeping water and massively damaged.
salt out. The International Union for Conservation of
Their roots contain large air space and not Nature (IUCN), a network of several conser-
only they transport air but also provide reser- vation groups, has set alarm bells ringing by
voir of air during high tide when all the other warning that more than one in six mangrove
aerial roots may be under water. species worldwide are in danger of extinction
Aerial roots can take different forms in dif- due to coastal development and other factors,
ferent species of mangroves, such as 'Avicennia' including climate change, logging and agricul-
which develops shallow cable roots that spread ture.
Two mangrove
out from the trunk under the soil. Along there Effective measures:
species are endemic
to India, namely
cable roots emerge short pencil like rods called Keeping the importance of mangrove ecosys-
Rhizophora 'Pneumatophores' (air carrier). tem in view, the Ministry of Environment and
annamalayana 'Sonneratia' also produce can shape pneu- Forests launched Mangrove Conservation
occurring in matophores. Programme in 1987 and, has so far, identified
Pitchavaram, Tamil Rhizophora send out roots from their trunks 35 mangrove areas for intensive conservation
Nadu and Heritira and branches that arch down to the ground for and management in the country.
benikensis which extra support and air absorption. Mangrove areas are identified on the recom-
exists only in
Bruguiera send out knee shaped roots that mendation of National Committee on Man-
Bhitarkanika of
radiate out from the trunk. grove and Coral Reefs on the basis of their
With the help of these roots the mangroves unique ecosystems, biodiversity, etc.

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Hundred per cent central assistance is given Government is implementing a Plan Scheme
Ecology under Management Action Plans (MAPs) for on Conservation and Management of Man-
undertaking activities like raising mangrove groves since 1986-87. Management Action
Sunderbans, West plantations, protection, catchment area treat- Plans: (1) Sunderbans (West Bengal), (2)
Bengal have been ment, biodiversity conservation, sustainable re- Pichavaram (Tamil Nadu), (3) Muthupet
included in the World source utilization, survey and demarcation, (Tamil Nadu) (4) Goa and (5) Andaman and
List of Biosphere education and awareness, etc. Nicobar Islands.
Reserves by Recognizing the importance of mangrove Under the scheme on conservation and man-
UNESCO. It repre- ecosystem, the number of mangrove areas has agement of mangroves, 15 areas have been
sents the largest
grown from 15 to 35 to be put under conserva- identified: (1) Northern Andaman, (2)
stretch of mangroves
in India.
tion and management. Sunderbans, (3) Bhitarkanika (Orissa), (4)
Presently efforts have been on to persuade Coringa (Andhra Pradesh), (5), Godavari Delta
the State Governments to identify new and ad- (Andhra Pradesh), (6) Krishna Estuary (Andhra
ditional mangroves conservation areas. Pradesh), (7) Mahanadi Delta (Orissa), (8)
The Ministry of Environment and Forests has Pitchavaram (TN) (9) Point Calimer (TN), (10)
established a National Mangrove Genetic Re- Goa, (11) Gulf of Kutch, (12) Coondapur
sources Centre in Orissa. (Karnataka) (13) Achra/Ratnagiri;
Two mangrove species are endemic to India, (Maharashtra) (14) Vembanad (Kerala); (15)
namely Rhizophora annamalayana occurring in Nicobar.
Pitchavaram, Tamil Nadu and Heritira A National Mangrove Genetic Resource Cen-
benikensis which exists only in Bhitarkanika of tre in Orissa has been established.
Orissa. The additional 15 mangrove centres are: (1)
Sunderbans, West Bengal have been included Subarnekha, (2) Devi, and (3) Dhamra-all in
in the World List of Biosphere Reserves by Orissa; (4) Ramnad in Tamil Nadu, (5) Dakshin
UNESCO. It represents the largest stretch of Kannada (Karnataka), (6) Devgarh
mangroves in India. (Maharashtra), (7) Vijaydurg, (8) Veldur, (9)
Throughout the country, the mangrove areas Kundlika, (10) Revdanada, (11) Mumbra-Diva,
The Ministry has are being subjected to various threats. Their (12) Vaitrana, (13) Vasoi Manori, (14)
established a National survival is being threatened by felling, graz- Shreevardhan-Varal-Turmbadi-all in Mahara-
Mangrove Genetic ing, reclamation, urban development, industri- shtra and (15) Puducherry.
Resources Centre in alization and mining. Thus effective Suggestions
Orissa. Two mangrove programme and regulated management plans Throughout the country, the mangrove areas
species are endemic to with community participation is the pre-req- are being subjected to various threats. Their
India. One species is
uisite for the protection and maintenance of this survival is being threatened by felling, graz-
Rhizophora annamal-
ayana, occurring in
Bio-shield. This will provide the human genre ing, reclamation, urban development, industri-
Pichavaram in Tamil a safe coastal life and economic prosperity at alization and mining.
Nadu. present and ensure for the future. Thus effective programme and regulated man-
They stabilise the shoreline and act as a bul- agement plans with community participation
wark against encroachments by the sea. is the pre-requisite for the protection and main-
The mangroves in India comprise 69 species tenance of this Bio-shield. This will provide the
under 42 genera and 28 families. human genre a safe coastal life and economic
The Ministry has established a National prosperity at present and ensure for the future.
Mangrove Genetic Resources Centre in The National Green Tribunal Bill, 2009: The
Orissa. Two mangrove species are endemic to National Green Tribunal (NGT) Bill, 2009 was
India. One species is Rhizophora annamal-ayana, introduced in the Lok Sabha on 31st July, 2009.
occurring in Pichavaram in Tamil Nadu. The Bill provides for the establishment of a
Another species in Heritiera kanikensis that National Environment Tribunal for the effec-
exists only in Bhitarkanika, Orissa. tive and expeditious disposal of cases relating
Areas identified: By July 2003, 32 Mangrove to environmental protection and conservation
areas have been identified. Ganga, Mahanadi, of forests and other natural resources includ-
Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery as well as the ing enforcement of any legal right relating to
IUCN, International Andaman and Nicobar Islands. environment and giving relief and compensa-
Union for Conservation Total area covered: It is estimated at about 6,700 tion for damages to persons and property.
of Nature, helps the sq. km., which constitutes about 7 per cent of IUCN
world find pragmatic the world’s mangroves. Sunderbans is the larg- IUCN, International Union for Conservation of
solutions to our most est with 4,200 sq.km, Andaman & Nicobar Is- Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solu-
pressing environment lands account for an additional 1,200 sq. Km., tions to our most pressing environment and
and development
while small patches are found in Andhra development challenges. It supports scientific
Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, research, manages field projects all over the
Maharas-htra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu. world and brings governments, non-govern-

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ment organizations, United Nations agencies, to understand these curious animals of the
Ecology companies and local communities together to oceans, the role they play in the food web of
develop and implement policy, laws and best the marine ecosystems, their migratory routes
The Government of practice. and aggregations. Besides, meeting our inter-
India was the first IUCN is the world’s oldest and largest global national obligations on the protection and con-
country in South Asia environmental network - a democratic mem- servations of marine mammals, it is possible to
to join IUCN as a state bership union with more than 1,000 govern- develop profitable benign ecotourism ventures
member in 1969. It is ment and NGO member organizations, and al- surrounding these intelligent and friendly crea-
also the first and the most 11,000 volunteer scientists in more than tures of the oceans. The study indicates that the
only country in the
160 countries. areas around Kanyakumari, Cochin – Calicut,
region to host the
General Assembly of
IUCN’s work is supported by more than 1,000 off Visakhapatnam and south of Sri Lanka, have
IUCN in 1969. professional staff in 60 offices and hundreds of maximum abundance and diversity, and have
partners in public, NGO and private sectors the potential for developing ecotourism.
around the world. The Union’s headquarters World Heritage Convention: India is a mem-
are located in Gland, near Geneva, Switzerland. ber of World Heritage Convention responsible
IUCN was founded in 1948 as the world’s first for listing of World Heritage Sites, which in-
global environmental organization and has clude both Cultural and natural sites. The
Official Observer Status at the United Nations World Heritage Convention is a Convention
General Assembly. under the aegis of the United Nations Educa-
The Government of India was the first country tional, Scientific & Cultural Organization
in South Asia to join IUCN as a state member (UNESCO).
in 1969. It is also the first and the only country Wildlife wing of the Ministry of Environment
in the region to host the General Assembly of & Forests is associated with conservation of the
Marine mammals IUCN in 1969. At present there are twenty two Natural World Heritage sites.
such as whales, members of IUCN in India including the Min- Currently, five natural World Heritage Sites
dolphins, porpoise and
istry of Environment & Forests, National Board have been recognized by UNESCO in India viz,
sea cow are important
component of marine
for Wildlife, Wildlife Institute of India, Nanda Devi National Park, Kaziranga National
ecosystems. From the Dehradun the Govind Ballabh Pant Institute for Park, Manas National Park, Keoladeo National
Indian Ocean, 26 Himalayan Studies, Almora and Indian Insti- Park and Sundarbans National Park, apart from
species of marine tute of Forest Management, Bhopal. these, the Valley of Flowers National Park has
mammals have been Marine Mammal Atlas also been included in the list of World Heri-
reported so far. Marine Marine mammals such as whales, dolphins, tage Sites as an extension to Nanda Devi Na-
mammals are porpoise and sea cow are important component tional Park.
migratory in nature and
of marine ecosystems. From the Indian Ocean, Four new natural heritage sites viz, Western
play a key role in the
marine food web.
26 species of marine mammals have been re- Ghats cluster, Kangchendzonga National Park,
ported so far. Marine mammals are migratory Namdhapha National Park and Wild Ass Sanc-
in nature and play a key role in the marine food tuary, Little Rann of Kutch have been included
web. Many of them are highly intelligent and in the tentative list of World Heritage Sites. The
can be trained to perform different tasks. Inci- Ministry of Environment & Forests has for-
dental catches in fishing gear have drastically warded the detailed nomination dossiers for
reduced the populations of these wonderful listing of Western Ghats Cluster Sites to the
creatures of the world oceans. Considering their World Heritage Sites, to the UNESCO.
threatened status, many international bodies India had represented in the 33rd Session of
such as International Whaling Commission the World Heritage Committee that was held
(IWC), United Nation’s Environment at Seville, Spain from 22nd to 30th June 2009.
Environment Programme (UNEP) and International Union International Whaling Commission: The In-
Pollution (Prevention for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are taking ternational Whaling Commission (IWC) was set
Control) Authority for measures to protect, conserve and manage the up under the International Commission for the
the National Capital marine mammals. The IWC, in 1979, declared Regulation of Whaling which was signed in
Region, National
the Indian Ocean as a sanctuary for whales. Washington on 2nd December 1946. The pur-
Environment Appellate
Authority (NEAA) and
Countries such as Canada, Hawaii and Thai- pose of the Convention is to provide for con-
Loss of Ecology land have developed benign ecotourism ven- servation of whale stocks. India has been a
(Prevention and tures on marine mammals found in their EEZ. member of the International Whaling Commis-
Payments of Compen- However, information on the distributional pat- sion since 1981 and has played a pro-active and
sation) Authority for the terns, species diversity, abundance and genetic prominent role in bringing about a moratorium
State of Tamil Nadu diversity are scanty from the Indian EEZ. on commercial whaling and supporting the
continued to function The project was executed by the Central Ma- Commission in its efforts towards whale con-
during the year.
rine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi. This is servation. The 61st Annual meeting of the In-
the first comprehensive study on marine mam- ternational Whaling Commission was held in
mals from the Indian EEZ which will help us Madeira, Portugal from 22nd to 26th June 2009.

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 82 Civil Services

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POLLUTION CONTROL 2009-10 the year.

Ecology Environment Pollution (Prevention Control) The implementation of the Waste Minimiza-
Authority for the National Capital Region, Na- tion Scheme has helped in identifying the pol-
The Eco-cities tional Environment Appellate Authority luting small and medium industries, evaluat-
Project aims at (NEAA) and Loss of Ecology (Prevention and ing the causes of pollution and facilitating them
improving the existing Payments of Compensation) Authority for the to adopt cleaner production practices leading
environment and at State of Tamil Nadu continued to function dur- to preventive strategies. It has also provided a
changing those ing the year. platform for creating awareness amongst the
aspects that are During the year, the Ministry recognized 14 small and medium industries for adopting
causing environment
environmental laboratories in various places of simple waste minimization principle.
damage. The focus of
the project includes
the country under Environment (Protection) Studies have been initiated for the collection
protection of environ- Act, 2006. of baseline data regarding mercury levels on
mental resources like With a view to initiate policy measures and different components of environment includ-
water bodies, forests to prepare ambient air quality management ing toxicological, bio-accumulation and its
etc., improving plans, 321 Air Quality Monitoring Stations are health impacts. These studies are being carried
infrastructure and operational covering twenty five States and out by National Institute of Occupational
sanitary conditions in four Union Territories for control of air pollu- Health, Ahemdabad; Industrial Toxicological
the towns and creating
tion. Research Centre, Lucknow; Central Pollution
aesthetic environs.
Keeping in view the monitored data avail- Control Board and Jamia Hamdard University
able on air quality, the Hon’ble Supreme Court and National Productivity Council (NPC).
in its various judgements have identified six- Central Pollution Control Board is executing
teen cities namely; Hyderabad, Patna, a nation-wide programme of ambient air qual-
Ahemdabad, Faridabad, Jharia, Bangalore, ity monitoring known as National Air Quality
Pune, Mumbai, Sholapur, Jodhpur, Chennai, Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The network
Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow, Varanasi and Kolkata consists of 326 monitoring stations covering 116
as equal to or more polluted than Delhi for cities/towns in 28 States and four Union Terri-
which Action Plans for improvement of air tories of the country.
Under the NAMP, quality have been drawn. Under the NAMP, four air-pollutants viz.,
four air-pollutants viz., Under the Eco City Programme, the follow- Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen as
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), ing towns have been taken to bring in visible NO2, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and
Oxides of Nitrogen as environmental improvement: Vrindavan Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter
NO2, Suspended (Uttar Pradesh); Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh); (RSPM or PM 10), have been identified for regu-
Particulate Matter Puri (Orissa); Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh); lar monitoring at all the locations.
(SPM) and Respirable
Kottayam (Kerala); Thanjavur (Tamil Parameters like Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur
Suspended Particulate
Matter (RSPM or PM
Nadu). Dioxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, Benzene, Toluene
10), have been – The Eco-cities Project aims at improving the & Xylene, Ozone, Particulate Matters (TSP &
identified for regular existing environment and at changing those PM 10) and meteorological parameters will be
monitoring at all the aspects that are causing environment damage. monitored continuously at these stations.
locations. The focus of the project includes protection of The CPCB in collaboration with concerned
environmental resources like water bodies, for- SPCBs/PCCs established a wide network of
ests etc., improving infrastructure and sanitary water quality monitoring. The present network
conditions in the towns and creating aesthetic comprises of 1019 stations in 27 States and six
environs. The Eco-city Programme has been Union Territories spread over the country. The
continued during the Eleventh Five Year Plan monitoring is done on monthly or quarterly
Period with inclusion of three more towns/cit- basis in surface waters and on half yearly basis
ies namely, Chanderi (M.P.) Sawai Madhopur in case of ground water. The monitoring net-
(Rajasthan) and Darjeeling (W.B.). The con- work covers 200 Rivers, 60 Lakes, five Tanks,
Under the Eco City cerned Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and the State three Ponds, three Creeks, 13 Canals, 17 Drains
Programme, the Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) have been and 321 Wells. Among the 1019 stations, 592
following towns have
asked to take further necessary action for imple- are on rivers, 65 on lakes, 17 on drains, 13 on
been taken to bring in
visible environmental
mentation of various projects under this canals, five on tank, three on creeks, three on
improvement: programme. pond and 321 are groundwater stations.
Vrindavan (Uttar Under the Development and Promotion of Groundwater quality was monitored at 15
Pradesh); Tirupati Cleaner Technology Scheme, The Life Cycle major cities in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and
(Andhra Pradesh); Puri Assessment (LCA) Study in four cement plants Chhattisgarh states selecting five cities in each
(Orissa); Ujjain namely, Ambuja Cement, Kodinar, Distt state. Samples were collected from tube wells,
(Madhya Pradesh); Junagarh, Gujarat, ACC, Bilaspur, Himachal hand pumps and open wells, two locations in
Kottayam (Kerala);
Pradesh, Rajshree Cement, Gulbarga, each category covering residential areas, indus-
Thanjavur (Tamil
Karnataka and Ultratech Cements, Raipur, trial areas and municipal waste dumpsites in
Chattisgarh were completed during each city.

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The Central Pollution Control Board pre- the country, the rules state.
Ecology pared and published an Indicative Operational 7. Further, the stakeholders shall be liable for
Guidelines on Utilization of Plastics in Road any damage caused to the environment or hu-
The MoEF is the Construction. The revised Guidelines for evalu- man health including third parties due to im-
nodal agency for the ation and recognition of Environmental Labo- proper handling and disposal of e-waste.
management and ratories have been approved for implementa- 8. They shall inform the authorities of such
control of hazardous tion in the 135th Board meeting of CPCB. damage and undertake to reinstate or restore
substances like Draft Procedure for Monitoring Ambient the damage at their cost, failing which they shall
chemicals, waste and Noise Level due to Aircrafts, has been prepared be liable to pay the entire cost of remediation
by CPCB considering prevalent noise monitor- or restoration of the environment.
ing procedure practiced internationally and 9. Even the consumers shall be liable to deposit
also based on the results of the detailed noise the e-waste with an authorised dealer or col-
monitoring conducted in and around IGI In- lection centre, failing which they shall be liable
ternational Airport by CPCB. The objective of to pay a fine as specified for violation of the
this document is to specify suitable require- provision.
ments and procedures for airport authorities Vaious Acts
to carry out monitoring ambient noise level due It is estimated that India produces some 3.8 lakh
to aircrafts around airports. tonnes of e-waste annually.
Hazardous Waste Management The following rules have been notified un-
The MoEF is the nodal agency for the manage- der the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986: (a)
ment and control of hazardous substances like Manufacture, storage and import of hazardous
chemicals, waste and micro-organisms. chemicals, 1989; (b) Hazardous Wastes (Man-
The producer of The main provisions of draft E-waste (Manage- agement and Handling) Rules, 1989; (c) Manu-
electronic goods ment and Handling) Rules 2010, are: facture, use, import, export and storage of haz-
including household 1. The producer of electronic goods including ardous micro-organisms/genetically-engi-
appliances, computers,
household appliances, computers, toys and neered organisms or cells, 1989; and (d) Bio-
toys and medical
equipment shall be
medical equipment shall be liable for collect- medical waste rules, 1998.
liable for collecting any ing any e-waste generated while manufactur- New rules titled Hazardous Wastes (Manage-
e-waste generated ing and will have to channelise it for recycling. ment, Handling and Transboundary Move-
while manufacturing In fact, the producers' responsibility will go ment) Rules, 2008 have been notified supersed-
and will have to beyond the boundaries of the manufacturing ing the earlier regulation. Recycling of e-waste
channelise it for unit. and the requirement of registration for e-waste
recycling. 2. They will set up collection centres for e-waste recyclers have been included under these Rules.
generated from `end of life' of their products in A national strategy on hazardous wastes is be-
line with the principle of `extended producer ing prepared to facilitate implementation of an
responsibility' and ensure that such e-waste is action plan for management of hazardous
channelised to a registered refurbisher. waste, and to fulfill obligations under the Basel
3. They shall also finance and organise a sys- Convention on transboundary movement of
tem to meet the costs involved in handling the hazardous waste, including their minimization,
e-waste. environmentally sound management and ac-
4. The rules moot a unique serial number or tive promotion of cleaner technologies.
individual identification code for product track- The amount of hazardous waste generated in
ing in the e-waste management system. Deal- this country is quite small in comparison to that
Nearly fifty percent ers have to make provision for collecting used of the USA, where as much as 275 million tones
of the total industrial appliances. Besides registering themselves with of hazardous waste was generated annually.
output in India is the respective State Pollution Control Boards, However, considering the fragile ecosystem
contributed by the they will have to submit details of the collected that India has (The State of India's Environ-
SMEs. They also waste annually. ment, Part I, National Overview, The Citizens
account for 60 to 65 5. Even the consumers are expected to do their Fifth Report, Centre for Science & Environment,
percent of the total
bit by ensuring that the electronic equipment 1999), even this low quantum of hazardous
industrial pollution.
According to a report
not fit for use is deposited with the dealer or wastes (around 4.4 million MTA) can cause
released by the authorised collection centre. considerable damage to natural resources if un-
Central Pollution 6. Emphasising the reduction in use of hazard- treated before releases. India's fragile ecosys-
Control Board (CPCB), ous substances (RoHS) in the manufacture of tem could be seen from the following:
Gujarat generates electrical and electronic equipment over a three- (a) Air pollution in Indian cities is highest
almost 29 per cent of year period, the rules state that producers are amongst the world;
the 62 lakh metric expected to adhere to the prescribed minimum (b) Over seventy percent of the country's sur-
tonnes of hazardous
threshold limits to using such substances. Fur- face water sources are polluted and, in large
waste generated every
ther, the import of used electrical and electronic stretches of major rivers, water is not even fit
equipment for charity shall not be allowed in for bathing; and

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(c) India has among the lowest per capita avail- gestions to the proposals contained in the draft
Ecology ability of forests in the world, which is 0.11 ha notification to finalize the notification. The new
as compared to 0.50 ha in Thailand and 0.8 ha Rules will supersede the existing Recycled Plas-
in China. tics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999 (as
The Manufacture,
Storage and Import of Nearly fifty percent of the total industrial out- amended in 2003).
Hazardous Chemical put in India is contributed by the SMEs. They Bio-Medical Waste Management: The Minis-
(MSIHC) Rules, 1989 also account for 60 to 65 percent of the total try has notified the Bio-Medical Waste (Man-
and the Chemical industrial pollution. According to a report re- agement & Handling) Rules, 1998 (BMW Rules)
Accident (Emergency leased by the Central Pollution Control Board under the provisions of Environment (Protec-
Planning, Prepared- (CPCB), Gujarat generates almost 29 per cent tion) Act, 1986 for proper management and han-
ness and Response) of the 62 lakh metric tonnes of hazardous waste dling of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) generated
Rules, 1996 are the
generated every year. It is followed by in the country. Under these Rules, the wastes
main instruments for
ensuring chemical Maharashtra (25 per cent) and Andhra Pradesh generated by Health Care Establishments
safety in the country. (9 per cent). (HCEs) have been categorized into 10 catego-
Chemical Safety: The Manufacture, Storage ries and treatment & disposal methods
and Import of Hazardous Chemical (MSIHC) for each of these categories of wastes have been
Rules, 1989 and the Chemical Accident (Emer- specified. The status of implementation of these
gency Planning, Preparedness and Response) rules is being regularly monitored by the re-
Rules, 1996 are the main instruments for en- spective State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs)
suring chemical safety in the country. There are and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) of
The Ministry has one thousand eight hundred forty one MAH Union Territories.
notified the Bio- units in the country, located in two hundred A central control room has been set up in the
Medical Waste ninety two districts in twenty six States/UTs Ministry to deal with emergencies arising from
(Management & (twenty three States & three UT’s) of the coun- hazardous chemicals and a Crisis Alert System
Handling) Rules, 1998 try. A “GIS based Emergency Planning and has been established.
(BMW Rules) under Response System” for chemical accidents in Emergency Response Centres have been set
the provisions of Major Accident Hazard (MAH) units has been up at Bhopal, Baroda, Manali and Khapali.
Environment (Protec-
developed. A sub-scheme entitled ‘Industrial Pocket-
tion) Act, 1986 for
proper management Management of Plastic Wastes: These are lit- wise Hazard Analysis’ has been in operation
and handling of Bio- tered around and if not collected systematically since the 8th Five-Year Plan. Hazard analysis
Medical Waste (BMW) may find their way into the drainage system studies of 37 industrial pockets have since been
generated in the resulting in choking of drains, creating unhy- completed.
country. gienic environment and causing health prob- A Public Liability Insurance Act has been
lems. The Ministry has notified the Recycled enacted to provide immediate relief to the vic-
Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999 tims of accidents by hazardous chemical indus-
under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 tries.
and amended them in 2003 for regulating and A scheme on National Register of Potentially
managing plastic carry bags and containers. Toxic Chemicals (NRPTC) has been started for
After extensive consultations with stakehold- setting up the basic infrastructure for imple-
The National Green ers, the Ministry has now notified the draft Plas- menting the London guidelines for the ex-
Tribunal has officially tics (Manufacture, Usage & Waste Manage- change of information on chemicals in interna-
been notified by the ment) Rules, 2009 and invited objections/ sug- tional trade, including the procedure for prior
Chairperson of the
Tribunal, Justice
Lokeshwar Singh
Panta. Justice Panta,
The National Green Tribunal launched
who took charge of his The National Green Tribunal has officially been notified by the Chairperson of the Tribunal,
office on October 18th, Justice Lokeshwar Singh Panta. Justice Panta, who took charge of his office on October 18th,
2010, served as a 2010, served as a justice of the Supreme Court of India from February 3rd 2006 to April 22nd
justice of the Supreme 2009 and has had an illustrious record of practice spanning almost four decades specialising in
Court of India from
Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, Civil and Labour Law, Criminal Law and Taxation
February 3rd 2006 to
April 22nd 2009 and matters.
has had an illustrious The National Green Tribunal marks the first time a tribunal exclusively dedicated to environ-
record of practice mental issues has been set up. This Body, established by an Act of Parliament (being the Na-
spanning almost four tional Green Tribunal Act of 2010) will have circuit benches across the country to try all mat-
decades specialising in ters related to and arising out of environmental issues.
Constitutional Law, The Tribunal which shall also consist of members who are experts in the field of environmen-
Administrative Law, tal and related sciences, has been empowered to issue directions for the compensation and
Civil and Labour Law,
restitution of damage caused from actions of environmental negligence. In doing so, this is the
Criminal Law and
Taxation matters. first body of its kind that is required by its parent statute, to apply the polluter pays principle
and the principle of sustainable development.
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 85 Civil Services
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informed consent. are bearing the brunt of climate change impacts.

Climate Nine Regional Registers (RRPTC) have been It is a global responsibility to help these people
Change set up in UP, MP, Gujarat, Kerala, HP, Punjab adapt.
and Maharashtra. The world has a wide range of solutions that
A National Poison Information Centre has will help combat climate change. Protecting and
Since 1900, the
been set up in AIIMS. better managing our natural resources is a cost-
average global
temperature has The Ministry has constituted a National effective and efficient way to stabilize green-
increased by 0.74°C. Waste Management Council to suggest ways house gas emissions while we make the transi-
Humans are further and means for effective utilization of wastes tion to a sustainable, low-carbon world in the
changing the climate generated in the country. coming decades. Natural resources can also
by their actions, A pilot project on Municipal Solid Waste help us adapt to the impacts of climate change
especially through Management has been sanctioned to the we are already facing. It is an opportunity we
emissions of green- Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. cannot afford to pass up.
house gases,
A high-powered committee on hazardous According to the IPCC, if global average tem-
particularly carbon
dioxide (CO2) which wastes has been constituted to oversee the strict peratures exceed 2°C there will be irreversible
artificially warms the implementation of the rules and regulations. impacts on water, ecosystems, food, coastal
earth’s atmosphere. A notification has been issued banning im- zones and human health. We have a 50% chance
The burning of fossil port of wastes containing Beryllium, Selenium, of avoiding a 2°C warming if we stabilize green-
fuels is largely to Chromium (Hexavalent), Thallium, Pesticides, house gases at 450 ppm CO2 eq (parts per mil-
blame. Herbicides and insecticides as well as Waste lion carbon dioxide equivalent). Recent evi-
Asbestos (dust and fibre), waste containing dence suggests even more rapid change, which
PCB, PCT and PBB. will greatly, and in some case irreversibly, af-
The Basel Convention on hazardous wastes fect not just people, but also species and eco-
India is a Party to the Basel Convention on systems. This means we must start radically
transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. reducing emissions now and stay on a low
The world has a The basic objectives of the Basel Convention are emissions pathway to avoid increasing the
wide range of solutions for the control and reduction of transboundary amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
that will help combat movements of hazardous and other wastes sub- Impact:
climate change. ject to the Convention, prevention and mini- Sea levels rose 20 cm last century
Protecting and better
mization of their generation, environmentally Glaciers, snow cover and sea ice are all de-
managing our natural
resources is a cost- sound management of such wastes and for ac- clining
effective and efficient tive promotion of the transfer and use of cleaner We are experiencing more heat-waves,
way to stabilize technologies. droughts and extreme rainfall and more intense
greenhouse gas tropical cyclones
emissions while we Climate Change Global temperature could rise by as much as

make the transition to ince 1900, the average global tempera 6.4°C by the end of the century
a sustainable, low- ture has increased by 0.74°C. Humans Up to 30% of plant and animal species could
carbon world in the
are further changing the climate by their go extinct if the global temperature increase
coming decades.
actions, especially through emissions of green- exceeds 1.5-2.5°C.
house gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2) Arctic sea ice could disappear altogether dur-
which artificially warms the earth’s atmo- ing the summer by the second half of this cen-
sphere. The burning of fossil fuels is largely to tury.
blame. Crop yields in tropical zones could signifi-
Climate change will increasingly cause storms, cantly decrease with even a modest (1-2°C) tem-
Global Warming droughts, floods and fires and have a severe perature increase.
(GW) is a phenom-
enon in which the
impact on food production, water availability One in six countries in the world faces food
lower atmosphere and ecosystems such as forests and wetlands. shortages each year because of severe droughts
traps more terrestrial A major concern is how rapid climate change that could become semi-permanent under cli-
radiation and thus the will magnify existing environmental stresses mate change.
mean global tempera- and contribute to food insecurity, conflict over The overall costs and risks of climate change
ture of the earth rises resources, and loss of livelihood for millions of will be equivalent to losing up to 20% of global
beyond 14o C. Global people. GDP each year, while the costs of action now
warming takes place Certain regions will be worse affected than oth- can be limited to around 1% of global GDP each
because of rise in the
ers. Global warming is expected to be greatest year.
concentration of gases
known as green house over land and at high northern latitudes. The Global Warming (GW)
gases namely-water Arctic, Sub Saharan Africa, small islands and It is a phenomenon in which the lower atmo-
vapour, CO2, CH4, the big river deltas of Asia will be most seri- sphere traps more terrestrial radiation and thus
oxides of Nitrogen and ously affected. the mean global temperature of the earth rises
man-made gases, like Those least responsible for global emissions, the beyond 14o C. Global warming takes place be-
CFCs. poor and vulnerable in developing countries, cause of rise in the concentration of gases

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
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known as green house gases namely-water According to a report released by World Bank
Climate vapour, CO2, CH4, oxides of Nitrogen and man- has indicated that China is far ahead of India
Change made gases, like CFCs. in terms of carbon credit business. China has
Among these gases, CO2 is primarily respon- become the world leader in the carbon credit
sible for GW. The current global trend in de- business with a market share of 73 per cent in
The United Nations forestation along with rise in fossil fuel com- the volume of credits traded in 2007 as com-
Framework Conven- bustion is leading to rise in CO2 concentration pared to India's 6 per cent.
tion on Climate
in the lower atmosphere. In 1957, CO2 concen- Carbon credits are generated under the Clean
Change in 1992
commonly known as tration was 311 ppmv. It rose to 340 ppmv in Development Mechanism, mandated by the
the Kyoto Protocol. 1990 and was at 370 ppmv in 2000. UN, where developed countries having green-
Intense geopolitical Climatic Expediencies: house gas emission reduction targets offset
stalemate persisted till The recent natural disasters have indicated that them by funding clean technology in develop-
2005 when the treaty the ODS and global warming has reached a ing nations. In return, they earn the credits that
finally came into force point of no return. The recent floods and fire in they can use to set off their reduction targets.
but without US and USA has also signaled that situation is going Causes For Climatic Change
Australian support.
out of control. Fears of global warming are not Industrialisation: Industrial production is re-
Treaty aims to achieve
GHG emission targets unfounded; models have predicted an average sponsible for 57 per cent of all CO emissions.
below 1990 levels by global temperature rise of up to 5.8°C by 2100. Largest quantities of CO emitted by energy
2008-2012, initially A widespread catastrophe is in sight as ice producers and energy-intensive industries.
exempting developing sheets deplete; raising the sea level by up to New filtration technologies could reduce CO
nations of this 88cm. Associated perils of extreme weather emissions by 30 to 50 per cent. Since the indus-
obligation. conditions like storms, floods, droughts are trial revolution amounts have increased by 30
aplenty. per cent. Other greenhouse gases include Meth-
The United Nations Framework Convention on ane, Nitrous oxide, CFC’s (manmade) and
Climate Change in 1992 commonly known as Ozone. One major problem is that these gases
the Kyoto Protocol. Intense geopolitical stale- can remain in the atmosphere for decades.
mate persisted till 2005 when the treaty finally Fossil Fuel: The combustion of fossil fuels re-
came into force but without US and Australian leases approximately 24 billion tonnes of car-
support. Treaty aims to achieve GHG emission bon dioxide into the atmosphere each year, and
targets below 1990 levels by 2008-2012, initially the net result of these two opposing processes
exempting developing nations of this obliga- has been a 26 per cent increase of this gas in the
Agriculture sector is
tion. Till date, over 170 countries have ratified atmosphere since the start of the Industrial
a huge source of
methane and nitrous to save the world with recent most ratification Revolution. Currently, the atmospheric carbon
oxide, and responsible by Australia. Vatican joined this movement, dioxide concentration is rising at about 0.4 per
for 15 per cent of with the Pope declaring environmental pollu- cent per annum, and this rise is caused almost
worldwide greenhouse tion, besides drugs, genetic manipulations etc., entirely by the combustion of fossil fuels (coal,
gas emissions. as one of seven most deadly sins. With little oil and natural gas).
Climate-friendly pecuniary controls, especially surrounding Vehicles: 27 per cent of all man-made CO2
agricultural manage- cross-border issues, these baby steps are turn- emissions are transportation related. 750 mil-
ment (i.e. organic
ing out to be like tooth-less tiger in midst of lion cars world emit a total of approx. 2.25 bil-
farming) could reduce
emissions significantly. global menace. lion tons of CO2 each year.
Development of environmental financial mar- Agriculture: Agriculture sector is a huge source
kets can be traced to late 1980s with success of of methane and nitrous oxide, and responsible
Montreal protocol and US emissions trading for 15 per cent of worldwide greenhouse gas
schemes in limiting CFCs and acid rain emis- emissions. Climate-friendly agricultural man-
sions. Emission Trading involves economic ex- agement (i.e. organic farming) could reduce
change of allowances and reduction credits to emissions significantly.
enable entities meet their GHG emission tar- Power Plants: In 2002 about 40 per cent of U.S.
gets through a cost on emissions and value on carbon dioxide emissions stem from the burn-
reductions. ing of fossil fuels for the purpose of electricity
 In 2002 about 40 Worth of global carbon markets in 2007 almost generation. Coal accounts for 93 percent of the
per cent of U.S. carbon doubled compared to 2006 with EU Emission emissions from the electric utility industry. Coal
dioxide emissions Trading System emerging as largest operational emits around 1.7 times as much carbon per unit
stem from the burning trading scheme. The primary CDM market in- of energy when burned as does natural gas and
of fossil fuels for the creased marginally by 25 per cent compared to 1.25 times as much as oil.
purpose of electricity
a 10-fold increase in the secondary CDM mar- Deforestation: After carbon emissions caused
generation. Coal
accounts for 93 ket. China has emerged as a clear front-runner by humans, deforestation is the second prin-
percent of the in CDM while share of other BRIC nations re- ciple cause of atmospheric carbon dioxide. De-
emissions from the mains fluctuating - India's contribution dipped forestation is responsible for 25 per cent of all
electric utility industry. half to 6 per cent in 2007. carbon emissions entering the atmosphere, by

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ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

the burning and cutting of about 34 million Rise in sea levels due to melting glaciers and
Climate acres of trees each year. thermal expansion of oceans as global tempera-
Change Buildings: Buildings structure account for tures rise.
about 12 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions. Release of greenhouse gases from melting
METHANE permafrost and dying forests.
GW is likely to Methane is second most important. According A high risk of more extreme weather events
increase the melting of to the IPCC, Methane is more than 20 times as such as heat waves, droughts and floods. Glo-
polar ice-caps as a
effective as CO2 at trapping heat in the atmo- bal incidence of drought has doubled over the
result which the sea
level may rise. GW sphere. Levels of atmospheric methane have past 30 years.
may cause the world risen 145 per cent in the last 100 years. Meth- Natural systems, including glaciers, coral
temperature to rise by ane is derived from sources such as rice pad- reefs, mangroves, arctic ecosystems, alpine eco-
4.5 to 5oC by 2050; as dies, bovine flatulence, bacteria in bogs and systems, boreal forests, tropical forests, prairie
a result nearly 100 fossil fuel production. wetlands and mative grasslands, will be se-
living areas of the NITROUS OXIDE verely threatened.
earth will submerge Another greenhouse gas is Nitrous oxide (N2O), More species are likely to be wiped off the
into the sea. It is
a colourless, non-flammable gas with a sweet- face of the Earth and the risk of biodiversity
estimated that by 2080
nearly 1/3 rd of the ish odour, commonly known as “laughing gas”, loss will be worse.
bio-diversity will go and sometimes used as an anaesthetic. Nitrous The greatest impact will be on poorer coun-
under the sea. oxide is naturally produced by oceans and tries who are least able to protect themselves
rainforests. Man-made sources of nitrous ox- from rising sea levels, spread of disease and
ide include nylon and nitric acid production, decline in agricultural production.
the use of fertilisers in agriculture, cars with Long term effects
catalytic converters and the burning of organic Melting Ice Sheets: Unless checked, warm-
matter. Nitrous oxide is broken down in the ing from emissions may trigger the irreversible
atmosphere by chemical reactions that involve meltdown of the Greenland ice sheet in the
sunlight. coming decades.
Effects of global warming Rising Sea Level: High tides are higher than
GW is likely to increase the melting of polar before. Over the last 100 years, the level of the
ice-caps as a result which the sea level may rise. sea has rise by about 6-8 inches worldwide.
GW may cause the world temperature to rise Human Health: Climate change can affect
by 4.5 to 5oC by 2050; as a result nearly 100 liv- people's health. For instance, heat stress and
ing areas of the earth will submerge into the other heat-related health problems are caused
Water pollution is the sea. It is estimated that by 2080 nearly 1/3 rd of by very warm temperatures and high humid-
main cause; municipal the bio-diversity will go under the sea. ity.
sludges, drainage of The warm water will form a lid over the sur- Changing Ecological Systems: Climate
insecticides, pesticides face of the sea and thus it will prevent the stir- change can alter the world's habitats and eco-
and fertilizers in the ring up of the oceans. This will seriously affect systems.
rivers, river bed the recycling of the marine resources. The pho- Tell-tale evidence of GW
siltation, etc. tosynthesis activity in the marine plants is likely The Larsen effect: The shelf in the northern-
to be affected and thus there will be great bio- most tip of Antarctica experienced a huge crack
logical damage due to deficiency of O2 in the in 1995 and ice shields started drifting into
oceans. The tropical regions will be most af- South sea exposing the sea beneath to ice
fected. Fish population will migrate towards shields. For the first time in 20,000 years, this
the pole. will set in the cascading effect leading to melt-
Due to increased evaporation rate, precipi- ing of more polar ice-caps.
tation will be frequent. However, it will not be The EL-Nino appears more frequently and
evenly distributed which may lead to storms with greater intensity since 1980s. Large de-
and floods in certain parts of the world. The struction of coral-reefs was observed in the last
rain- fall pattern of the earth will be disturbed; EL-Nino in 1998.
established farming region may receive less Summers are becoming increasingly hotter
rain fall and arid and semi-arid regions may since 1990s.
receive more rainfall. This may force human Some other causative factors
The EL-Nino migration, unprecedently in the history of man- for environmental degradation
appears more kind. Human migration is likely to disturb the Water pollution is the main cause; munici-
frequently and with established social, political and economical pal sludges, drainage of insecticides, pesticides
greater intensity since
structures of many countries. and fertilizers in the rivers, river bed siltation,
1980s. Large
destruction of coral- Rise in temperature will directly affect the etc.
reefs was observed in soil and river basins which are also very sensi- Soil pollution due to scientific farming and
the last EL-Nino in tive to the climatic changes. denundation of the green cover, leads to loss
1998. Early Implications: of top soil through erosion.

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 88 Civil Services

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Air pollution due to emission of CH4, SO2, lection of species of trees and it could not pre-
Climate and other polluting gases. vent overgrazing, cutting of young trees, etc.
Change Nuclear pollution due to release of radiations After a review Social Forestry Scheme was
and nuclear wastes which affects both soil and relaunched in 1992. Under the current phase,
water. growing eucalyptus tree has been replaced by
Since the of 19th Pollution in the normal living environment promoting local species of trees that are fast
century, ecology has due to multistoryed building, ‘sick building growing. Panchayats have been incorporated
been relevant to social
syndrome’, spray- painted plastics, fluorescent in the development and maintenance of social
and philosophical
movements related to lights, etc. forestry to ensure peoples participation.
protection of the Besides these various forms of pollutions, in- India is also receiving financial and techni-
natural environment, visible pollutions and pollution of outer space cal assistance from Norway, Denmark, Sweden,
such as are on the rise. Electro -magnetic radiations Canada, etc. for the promotion of social forestry
conservationism and from various sources, reacts with sensitive in the country.
environmentalism. bodyparts. Space-debris are also on the rise. The National Conservation Strategy and
Today ecology is a Lead poisoning is causing anaemia, malfunc- policy has been prepared and adopted by the
major political topic,
tioning in the kidneys, etc. in human beings. government of India. It is a major policy instru-
and a source of
ideology for major Some measures ment of the government. for dealing with vari-
political organizations Preservation, conservation, reforestation and ous facets of environment and development in
such as the Green afforestation could only help us out of this prob- a comprehensive manner. Besides providing a
Party and lem. Many initiatives have been taken globally perspective, this will help in devising the norms
Greenpeace. as well as at national level to protect the envi- and regulations for integration of environmen-
ronment from the scourge of degradation. tal considerations in developmental activities
Two acts have been passed for the preserva- of various sectors to achieve sustainable devel-
tion and control of air and water pollution en- opment.
forced by a Central Board assisted by states Conservation and
boards. Central Board also lays down standards Environmental Movements
for natural waters, industrial and domestic ef- Since the of 19th century, ecology has been rel-
fluents and air. evant to social and philosophical movements
Ecological Development Programme; The main related to protection of the natural environ-
In 1972, the United purpose of this programme is to regenerate ment, such as conservationism and environ-
Nations held the first environment degraded areas with peoples par- mentalism. Today ecology is a major political
international confer-
ticipation by creating general awareness. Eco- topic, and a source of ideology for major politi-
ence on human
environment in logical Development Board organizes various cal organizations such as the Green Party and
Stockholm, the agenda activities for environmental protection, stu- Greenpeace.
was prepared by Rene dents’ camps and mobilizes voluntary agencies. Ecology and Global Policy
Dubos and other Government has enacted the Environment Ecology became a central part of the World’s
experts. Protection Act 1986, it covers all types pollutions politics as early as 1971 when UNESCO
including noise and electro-magnetic radia- launched a research programme called Man and
tions. It was the first act to permit an individual Biosphere, with the objective of increasing
to sue the government for inaction. knowledge about the mutual relationship be-
New Forest Policy 1988: It states that atleast tween humans and nature. A few years later it
1/3rd of land in India shall be brought under defined the concept of Biosphere Reserve.
forest cover by bringing 60 per cent of hilly re- In 1972, the United Nations held the first in-
gions and 20 per cent of plains under forest ternational conference on human environment
cover. in Stockholm, the agenda was prepared by Rene
Ecology became a Social Forestry Scheme: Also known as ‘exten- Dubos and other experts.
central part of the sion’ or ‘community’ forestry, it was initiated This conference was the origin of the phrase
World’s politics as
by UNDP in 1978. It aims to provide food, fod- “Think Globally, Act Locally”. The next major
early as 1971 when
UNESCO launched a der, fuel, fertilizer and fibre to population liv- events in ecology were the development of the
research programme ing closer to forests so that they do not turn concept of biosphere and the appearance of
called Man and towards the forest reserves. For this purpose terms “biological diversity” (or now more com-
Biosphere, with the government of India is aiming to bring monly biodiversity) in the 1980s.
objective of increasing panchayat land, fallow lands and other gov- These terms were emphasised upon at the
knowledge about the ernment lands under the social forestry in or- Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, where
mutual relationship der to meet the demands of local people. The the concept of the biosphere was recognized
between humans and
scheme seeks to incorporate the local popula- by the major international organizations, and
nature. A few years
later it defined the tion in various activities for the growth of so- risks associated with reductions in biodiversity
concept of Biosphere cial forestry. This scheme was unable to give were publicly acknowledged.
Reserve. the required results because; it could not en- Again in 1997, the dangers which the bio-
sure the participation of people, unscientific se- sphere was facing were recognized from an in-

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ternational point of view at the conference lead- boundary and health consequence of pollution.
ALBA ing to the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, this con- The UNEP Council/Forum has organised its
The Bolivarian Alliance ference highlighted the increasing dangers of 11th Special Session at Bali, Indonesia from 24-
for the Peoples of Our the greenhouse effect — related to the increas- 26 February, 2010.
America (Spanish: ing concentration of greenhouse gases in the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and
Alianza Bolivariana para atmosphere, leading to global changes in cli- forest Degradation (REDD)
los Pueblos de Nuestra mate. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and
América, or ALBA) is an
In Kyoto, most of the world’s nations recog- Forest Degradation (REDD) is an approach to
international coopera-
tion organization based nized the importance of looking at ecology from achieving reductions in global greenhouse gas
on the idea of social, po- a global point of view, on a worldwide scale, emissions that is currently under negotiation
litical, and economic in- and took into account the impact of humans at the United Nations Framework Convention
tegration between the on the Earth’s environment. on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD-plus in-
countries of Latin Replacement of ODS cludes: Reducing emissions from deforestation
America and the Carib- HCFC-22 (hydro CFC): With addition of hy- and forest degradation and the role of conser-
bean. The name initially drogen, it is more unstable and do not break in vation, sustainable management of forests and
contained "Alternative"
lower atoms itself and gets absorbed. It causes enhancement of forest carbon stocks in devel-
instead of "Alliance", but
was changed on June less damage to ozone layer (1/10th than that by oping countries. A REDD mechanism with ro-
24, 2009. ALBA also CFC) bust environmental and social safeguards could
means "dawn" in Span- HFC-134A (Hydro Fluoro Carbon): It is a re- offer an effective climate abatement strategy,
ish. ALBA nations are in placement of CFC. It is totally ozone-friendly provided it is linked to a post-2012 climate
the process of introduc- but is expensive, inflammable and toxic. It is agreement with strong binding CO2 emission
ing a new regional cur- also a powerful GHG. reduction targets for industrialized nations.
rency, the SUCRE. It is Hydrocarbons: Butane and propane; they After the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in
intended to be the com-
can be replacements for CFCs. They can be used 1997, the UNFCCC agreed on a limited role of
mon virtual currency by
2010 and eventually a as refrigerants in AC and refrigerators. They forests as carbon sinks for the first commitment
hard currency. are cheap and readily available, environment period. Forests in developing countries were
It was established in friendly but flammable and poisonous. only included in the Clean Development
2004 by Cuba and Ven- Ammonia: Cheap and simple alternative to Mechanism. The 2001 Marrekesh Accords
ezuela. The 9 members CFC but they are corrosive and have to be stipulated that in the context of forest-related
are: 1. Antigua and handled carefully. mitigation only afforestation and reforestation
Barbuda; 2. Bolivia; 3. Environment Impact Assessment projects under the CDM. REDD differs in that
Cuba; 4. Dominica; 5.
As part of the present regulations layed out un- it focuses on possibilities to reduce emissions
Ecuador; 6. Honduras;
7. Nicaragua; 8. Saint der the Environment Impact Assessment Noti- from deforestation and forest degradation as
Vincent and the Grena- fication (EIA), 1994, the Ministry of Environ- well as the capacity of forests to conserve car-
dines; and 9. Venezuela ment and Forests ‘if deemed necessary’ can con- bon. REDD-plus thus also includes conserva-
Observer states Ob- sult a committee of experts. Thereby, relevant tion, the sustainable management of forests and
server states of the documents including project reports, Environ- the enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
organisation include ment Impact Assessments and so on are as- UNCED, Earth Summit
Haiti, Iran and Uruguay. sessed by one of the seven Expert Committees A landmark development in the sphere of pro-
ALBA reiterated its com-
(ECs) depending on which category they fall tection of environment took place in 1992 when
mitment to the struggle
against climate change under. These include Industrial projects, Ther- the United Nations Conference on Environment
and to the principles of mal projects, River Valley and Hydroelectric and Development was held at Rio de Janeiro.
the Kyoto Protocol, now projects, Mining projects, Nuclear Projects, In- The conference popularly known as Earth Sum-
more valid than ever, frastructure and Miscellaneous projects and mit was the largest gathering of the world lead-
whose content we con- New Construction Projects and Industrial Es- ers at that time. The conference sought to re-
sider capable of im- tates. verse environmental deterioration and estab-
provement with the de- UNEP lish the basis for a sustainable way of life into
cisions of the partici-
On the recommendations of the above men- the twenty-first century.
pants, and subsequent
accords, but something tioned Conference the United Nations Environ- Outcomes: The Summit produced two legally
that we shouldn’t allow ment Programme (UNEP) was launched with binding conventions:
to die. its headquarters at Nairobi in 1972. Purpose:  The United Nations Framework Conven-
ALBA expressed its po- The programme was expected to provide lead- tion on Climate Change (UNFCCC) under
litical desire to continue ership and encourage partnerships in caring for which the industrialised countries were re-
working in the frame- the environment without compromising for fu- quired to reduce emission of green house gases
work of the Convention ture generations. Activities: The UNEP has set that cause global warming and related atmo-
and the Kyoto Protocol.
up Global Environment Monitoring System spheric problems. It came into force in 1993.
The relaunch of these
negotiations should be (GEMS) and Global Resource Information Da-  The Convention on Biological Diversity,
based on respect, inclu- tabase (GRID), which focus on vital areas of which failed for halting the destruction of spe-
sion, transparency, and environmental concerns such as climate and at- cies, habitats and ecosystems. It came into force
legitimacy. mosphere, oceans, renewable resources, trans- in 1994.

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ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

Missions under Na- Small Grant Programme (SGP):

tional Action Plan Launched in 1992, GEF Small Grants Program
on Climate Change, (SGP) complements GEF full- and medium-
2008 (NAPCC) sized project funding, by providing a window
1. National Solar Mis- for the direct participation of NGOs, local com-
sion – to significantly in-
munities, and other grassroots organizations.
crease the share of solar
energy in the total energy SGP is a country wide, focus on the tribal, re-
mix while recognizing the mote, inaccessible areas and with Indigenous
need to expand the tribal people.
scope of other renewable Agenda 21 SGP India has funded more than 300 projects
and non-fossil options Most important outcome of the Earth Summit worth USD 5.2 million of grant and co-finance
such as nuclear energy, was adoption of Agenda 21– a comprehensive leveraged is USD 6.2 million from communi-
wind energy and biomass.
blueprint for global sustainable development. ties and other stakeholders like Govt., local ad-
2. National Mission for
Enhanced Energy Effi- The agenda made detailed recommendations ministration and private sector
ciency – to enhance en- for changing patterns of behaviour which cause Kyoto Protocol
ergy efficiency, four new ill-health in humans and stress to the environ- A Kyoto Protocol to the Climate Convention
initiatives will be put in place. ment. was adopted in December 1997. The protocol
3. National Mission on Commission on is yet to come into force. The aim of the Cli-
Sustainable Habitat – to Sustainable Development mate Change is to stabilise atmospheric con-
make human habitats
sustainable through in-
It was set up by the General Assembly of the centration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) at a safe
volvements in energy ef- United Nations at the request of the Earth Sum-
ficiency in buildings, mit. The Commission works as a subsidiary of
management of solid the Economic and Social Council. Purpose: To
waste and model shift to monitor the implementation of Agenda by gov-
public transport. ernments, business houses, NGOs and others.
4. National Water Mis-
One UNEP problem which attracted the atten-
sion – to ensure inte-
grated water resource
tion of the Commission is how to promote the
management helping to transfer of environmentally sound technology
conserve water, minimize to the developing countries and provide them
wastage and ensure with financial assistance they need to put
more equitable distribu- Agenda 21 into action.
tion both across and The 17th Session (being the Policy Session) of
within states.
the Commission on Sustainable Development
5. Nation Mission on
Sustaining Himalayan (CSD), was held from 4-15 May, 2009 in New level. States are required to give periodic re-
Habitats – to evolve York, which considered the thematic areas of ports of their level of emissions and the mea-
management measures agriculture, rural development, land, drought, sures adopted to check it.
for sustaining and safe- desertification and Africa. By 2012, developed countries would reduce
guarding the Himalayan Global Environment Facility (GEF): It was their collective emissions by 5.2 per cent from
glaciers and mountain established in 1991, as an independent finan- 1990 levels, with each country being commit-
cial mechanism provides grants to developing ted to a particular figure.
6. National Mission for
Green India – to en- countries and economies in transition for The emissions covered by the Protocol are
hance ecosystem ser- projects that benefit the global environment and not only carbon dioxide, but also methane, ni-
vices including carbon promote sustainable livelihoods. India is a trous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluoro-car-
sinks and will be taken up founder member of GEF. India is both a donor bons and sulphur hexafluoride.
on degraded land and recipient of GEF funds. India represents These commitments would be reckoned on
through direct action by GEF South Asia Constituency (including a net basis, considering sinks as well as sources,
communities, organized
through JFMCs and
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri and each country must credibly measure its
guided by the SFDs. Lanka) in GEF Council. contribution and meet its commitment.
7. National Mission on – GEF projects address six focal areas – Countries may fulfill their commitments
Sustainable Agriculture biodiversity, climate change, land degradation, jointly (such as with regional agreements) and
- to make Indian agricul- international waters, ozone layer depletion and they may improve the efficiency of compliance
ture more resilient to cli- persistent organic pollutants. They also address through “flexibility mechanisms”.
mate change.
two crosscutting issues viz., sustainable forest Montreal Protocol
8. National Mission on
Strategic Knowledge management and sound chemical manage- The international community has taken unprec-
for Climate Change – to ment. The GEF is a project cofinancer provid- edented steps to control and ultimately ban the
enlist the global commu- ing “new and additional” funds to address the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and
nity in research and tech- global environmental issues. GEF projects are other ozone depleting substances (ODS) such
nology development and implemented through its 10 agencies includ- as halons and carbon tetrachloride by the year
collaboration through ing UNDP, WB, UNEP, UNIDO, FAO, IFAD, 2000. The Vienna Convention on the Ozone
mechanisms including
ADB, AfDB, EBRD and IDB. Layer and the subsequent Montreal Protocol
open source platforms.

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on Substances that depleted the ozone layer, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands,
AOSIS adopted in 1987 and derived strength in 1990. New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
The Alliance of Small Is- The protocol stipulated a strict timetable for Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia,
land States (AOSIS) is a
phasing out CFCs and other ODS and prod- Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,
coalition of small island
and low-lying coastal ucts based on these materials. The developing Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of
countries that share countries face a formidable challenge in reform- America.
similar development ing their CFC use, as they lack the financial and Annex II Parties
challenges and con- technological means available to be developed The wealthy countries listed in this annex to
cerns about the environ- nations, they have been allowed a 10-year grace the Convention have a special obligation to help
ment, especially their period before full compliance is required of developing countries with financial and
vulnerability to the ad- them to the Montreal Protocol. The Protocol technological resources. They include
verse effects of global
provided for a multilateral fund to assist de- (developed countries which pay for costs of
climate change. It func-
tions primarily as an ad veloping countries cover their incremental costs developing countries)
hoc lobby and negotiat- in eliminating CFCs or ODS. Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
ing voice for small island Outcome of Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland,
developing States the Montreal Summit Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Nether-
(SIDS) within the United 1. The agreement set no deadline for lands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Nations system. completing that work, except to say it should Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United
AOSIS has a member- be done early enough to ensure that no gap States of America.
ship of 42 States and ob-
develops after 2012. Nevertheless, the summit (23 countries and separately the European
servers, drawn from all
oceans and regions of further cemented the commitments on targeted Union; Turkey was removed from the annex II
the world: Africa, Carib- emission reductions beyond 2012 by those list in 2001 at its request to recognize its
bean, Indian Ocean, developed countries. economy as a transition economy.)
Mediterranean, Pacific 2. The European Union will meet its Kyoto Bonn Agreements
and South China Sea. Protocol obligations to cut greenhouse gas Political deal reached at COP-6 in Bonn,
Thirty-seven are mem- emissions by 2010, two years before the global Germany, in 2001, by which governments
bers of the United Na- environment treaty’s final deadline. signed off on the most politically controversial
tions, close to 28 per
3. US favoured and called for voluntary efforts issues under the Buenos Aires Plan of Action.
cent of developing coun-
tries, and 20 percent of and bilateral and regional arrangements to Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)
the UN's total member- tackle climate change. A better scientific and The atmospheric gases responsible for causing
ship. Together, SIDS research oriented approach is needed to tackle global warming
communities constitute this problem. China, one of the world’s worst and climate
some five percent of the polluters, urged the United States to join the change. The
global population. Kyoto treaty. major GHGs are
The present chairman is 4. The Montreal conference brought US and carbon dioxide
Ambassador Dessima
other dissent members of the UNFCC into the (CO2), methane
Williams of Grenada.
Against the G-77 view international climate change agenda by (CH4) and
that CO2 (carbon diox- initiating what is called a “dialogue process”. nitrous oxide
ide) levels be limited to USA seems to agree to pursue the non-binding (N2O). Less
450 parts per million dialogue process. At the same time, USA has prevalent but
(ppm), Aosis wants this realised that further pursuance of anti-Kyoto very powerful –
set at 350 ppm. the Alli- policy may isolate them. green-house gases are hydrofluorocarbons
ance of Small Island 5. Businesses and poorer nations will gain more (HFCs), perfluo-rocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur
States (AOSIS) released
than 10 billion euro by 2012 from the hexafluoride (SF6).
a proposal for a two-pro-
tocol, legally binding out- international effort to combat climate change Entry into Force
come for the under a significant reform agreed to the Kyoto The point at which an inter-governmental
Copenhagen climate protocol. agreement becomes legally binding-occurring
summit. In their press re- Annex I Parties at a pre-stated interval after a pre-stated and
lease, the group de- The industrialized countries listed in this annex required number of ratifications by countries
scribed the proposal as to the Convention sought to return their has been achieved. The Climate Change
“designed to safeguard greenhouse-gas emissions to 1990 levels by the Convention required 50 ratifications to enter
the Earth’s climate sys-
year 2000 as per Article 4.2 (a) and (b). They into force. It now enters into force for each new
tem and to secure the fu-
ture survival of its 43 have also accepted emissions targets for the Party 90 days after that Party ratifies the
members.” period 2008-12 as per Article 3 and Annex B of Convention.
What the AOSIS pro- the Kyoto Protocol. Annex I countries Carbon Market
posal would do is essen- (industrialized countries): Australia, Austria, A popular but misleading term for a trading
tially two things: amend Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, system through which countries may buy or
the Kyoto Protocol to ex- Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, sell units of greenhouse-gas emissions in an
tend it until 2017 (it cur- France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, effort to meet their national limits on emissions,
rently is set to expire in
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, either under the Kyoto Protocol or under other
2012) and set new emis-
DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 92 Civil Services
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benefit of customs duty has been given for the

sions targets for all par-
ties; and simultaneously above purpose.
create a new IPCC
“Copenhagen Protocol,” The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
a legally binding agree- Change (IPCC) is the leading international body
ment that would “en- for the assessment of climate change. It was es-
hance implementation tablished by the United Nations Environment
of the [United Nations Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteoro-
Framework Convention
logical Organization (WMO) to provide the
on Climate Change
(UNFCCC)] in a bal- world with a clear scientific view on the cur-
anced and comprehen- rent state of knowledge in climate change and
sive manner by ad- its potential environmental and socio-economic
dressing mitigation, ad- impacts. The Inter-Governmental Panel on Cli-
aptation, technology, fi- mate Change (IPCC) has emphasised that if the
nancing and capacity- concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere are to
building support.” agreements, such as that among member states be stabilised the global emission of carbon di-
of the European Union. The term comes from oxide will have to be reduced by 60-80 per cent.
the fact that carbon dioxide is the predominant Some of the important findings of this panel
greenhouse gas and other gases are measured are:
in units called “carbon-dioxide equivalents.” Carbon dioxide has now increased by 31 per
Quantified Emissions Limitation and cent since 1750.
Reduction Commitments (QELROs) Methane concentration in the atmosphere has
Legally binding targets and timetables under increased by 150 per cent since 1750 and con-
the Kyoto Protocol for the limitation or tributes a fifth of the warming effect.
reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by Since 1950s, the lower part of the atmosphere
developed countries. has warmed at about 0.1 0C per decade.
India and Montreal Protocol Over the last century, the global average sur-
As per Montreal Protocol, the Ministry of En- face temperature has increased by about 0.6 0C.
vironment and Forest has drafted regulations United Air Fund: This model was propounded
in 1998 with the objective of phasing out CFCs by a number of groups in the Netherlands and
and other ODS. According to the regulations, reflects the criteria of ecological effectiveness,
before March 1, 2003 following products were equity responsibility and economic efficiency.
to be phased out: The fund has estimated that the long term sus-
(a) Manufacturing of aerosol products exclud- tainable level of carbon dioxide emission will
Bishnoi Tribe ing metered dose inhalers; (b) Manufacturing be about 2 tonnes per person per year. The
The Bishnoi tribe of of foam products including foam product of do- United Air Fund is a voluntary fund.
Western Rajasthan has, mestic refrigerators; and (c) Manufacturing of IPCC REPORT 2008
over the centuries, pro- mobile air conditioners. Observed changes in climate and their effects:
tected the trees and wild India was mainly producing and using nine of The report says that warming of the climate is
animals in and around the ninety five substances controlled under the unequivocal and is evident from observations
their villages. Bishnois
Montreal Protocol. These are CFC-11, CFC-12, of increases in global average air and ocean tem-
do not cut trees for fuel
and timber; they remove CFC-113, Carbontetrachloride (CTC), peratures, widespread melting of snow and ice,
only the dead trunks and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons-22 (HCFC-22), and rising global average sea level. Eleven of
twigs. Spotted deer, Halon-1211, Halon-1301, Methyl Chloroform the last twelve years (1995-2006) rank among
black buck and blue bull and Methyl Bromide. These Ozone Depleting the twelve warmest years in the instrumental
can be seen foraging Substances (ODS) are used in refrigeration and record of global surface temperatures; that is,
fearlessly in their fields. air conditioning, since 1850. The temperature increase is world-
Even if the crop is con- foams, fire fighting, aerosol, fumigation and wide, being greater at higher northern latitudes.
sumed by herds of deer,
cleaning applications etc. Land masses have
the Bishnois do not
chase away the ani- As per Montreal Protocol, India will phase out warmed faster than
mals. all other ODS by 2010. oceans.
The Bishnois worship India has taken a series of fiscal and regulatory The global average
nature in all its manifes- measures to facilitate ODS phaseout in the sea level has risen
tations, conserve trees country. Among fiscal measures taken, Gov- since 1961 at an av-
and medicinal plants, ernment has accorded customs and excise duty erage rate of 1.8 (1.3
provide food and water exemptions on goods required for ODS phase- to 2.3) mm/yr and
to animals, and are veg-
out projects and new investment and expan- since 1993 at 3.1 (2.4
etarians in their diet, as
advocated by their Guru sion of established industries with non-ODS to 3.8) mm/yr. The
Jambaji. technology. In the current financial year i.e. rising see level is due to thermal expansion,
2009-10 only melting of glaciers and ice caps and polar ice

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ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

sheets. Whether the faster increase from 1993 per unit of energy supplied reversed after 2000.
to 2003 is a decadal phenomenon or a long-term Atmospheric concentrations of CO2, Methane
Cobalt 60
Identifying the radionu- trend is so for unclear. (CH4) and Nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased
clide responsible for Satellite data since 1978 has shown that annual sharply since 1750 due to human activities and
high-level radiation wit- average Arctic sea ice extent has shrunk by 2.7 are now far above pre-industrial values, which
nessed in Mayapuri lo- (2.1 to 3.3) per cent per decade with greater were determined from ice cores spanning thou-
cality in New Delhi as shrinkages in summer. Mountain glaciers and sands of years. In facts the atmospheric con-
Cobalt-60, Cobalt-60 show cover have declined in both hemispheres. centrations of CO2 (379 ppm) and CH4
(60Co) is a radioactive From 1900 to 2005 there was significant increase (1774ppb) in 2005 by far exceed their natural
isotope of cobalt. Due to
of precipitation in eastern parts of North and range over the last 6,50,000 years. Main reason
its short half life of 5.27
years 60Co is not found South America, northern Europe and northern for CO2 increase is fossil fuel use, with land-
in nature. It is produced and Central Asia. However, precipitation de- use change playing a relatively minor role. CH4
artificially by neutron ac- creased in the Sahel, the Mediterranean, south- increases are very likely due to agriculture and
tivation of 59Co. 60Co ern Africa and parts of southern Asia. The area fossil fuel use. CH4 growth rates have declined
decays by negative beta under drought has likely increased globally since early 1990s. N2O increase is primarily due
decay to the stable iso- since the 1970s. It is very likely that over the to agriculture.
tope nickel-60 (60Ni). last 50 years, cold days, cold nights and frosts Most of the observed increase in average glo-
The activated Ni-atom
have become less frequent over most land ar- bal temperatures since the mid-20th century is
emits two gamma rays
with energies of 1.17 eas, whereas frequency of hot days and hot very likely due to observed increase in GHG
and 1.33 MeV. Cobalt- nights have increased. It is likely that heat concentrations. It is likely that warming has
60 is a hard, lustrous, waves have become more frequent over most occurred over the past 50 years over each con-
grey metal. Cobalt- land areas, frequency of precipitation events
based colours and pig- have increased and since 1975, incidence of
ments have been used extreme high sea level have increased. It has
since ancient times for been observed that intense tropical cyclone ac-
jewellery and paints.
tivity in North Atlantic has increased since
“Cobalt-60 is used in
fabrication work, espe- about 1979. Average Northern Hemisphere
cially for welding steel temperatures during the second half of the 20th
which has higher thick- century were very likely higher than during any
ness, though normally other 50 year period over the past 500 years
Iridium-192 is used for and likely the highest in at least the past 1300
welding of less thick years.
steel. It is also used for Also, effects of regional climate change on natu-
the treatment of cancer.
ral and human environments are emerging al-
Umbrella Group
The ten-nation Umbrella though they are difficult to understand due to
Group countries adaptation and non-climatic factors. These in- tinent except Antarctica.
pledged to act on cli- clude effects of temperature increases on:- The net effect of human activities since 1750 has
mate change. i) agriculture and forestry management at been one of warming. Human influences have
The Umbrella Group, Northern Hemisphere higher latitudes, such as resulted in:-
which consists of earlier spring planting of crops, and alterations i) very likely increase in sea level during the
Canada, Iceland, Ja- in disturbance regimes of forests due to fire and second half of 20th c.
pan, Kazakhstan, New
pests. ii) likely changes in wind patterns, affecting
Zealand, Norway, Rus-
sia, Ukraine, the United ii) some health aspects, like heat related mor- extra-tropical storm tracks and temperature
States and Australia. tality in Europe, changes in infectious disease patterns.
Umbrella Group be- vectors in some areas, and allergenic pollen in iii) likely increase of temperatures of extremely
lieved that the increase Northern Hemisphere high and mid-latitudes. hot nights, cold nights and cold days.
in global average tem- iii) Some human activities in the Arctic, such iv) more likely than not increase in the risk of
perature above pre-in- as hunting, and in lower-elevation alpine ar- heat waves, heavy precipitation events and the
dustrialized levels ought eas like mountain sports. area affected by droughts since the 1970s.
not exceed two degrees
Causes of change: Changes in atmospheric Global warming over the last three decades has
Celsius and the group
sought a global out- concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) influenced many physical and biological sys-
come that put the world and aerosols, land cover and solar radiation tems.
on a path to a 50 per- change the energy balance of the climate sys- IPCC: 32nd Plenary Session
cent reduction in CO2 tem. Globally, GHG emissions due to human 14 October 2010, Busan, Republic of Korea
emissions by 2050. activity have increased since pre-industrial At its 32nd session, the Panel agreed to imme-
But the Umbrella Group times. They have increased by 70 per cent be- diately implement many of the recommenda-
did not give the details tween 1970 and 2004. Carbon dioxide (CO2), tions. These include guidance on uncertainty,
of the reduction targets.
the most important GHG has seen emission in- non-peer-reviewed literature and addressing
One can recall that the
Umbrella Group has creases by 80 per cent between 1970 and 2004. potential errors. In addition, the Panel agreed
long been criticized for The long-term trend of declining CO2 emissions to set up a task group which will address the

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establishment of an Executive Committee, re- yields by 2015; to improve the developing coun-
its reluctance to reduce
carbon emissions, view the key responsibilities of the Secretariat, tries’ access to environmentally sound alterna-
though they have much as well as the terms of reference of Chair and
higher capabilities com- Co-chairs of the Working Groups. The IPCC
pared with many other also decided to implement a rigorous conflict
countries. of interest policy and established a task group
BASIC Countries to propose options.
1. BASIC countries The Panel accepted the recommendation to
(Brazil, South Africa, In-
develop a communication strategy. It also
dia and China) have
favoured to remain formed task groups to address other IAC rec-
within the parameters of ommendations related to IPCC procedures for
the UN framework con- the preparation of the assessment reports.
vention on the climate The work to prepare the Fifth Assessment Re-
change and it also wants port (AR5), which will be published in 2014,
the Kyoto Protocol, a le- remains on course and will benefit from the
gally valid instrument, Panel’s decisions. In comparison to the Fourth
must remain effective
Assessment Report (AR4), participation from
and operative as it takes
the process forward post developing countries has been increased reflect-
Copenhagen. ing the on-going efforts to improve regional tives to ozone-depleting chemicals by 2010; and
2. BASIC recognised coverage in the AR5. About 30% of authors will to undertake initiatives to implement the Glo-
that there are certain come from developing countries or economies bal Programme of Action for the Protection of
outstanding issues in transition. The proportion of female experts, the Marine Environment from Land-Based
which remain to be ad- has significantly increased since the AR4, reach- Sources.
dressed but in address- ing approximately 25% of the selected authors. 7. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) will
ing those issues the
More than 60% of the experts chosen are new consider including the Convention to Combat
mandate must be the
Bali Mandate. to the IPCC process, which will bring in new Desertification as a focal area for funding.
3. The Kyoto Protocol is knowledge and perspectives. 8. Russia, China and Canada have agreed to
the legally valid instru- World Summit on ratify the Kyoto Protocol. This is the only big
ment and it must remain Sustainable Development (WSSD) achievement.
effective, operative as The UN organised a 10-day World Summit on Causes of Failure
we take this process for- Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 1. They wanted to cover broadest aspects of
ward post Copenhagen. Johannesburg in 2002. It was attended by rep- the issue. This gave rise to incoherent, disor-
4. BASIC adopted the
strategy to announce
resentatives of over 180 countries. derly agenda, resulting in non-binding, debili-
their individual, volun- The WSSD came out with a highly compro- tated commitments to promote the sustainable
tary targets for reducing mised Plan of Action, a largely rhetorical Po- development.
the energy intensities of litical Declaration (Type I) and a non-binding 2. Growing tendencies to neglect the environ-
their economic growth. Type II partnership between businesses, NGOs ment in current spate of accelerated
In this process, China and governments. globalisation;
announced a target of The declaration affirmed the participants’ com- 3. The negative attitude of USA towards the
40-45 per cent reduction mitment to haul the world’s two billion poor- Kyoto Protocol;
in emission intensity
compared to 2005 levels
est out of misery, and to restore and nurture 4. Absence of the country heads.
by 2020, and India 20- the damaged environmental web that sustains 5. A last minute disagreement over controver-
25 per cent. Like China, all life. The failure of Johannesburg clearly dem- sial clause on access to health services being
India wants rich nations onstrates that a sustainable development can- bracketed with cultural and religious values.
to cut emissions by at not be sustained easily. India’s Stand: India did not demonstrate any
least 40 per cent by 2020. Achievements warm enthusiasm in the meet. India empha-
5. But at that same time, 1. A Plan of Action has been formulated to sized about the unsustainable consumption pat-
BASIC aptly believed make available drinking water to two billion tern of the developed countries and the conse-
that they would not like
to have any restrictions
people by 2015. quent ethical responsibilities of the developed
on when they would 2. For preservation of biodiversity, the species countries to ‘clean-up’ the environment. But, if
reach the peak of their loss has to be stopped by 2010. we meticulously examine the tune of the dia-
emissions, definitely not 3. Renewable source of energy has to be em- logue per se, it merely sounds ritualistic.
by 2015 or 2020 as de- phasized. But there is absence of target dates Nairobi Summit on Climate Change
manded by the Intergov- for increasing the use of renewable energy. The 12th Conference of the parties of the United
ernmental Panel on Cli- 4. Agenda 21 was more emphasized. Nations Framework Convention on Climate
mate Change (IPCC). 5. Commitment that by 2020, chemicals should Change (COP12) held at Nairobi. The 189-mem-
What they needed was
a recognition of their im-
be used and produced in ways that do not harm ber conference ended without major break-
perative of economic human health and environment. throughs. The next round of talks will be at Bali
growth with passable 6. To reduce biodiversity loss by 2004; to re- in December 2007.
concern for climate. store fisheries to the maximum sustainable Nairobi Outcomes

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1. A new fund to be created to help poor coun- ference asked its scientific and technical body
Climate tries adapt to climate change. to report back to Poznan on the possibility of
Change 2. Belarus has been allowed into a club of 35 integrating CCS schemes in the CDM after 2012.
industrialised countries that face binding lim- Poznan Summit 2008
its on their emissions of greenhouse gases from on Climate Change
The international 2008-12. The international political response to climate
political response to Bali Roadmap 2007 change began with the adoption of the
climate change began
1. A preamble notes the "urgency" of scientific UNFCCC in 1992. The UN Framework Conven-
with the adoption of
the UNFCCC in 1992. evidence that warming of the climate system is tion on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets out a
The UN Framework unequivocal and that delay in reducing emis- framework for action aimed at stabilizing at-
Convention on Climate sions increases the risk that the impacts of cli- mospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases
Change (UNFCCC) mate change will worsen. to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interfer-
sets out a framework 2. The Roadmap sets the framework for nego- ence” with the climate system. The UNFCCC
for action aimed at tiations for a long-term agreement on emissions entered into force on 21 March 1994, and now
stabilizing atmospheric cuts, including the United States, the only in- has 192 parties.
concentrations of
dustrial power to remain outside the UN's The United Nations Climate Change Confer-
greenhouse gases to
avoid “dangerous Kyoto Protocol. ence in Poznañ, Poland, was held from 1-12 De-
anthropogenic 3. The negotiations are to wrap up in cember 2008. The fourteenth Conference of the
interference” with the Copenhagen at the end of 2009, to give parties 192 Parties to the United Nations Framework
climate system time to ratify the treaty so that it takes effect at Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and
the end of 2012, following on from current com- the fourth meeting of the 183 Parties to the
mitments under Kyoto. Four meetings are Kyoto Protocol, is the half-way mark in the ne-
scheduled in 2008: in March/April, June, Au-
gust/September and finally in December, in
Poznan, Poland.
4. The Roadmap does not specify any clear
emissions goal, nor does it suggest which coun-
tries should make emissions cuts or how deep
these cuts should be. But in a footnote in the
preamble, it refers to scenarios by the UN's
Nobel-winning scientists, the Intergovernmen-
tal Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which in-
clude a goal of halving global emissions by
2050, compared with the level for 2000.
5. Developing countries will be urged to meet
"measurable, reportable and verifiable" actions
for tackling their emissions, supported by
cleaner technology, financing and skills-build- gotiations on an ambitious and effective inter-
ing. national response to climate change. The deal
6. The Roadmap includes possible financial is to be clinched in Copenhagen at the end of
support to halt deforestation and forest degra- 2009 and will take effect in 2013, the year after
The United Nations dation, which account for roughly a fifth of glo- the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol expires.
Climate Change bal greenhouse-gas emissions today. Outcomes:
Conference in Poznañ, OTHER DECISIONS 1. Adoption of COP decisions, COP/MOP de-
Poland, was held from 1. The conference agreed on the mechanism for cisions and a number of conclusions by the sub-
1-12 December 2008. governing and administering the Adaptation sidiary bodies. These outcomes covered a wide
The fourteenth Fund, set up under the Kyoto Protocol to help range of topics, including the Adaptation Fund
Conference of the 192
poor countries cope with climate change. The under the Kyoto Protocol, the 2009 work
Parties to the United
Nations Framework Fund will be sourced by a levy of two percent programmes of the AWG-LCA and AWG-KP,
Convention on Climate on projects under Kyoto's carbon-market inno- and outcomes on technology transfer, the Clean
Change (UNFCCC) vation, the Clean Development Mechanism Development Mechanism (CDM), capacity
and the fourth meeting (CDM). (2) The conference took steps for set- building, national communications, financial
of the 183 Parties to ting up mechanisms to encourage the transfer and administrative matters, and various meth-
the Kyoto Protocol, is of cleaner technology to countries to help them odological issues.
the half-way mark in reduce or avoid carbon pollution. (3) Carbon 2. The main focus in Poznañ, however, was on
the negotiations on an
capture and sequestration (CSS), a prototype long-term cooperation and the post-2012 pe-
ambitious and effective
international response method of piping off carbon dioxide (CO2) riod, when the Kyoto Protocol’s first commit-
to climate change. ther from fossil-fuel-burning power plants and ment period expires. In December 2007, nego-
experts. pumping it into geological storage chambers tiators meeting in Bali had approved the Bali
underground, also gets a small boost. The con- Action Plan and Roadmap setting COP 15 in

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December 2009 as MONTREAL PROTOCOL 1987

Climate the deadline for CFC production and consumption to be frozen at 1986 levels by 1990;
Change agreeing on a frame- that of Halons by 1994; developing countries with consumption of CFC
work for action after less than 0.3 kg to delay compliance.

2012. Poznañ there- HELSINKI DECLARATION 1989
Along with the fore marked the On protection of Ozone layer; phasing out CFC production and con-
Poznañ work halfway mark to- sumption by 2000.

programme on
wards the December LONDON CONFERENCE 1990
technology transfer,
2009 deadline. CFC production and consumption to be phasing out by 2000 (devel-
the only concrete
outcome of the 3. Along with the oped countries) and by 2010 (developing countries).
Poznañ conference Poznañ work COPENHAGEN CONFERENCE 1992
was the programme on tech- Phase out CFC by 1996, Halons by 2000, CCl4 by 1996, HCFC by 2030.
operationalization of nology transfer, the RIO-EARTH SUMMIT 1992
the Adaptation Fund. only concrete out- Agenda 21 to prevent environmental degradation.
The COP/MOP come of the Poznañ KYOTO CONFERENCE 1997
adopted several To cut GHG by 5.2 per cent to 1990 levels by 2008-12.
conference was the
decisions to make the
Fund operational, operationalization
including on arrange- of the Adaptation Fund. The COP/MOP 31 January 2010, for compilation in an INF
ments with the Global adopted several decisions to make the Fund op- document, consistent with Article 4.1 and
Environment Facility erational, including on arrangements with the Article 4.7 and in the context of sustainable
and World Bank. Global Environment Facility and World Bank. development.
4. Progress was also made on a number of im- 4. Least developed countries and Small Island
portant ongoing issues that are particularly im- developing States may undertake actions
portant for developing countries, including: ad- voluntarily and on the basis of support.
aptation; finance; technology; reducing emis- Mitigation actions subsequently taken and
sions from deforestation and forest degrada- envisaged by Non-Annex I Parties, including
tion (REDD); and disaster management. national inventory reports, shall be
Annex I Parties 5. Progress was made in the area of technol- communicated through national communi-
commit to implement ogy with the endorsement of the Global Envi- cations consistent with Article 12.1(b) every two
individually or jointly ronment Facility’s “Poznañ Strategic years on the basis of guidelines to be adopted
the quantified Programme on Technology Transfer”. The aim by the Conference of the Parties.
of this programme is to scale up the level of 5. Mitigation actions taken by Non-Annex I
emissions targets for
2020, to be submitted investment by levering private investments that Parties will be subject to their domestic
in the format given in developing countries require both for mitiga- measurement, reporting and verification the
Appendix I by Annex I tion and adaptation technologies. result of which will be reported through their
Parties to the Copenhagen Accord 2009 national communications every two years.
secretariat by 31 1. To achieve the ultimate objective of the 6. The crucial role of reducing emission from
January 2010 for Convention to stabilize greenhouse gas deforestation and forest degradation and the
compilation in an INF concentration in the atmosphere at a level that need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas
would prevent dangerous anthropogenic emission by forests and agreeing on the need
interference with the climate system, the to provide positive incentives to such actions
platform shall, recognizing the scientific view through the immediate establishment of a
that the increase in global temperature should mechanism including REDD-plus, to enable the
be below two degrees Celsius, on the basis of mobilization of financial resources from
equity and in the context of sustain-able developed countries has been recognised.
development, enhance convention’s long-term 7. The Copenhagen Green Climate Fund shall
The Copenhagen cooperative action to combat climate change. be established as an operating entity of the
Green Climate Fund
2. Annex I Parties commit to implement financial mechanism of the Convention to
shall be established as
an operating entity of individually or jointly the quantified economy- support projects, programme, policies and
the financial mecha- wide emissions targets for 2020, to be submitted other activities in developing countries related
nism of the Convention in the format given in Appendix I by Annex I to mitigation including REDD-plus, adaptation,
to support projects, Parties to the secretariat by 31 January 2010 for capacity-building, technology development
programme, policies compilation in an INF document. Annex I and transfer.
and other activities in Parties that are Party to the Kyoto Protocol will 8. In order to enhance action on developm-ent
developing countries thereby further strengthen the emissions and transfer of technology it was decided to
related to mitigation
reductions initiated by the Kyoto Protocol. establish a Technology Mecha-nism to
including REDD-plus,
adaptation, capacity- 3. Non-Annex I Parties to the Convention will accelerate technology
building, technology implement mitigation actions, including those development and transfer in support of action
development and to be submitted to the secretariat by non-Annex on adaptation and mitigation that will be
transfer. I Parties in the format given in Appendix II by guided by a country-driven approach and be

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based on national circumstances and priorities. Antarctic Treaty Area - an increase of about 14
Climate 9. It called for an assessment of the per cent over the last season. The meeting
Change implementation of this Accord to be completed adopted a Resolution for regulation of ship-
by 2015, including in light of the Conventions based tourism in the Antarctic waters. It also
ultimate objective. This would include decided to address the safety issues in a more
The XXX Antarctic consideration of strengthening the long-term cohesive way. The issue of land-based tourism
Treaty Consultative goal referencing various matters presented by was discussed at length which if not regulated
Meeting (ATCM) was
the science, including in relation to temperature may lead to more than a minor or transitory
concluded. The
Committee for rise of 1.5 degrees Celsius. impact on Antarctica. Some parties have raised
Environmental Major outcome:
Protection (CEP) after 1. A global goal to reduce worldwide emissions
reviewing the revised by 50 per cent by mid-century;
draft Management 2. Developed countries to set their emission
Plans for two Antarctic targets by February 2010 and developing
Specially Managed countries to list their actions;
Area (ASMA) of
3. Adherence to targets by developed countries
Larsemann Hills and
Amundsen-Scott South would be subject to international monitoring;
Pole Station, referred 4. Actions of developing countries supported
them to ATCM, which by external assistance would be subject to
were finally adopted by external monitoring and verification;
ATCM. 5. Actions of developing countries supported
locally shall be monitored and verified locally
in accordance with international consultations
and analysis without impinging on the concern about this and urged concrete steps
sovereignty of nations; need to be taken as limiting possible future de-
6. Long-term funding to the tune of $100 velopment of tourist infrastructure in Antarc-
million per year by 2020 and making available tica. The Resolutions taken in this ATCM will
$10 million per year for short-term funding be a valuable first step, which are as follows:
This year more than from 2010 to the poorest and most vulnerable Parties consistent with their National Laws,
37000 tourists entered to climate change; and should: Discourage or decline to authorize tour
the Antarctic Treaty 7. A review of the overall agreement in 2016. operators that use vessels carrying more than
Area - an increase of
In 2010 - COP 16/MOP 6, would be held in 500 passengers from making any landings in
about 14 per cent over
the last season. The Cancun, Mexico from 29 November to 10 De- Antarctica; and Encourage or require tour op-
meeting adopted a cember 2010. In 2011 - COP 17/MOP 7, is to be erators to:a) Coordinate with each other such
Resolution for hosted by South Africa from 28 November to 9 that not more than one tourist vessel is at a land-
regulation of ship- December 2011. ing site at any one time; b) Restrict the number
based tourism in the In 2012 - COP 18/MOP 8: Two countries, Qatar of passengers on shore at any one time to 100
Antarctic waters. It also and South Korea, are currently bidding to host or fewer, unless otherwise specified in appli-
decided to address the the 2012 COP 18. cable ATCM Measures or Resolutions; and c)
safety issues in a more
Antarctic Treaty Maintain a minimum 1:20 guide-to-passenger
cohesive way.
Consultative Meeting (ATCM) ratio while ashore, unless otherwise specified
The XXX Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meet- in applicable Measures or Resolutions.
ing (ATCM) was concluded. The Committee Ozone layer and its depletion
for Environmental Protection (CEP) after re- Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen. It is a
viewing the revised draft Management Plans kind of super- charged oxygen, bluish in colour
for two Antarctic Specially Managed Area with distinctive, penetrating odour. Ozone in
(ASMA) of Larsemann Hills and Amundsen- Greek means ‘to smell’ Ozone is also known
Scott South Pole Station, referred them to as tri-atomic oxygen (O3) and is chemically very
Ozone is an
allotropic form of ATCM, which were finally adopted by ATCM. active. It destroys bacteria in water and is so
oxygen. It is a kind of The CEP, after reviewing, advised the ATCM used in treating drinking water. A layer of O3
super- charged that the draft Comprehensive Environmental is spread like an invisible canopy over the
oxygen, bluish in Evaluation (CEE) of the new Indian Research earth’s atmosphere to a variable extent. High-
colour with distinctive, Base at Larsemann Hills adequately meets the est concentration is found between 15-35 km.
penetrating odour. requirement, which was subsequently en- in stratosphere. It also found in troposphere.
Ozone in Greek means dorsed by ATCM. This clears the way for In- Ozone causes respiratory problems, stunts the
‘to smell’ Ozone is
dia to go ahead with development of a detailed growth of plants and lowers the immune level.
also known as tri-
atomic oxygen (O3) plan of the Research Base at the site selected by Therefore, the presence of Ozone in atmosphere
and is chemically very India. In that direction, India will be finalizing is preferred.
active. the CEE of the new Base in next few months. It is formed due to the action of the sunlight
This year more than 37000 tourists entered the over the atomic and molecular oxygen. It is

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helpful in two ways; erated or released by spacecrafts in atmosphere.

Climate It has a profound impact on the life and cli- Hydrofluorocarbons or 'HFCs' have been in-
Change mate of the earth. It protects life by absorbing creasingly used in the last decade or so as an
the harmful ultra-violet radiations of sun. alternative to ozone damaging CFCs in refrig-
It also helps in keeping the troposphere warm eration systems. The three main HFCs are HFC-
With 17 per cent of and regulates the jet stream which is found at 23, HFC-134a and HFC152a, with HFC-134a
the world’s population, the lower part of the stratosphere. Jet stream being the most widely used refrigerant. HFC-
India contributes only 4
influences the climatic conditions in tropo- 23 is a by-product of the production of HCFC-
per cent of the total
global greenhouse gas sphere. 22, which is used in refrigeration and air con-
emissions. In terms of The 1985 report of the discovery of an “ozone ditioning. As of June 2010, almost three quar-
per capita GHG hole” over Antarctica focused attention on the ters of the CDM offset credits issued were
emissions, it is about idea that humans manufactured by large firms making minor
23 per cent of the can have a signifi- technical adjustments to eliminate the refriger-
global average. cant impact on the ant gas HFC-23 and nitrous oxide (N2O, which
global environ- is mainly produced as a by-product of synthetic
ment. fibre production).
This discovery, Almost 85 per cent of the offset credits surren-
along with evi- dered within the EU Emissions Trading Sys-
dence that ozone tem (EU ETS) came from these two gases in
is being lost at 2009. HFC-23 credits alone accounted for 59 per
nearly all lati- cent.
tudes outside the India and Climate Change
tropics, has prompted much research into the With 17 per cent of the world’s population,
causes of ozone depletion and the biological ef- India contributes only 4 per cent of the total
CFCs is a synthetic fects of increased ultra-violet radiation expo- global greenhouse gas emissions. In terms of
gas used in aerosol sure. The potential effects on humans and the per capita GHG emissions, it is about 23 per
spray, as refrigerants environment have led to international resolu- cent of the global average. Its per capita con-
in air conditioners and tions designed to gradually phase-out produc- sumption of energy is 530 kgoe of primary en-
refrigerators and tion of ozone-depleting substances. ergy compared to the world average of 1770
manufacturing of foam. As a result, the scientific and industrial com- kgoe and its per capita emission of CO2 is
It is extremely stable munities have collaborated to find safe and eco- among the lowest in the world. India’s CO2
and chemically non-
nomical replacements for Chloro Fluoro Car- emissions are approximately 1 tonne per an-
reacting under normal
conditions. When bons (CFCs), the manmade chemicals impli- num as against a world average of 4.2 tonnes
CFCs are released into cated in ozone loss. per annum, while the average for industrial-
atmosphere it breaks ODS ized countries ranges between 10-20 tonnes per
into its constituents (Cl, CFCs: It is a synthetic gas used in aerosol
F and C) chlorine spray, as refrigerants in air conditioners and
atoms reacts with O3 refrigerators and manufacturing of foam. It is
and form ClO and O2. extremely stable and chemically non-reacting
ClO is very unstable
under normal conditions. When CFCs are re-
and it breaks down into
Cl and O. leased into atmosphere it breaks into its con-
stituents (Cl, F and C) chlorine atoms reacts
with O3 and form ClO and O2. ClO is very un-
stable and it breaks down into Cl and O. Cl
atom again breaks one O3 molecule. One Cl
atom is sufficient to destroy one lakh O3 mol-
ecule and its destructive effects can persist for
100 years.
 Halogens: Members of halogen family
namely Cl, F, Br, I, etc. They are used in fire capita. This is significant in the background of
extinguisher in ships aircrafts and computer declining energy intensity of GDP of India; this
Members of halogen control rooms. Its destructive effect is 3 to 10 is a result of policies, regulations and
family namely Cl, F, Br, times than that of CFCs. programmes set up over the years to address
I, etc. They are used in Carbon tetra chlorides: It is used in the manu- energy efficiency and energy security concerns.
fire extinguisher in facturing of pesticides, paints and solvents in This has had a positive effect on India’s devel-
ships aircrafts and
pharmaceutical industries. Its destructive effect opment process.
computer control
rooms. Its destructive on O3 is equivalent to that of CFCs. India is one of the few developing countries
effect is 3 to 10 times Methyl chloroform: It is used as a solvent for in the world where the forest cover is increas-
than that of CFCs. precision metal working. Destructive effect is ing, despite the pressure of population growth
1/10th than that of CFCs. Nitrous oxide: Gen- and rapid economic development. As a result

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of the policies, deforestation has almost com- on 14th October 2009. It is a network based
Climate pletely stopped, and afforestation is adding for- programme to be coordinated by this Ministry
Change est cover to about 0.25 per cent of India’s land to undertake more ambitious programme of
area every year. More than a fifth of India’s land climate change assessment. This programme
area is under forest cover and this serves as a will cover significant aspect related to climate
Indian Network of major carbon sink, with almost 11 per cent of change, including, for example, the study of
Climate Change India’s annual emissions being absorbed by the black carbon and the impact of climate change
Assessment (INCCA)
forests. The cover is increasing every year @ on glaciers and on rainfall patterns.
programme was
launched on 14th almost 0.8 mn hectares every year (proposed CDM and Carbon trading
October 2009. It is a to be raised to 2.3 mn hectares p.a. through the The idea of carbon trading emanated after the
network based new afforestation initiatives on the norms for signing of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Na-
programme to be the functioning of the Adaptation Fund to pro- tions Framework Convention on Climate
coordinated by this vide assistance to developing countries to adapt Change. It mandates GHG emissions caps on
Ministry to undertake to the adverse impacts of climate. industrialized nations, which have ratified it,
more ambitious National Action Plan on Climate Change: As but also allows them to buy a greener nation's
programme of climate
a part of voluntary actions to address climate GHG emission levels.
change assessment.
change related concerns, India launched its As a result of this provision, a CER can be
National Action Plan on Climate Change earned by reducing emissions through eco-
(NAPCC) on 30th June 2008. The National Ac- friendly practices, or, in other words, a coun-
tion Plan stresses that maintaining a high try with an emission cap can buy a CER from a
growth rate is essential for increasing living
standards of the vast majority of people of In-
dia and reducing their vulnerability of the im-
pacts of climate change. The Action Plan out-
lines a national strategy that aims at enabling
the country adapt to climate change and en-
hances the ecological sustainability of India’s
Prime Minister’s development path.
Council on Climate Eight National Missions (National Solar Mis-
Change has approved sion, National Mission on Enhanced Energy
the Jawaharlal Nehru Efficiency, National Mission on Sustainable
National Solar Mission
Habitat, National Water Mission, National Mis-
that envisages
generation of 20000 sion for sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, developing country that does not face a cap.
mw of solar power by National Mission for a Green India, National And that's where India comes into the picture
2020. This Mission Mission for Sustainable Agriculture and Na- as a seller of CERs under the Clean Develop-
was launched by the tional Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Cli- ment Mechanism (CDMs) of legal framework
Prime Minister in New mate Change) form the core of the National of the protocol. CDM allows for company
Delhi on 11 January Action Plan on Climate Change. projects in developing countries, with no man-
2010. Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change dated emission reduction targets, to trade in
has approved the Jawaharlal Nehru National CERs with countries that have such targets. One
Solar Mission that envisages generation of CER is equivalent to a reduction of one tonne
20000 mw of solar power by 2020. This Mis- of carbon.
sion was launched by the Prime Minister in India has participated effectively in the Clean
New Delhi on 11 January 2010. The National Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto
Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency, coor- Protocol. The National CDM Authority func-
dinated by the Ministry of Power, has also been tions in the Ministry of Environment & Forests
approved. Required legislative and administra- to evaluate and recommend CDM projects for
tive measures are being put in place so as to host country approval. Host Country Approv-
India has partici- implement the Mission. Drafts of other Mis- als have been granted so far (January 2010) to
pated effectively in the sions have been prepared and are at various 1551 projects in the sectors of energy efficiency,
Clean Development stages of consideration. fuel switching, industrial processes, municipal
Mechanism (CDM) of The ‘Green India’ project, launched by the solid waste and renewable energy. If all these
the Kyoto Protocol. Ministry with a view to cover six million hect- projects get registered by the CDM Executive
The National CDM ares of degraded forestland through afforesta- Board, they have the potential to generate 627
Authority functions in tion measures, is an important contribution to million Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)
the Ministry of
the objectives of the National Action Plan. It at a conservative price of US$10 per CER, by
Environment & Forests
to evaluate and forms part of ‘a Green India Mission’ an- the year 2012 and facilitate an investment of
recommend CDM nounced under the NAPCC. more than Rs. 2,16,349 crores. India’s CDM
projects for host Indian Network of Climate Change Assess- potential represents a significant component of
country approval. ment (INCCA): This programme was launched the global CDM market. 478 out of the total 2011

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projects registered by the CDM Executive Board Inexhaustible but Misusable Resources:
Climate in UNFCCC (Jan 2010) are from India, is the Quantity and quality of such resources would
Change second highest by any country in the world. deteriorate if used unwisely. They include land,
India’s Five Year plans include a strategy for wild animals, water resources, etc.
sustainable growth resulting in low carbon Maintainable and Renewable Resources: Re-
Those elements of sustainable development. 11th Five Year Plan newability of these resources depends on the
the biophysical includes an indicative target of increasing method of their use. They include timber, hu-
environment, which
energy efficiency by 20 per cent by 2016-17. As man numbers, land fertility, ground water etc.
can be used to satisfy
human needs are a part of its ambitious domestic actions, Maintainable but Non-renewable Resources:
known as natural Government has now declared that it will Such resources cannot be renewed after over
resources. They are reduce emissions intensity of its GDP by 20-25 exploitation. They include physical soil mate-
physical features like per cent by 2020 in comparison with 2005 level. rials, human talent and genius, many fishes,
land, climate, water, The Ministry is engaged in the task of preparing trees, etc.
soil, and minerals and its second national Communication with the Exhaustible but Reusable Resources: Those
biological like help of over 120 scientific and research minerals, which can be used again and again,
vegetation, wildlife and
establishments and 220 scientists from all over are included in this class. They are minerals
the country. NATCOM II will be finalised in such as iron, tin, copper, gold and silver.
2010 and furnished to UNFCCC in 2011. Exhaustible but Non-reusable Resources:
Classification of Resources They include coal, petroleum, natural gas, most
Natural Resources: Those elements of the bio- non-metallic minerals and metals. They exhaust
physical environment, which can be used to as and when they are used.
satisfy human needs are known as natural re- INSTITUTIONS
sources. They are physical features like land, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
climate, water, soil, and minerals and biologi- NBPGR is mandated to plan, conduct, promote,
Natural resources by co-ordinate and take lead in activities concern-
themselves are not ing collection, characterization, evaluation, con-
resources as such servation, exchange, documentation and sus-
unless human beings tainable management of diverse germplasm of
perceive them. The crop plants and their wild relatives. The major
perception of natural contributions of NBPGR include:
phenomena as i) maintenance of 37,94,000 accessions of
resources depends on
germplasm belonging to 2045 species; ii) DNA
the cultural heritage –
knowledge, experi- fingerprinting for 33 crops comprising 2,215
ence, skills, organiza- varieties of national importance undertaken
tion, technology, etc. and fingerprint database developed; iii) estab-
Thus resources have a cal like vegetation, wildlife and fisheries. lishment of 10 regional stations/base centres/
cultural content too. Human Resources: The number of quality of quarantine centres spread over different phy-
Resources expand and people constitute human resources. togeographic zones of the country; iv) active
contract in response to Cultural Resources: Natural resources by collaboration and linkages with over 57 na-
human wants and
themselves are not resources as such unless tional active germplasm sites situated at dif-
human beings perceive them. The perception ferent crop based ICAR centres and SAU; v)
of natural phenomena as resources depends on developed four online databases viz., “NORV”
the cultural heritage – knowledge, experience, (notified and released varieties of India -
skills, organization, technology, etc. Thus re- “IINDUS” (Indian Information System), Infor-
sources have a cultural content too. Resources mation Sharing Mechanism for the PGR-
expand and contract in response to human ”GPVR” (Germplasm and Plant Varieties Reg-
wants and tastes. istration); and vi) capacity building on biosafety
These wants and tastes are influenced by the and biosecurity issues.
NBPGR is mandated
to plan, conduct, culture. Culture is the sum total of all ideals, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important
promote, co-ordinate knowledge and techniques human uses to at- Microorganisms
and take lead in tain these objectives. To a considerable degree, NBAIM promotes mainstreaming microbial
activities concerning the availability, renewability and exploitability biodiversity by undertaking projects on i) mo-
collection, character- of natural resources depend on scientific dis- lecular and functional diversity of microorgan-
ization, evaluation, coveries and technological inventions. Science isms isolated from extreme environments; ii)
conservation, and technology is the product of culture. As assessment of genotypic diversity of Bacillus
exchange, documenta-
the attributes of cultural broaden, the supply and Bacillus- derived genera in Indo-Gangetic
tion and sustainable
management of base or resources expands. plains; iii) germplasm collection and charac-
diverse germplasm of Inexhaustible and Immutable Resources: terization of antagonistic microorganisms of
crop plants and their They include the ocean water, solar power, soil borne fungal pathogens; and iv) microbial
wild relatives. wind power, climate, clay, air etc. diversity analysis of soils contaminated with

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industrial effluents, etc. and decomposition to re-use shower and toilet

Climate National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources water up to five times before discarding it down
Change The major achievements of NBAGR, among a crevasse. Wind turbines on the Utsteinen
others, include, i) development of conservation mountain ridge and solar panels on the bug-
models and performance and economics of like three storey building ensure uninterrupted
A team of Russian AnGR; ii) molecular characterization of genes power and hot water supply to the base. The
and American responsible for immune response and milk per- geometry of the windows even helps conserve
scientists has
formance of indigenous AnGR; iii) evaluation energy.
discovered a new
element that has long of genetic diversity and characterization of can- Element 117: A team of Russian and Ameri-
stood as a missing link didate genes involved in heat tolerance; and iv) can scientists has discovered a new element that
among the heaviest building DNA fingerprinting profiles. has long stood as a missing link among the
bits of atomic matter National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources heaviest bits of atomic matter ever produced.
ever produced. The Besides establishing live gene banks of fish ge- The team produced six atoms of the element
team produced six netic resources, NBFGR has developed sperm by smashing together isotopes of calcium and
atoms of the element cryopreservation protocols of prioritized fish a radioactive element called berkelium in a
by smashing together
particle accelerator at the Joint Institute for
isotopes of calcium
and a radioactive Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The
element called superheavy element 117, which is made of at-
berkelium in a particle oms containing 117 protons, is roughly 40 per
accelerator at the Joint cent heavier than lead. For the moment, the dis-
Institute for Nuclear covery will be known as ununseptium, a very
Research in Dubna, unwhimsical Latinate placeholder that refers
Russia. to the element’s atomic number, 117. The
achievement fills in the final gap on the list of
observed elements up to element 118.
Iridium and Ruthenium
species, prepared national fish seed certifica- A new type of adulteration of gold has been
tion document, established IPR and Patents Cell revealed where Iridium and Ruthenium are
and is set to further strengthen standardization used in gold ornaments. They have become
of fish database, characterize and sequence pri- very popular among unscrupulous jewellers as
oritized species and develop diagnostic kits for they easily get away with it because until re-
exotic pathogens. cently the metals failed to show up on all pu-
In a startling
revelation ornitholo- Electric wires- new home rity tests.
gists have for the first to Nicobar’s sunbirds Iridium and Ruthenium belong to the platinum
time found that In a startling revelation ornithologists have for family of metals, and when mixed with gold
sunbirds in the the first time found that sunbirds in the tsu- do not form an alloy but sit tight in the yellow
tsunami-affected metal. Making the adulteration more alarming
nami-affected Nicobar Islands have adapted to
Nicobar Islands have is the fact that the two metals do not replace
adapted to the the devastation by using live electric wires as
anchors for their nests. silver and copper; that are added to the gold
devastation by using
The Tsunami that struck the Great Nicobar during the jewellery making process to harden
live electric wires as
anchors for their nests. coastline in December 2004 devastated the the soft malleable yellow metal.
coastal habitat, including the mangroves, the Azo dyes
traditional nesting grounds of Klossi olive Azo dyes are dye stuffs used for colouring tex-
backed sunbirds. Ornithologists say that this tiles and leather products. Such dye stuffs have
may have prompted the birds to look for alter- significance in production of rubber, epoxy res-
native nesting sites and the use of wires was ins, polyurethane foam, fibres and polyamids.
their immediate response to the situation. Seventy azo dyes derived from 20 arylamines,
Iridium and Ruthenium Antarctica gets first a number of them confirmed human carcino-
zero-emission polar station gens, have been prohibited for handling by the
The scientific community has welcomed the Ministry of Textile and Department of Chemi-
Azo dyes are dye world’s first zero-emission polar research sta- cals and Petrochemicals considering the num-
stuffs used for tion- Belgium’s Princess Elisabeth station in ber of safe substitutes, both of chemical and
colouring textiles and natural origin and also keeping in view nomi-
East Antarctica. It is being hailed as a proof that
leather products. Such nal increase in the cost of these substitutes.
dye stuffs have alternative energy is viable even in the coldest
regions. Undercutting arguments of the scep- The United Nations Framework
significance in
tics that green power is not reliable, the green Convention on Climate Change
production of rubber,
epoxy resins, research station will rely on wind and solar The UNFCCC was opened for signature on
polyurethane foam, power in Antarctica- mostly a vast, icy empti- May 9, 1992, after an Intergovernmental Nego-
fibres and polyamids. ness. Constructed over two years, the steel-en- tiating Committee produced the text of the
cased bug shaped station uses micro-organisms Framework Convention as a report following

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 102 Civil Services

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TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com

its meeting in New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. It

entered into force on March 21, 1994. As of December 2009,
UNFCCC had 192 parties.
The Convention on Climate Change sets an overall frame-
work for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge
posed by climate change. It recognizes that the climate
system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected
by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and
other greenhouse gases. The Parties to the UNFCCC typi-
cally convene annually in a Conference of the Parties
(COP), and twice a year in meetings of the subsidiary bod-
ies – the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and
the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Ad-
vice (SBSTA).
The Secretariat
The Conference of the Parties (COP), Subsidiary Bodies
and Bureau are serviced by the secretariat, also known as
the Climate Change Secretariat, whose mandate is laid out
in general terms in Article 8 of the Convention. The
UNFCCC is also the name of the United Nations Secre-
tariat charged with supporting the operation of the Con-
vention, with offices in Haus Carstanjen, Bonn, Germany.
Since 2006 the head of the secretariat has been Yvo de Boer.
The Secretariat, augmented through the parallel efforts of
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),
aims to gain consensus through meetings and the discus-
sion of various strategies.
The function was to mainly coordinate with the secretari-
ats of other relevant international bodies, notably the Glo-
bal Environment Facility (GEF) and its implementing
agencies (UNDP, UNEP and the World Bank), the Inter-
governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and other
relevant conventions.
One of its first tasks was to establish national greenhouse
gas inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and
removals, which were used to create the 1990 benchmark
levels for accession of Annex I countries to the Kyoto Pro-
tocol and for the commitment of those countries to GHG
reductions. Updated inventories must be regularly sub-
mitted by Annex I countries.
The parties to the convention have met annually from 1995
in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in
dealing with climate change. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol
was concluded and established legally binding obligations
for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas
1995 - COP 1, The Berlin Mandate
1996 - COP 2, Geneva, Switzerland
1997 - COP 3, The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
1998 - COP 4, Buenos Aires
1999 - COP 5, Bonn, Germany
2000 - COP 6, The Hague, Netherlands
2001 - COP 6, Bonn, Germany
2001 - COP 7, Marrakech, Morocco
2002 - COP 8, New Delhi, India
2003 - COP 9, Milan, Italy
2004 - COP 10, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2005 - COP 11/MOP 1, Montreal, Canada
2006 - COP 12/MOP 2, Nairobi, Kenya
2007 - COP 13/MOP 3, Bali, Indonesia

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 103 Civil Services

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NEW SYLLABUS: General issues on environmental
ecology, bio-diversity and climate change

2008 - COP 14/MOP 4, Poznañ, Poland; 2009 - 2006. India steered the development of a com-
Climate COP 15/MOP 5, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2010 mon position of LMMCs for the negotiations
Change - COP 16/MOP 6, Mexico; 2011 - COP 17/ for developing an international regime on ac-
MOP 7, South Africa; 2012 - COP 18/MOP 8, cess and benefit sharing.
At present, there are two countries The fourth meeting of the Conference of the
On 15th March bidding to host: Qatar and South Korea. Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to
2010, at Cartagena, Conference of Parties (CoP) the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (COP-MOP
the Biosafety Protocol
and Meeting of the Parties (MOP) 4) was held at the Maritim Hotel in Bonn, Ger-
was held which is a
supplementary On 15th March 2010, at Cartagena, the Biosafety many, from 12 to 16 May 2008.
agreement to the Protocol was held which is a supplementary A new international treaty, “the Nagoya –
Convention on agreement to the Convention on Biological Di- Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Li-
Biological Diversity versity which aims to ensure the safe handling, ability and Redress to the Cartagena Protocol
which aims to ensure transport and use of living modified organisms on Biosafety”, was adopted at one of the larg-
the safe handling, (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology est intergovernmental meetings ever held on
transport and use of that may have adverse effects on biodiversity, the safe use of modern biotechnology. The
living modified
also taking into account risks to human health. adoption of the new treaty came at the end of
organisms (LMOs)
resulting from modern The Protocol establishes procedures for regu- the five-day meeting of the governing body of
biotechnology that may lating the import and export of LMOs from one the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (known as
have adverse effects country to another. the Conference of the Parties serving as the
on biodiversity, also There are two main procedures, one for meeting of the Parties to the Protocol or COP-
taking into account LMOs intended for direct introduction into the MOP 5) and concluded six years of negotia-
risks to human health. environment, known as the Advance Informed tions.
Agreement (AIA) procedure, and another for The new supplementary Protocol provides
those used for food, feed or processing (LMOs- international rules and procedure on liability
FFP). Under the AIA procedure, countries are and redress for damage to biodiversity result-
required to ensure that a risk assessment of the ing from living modified organisms (LMO).
LMO is carried out in a scientifically sound and The new treaty shall be open for signature at
transparent manner. the United Nations Headquarters in New York
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the from 7 March 2011 to 6 March 2012 and will
Convention on Biological Diversity is an inter- enter into force 90 days after being ratified by
national agreement which aims to ensure the at least 40 Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on
The new supple-
safe handling, transport and use of living modi- Biosafety. .
mentary Protocol
provides international fied organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern The historic meeting of the Parties to the Pro-
rules and procedure on biotechnology that may have adverse effects on tocol, held in the city of Nagoya, in Aichi pre-
liability and redress for biological diversity, taking also into account fecture, Japan, adopted seventeen other deci-
damage to biodiversity risks to human health. It was adopted on 29 sions.
resulting from living January 2000 and entered into force on 11 Sep- These included adoption of a ten-year Stra-
modified organisms tember 2003. tegic Plan for the implementation of the Proto-
(LMO). During the year the eighth meeting of Con- col, a programme of work on public awareness,
ference of Parties (CoP) was held in Curitiba, education and participation concerning LMOs,
Brazil from 20-31 March, 2006, in which an In- and further guidance on risk assessment and
dian delegation with representatives from Min- risk management.
istry of Environment & Forests, Ministry of The Government of Mexico is going to launch
Commerce, Ministry of Agriculture, and Wild- the 16th session of the Conference of the Par-
life Institute of India participated actively. ties to the UNFCCC (COP 16) and the sixth
During the year, a short-term study was com- Conference of the Parties serving as the meet-
missioned to Biotech Consortium India Ltd. to ing of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/
prepare an approach paper for India’s position MOP 6), which will be held in Cancun, Mexico,
A new international
treaty, “the Nagoya – on technology transfer issues under the CBD. from 29 November-10 December 2010.
Kuala Lumpur Subsequent to the approval of the National
Supplementary Environment Policy (NEP) by the Cabinet in GEI
Protocol on Liability 2006, a draft National Biodiversity Action Plan The Green Economy Initiative (GEI) is de-
and Redress to the (NBAP) in consonance with the NEP and us- signed to assist governments in “greening”
Cartagena Protocol on ing the final technical report of the UNDP/GEF their economies by reshaping and refocusing
Biosafety”, was project on National Biodiversity Strategy and policies, investments and spending towards
adopted at one of the
Action Plan (NBSAP) as one of the inputs is a range of sectors, such as clean technologies,
largest intergovern-
mental meetings ever being prepared. renewable energies, water services, green
held on the safe use of India was invited to chair the Group of Like transportation, waste management, green
modern biotechnology. Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMCs) for buildings and sustainable agriculture and
a period of two years from March 2004 to March forests.

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 104 Civil Services

NEWS Covered
NEWS Covered
01, 2010
01, 2010
TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com

India and Neighbouring India - Austria

Countries India - Russia Relations
India - Pakistan Relations India’s Economic
India - Sri Lanka Relations Interaction with
India - Bhutan Relations the World
India - China Relations ASEAN and India
India - Afghanistan Relations G-20
India - Bangladesh Relations BIMSTEC
India - Nepal Relations India - BASIC Group
India - Maldives Relations India and ADB
India - Myanmar Relations SAARC Preferential
India and East Asia Arrangement (SAPTA)
India - Japan Relations South Asia Free Trade
India - South Korea Relations Agreement (SAFTA)
India - Mongolia Relations SAARC Cabinet
Look East Asia Policy Mekong-Ganga Cooperation
and South-east Asia (MGC)
India - Cambodia Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
India - Indonesia The Asia-Pacific Economic
India - Philippines Cooperation (APEC)
India - Malaysia IBSA
India - Thailand The Asia-Pacific Trade
India - Vietnam Agreement (APTA)
India - Singapore MERCOSUR
Look West Asia Policy The Asia Cooperation Dialogue
India - Kazakhstan North America Free Trade
India - Tajikistan Agreement (NAFTA)
India - Belarus The European Free Trade
India - Iran Association (EFTA)
India - Saudi Arabia Asia Europe Meeting (ASEM) ON STALLS
India - Jordan PTA with Chile India -Mexico The 15th ASEAN summit
India - Syria Global System of Trade India - Ecuador “Enhancing
India- Israel Preferences (GSTP) India - Colombia Connectivity, Empowering
India - Kuwait Organisation for European India - Canada Peoples”
India - Oman Economic Co-operation (OEEC) India - Chile
India - Yemen Pittsburgh Summit Declaration
The Commonwealth of India - Argentina For Strong, Sustainable, and
India - Qatar Independent States (CIS) India - Liberia
India - Iraq Balanced Growth
African Union India and Africa Relevance of Territorial
India - United Arab Emirates
CECPA with Mauritius Relations
India and Europe Disputes in a Globalised World
TEAM 9 India - South Africa
Relations - I CHOGM 2009: In search of
World India - Angola
India - European Union relevance
Intellectual Property India - Malawi
EU and India FTA From Prague to Washington: A
The Madrid System and the India - Democratic Republic of
7th ASEM Summit Hague System good start but where the end lies
Sao Tome and Principe
India - United Kingdom The Patent Cooperation Treaty Double-standard Diplomacy of
Relations India - Cape-Verde
Future prospects of WIPO India - Egypt USA
India - France Relations
ISA and IPEA India - Mauritius Politics of Appeasement-
India - Germany Relations US-Pakistan Strategic Dialogue
WIPO, WTO and TRIPS India - Namibia
India and Europe History of WIPO India - Benin Non-Aligned Movement Still
Relations II International Bank India - Congo In Search of a Bigger Role
India – Turkey for Reconstruction India - Mali BRIC Summit, Yekaterinburg
India-Finland and Development India and African Trade Shanghai Cooperation
India-Hungary The International Development Relations Organization and Indian
India-Poland Association (IDA) India and Australia-NZ
India-Bulgaria ICSID Strategic Position
India-Netherlands The International Finance Diplomatic Terms
India - Australia
India-Switzerland Corporation (IFC) India - New Zealand Propelling Asian cold war
FTA with India India and the World Bank Summits and through ‘string of pearls’
India-Denmark Sustainable Urban Transport their analysis Understanding ‘string of
India-Iceland Project (SUTP) pearls’
9th Trilateral Foreign Ministers
India-Italy MIGA India and Britain: Redefining
India-Spain MIGA and FDI the traditional ties
The 8th Ministerial Meeting: Asia
India-Greece AD-CVD India-United States of America
Cooperation Dialouge
India-Luxembourg India and Americas Relations
India-Norway Shanghai Cooperation
Relations India-South Africa Relations
India-Cyprus India - The United States Organization at Beijing India and Canada Relations
India - Sweden India - Latin America Nuclear non-proliferation Strengthening and stretching
India - Latvia India- Venezuela without disarmament South-south cooperation

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 105 Civil Services

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TIMES www.civilservicestimes.com
Social Issues 134. Non-Proliferation Treaty
05. Education Reforms Privilege of 'Haves' don't re-
77. Pains of Transitional Society: view, reform and revamp
The Curse of a Developing 140. Regionalism Nationalism
Nation and Globalization
150. Media and Democracy: 116. Democracy Myth or Reality
'Sting' or 'Stink' Operation 121. Kashmir in retrospect: Know- On Stalls
156. Corruption In Government ing it Before Egypt Document
Offices 126. Governor: His Master’s Voice
189. Shrunken World Shrinking 170. Challenges Before A Civil
Relations Servant
210. Reservation in Private Sector 178. Factors To Make and Feel
250. Growing Fundamentalism in Democracy
India 184. Centre-State Relations More
254. Live - In Relationships Grievances Less Commit-
258. Section 377: Should it be ment
wiped out? 214. Capital Punishment: In Rela-
286. Sustainability of the Child tions to Article 21
Labour Act 217. Democracy: Maturing or
303. Right to Negative Voting: An Withering
Evaluation in Indian Context 222. Students Politics: Desirable
315. Raghavan Committee on or Undesirable
Ragging 226. Reservation QUOTA: Pro-
330. Pattern of Voting Behaviour gressive or Regressive
in India 233. Expansion of Article 21: Per-
350. Terrorism: Is It Essentially sonal Reputation
Ideological? 240. Unlawful Activities (Preven-
354. Women Reservation: Mean- tion) Act and NIA
ingful or Irrelevant 262. Coastal Security: Need for a
377. Status of Women: An Intro- complete overhaul
spection is needed 267. Police Reforms: A Must For
437. Role of media: Beyond TRP Good Governance
and advertisement 320. Coalition Politics in India
456. Trial by media: Looking be- 347. Coalition politics and its im-
yond the pale of legality pact
502. Right to Education reality, 368. Abortion Issue and Right to
but yet unrealistic Die
507. Ensure food security: Dis- 370. Demands for New States: A without disarmament 423. Fate of FRBMA
mantle middlemen Balanced Approach Is 446. Relevance of territorial dis- 425. Goods and Service Tax
531. Khap Panchayats: requires Needed putes in a globalised world 466. Tobin Tax: India needs or not
reorientation 381. New Delhi-Beijing-Moscow 450. Looking beyond 468. Food security or insecurity
535. Consensus on Caste-based axis Copenhagen: The last lost 473. Commission on Insurance
census 387. Naxalism: A Threat to Inter- opportunity Agents: Swaroop Commis-
540. Opening higher education to nal Security 511. Politics of Appeasement US- sion
foreign institutions 396. Pluralism and Federalism: Pakistan Strategic Dialogue 476. Dollar as common currency
546. Internal Security: North-east- Can Go Together? 515. A good start but where the SDRs, Euro or Gold
ern scenario 399. Right to Information end lies 484. Pending Second Generation
549. Nuclear liability bill: 405. Presidential v Parliamentary 580. A world of two unequals: Reforms
analysing implications 481. Political Corruption Reform From mindest to machines 486. Dreaded Drought Furious
597. Social networking funding for political parties? Economic Issues Floods
603. Digital Divide Divides divide 495. Separation of Power: Funda- 88. Agriculture: A Colossal Ne- 490. Land Reforms wisely con-
612. From Vedas to Vedanta mentals of Rule of Law glect ceived, poorly executed
Political Issues 504. Role of hostile witnesses in 131. Energy Security: The 21st 522. Learning from Greek crisis
11. Good Governance: Tracing criminal justice Century Challenge fiscal prudence is a must
Provenance of ill-Gover- 526. PILs: making more meaning- 145. Challenges in the Light of 557. A painful shift from APM to
nance ful New Economic Order MDPM
15. Regional Disparity: A Source 543. Centre-state relations: Madan 163. Tragedy: It’s Not Vidarbha 569. Analysing two decades of re-
of All Discontent Mohan Punchhi Report But For Every Indian forms and impact of global-
22. Corruption: Between Needs 552. On Collegium System: Ap- 194. Looking Beyond 9 Per cent A ization
and Greeds pointment procedure in ret- New Approach is Needed 583. A Budget bye the common
31. Define Secularism: To boost rospect 198. Delinking Nuclear Weapons man; far the common man;
Nationalism 554. Governor’s removal: pre- and Nuclear Energy and off the common man
38. On Mumbai Attack: We Can, venting pernicious practice 203. Nano-Technology: The Fu- Judiciary
but we cannot 565. Raising FDI in Defence Sec- ture of All Sciences 111. Judicial Activism or Judicial
53. Good Governance: An Uto- tor 281. Global Recession: Impact on Reforms?
pian Concept? 590. From selection to retirement India 238. Appointment of Judges: Law
58. Internal Security: Streamline 620. Kashmir Crisis: Engineered 298. Corporate Reforms: The Cor- Commission Reports
or Perish and re-engineered porate World After Raju 276. Judicial Reforms: The Need
63. Parochialization of Politics: 628. MP’s Salary hike 325. Deflation: Is it Good or Bad? of the Hour
Pains of Coalition Politics 633. Voting rights to NRIs 344. RTAs and Multilateralism: 292. Judicial Activism Versus Leg-
68. Disaster Management: No Issues related to foreign Promoters or Inhibitors islative Activism
Time to Cure, Please policies 359. Introduction of IT: Advan- 310. Judicial Accountability: Re-
83. Preventive Detention Law 44. Global Recession: Time For tages and Disadvantages garding Declaration of
and the Rights of an Indi- Introspection 364. E-Governance: Prospects and Judges Assets
vidual 134. Non-Proliferation Treaty Problems 335. Contempt of Court: Desirable
94. North-east Problems: A Look Privilege of 'Haves' don't re- 407. Trade Union in IT and BPO or Not desirable
into their Grievances view, reform and revamp 411. FDI in Retail: Analysis and 339. All India Judicial Services:
98. ULFA in Retrospect 175. Perils of Unipolar World Implications Creation is Needed or Not
103. Challenges of Terrorism: A 427. Coping with the threat of 415. Disinvestment: Prospects Needed
Collective Responsibility nuclear menace and new eco- and Prevention 393. Code of Criminal Procedure
106. Criminalization of Politics: nomic order 419. Challenges Before Indian 463. Cr PC Amendments come
Do We Deserve? 440. Nuclear non-proliferation Economy into effect: an analysis

DECEMBER 2010, XVI Year, Issue No.12 106 Civil Services

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